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Metamucil is used to treat: Metamucil Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

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Metamucil Uses, Side Effects & Warnings

Generic Name: psyllium (SIL ee um)
Brand Name: Hydrocil, Konsyl, Laxmar, Metamucil, Natural Fiber Therapy, Reguloid

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Jan 3, 2020. Written by Cerner Multum.

What is Metamucil?

Metamucil is a bulk-forming fiber laxative that is used to treat occasional constipation or bowel irregularity.

Metamucil may also help lower cholesterol when used together with a diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat.

Metamucil may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Warnings

Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

Before taking this medicine

You should not take Metamucil if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if Metamucil is safe to use if you have ever had:

  • stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting;

  • trouble swallowing; or

  • a sudden change in bowel habits lasting longer than 2 weeks.

This medicine may contain sugar, sodium, or phenylalanine. Check the medication label if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, phenylketonuria (PKU), or if you are on a low-salt diet.

Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy or while you are nursing.

Do not give Metamucil to a child younger than 6 years old without medical advice.

How should I take Metamucil?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.

Metamucil can swell in your throat and cause choking if you don’t take it with enough liquid. Drink plenty of fluids each day to help improve bowel regularity.

Take Metamucil with a full glass (at least 8 ounces) of water or other liquid.

Swallow Metamucil capsules one at a time.

Metamucil powder must be mixed with liquid before you take it. Do not swallow the dry powder. Mix with at least 8 ounces of liquid such as water or fruit juice. Stir and drink this mixture right away. Add a little more water to the glass, swirl gently and drink right away.

Metamucil usually produces a bowel movement within 12 to 72 hours.

Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve, or if they get worse.

Metamucil may be only part of a complete program of treatment that also includes diet, exercise, and weight control. Follow your doctor’s instructions very closely.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed when not in use.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Since Metamucil is used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. Skip any missed dose if it’s almost time for your next dose. Do not use two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while taking Metamucil?

Avoid breathing in the dust from Metamucil powder when mixing. Inhaling this medicine dust may cause an allergic reaction.

If you take Metamucil as part of a cholesterol-lowering treatment plan, avoid eating foods high in fat or cholesterol or your overall treatment will not be as effective.

Metamucil side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using Metamucil and call your doctor at once if you have:

Common side effects may include:

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect Metamucil?

Metamucil can make it harder for your body to absorb other medicines you take by mouth, possibly making them less effective. If you take any oral medicines, take them 2 hours before or 2 hours after you take this medicine.

Other drugs may affect Metamucil, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.

Frequently asked questions

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 9.01.

Metamucil Drug Interactions – Drugs.com

  1. Drugs A to Z
  2. Metamucil
  3. Interactions

A total of 29 drugs are known to interact with
Metamucil (psyllium).

  • 2 moderate
    drug interactions
  • 27 minor
    drug interactions

View all medications that may interact with Metamucil (psyllium).

Does Metamucil interact with my other drugs?

Enter other medications to view a detailed report.

Most frequently checked interactions

View interaction reports for Metamucil (psyllium) and the medicines listed below.

Metamucil (psyllium) alcohol/food interactions

There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with Metamucil (psyllium)

Metamucil (psyllium) disease interactions

There are 4 disease interactions with Metamucil (psyllium) which include:

More about Metamucil (psyllium)

Related treatment guides

Drug Interaction Classification
These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

Psyllium Dosage Guide with Precautions

  1. Drugs A to Z
  2. Psyllium
  3. Dosage

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jan 3, 2020.

Applies to the following strengths: 3.5 g/3.7 g; 3.4 g/3.7 g; 3.3 g/7 g; 3.4 g/11 g; 4.03 g/6 g; 3.4 g/5.8 g; 3.4 g; 3.4 g/7 g; 100%; 6 g; 85%; 3.4 g/6.5 g; 2 g/7 g; 520 mg; 3.4 g/12 g; 3.5 g/5.8 g; 50%; 3.4 g/5.2 g; 500 mg; 1.7 g; 3.4 g/5.4 g; 400 mg; 525 mg; 2 g; 2.5 g; 2.4 g/3.7 g; 2.5 g/7 g

Usual Adult Dose for:

Usual Pediatric Dose for:

Additional dosage information:

Usual Adult Dose for Constipation

Daily fiber:
Adults 19 to 50 years: Male: 38 g/day; Female: 25 g/day
Pregnancy: 28 g/day
Lactation: 29 g/day

Dose:
1 to 2 rounded teaspoonfuls, 1 to 2 packets, 1 to 2 wafers, or 5 to 6 capsules orally with 8 ounces of fluid 1 to 3 times a day

Usual Adult Dose for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Daily fiber:
Adults 19 to 50 years: Male: 38 g/day; Female: 25 g/day
Pregnancy: 28 g/day
Lactation: 29 g/day

Dose:
1 to 2 rounded teaspoonfuls, 1 to 2 packets, 1 to 2 wafers, or 5 to 6 capsules orally with 8 ounces of fluid 1 to 3 times a day

Usual Pediatric Dose for Constipation

Daily fiber:
Children 1 to 3 years: 19 g/day
Children 4 to 8 years: 25 g/day
Children 9 to 13 years: Male: 31 g/day; Female: 26 g/day
Children 14 to 18 years: Male: 38 g/day; Female: 26 g/day

Constipation:
Children 6 to 11 years: 1. 25 to 15 g orally per day in divided doses
Children greater than or equal to 12 years and Adults: 2.5 to 30 g per day in divided doses

Renal Dose Adjustments

No adjustments recommended

Liver Dose Adjustments

No adjustments recommended

Dialysis

No adjustments recommended

Other Comments

Obstruction of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon has occurred when bulk-forming laxatives are administered without adequate fluids or in patients with intestinal stenosis.

Clinical studies have shown that 7 g per day of soluble fiber from psyllium husk may help reduce the risk of heart disease when used as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

Uses, Side Effects, Interactions & Pill Images


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IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

This medication is used to treat constipation. It increases the bulk in your stool, an effect that helps to cause movement of the intestines. It also works by increasing the amount of water in the stool, making the stool softer and easier to pass. Psyllium, one type of bulk-forming laxative, has also been used along with a proper diet to treat high cholesterol.

This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.This drug may also be used to help relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor. If you are self-treating, follow all directions on the product package. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. To prevent choking from this medication, take it with a full glass of water or other liquid (8 ounces/240 milliliters). If you are taking the wafers, chew them thoroughly before swallowing.For powder forms of this medication, measure each dose according to the directions on the product label. Mix in a full glass of water or other liquid (8 ounces/240 milliliters), stir completely, and drink right away. You may add more liquid to the mixture if it becomes too thick. When preparing the medication, be careful not to breathe in the powder since it may rarely cause an allergic reaction.Dosage is based on your age, medical condition, and response to treatment. Do not increase your dose or take this drug more often than directed.This product may decrease the absorption of other medications you may be taking. Take this product at least 2 hours from your other medications. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information or if you have any questions.It may take 1 to 3 days before this medication starts working. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day. Do not take this medication for more than 7 days unless directed by your doctor.Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens, or if bleeding from the rectum occurs. If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Gas or stomach cramping may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.If your doctor has directed you to use this product, remember that he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.This product must be taken with at least a full glass of water or other liquid (8 ounces/240 milliliters) so that it will not swell in the throat, causing choking. Seek immediate medical attention if after taking this product you have symptoms of choking such as: chest pain, vomiting, difficulty swallowing/breathing.A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Before taking this bulk-forming laxative, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: stomach/intestinal blockage, difficulty swallowing, appendicitis or symptoms of appendicitis (such as nausea/vomiting, sudden or unexplained stomach/abdominal pain), a sudden change in bowel habits that lasts for longer than 2 weeks, bleeding from the rectum. Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).Some products may contain sugar and/or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication.It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

See also How To Use section.

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor’s approval.Keep a list of all the products you use. Share the list with your doctor and pharmacist to reduce your risk for serious medication problems.

If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.Lifestyle changes that may prevent or relieve constipation include exercising, drinking enough water, and eating a proper diet with fiber-rich foods such as bran, fresh fruits/vegetables. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about lifestyle changes that might benefit you.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Different brands of this medication have different storage needs. Check the product package for instructions on how to store your brand, or ask your pharmacist. Keep all medications away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised June 2020. Copyright(c) 2020 First Databank, Inc.

Metamucil – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions

How does this medication work? What will it do for me?

Psyllium fibre belongs to two groups of medications: bulk-forming laxatives and cholesterol-lowering medications. It is used to treat constipation, as well as mild to moderately high cholesterol (when taken with a low-fat diet). It can also be used as a fibre supplement.

For the treatment of constipation, psyllium fibre works by absorbing water from the intestines to produce larger, softer stools. It usually works within 12 hours to 72 hours.

For the treatment of mild to moderately high cholesterol, it works by increasing bile acid loss from the body by trapping bile acids in the small intestine. This causes more bile to be produced. Since cholesterol is used in the production of bile acids, cholesterol levels in the blood are reduced when more bile acid is made.

Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.

Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it or if their pharmacist has not recommended it.

What form(s) does this medication come in?

Metamucil Original Texture, unflavoured powder
Each g of powder contains psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid 0.5 g. Nonmedicinal ingredient: sucrose.

Metamucil Smooth Texture, orange-flavoured powder
Each g of powder contains psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid 0.3 g. Nonmedicinal ingredients: citric acid, orange flavour, sucrose, and Sunset Yellow FCF.

Metamucil Smooth Texture, orange-flavoured, sugar-free
Each g of powder contains psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid 0.6 g. Nonmedicinal ingredients: acesulfame potassium, allura red AC, aspartame, citric acid, FD&C Blue No. 1, maltodextrin, orange flavour, Sunset Yellow FCF, and berry flavour blend.

Metamucil Smooth Texture, berry burst flavour, sugar-free
Each g of powder contains psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid 0.6 g. Nonmedicinal ingredients: aspartame, citric acid, malic acid, maltodextrin, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Blue No. 1, and natural and artificial flavour.

Metamucil Smooth Texture, unflavoured, sugar-free
Each g of powder contains psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid 0.6 g. Nonmedicinal ingredients: citric acid and maltodextrin.

Metamucil Smooth Texture pink lemonade flavour, sugar-free
Each g of powder contains psyllium husk (Plantago ovata) 0.6 g. Nonmedicinal ingredients: acesulfame potassium, aspartame, citric acid, FD&C Red No. 40, maltodextrin, and natural lemon flavour.

Metamucil Fibre Therapy Capsules
Each capsule contains psyllium husk (Plantago ovata) 525 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: caramel colour, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, gelatin, and polysorbate 80.

Metamucil Fibre Wafers, cinnamon
Each wafer contains 1.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid. Nonmedicinal ingredients: ascorbic acid, cinnamon, corn oil, fructose, soya lecithin, molasses, natural and artificial flavors, nutmeg, oat hull fibre, rolled oats, sodium bicarbonate, starch, sucrose, and wheat flour.

Metamucil Fibre Wafers, apple
Each wafer contains 1.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid. Nonmedicinal ingredients: ascorbic acid, brown sugar, cinnamon, corn oil, corn starch, fructose, soy lecithin, molasses, natural and artificial flavors, oat hull fibre, sodium bicarbonate, soy lecithin, starch, sucrose, and wheat flour.

How should I use this medication?

Powder: To increase fibre intake or treat constipation, the usual recommended dose for adults is one rounded teaspoon (or one rounded tablespoon for Smooth Texture, orange-flavoured) or one packet up to 3 times a day. For children 6 years of age and older, the usual dose is ½ teaspoon (of ½ tablespoon for Smooth Texture, orange-flavoured) or ½ packet 1 to 3 times a day.

For lowering cholesterol, the total daily recommended dose is 10.2 g divided in 2 or 3 equal doses. The number of teaspoons per dose can range from 3 to 6, depending on the specific product you are using and how many times a day you are taking it. Follow the directions by your doctor, pharmacist, or the product information. For best results in lowering cholesterol, take this medication with a meal.

To take this medication, dissolve the powder in 240 mL of cool liquid (water, fruit juice, lemonade, iced tea), stir it briskly, and drink right away.

Capsules: To increase fibre intake or to treat constipation, the usual recommended dose is 5 capsules up to 3 times a day. Take the capsules with at least 240 mL of cool liquid. Swallow the capsules one at a time.

Since this medication can affect how other medications are absorbed from the stomach, do not take it 2 hours before or after taking other medications.

People who experience bloating when they start this medication should reduce the amount they are taking and gradually increase their dose to what is recommended. If you are not sure how to do this, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

Many things can affect the dose of a medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.

It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor or recommended by your pharmacist. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular schedule. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

Store this medication at room temperature, keep the lid tightly closed (for powder) to protect from moisture, and keep it out of the reach of children.

Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.

Who should NOT take this medication?

Do not take this medication if you:

  • are allergic to psyllium fibre or any ingredients of this medication
  • have a blocked intestine
  • have difficulty swallowing
  • have fecal impaction (a large, hard stool that cannot be passed)
  • have nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain
  • have undiagnosed bleeding from the rectum

What side effects are possible with this medication?

Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.

The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.

The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.

Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.

  • bloating
  • gas
  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Although most of the side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not seek medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

  • bleeding from rectum
  • diarrhea
  • sudden severe abdominal pain
  • worsening or continued constipation

Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:

  • difficulty swallowing
  • symptoms of a severe allergic reaction such as difficulty breathing, hives, or swelling of the face or throat

Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.

Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?

Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.

Aspartame: Some forms of this medication contain aspartame and should not be taken by people who have phenylketonuria (PKU).

Difficulty swallowing: If you have difficulty swallowing or if there is a narrowing of your esophagus, do not take this medication. If you experience chest pain, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, or difficulty breathing after taking this medication, get immediate medical attention.

Fluids: It is important to take this medication with plenty of fluids (240 mL per dose). Not doing this can cause the medication to swell and block the throat or esophagus (the tube that connects the stomach to the mouth), causing choking.

Sudden change in bowel movements: If you are experiencing a sudden change in your bowel movements that has lasted more than 2 weeks, contact your doctor before using this medication. Your doctor will want to make sure that another medical condition is not causing your constipation.

Pregnancy: This medication is considered safe to use during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding: It is not known if psyllium fibre passes into breast milk. However, this medication is considered safe to use for women who are breast-feeding.

Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication to lower cholesterol have not been established for children less than 6 years of age. Children 6 to 11 years of age should use the powder form of this medication.

What other drugs could interact with this medication?

Psyllium fibre may interact with many medications by reducing the amount of other medications that is absorbed. Therefore it is recommended that other medications not be taken 2 hours before or after taking this medication.

Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications that you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:

  • stop taking one of the medications,
  • change one of the medications to another,
  • change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
  • leave everything as is.

An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Metamucil

Benefits, side effects, and dosage

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Many people use dietary supplements to relieve constipation and other digestive issues. Benefiber and Metamucil are two popular options, but which is best?

Benefiber and Metamucil are fiber supplements designed to relieve constipation. The two brands work in very similar ways, but they may have slightly different effects on the body.

In this article, we look at the similarities and differences between Benefiber and Metamucil for constipation and other medical conditions, and alternative products, such as Miralax and Citrucel.

Benefiber and Metamucil are both over-the-counter (OTC) soluble fiber supplements. They work in a very similar way.

Both products contain a high concentration of fiber. Fiber makes a person’s stools bulkier and softer, which results in more comfortable and frequent bowel movements.

The main difference between Benefiber and Metamucil is the type of fiber they contain:

  • Benefiber contains wheat dextrin, which is a form of wheat starch.
  • Metamucil contains psyllium husk powder. Psyllium is a type of fiber made from the husks of psyllium seeds.

Benefiber and Metamucil may cause different effects in the body, for example:

Metamucil may improve cholesterol

The Metamucil label says that it can improve people’s cholesterol levels and help them maintain healthy blood sugar levels. This is because it contains psyllium.

A study published in the British Journal of Nutrition tested the effects of Metamucil on 72 people who were overweight or obese. They found that adding this fiber supplement improved cholesterol and insulin levels.

The researchers recommend eating a healthful, fiber-rich diet in addition to taking fiber supplements. It is unclear whether Benefiber would have similar effects.

Benefiber contains traces of gluten

Benefiber contains wheat, but the manufacturers consider it gluten-free because it contains less than 20 parts per million (ppm) of gluten. However, they say that people with gluten intolerance or celiac disease should not use Benefiber unless directed by a doctor.

Benefiber may be a more natural choice

Benefiber contains fewer additional ingredients than Metamucil. Benefiber contains only wheat germ, which may make it a more natural choice.

There is also a more natural version of Metamucil available, though the familiar orange-flavored forms of Metamucil often contain sweeteners, colorants, and other additives, which may make it more pleasant to drink.

Fiber is a crucial part of a person’s diet. People can increase their fiber by eating more high-fiber foods or introducing fiber supplements.

Both Benefiber and Metamucil can have the following benefits:

Improving gut health

Keeping the bowels moving regularly can improve gut health and relieve the symptoms of digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and diverticulosis.

The soluble fiber in Benefiber and Metamucil can feed the good bacteria in the intestines.

Heart health

The manufacturers of fiber supplements, such as Benefiber and Metamucil, state that they are heart-healthy products. This is because of the benefits a high-fiber diet can have on a person’s heart health.

A systematic review published in BMJ found that higher fiber intake might lower the risk of both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease.

Weight loss

Some weight loss products, programs, and healthcare professionals recommend consuming fiber as a way to make the body feel fuller for longer. This may decrease people’s appetites and help with weight loss.

However, OTC fiber supplements, such as Metamucil or Benefiber, are not approved as weight loss products and are not likely to have a direct impact on weight loss.

Both Benefiber and Metamucil have specific instructions regarding dosage. The dosage is higher for Metamucil than Benefiber.

Stir the recommended dosage into 4–8 ounces of liquid, making sure the powder dissolves thoroughly before drinking.

The powdered version of both products mixes well in cool or room temperature liquids, including smoothies, protein shakes, water, juice, or milk.

People who do not get much fiber in their diet should introduce these supplements slowly to avoid side effects. Gradually increase the number of servings from 1 to 3 per day while judging how the body reacts to the product.

Some healthcare professionals will also recommend drinking more liquid with the supplements, as they absorb a lot of water.

Metamucil is also available in capsule and wafer form. This makes taking the supplement more convenient as people can swallow the supplement with a large glass of water.

The recommended dosages differ depending on a person’s age:

  • Adult doses of both Benefiber and Metamucil are suitable for children over 12.
  • Children aged 6 to 11 should take half the adult dose of Benefiber.
  • Consult a doctor before giving Metamucil to children under 12.
  • Ask a doctor before giving fiber supplements to children under 6.

People should also ask their doctor before taking fiber supplements during pregnancy.

Increasing dietary fiber with either Metamucil or Benefiber may cause a few side effects or risks, such as the following:

Stomach issues

Some people might experience gas or stomach cramps while taking these supplements, though the symptoms may go away as the body gets used to the supplement. If this happens, reduce the dosage or drink extra water while taking the supplement.

Allergic reactions

People who are sensitive to or allergic to psyllium should avoid Metamucil. People who are sensitive to gluten should avoid Benefiber. Anyone experiencing an allergic reaction while taking these products should stop taking them and call their doctor for testing before continuing.

Medical conditions

People with certain stomach conditions may need to avoid both Benefiber and Metamucil. Anyone with stomach or digestive disorders should talk to their doctor before taking either of these supplements.

Anyone experiencing constipation for more than 7 days should stop taking dietary fiber supplements, such as Benefiber or Metamucil, and see their doctor.

Drug interactions

Both Benefiber and Metamucil might adversely affect how well the body absorbs certain drugs, making some medication less effective.

Anyone taking regular medication should consult a doctor or pharmacist before using these supplements.

It may help to take these supplements at least 2 hours before or after taking any oral medications.

Share on PinterestFiber-rich foods, such as nuts and seeds, are an alternative to supplements.

Benefiber and Metamucil are not the only name brand supplements to relieve constipation on the market, and some people may find they like other brands better.

Two popular alternatives are Citrucel and Miralax. Miralax is not a fiber-based supplement.

People can find a wide range of fiber supplements and other constipation relief supplements online or in drug stores.

Citrucel

Citrucel is a fiber supplement that contains methylcellulose, which comes from plant matter. It is a non-allergenic form of soluble fiber that may not cause as much gas buildup as some other products.

People with sensitivities or who experience side effects when taking other constipation relief supplements may find that Citrucel is a good alternative.

Miralax

Miralax is not a fiber-based supplement. The active ingredient is polyethylene glycol, which pulls water into the stool to help relieve constipation.

As it is not a fiber supplement, Miralax does not offer the same additional potential benefits as other brands.

Dietary fiber

Benefiber and Metamucil are fiber supplements. People can also increase their daily fiber intake by including more fiber-rich foods into their diets.

Fiber-rich foods include:

  • beans and peas
  • nuts and seeds
  • fruits and vegetables
  • whole-grain bread, cereals, and pasta

Both Benefiber and Metamucil are soluble fiber supplements used to treat occasional constipation that may have other helpful benefits in the body.

These supplements have slight differences but perform essentially the same function. In most cases, the choice between them is personal preference.

Metamucil (psyllium) for Constipation in Multiple Sclerosis

Metamucil (psyllium) is a natural and therapeutic bulk-forming fiber laxative. Psyllium works by absorbing liquid and easing intestinal swelling to create a softer bulky stool and stimulate bowel movements. Used to treat occasional constipation or bowel irregularity, it can be an effective over-the-counter treatment option for constipation in multiple sclerosis patients.

Psyllium should be taken with a full glass of water or other liquid. Without liquid, the laxative can swell in the throat and cause choking. It usually produces a bowel movement within 12 to 72 hours.

While it may take up to three days before symptoms improve, psyllium should not be taken for longer than seven consecutive days without first consulting with a medical professional.

Common side effects may include  bloating or a minor change in the bowel habits.

Constipation is the most common symptom of bowel dysfunction in people with MS. The disease can interrupt brain communication that signals time for a bowel movement. Managing constipation should include eating a high-fiber diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals. Fluid intake should include up to eight glasses of water daily. Patients should try to maintain an active life and establish a bowel schedule.

A range of laxatives are available for use. Most of them are sold over-the-counter.

Note: Multiple Sclerosis News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

 

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: USA

Evac [OTC]; Geri-Mucil [OTC]; Konsyl Daily Fiber [OTC]; Konsyl Original Daily Fiber [OTC]; Konsyl Original Formula [OTC] [DSC]; Konsyl [OTC] [DSC]; Konsyl-D [OTC]; Metamucil MultiHealth Fiber [OTC]; Metamucil [OTC]; Mucilin SF [OTC] [DSC]; Mucilin [OTC] [DSC]; Natural Fiber Therapy [OTC] [DSC]; Natural Psyllium Seed [OTC]; Natural Vegetable Fiber [OTC]; Reguloid [OTC]; Sorbulax [OTC] [DSC]

What is this drug used for?

  • This medication is used to treat constipation.
  • This medication is used to increase the proportion of fiber in the diet.
  • This medicinal product may be used for other indications. Consult your doctor.

What should I tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you have an allergic reaction to psyllium or any of the other ingredients of this medicine.
  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances.Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
  • If you have any of the following health problems: bowel obstruction, abdominal pain, nausea, rectal bleeding, vomiting, or changes in bowel rhythm that persist for more than 2 weeks.
  • If swallowing is difficult.

This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems. You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical condition and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any medication or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug. These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Try to pause 2 hours between taking this medicine and other medicines. other medicines. This medication interferes with the absorption of other medicines.
  • Do not use this medication for more than 1 week unless directed by your doctor.
  • If you have rectal bleeding or no bowel movements after using this drug, talk to your doctor.
  • Do not use other laxatives or stool softeners unless a physician has advised otherwise.
  • If you do not take this drug with large amounts of liquid, it may swell and block your pharynx or esophagus, and you may choke. Do not take this drug if swallowing is difficult.If you have chest pain, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, or breathing after taking this drug, get help right away.
  • If you have phenylketonuria, talk to your doctor. Some foods contain phenylalanine.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. The benefits and risks for you and your child will need to be discussed.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can cause serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your healthcare professional or get medical attention right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Difficulty swallowing.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Pain in the intestines.
  • Bloating.
  • Stomach colic.

This list of potential side effects is not exhaustive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.

All forms of issue:

  • Take this drug with or without food.
  • Take this drug with a full glass of water.
  • Drink plenty of decaffeinated fluids, unless your doctor tells you to drink less fluids.

Capsules:

  • Swallow whole. Do not chew, break, or crush.
  • If the dose contains more than 1 capsule, be sure to swallow only 1 capsule at a time.

Powder:

  • Mix with a minimum of 8 ounces (240 ml) of water or other liquid and drink. If the mixture becomes thick, add more liquid and stir.

Capsule:

  • Eat the waffle while sitting.

What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?

  • If you are taking this medication regularly, take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it is time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose schedule.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.
  • In most cases, this drug is used as needed.Do not take this medicine more often than prescribed by your doctor.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
  • Store all medicines in a safe place. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs.Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • You should not give your medicine to anyone and take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Use of information by the consumer and limitation of liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient.This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug. This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional.Check with your doctor for complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug.

Copyright

© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.

90,000 Drugs for the treatment of melanoma – Immunotherapy

Signs of melanoma

Melanoma is a type of cancer that occurs in human cells that contain pigments, the so-called melanocytes. This pigment protects the human body from UV exposure in sunlight.With sunburn, damage to the genetic material in skin cells, DNA occurs.

DNA damage that accumulates over time can lead to uncontrolled division and proliferation of cancer cells, and the emergence of melanoma, a malignant and insidious disease.

The first signs of melanoma are the appearance of new moles of an unusual appearance or a change in the color, shape or size of existing moles (nevi).

Melanoma can occur anywhere on the body, but the back is most often affected in men, and the legs in women.

If a mole has increased in size, its color or structure has changed, it has lost its symmetry, bleeds or becomes inflamed, itchy or crusted, urgently consult an oncologist to confirm the diagnosis and treatment.

The type of treatment prescribed for skin cancer (surgery, radiation therapy or the use of various drugs) depends on the stage and location of the tumor lesion, and the patient’s state of health.

Treatment of melanoma at different stages: drugs, surgery

Patients with stage I and II melanoma undergo wide excision, surgery to remove melanoma and the edge of normal skin around the lesion.Also, according to the results of a biopsy of the sentinel node, the lymph node is removed in case of cancer metastasis. After surgery for melanoma, doctors may prescribe adjuvant drugs (interferon) to patients.

In stage III melanoma, cancer cells have already reached the lymph nodes, and the patient may develop metastases. Therefore, in addition to surgical excision of the primary tumor and the affected lymph nodes, drugs for melanoma are prescribed. Next, we will tell you in more detail what drugs are used for targeted therapy, immunotherapy or biochemotherapy.

In case of stage IV disease, a difficult struggle is ahead for the patient’s health, since the metastases have already spread throughout the body. For the treatment of metastatic forms of melanoma, immunotherapy or targeted therapy drugs are used, which have confirmed their high efficiency and safety.

Types of melanoma drugs used in immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a type of treatment for melanoma patients that activates the immune system to better target and destroy cancer cells.

There are several types of skin cancer drugs that are used in immunotherapy.

Inhibitors of immune response checkpoints (ICT)

This is a relatively new group of promising drugs for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. An important property of the immune system is its ability to restrain its activity against healthy cells in the body. To do this, “checkpoints” are used, which are proteins on the membranes of immune cells, and they must be “turned on” (or “turned off”) to initiate an immune response.Melanoma cells sometimes act on checkpoints to prevent immune system aggression. ICT drugs, interacting with checkpoint proteins, help restore the immune response and aggression towards melanoma cells.

In accordance with the updated recommendations of the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for the treatment of melanoma (2016), experts recommend the use of checkpoint inhibitors (checkpoint immunotherapy) and BRAF-targeted therapy for patients as the first line of treatment for inoperable or advanced melanoma having a mutation in the BRAF gene.

PD-1 inhibitors

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and Nivolumab (Opdivo) are drugs that target the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) membrane protein from the T cells of the immune system, which normally helps immune cells not to attack other cells in the body. By blocking PD-1, these drugs enhance the immune response against melanoma cells. The use of these drugs reduces the size of the tumor and increases life expectancy (although it has not yet been reliably established whether these drugs can cure melanoma).These drugs are for intravenous use. Of the traditional adverse reactions, weakness, cough, nausea, itching, loss of appetite, constipation, joint pain, diarrhea can be noted. More serious complications are less common. The main effect of the drugs is to reduce the inhibition of the immune system. In this regard, side effects can occur when the immune system begins to attack other organs: lungs, intestines, liver, endocrine organs, kidneys – then life-threatening complications develop, which may require drug withdrawal. Immunotherapy with PD-1 inhibitors for melanoma, according to experts, has good prospects and requires additional large-scale study.

CTLA-4 inhibitor

Ervoy (ipilimumab) also activates the immune response, but has a different target, the CTLA-4 protein. By blocking its activity, the drug counteracts the growth of cancer cells.

Intended for intravenous use once every three weeks. In patients with melanoma that cannot be surgically removed or has spread to other parts of the body, the drug increases life expectancy, although it is still not clear if it can cure melanoma.In addition to common side effects, this drug is much more likely than PD-1 inhibitors to cause serious side effects, provoking an attack by the immune system of the intestines, central nervous system, liver, skin, eyes, endocrine organs, which can be associated with life-threatening complications.

Drugs used for BRAF mutation

More than 50% of melanoma cases are characterized by the presence of mutations in the BRAF gene, therefore, so-called targeted therapy is prescribed for the treatment of cancer.These are new drugs for the treatment of melanoma, signal transduction inhibitors: Zelboraf (vemurafenib), Mekinist (trametinib), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), Cotellic (cobimetinib).

Tafinlar (Dabrafenib), Mekinist (Trametinib), Zelboraf (Vemurafenib) – a group of anticancer drugs that is effective against tumors with a mutation of the BRAF gene. These immunopreparations belong to protein kinase inhibitors, used in adult patients with inoperable or metastatic melanoma.Zelboraf is prescribed to patients with predominant tumor metastasis to the brain. The use of these agents is possible in the case of BRAF-positive melanomas, when surgical treatment of the tumor is not possible.

Cotellic is also prescribed in combination with Zelboraf for the treatment of inoperable or metastatic disease. These drugs suppress signals that travel from one molecule to another, killing cancer cells. Zelboraf and Tafinlar inhibit the activity of proteins produced by mutated BRAF genes.Mekinist and Kotellik block the growth of cancer cells and reduce their survival. Targeted drugs prescribed for melanoma do not harm healthy cells, as happens with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and significantly increase the life expectancy of patients.

The preparations are available in tablets and are intended for oral administration. Side effects may include skin reactions in the form of rash and acneform dermatitis, weakness, fatigue, peripheral edema, nausea and vomiting.The occurrence of acute toxic manifestations from the heart, lungs, liver and kidneys requires discontinuation of the drug.

Cytokines (interferon-alpha and interleukin-2)

Medicines for melanoma of this class include cytokines (interferon alpha and interleukin-2), oncolytic viruses (imligic), etc.

Cytokines are protein compounds that generally enhance immunity. Recombinant versions of cytokines – interferon-alpha and interleukin-2 (IL-2) – are sometimes used to treat melanoma patients by intravenous infusion, less often at home as subcutaneous injections.

In advanced melanomas, interferon alpha and IL-2 reduce tumor size in about 10–20% of patients when used as monotherapy. These drugs can also be used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for stage IV melanoma. In this case, this combination is called biochemotherapy. Side effects may include flu-like symptoms: fever, chills, severe weakness, decreased peripheral blood counts. IL-2, especially in high doses, can lead to fluid retention and edema, and therefore the use of high doses of IL-2 is possible only in hospitals and medical centers with experience in using these drugs.

Drugs for the treatment of melanoma are represented by various means, the purpose of which is to inhibit tumor growth. The best immunopreparation for melanoma will be the one whose effectiveness will correspond to its safety

After surgical treatment and some early stages of melanomas. Interferon alpha can sometimes be used as an adjuvant therapy after surgical removal of melanoma to prevent recurrence. According to statistics, this may delay the development of relapse, but it is not completely clear whether this increases survival.Interferon is effective at high concentrations, but many patients do not tolerate the side effects of high dose therapy: fever, chills, pain, depression, fatigue, toxic effects on the heart and liver. This drug should be used under the supervision of a specialist with experience in the use of this medication.

In all cases, when deciding whether to use adjuvant interferon therapy, the patient and physician should weigh the potential benefits and risks of side effects from this treatment.

Also, for melanoma, biochemotherapy is performed, which is a combination of chemotherapy and interleukin-2, interferon, or both. Treatment often shrinks the tumor, relieves patients, and increases the relapse-free period. However, this method is not widely used in clinical practice; oncologists are more willing to prescribe new drugs for the treatment of advanced skin cancer.

Various studies are under way to develop new drugs and combination treatments for melanoma.

90,000 Psyllium – Psyllium – qaz.wiki

Psyllium husk

Plantain ɪ ɪ m / or ispaghula (isabgol), this common name is used for several members of the plantain genus plantain , the seeds of which are used commercially for the production of mucus. Psyllium is primarily used as dietary fiber to relieve symptoms of constipation and mild diarrhea, and sometimes as a food thickener.It is commonly used as a food ingredient in industrial breakfast cereals.

Using psyllium in the diet for three weeks or longer often lowers blood cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol and may lower blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Using psyllium for a month or longer may cause a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure.

The plants from which the seeds are extracted tolerate dry and cool climates well and are mainly grown in northern India.

Uses

Nutritional supplements containing psyllium are marketed primarily for weight loss, although there is little scientific evidence for such an effect.

Food

Psyllium has been used as a thickener in ice cream and other frozen desserts. Weight / Volume Ratio 1.5% of psyllium mucus exhibits binding properties that are superior to the weight / volume ratio of 10% mucus starch. The viscosity of psyllium mucus dispersions are relatively resistant to temperatures between 20 and 50 ° C (68 and 122 ° F), with a pH of 2 to 10, and salt (sodium chloride) concentrations up to 0.15 M.

Human health

Constipation

Psyllium is mainly used as a viscous, soluble dietary fiber that is not absorbed by the small intestine. The purely mechanical action of psyllium mucus is to absorb excess water while stimulating normal bowel elimination. Although its main use has been a laxative, it is more accurately viewed as a dietary fiber, and as such it can help reduce the symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea.The laxative properties of psyllium are attributed to fiber: it absorbs water and subsequently softens stools. This increases flatulence (gas) to some extent.

High blood cholesterol

In 1998, the FDA approved a health label for dietary psyllium as a soluble fiber – with continued consumption – that will reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol.Clinical studies have shown that seven grams or more per day of soluble fiber from psyllium husks can significantly reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with hypercholesterolemia, two accepted biomarkers of coronary heart disease risk. The results were later confirmed by meta-analysis, which included additional evidence. To be eligible for FDA health approval, one serving of manufactured foods or dietary supplements must contain at least 1. 7 grams of psyllium in soluble fiber form.Whole oats, barley and foods containing beta-glucan soluble fiber have been included as acceptable sources for label claims.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

In 2014, the FDA approved a qualified statement of the health benefits of psyllium as a possible benefit for people with diabetes, requiring an FDA-approved formulation on the product label: “Psyllium husk may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, although The FDA concluded that there is very little scientific evidence for this claim. “A meta-analysis published after the FDA’s decision reported that psyllium taken before meals improved fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, but the greater effect was seen in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and treated for it, with only marginal improvement. for those classified as pre-diabetic.

Veterinary medicine

Psyllium fiber dietary supplements are used in veterinary medicine to treat grit in horses to help remove grit from the horse’s colon.

Side effects

Fiber generally has few side effects.

  • Psyllium may cause intestinal obstruction or bezoar if taken without sufficient water.
  • Gas or bloating may also occur.
  • There is a risk of suffocation if psyllium is taken without sufficient water as it thickens in the throat.

Allergy

Psyllium can cause allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis.Psyllium can act as a powerful inhaled allergen that can cause asthma symptoms. Health care workers in geriatric hospitals who are often exposed to psyllium as part of a laxative given to patients are usually IgE-sensitized to psyllium (13.8%), and 8.6% are clinically allergic to psyllium. Pharmaceutical workers who were exposed to psyllium during processing developed occupational asthma and IgE sensitization.To protect sensitized workers, psyllium has an extremely low occupational exposure limit of 150 ng / m 3 .

Mechanism of action

The soluble fiber in psyllium is a polysaccharide heteroxylane, hemicellulose.

Psyllium is produced mainly due to its mucus content. The term “slime describes a group of clear, colorless gelling agents derived from plants. Mucus derived from psyllium comes from the seed coat.Slime is obtained by mechanical grinding (i.e. grinding) of the outer layer of the seeds. The mucus yield is about 25% (by weight) of the total seed yield. The mucus from psyllium seeds is often referred to as psyllium husk or husk. The crushed seed slime is a white fibrous material that is hydrophilic, which means that its molecular structure makes it attract and bind to water. After absorbing water, the resulting transparent, colorless, sticky gel increases in volume ten or more times.

Growing

Genus Plantago has more than 200 species. P. ovata and P. psyllium are commercially produced in several European countries, the former Soviet Union and India. Psyllium seeds, commercially known as black, French or Spanish psyllium, are obtained from P. psyllium , also known as P. arenaria . Seeds P. ovata are known in trade as white or light plantain, Indian plantain or isabgol.Isabgol is the common name in India P. ovata . in Pakistan it is known as aspagol , derived from Persian asp and hum , which means “horse flower” which characterizes the shape of the seed. India dominates the world market for the production and export of psyllium.

Plantain ovate is an annual plant that grows to 30–46 cm (12–18 inches). Leaves are opposite, linear or linear-lanceolate 1 cm x 19 cm (0.39 x 7.48 in).The root system has a well-developed taproot with few fibrous secondary roots. A large number of flowering shoots grow from the base of the plant. The flowers are numerous, small, white. Plants bloom approximately 60 days after planting. The seeds are enclosed in capsules that open as they ripen.

Fields are usually irrigated before sowing to achieve ideal soil moisture, improve seed-to-soil contact, and avoid burying the seeds too deep as a result of late irrigation or rain.Germination occurs at a seeding depth of 6 mm (1/4 inch). Seedlings are sensitive to frost; therefore, landing should be postponed until conditions are expected to remain frost-free. The seed is spread in India at a rate of 5.5 to 8.25 kg / ha (5 to 7.5 lb / acre). In trials in Arizona, planting rates of 22 to 27.5 kg / ha (20 to 25 lb / acre) resulted in 1 plant / 25 mm (1 in) stands in 15 cm (6 in) rows. excellent yields.Weed control is usually achieved by weeding with one or two hands early in the growing season. Weed control with seedbed watering, followed by shallow tillage, can be effective in fields with minimal weed pressure. Psyllium is a poor competitor to most types of weeds.

Plantain ( Fusarium oxysporum ) and downy mildew ( Peronospora alta ) are the main diseases of Isabgol.White larvae and aphids are the main pests.

Peduncles when ripe become reddish-brown, the lower leaves dry, and the upper ones turn yellow. The crop is harvested in the morning after the dew has melted to minimize shedding and field loss. In India, mature plants are cut at a height of 15 cm above the ground, then tied, left to dry for several days, threshed and sieved.

The harvested seeds must be dried to a moisture content below 12% so that they can be cleaned, grinded and stored.Seeds stored for future crops showed significant loss of viability after 2 years of storage.

Commercial history

Metamucil

Introduced in 1934 by GD Searle & Company, Metamucil was acquired by Procter & Gamble in 1985. The name is a combination of the Greek word for change ( meta ) and the class of fiber it uses ( slime ).In its early years, Metamucil achieved sporadic drugstore distribution as an “over the counter” brand. Since 1974, the brand has also been marketed to consumers through print and television advertisements and made available at food outlets. Flavored versions were added in 1979.

The brand is sold in the form of powdered drink mixes, capsules and wafers with various flavors. Metamucil contains psyllium husk as an active ingredient.It is manufactured in Phoenix, Arizona by Procter & Gamble. When Metamucil first went on sale in 1974, it was marketed as a laxative. The advertising statement at the time was “If not nature, then Metamucil.” Procter & Gamble aimed to make Metamucil a household name in magazine and television advertising, using the statement “Not all fibers are the same”.

The Metamucil trademark is owned by Procter & Gamble and was first approved in 1934.The Metamucil logo has been updated many times throughout the brand’s history, most recently in 2014.

Recommendations

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Phytomucil Norm 250 g pore

5 reasons to use Fitomucil
1. Provides comfortable bowel release
2. Restores regular bowel movements
3. Removes toxins and carcinogens
4. Normalizes intestinal microflora
5. Does not cause side effects and addiction

What is the difference between Phytomucil and traditional remedies?

Most symptomatic remedies solve the problem of one day, without eliminating the cause of constipation.They irritate the intestinal mucosa, so they can only be used occasionally. Long-term use of stimulant laxatives can lead to addiction or side effects. The Fitomucil complex is devoid of such disadvantages.

What is part of Phytomucil?

Phytomucil contains 2 natural components: the shell of the seeds of a special variety of Psyllium plantain and the pulp of homemade plums – rich natural sources of dietary fiber. Phytomucil does not contain sugars, flavors or dyes.Phytomucil contains 4 times more soluble fiber than ordinary bran, it is the “champion” in soluble fiber content **

Another advantage of Phytomucil is that it does not contain senna, so its cleansing effect is not accompanied by pain and sudden urges. Regular bowel function is restored naturally. The absence of undesirable effects and addiction is especially important in cases where the laxative has to be taken for a long time.

How does Phytomucil work?

Soluble fibers of Phytomucil in the intestine absorb water, swell, turn into a slimy gel and soften the stool, which contributes to its easy excretion.Insoluble dietary fiber mechanically stimulates the intestinal wall, activating intestinal movement and elimination of waste. Thus, Fitomucil simultaneously acts on the contents of the intestine and on its mucous membrane, relieving constipation, bloating and a feeling of heaviness. In addition to the laxative effect, Fitomucil creates favorable conditions for the growth of its own beneficial intestinal microflora, which helps to eliminate dysbiosis, which always occurs with constipation.

Who can take Phytomucil?

Phytomucil is approved for use during pregnancy, lactation, in old age and in children over 3 years old.Phytomucil can be used for diabetes mellitus.

Indications for use:

Constipation (no daily bowel movements)
Irritable bowel syndrome with a predominance of constipation
Hemorrhoids, rectal fissures
Dysbacteriosis of the gastrointestinal tract
Contraindications:

intestinal tract.

Method of administration and dosage:

Children from 3 to 11 years old 1 sachet 1 time per day in the evening.

Children from 11 to 14 years old 1 sachet 2 times a day, morning and evening.

Adults and children over 14 years old 1 sachet 2-4 times a day.

Dissolve the powder in a glass of water or drink (juice, kefir, drinking yoghurt), drink and drink with a glass of clean non-carbonated water.

Reception mode:

It is recommended to take Fitomucil in the morning half an hour before breakfast and in the evening 1 hour after dinner.

Special instructions:

To increase the effectiveness of Phytomucil and normalize the bowel function, it is recommended to drink 1.5-2 liters of liquid per day.

Duration of admission:

Duration of taking Phytomucil is selected individually. If the bowel function is disturbed as a result of a change in regimen and diet (travel), against the background of a diet or after taking antibiotics, a course of 2-4 weeks is usually sufficient.

In chronic functional constipation, in most cases, the cause lies in inadequate intake of dietary fiber and fluid. Since fiber is an essential part of a healthy diet and Phytomucil is a source of high quality fiber, it can be taken continuously.After stool normalization, it is recommended to use Fitomucil in a maintenance dose (1 sachet per day).

One sachet (5.0) contains: husk of plantain seeds (Plantago Psyllium) 4.5 g; fruits of home plum (Prunus Domestica) 0.5 g.

Method of issue: powder in sachets of 5 g, 30 or 10 sachets in a pack; in a jar of 250 g.

Storage conditions: out of the reach of children in a dry place at room temperature.

100% natural complex

Free of SENNA, artificial additives and GMOs

90,000 Metamucil Side Effects – Heartburn, Gas and Diarrhea!

Nutritional supplements are used to maintain regularity in the digestive system.The fiber content of supplements can play a role in both preventing constipation and normalizing bowel function. In general, health experts agree that, whenever possible, getting the dietary fiber the body needs from food sources is always ideal. This is because while a powdered supplement can help in instant relief of constipation, there are some side effects and safety concerns to consider. Drug absorption can be reduced with the use of dietary supplements, and those taking certain medications, such as blood thinners and aspirin, should definitely check with a doctor prior to use to ensure that the supplements are safe to use.Apart from potential drug interactions, there are also side effects to consider. And the side effects of metamucil associated with one of the most popular, most recommended and well-known remedies for blockage of the intestines may be surprising to some people.

Metamucil is a powdered product made from all natural fiber of psyllium, according to the manufacturer. Each serving provides 3 grams of fiber, and regular consumption can include up to three servings of this size each day.These benefits from Metamucil in this regard are numerous, as the addition of this mealy concoction can help relieve constipation due to its bulk-forming properties as well as promote overall bowel regularity. The product is also useful, according to WebMD, as part of a diet that aims to lower cholesterol levels, another added benefit of Metamucil. But, as with all types of medications and supplements, side effects do exist. These should be considered along with the potential benefits of the medication or supplement.The side effects of metamucil are usually mild and often go unnoticed. However, they do include some gastrointestinal effects that are worth noting.

Abdominal gas and stomach cramps are the most common side effects associated with metamucil. Abdominal gas from psyllium bulking laxatives such as metamucil is a bacterial reaction. As the Mayo Clinic explained, bacteria in the colon can actually ferment carbohydrates that are not digested in the small intestine, and this can lead to gas.Since the bulk of bulk laxative foods contain fiber that is not digested in the small intestine, it is easy to see how fermentation in the colon can lead to metamucil side effects such as excess gas. This can lead to abdominal discomfort and create feelings of fullness, pressure, and bloating.

Flatulences are not the only effects experienced by users of psyllium supplements. While Drugs.com, an independent agency providing comprehensive information on many commonly used prescription and over-the-counter drugs, notes that common and mild side effects associated with psychillia include changes in bowel habits and bloating, some users have indicated that side effects metamucil may include worsening symptoms of GERD, including acid reflux cough and increased bouts of heartburn.In many cases, it is likely that the perceived worsening of these symptoms, however, is more due to the gas and swollen symptoms known to be associated with metamucil, rather than their own individual effects, which can certainly influence the tolerability of heartburn symptoms.

Side effects of metamucil are also thought to include diarrhea. However, this may be a slight misconception. It is possible that as psyllium works to regulate the intestines and achieve proper fluid intake, stools become looser and watery, leading to diarrhea.But the manufacturer notes that diarrhea is not considered one of the few commonly expected side effects of metamucil. In fact, the product is designed to work in the opposite way, adding firmness and volume to stools and lightening those that are loose and watery. However, it is not uncommon for one or two episodes of diarrhea to occur when treating constipation, especially depending on the severity. But generally, this is not something that is caused by the use of a psyllium fiber supplement such as metamucil.

Metamucil remains one of the most reliable and physician-recommended products for achieving and maintaining a healthy gut regularity. It is considered to be incredibly safe, effective, and gentle. While there may be some side effects of metamucil that should be considered and discussed with a healthcare professional before use, the long-term benefits of a well-regulated and well-maintained colon go far beyond treating an acute case of constipation.

Treatment and prevention of irritable bowel syndrome

Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) depends on symptoms.Your doctor should work out a personalized treatment for you. If you are concerned about loose stools, treatment for you will not be the same as for patients with constipation.

If your doctor says that the problem is “in your head,” or that nothing can be done, see another doctor. Many patients successfully get rid of IBS. You need a doctor who can explain IBS and is interested in helping you identify the underlying causes of your symptoms.

Your treatment may be based on the underlying physical or psychological cause of the illness.This can be a lifestyle change, pharmacological or psychological treatment. The right IBS treatment for you may be found by trial and error, but in the end it will still be established. Below are some aspects of the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Nutrition for irritable bowel syndrome

Certain foods can trigger an exacerbation / attack. It is advisable to keep a log of all foods in order to calculate later which ones led to the disorder.To identify foods that are causing your symptoms, eat regularly and write down the foods you ate prior to the onset of symptoms. Look for patterns. Often, the symptoms do not depend on any particular food, but on the amount at a time. A dietitian can be consulted to identify the foods that are causing the symptoms and to establish a treatment plan. A dietitian will determine how your body reacts to a particular food. Sometimes something is intolerant (for example, lactose intolerance).

For example, caffeine, milk, chocolate, nicotine, alcohol and an abundance of fatty foods cause symptoms in someone. However, in some people with IBS, these foods do not cause symptoms.

Traditional treatment for IBS, especially for constipation, requires eating foods that contain fiber. Fiber reduces the transit time for the colon and reduces pressure on it. You need to eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, eat grains and bran.Your doctor may also recommend soluble fiber supplements.

For some IBS patients, eating fiber worsens symptoms because bacteria can break it down in the colon; gas will be released, causing bloating. Fiber intake should be discussed with your doctor. You may need to avoid certain types of fiber, in particular gas-producing foods such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and legumes.But it has not been established that abstaining from certain foods will eliminate symptoms.

Drug treatment for irritable bowel syndrome

Your doctor may prescribe certain medications to treat IBS symptoms. The medication the doctor recommends may include:

    • Antispasmodic anticholinergics. These drugs reduce intestinal cramps and may relieve pain, bloating, and discomfort associated with IBS.Examples of such drugs are Dicyclomine (Bentil) and Hyoscyamine (Levsin). Research shows that these drugs are of limited effectiveness and are best taken if symptoms occur after a meal. Side effects include dry mouth / nose / throat, increased heart rate, constipation, accommodation disorder (blurred vision) and urinary problems.
    • Antidiarrheals, eg Loperamide (Imodium).These drugs are quite effective against diarrhea and are used for frequent loose stools or an urge to defecate.
    • Laxatives (such as fiber). They are taken if constipation is the main symptom. Laxatives include psyllium (Metamucil), methylcellulose (Citrucel), and calcium polycarbophil (Equalactin).
    • Alocetron (Lotronex) is used to treat symptoms such as acute diarrhea or abdominal pain.Alocetron is a blocker of serotonin 5-HT3 receptors and inhibits the action of serotonin in the intestine. Soon after Lotronex appeared on the market, it was removed from the market, as it was not 100% safe, but then it was again released on the market and now it is an affordable drug. However, due to its potential side effects, Lotronex is recommended for use only by patients with severe symptoms as directed by a gastroenterologist, who must provide the patient with proper instructions for use.
    • Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep, Vanatrip), desipramine (Norpramine), and nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventil) are often used for symptoms such as pain or diarrhea. In IBS, they are taken in lower doses than in depression and reduce pain signals between the gut and the brain. These drugs can also help with sleep disturbances and fibromyalgia, the latter often occurring among the symptoms of IBS.
    • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also be prescribed by your doctor to reduce the depression and anxiety that comes with IBS in some patients.SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil). Your doctor may also recommend other types of antidepressants, such as mirtazapine (Remeron), venlafaxine (Effexor), and duloxetine (Simbalta).
    • Sedatives can help reduce anxiety, which can worsen IBS symptoms. Sometimes, doctors prescribe sedatives such as diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin) for people with short-term bouts of anxiety that worsen IBS symptoms.These drugs should only be taken under medical supervision as they are addictive.
    • Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is used to enhance intestinal secretion. It is prescribed for the treatment of severe constipation for women over 18 years of age who are not helped by other treatment.
  • IBS can be treated with antibiotics, but it is not entirely clear what benefits they bring. Antibiotics can help those with IBS caused by overgrowth of bacteria in the gut, but antibiotics can now be dispensed with to eliminate bacteria.

How to eliminate or minimize IBS symptoms

In IBS, the intestines are sensitive to irritants. Symptoms can be minimized or eliminated by identifying the underlying causes of poor bowel function. Here are some guidelines that might help:

– Eat regularly by the hour, chew food slowly and thoroughly, do not consume fatty foods and too much caffeine.

– Get regular physical activity.This can help ease symptoms and feelings of anxiety, thereby improving bowel function.

– Do not delay or hasten bowel movements.

– Do not strain during bowel movements, try to relax and take your time.

Because the colon becomes very sensitive in IBS, symptoms can be triggered by common events such as eating or distension from gas or intestinal contents.Following these guidelines will help you prevent seizures:

Schedule the appointment and write. Eating food causes the colon to contract. Usually, within 30 to 60 minutes after eating, the urge to defecate appears. With IBS, the urge may occur more frequently, causing cramping or diarrhea.

Eat small meals. The body’s response to food is often dependent on calories and especially the amount of fat it contains. Also, large amounts of food can cause cramps and diarrhea in people with IBS.Symptoms are alleviated by eating fewer meals more often, or simply eating smaller meals. Either way, try to stick to a regular meal schedule.

Change the diet. A low-fat, high-fiber diet may help some people. Someone needs a diet of foods rich in protein and carbohydrates. Fat stimulates to a large extent the contraction of the colon after a meal. Drinking caffeine in many people, and especially those with IBS, leads to frequent loose stools.It is important – the diet should be made for everyone individually.

In many cases, eating foods containing fiber can relieve constipation, but not pain. Sources of fiber include cereals, peas, beans, fruits and vegetables, and whole grain breads. Fiber can also be taken as a commercially available dietary fiber supplement, but you should check with your doctor before taking it.

Certain medications (including antibiotics) can cause IBS attacks in some people.You need to tell your doctor all about your problem so that he can recommend other medications for treating IBS symptoms that will not cause seizures.

Physical, emotional or environmental stress can also cause or worsen symptoms. Dealing with stress and relaxation can reduce or prevent symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy, stress prevention, hypnosis, and relaxation can also reduce symptoms of IBS. This treatment also reduces anxiety and other psychological symptoms.You can write down what actions are causing your symptoms. Many patients will be able to better control their condition if the symptoms of IBS are found to be related to childhood abuse or trauma.

Prevention of irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the diseases that cannot be “preventable”. This is not a disease that can be avoided by following certain recommendations. However, the symptoms of IBS – chronic cramping abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and changes in bowel rhythm – can be prevented, reduced, and sometimes canceled out by eliminating its causes.

People with IBS have a more sensitive colon, and it reacts very sharply to both food (even normal gastrointestinal activity) and environmental factors such as stress.

Although doctors do not know exactly why some people suffer from IBS, and some never do, IBS is a serious functional disorder. Don’t believe if someone tells you that the symptoms are “in your head.”

Lifestyle recommendations

1.Ask your doctor if you have IBS.

Although more than 20 percent of the population suffers from IBS, only 15 percent of people with IBS seek medical attention. If you have severe stomach pain or bowel problems, see your doctor. He will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and begin treatment to relieve symptoms.

2. Keep a log for identifying IBS-provoking foods

People with IBS are advised to monitor food exacerbations.To do this, you need to write down the entire diet and note the time when symptoms of IBS appear or worsen. Notes with information about the type and amount of foods eaten, as well as meal times, should be taken within two to four weeks. It is also necessary to record the time of onset of symptoms – disorder, pain, discomfort, etc.

3. Make a personalized diet

A personalized diet can be formulated to help relieve IBS symptoms.There is a specific food group that can worsen IBS symptoms. These include fatty foods, dairy products, chocolate, alcohol, caffeinated beverages (such as coffee, tea, cola, and energy drinks), sorbitol sweeteners (found in some chewing gum), and gas-producing foods (such as beans and some other vegetables) … However, not all people with IBS need to eliminate these foods. Many of them also have lactose intolerance, which causes intestinal problems and abdominal pain similar to IBS symptoms.People with lactose intolerance need to remove most dairy products from their diet to improve their condition. Women with IBS who suffer from constipation need to drink more water and consume foods that contain fiber. If you decide to go to a nutritionist, we recommend that you contact a qualified nutritionist who can explain the relationship between food intake and bowel problems, and also make a diet for you, namely, that minimizes bowel disruption.

4. Avoid unnecessary surgery if you have IBS

Before surgery, be sure to notify your doctor that you have IBS. Studies have shown that patients with IBS are more at risk of having their appendix or gallbladder removed unnecessarily. According to a survey of 90,000 people, hysterectomy and back surgery are also the most common among patients with IBS. Studies have shown that removal of the gallbladder is performed twice as often in people with IBS than in patients without IBS.However, studies have shown that operations on the coronary arteries and for gastric and duodenal ulcers occur in almost equal numbers in patients with IBS and in patients without.

5. Stress management therapy can help you

Since stress is one of the causes of IBS symptoms, some stress management technologies such as hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy may help. They can reduce anxiety, improve health, improve mood, and increase the patient’s sense of responsibility associated with treatment.Since the landmark 1984 study of hypnotherapy in treating IBS in the London journal The Lancet, there have been many other studies demonstrating the effectiveness of this treatment. However, it must be ensured that the physician using hypnosis is qualified to do so.

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