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Mild dehydration signs: Hyponatremia: Signs, Complications, and Outlook


Dehydration: MedlinePlus

What is dehydration?

Dehydration is condition caused by the loss of too much fluid from the body. It happens when you are losing more fluids than you are taking in, and your body does not have enough fluids to work properly.

What causes dehydration?

You can become dehydrated because of

Who is at risk for dehydration?

Certain people have a higher risk of dehydration:

  • Older adults. Some people lose their sense of thirst as they age, so they don’t drink enough fluids.
  • Infants and young children, who are more likely to have diarrhea or vomiting
  • People with chronic illnesses that cause them to urinate or sweat more often, such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, or kidney problems
  • People who take medicines that cause them to urinate or sweat more
  • People who exercise or work outdoors during hot weather

What are the symptoms of dehydration?

In adults, the symptoms of dehydration include

  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Dry mouth
  • Urinating and sweating less than usual
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Dry skin
  • Feeling tired
  • Dizziness

In infants and young children, the symptoms of dehydration include

  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Crying without tears
  • No wet diapers for 3 hours or more
  • A high fever
  • Being unusually sleepy or drowsy
  • Irritability
  • Eyes that look sunken

Dehydration can be mild, or it can be severe enough to be life-threatening. Get medical help right away if the symptoms also include

  • Confusion
  • Fainting
  • Lack of urination
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Shock

How is dehydration diagnosed?

To make a diagnosis, your health care provider will

  • Do a physical exam
  • Check your vital signs
  • Ask about your symptoms

You may also have

  • Blood tests to check your electrolyte levels, especially potassium and sodium. Electrolytes are minerals in your body that have an electric charge. They have many important jobs, including helping to keep a balance of fluids in your body.
  • Blood tests to check your kidney function
  • Urine tests to check for dehydration and its cause

What are the treatments for dehydration?

The treatment for dehydration is to replace the fluids and electrolytes that you have lost. For mild cases, you may just need to drink lots of water. If you lost electrolytes, sports drinks may help. There are also oral rehydration solutions for children. You can buy those without a prescription.

Severe cases may be treated with intravenous (IV) fluids with salt in a hospital.

Can dehydration be prevented?

The key to preventing dehydration is making sure that you get enough fluids:

  • Drink enough water every day. Each person’s needs can be different, so ask your health care provider how much you should be drinking each day.
  • If you are exercising in the heat and losing a lot of minerals in sweat, sports drinks can be helpful
  • Avoid drinks that have sugar and caffeine
  • Drink extra fluids when the weather is hot or when you are sick

10 warning signs of dehydration. And staying hydrated while wearing a mask.

What do you think is more essential: Food or water? While we tend to focus a lot of our time and energy on food — deciding what to eat for lunch or make for dinner — water is essential. In fact, we can go up to 3 weeks without food but wouldn’t last more than 3 or 4 days without water.

“Hydration is necessary for survival,” explains Ronald A. Navarro, MD, Kaiser Permanente’s coordinating chief of orthopedic surgery for Southern California. “The cells in our bodies contain water and are surrounded by water. When we’re dehydrated, these cells are less permeable, which means they have trouble absorbing nutrients and removing waste.”

The benefits of hydration

When you drink enough water, you’re helping your body function at its best. You may even experience some impressive health benefits, which can include:

  • Keeping cool
    When you overheat — whether it’s because of a sunny day, an intense workout, or a fever — your body produces sweat to cool down. Sweat is mostly made of water, so your body needs to stay hydrated to help you stay nice and cool.
  • Getting muscles and joints to work at peak performance
    Because your cells work better when fully hydrated, it can increase your body’s ability to perform. Water also helps lubricate your joints, making it easier to move.
  • Helping control weight
    “We often mistake thirst for hunger,” says Dr. Navarro. “Drinking enough water may help us avoid misplaced urges that tell us to eat when we don’t need to.”

Preventing constipation
People who are well-hydrated usually have regular bowel movements. Hard bowel movements or constipation can be a sign that you aren’t getting enough water — or fiber.

So how much water do you need to drink per day? The short answer: It depends.

“The most common recommendation is to drink 8 ounces of water 6 or 8 times a day, every day,” explains Dr. Navarro. “However, some adults may need more or less, depending on their overall health. Factors like illness and medications can affect how much water you may need. You should also take into account how much you exercise, the level of intensity, and how hot and dry the weather is.”

Warning signs of dehydration

Not sure if you’re dehydrated? One of the easiest ways to tell is by checking the color of your urine. If it looks clear or pale yellow, then you’re drinking enough water. But if your urine is a darker yellow or an amber color, then it’s time to hydrate.

Other warning signs of dehydration can include:

  • Bad breath
  • Decreased amount of urine
  • Dry mouth and swollen tongue
  • Sluggishness and fatigue
  • Sugar cravings

And if you’re feeling any of the following more severe dehydration symptoms, seek medical attention right away:

  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Heart palpitations

Causes of dehydration

How do we get dehydrated? The most common cause is not drinking enough water throughout the day — but things like hot weather, drinking too much caffeine or alcohol, and working out are other factors. There are also less common causes of dehydration to keep an eye out for — like stress, certain medications, aging, high altitudes, and burns (including sunburns).

Does wearing a mask cause dehydration?

To slow the spread of the coronavirus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends wearing a face covering when in public. Wearing a mask does not cause dehydration, but you may drink less water when you’re wearing one. When you wear a face covering for long periods of time, it’s important to be mindful of how much water you drink. Bring a water bottle with you when you leave the house and set reminders on your smartphone to take frequent water breaks. Check in with your body throughout the day for signs of thirst or dehydration. If you’re wearing a mask while working out, for example, and start to feel fatigued or overheated, stop what you’re doing. Find a spot away from people, remove your mask, and drink water.

Note: It’s important to keep your mask dry, as wearing a wet mask can make it difficult to breathe. Always take your mask off before drinking water or other liquids. If you spill on your mask, let it dry before putting it back on. You shouldn’t wear a mask when swimming — just practice physical distancing while in the water.

Are you drinking enough water?

Find out how to keep your body in balance and hydrated. And talk to your doctor if you have any questions.


Dehydration – Illnesses & conditions

Dehydration occurs when your body loses more fluid than you take in.

When the normal water content of your body is reduced, it upsets the balance of minerals (salts and sugar) in your body, which affects the way it functions.

Water makes up over two-thirds of the healthy human body. It lubricates the joints and eyes, aids digestion, flushes out waste and toxins, and keeps the skin healthy.

Some of the early warning signs of dehydration include:

  • feeling thirsty and lightheaded
  • a dry mouth
  • tiredness
  • having dark coloured, strong-smelling urine
  • passing urine less often than usual

A baby may be dehydrated if they:

  • have a sunken soft spot (fontanelle) on their head
  • have few or no tears when they cry
  • have fewer wet nappies
  • are drowsy

The body is affected even when you lose a small amount of fluid.

Read more about the symptoms of dehydration

What causes dehydration?

Dehydration is usually caused by not drinking enough fluid to replace what we lose. The climate, the amount of physical exercise you are doing (particularly in hot weather) and your diet can contribute to dehydration.

You can also become dehydrated as a result of an illness, such as persistent vomiting and diarrhoea, or sweating from a fever.

Read more about the causes of dehydration

Who is at risk from dehydration?

Anyone can become dehydrated, but certain groups are particularly at risk. These include:

  • babies and infants – they have a low body weight and are sensitive to even small amounts of fluid loss
  • older people – they may be less aware that they are becoming dehydrated and need to keep drinking fluids
  • people with a long-term health condition – such as diabetes or alcoholism
  • athletes – they can lose a large amount of body fluid through sweat when exercising for long periods 

What to do

If you’re dehydrated, drink plenty of fluids such as water, diluted squash or fruit juice. These are much more effective than large amounts of tea or coffee. Fizzy drinks may contain more sugar than you need and may be harder to take in large amounts.

If you’re finding it difficult to keep water down because you’re vomiting, try drinking small amounts more frequently.

Infants and small children who are dehydrated shouldn’t be given large amounts of water alone as the main replacement fluid. This is because it can dilute the already low level of minerals in their body too much and lead to other problems.

Instead, they should be given diluted squash or a rehydration solution (available from pharmacies). You might find a teaspoon or syringe can be helpful for getting fluid into a young child.

If left untreated, severe dehydration can be serious and cause fits (seizures), brain damage and death.

Read more about treating dehydration

When to see your GP

See your GP if your symptoms continue, despite drinking plenty of fluids, or if you think your baby or toddler is dehydrated.

If your GP suspects dehydration, you may have a blood test or a urine test to check the balance of salts (sodium and potassium) in your body.

Contact your GP, out-of-hours service or NHS 24 111 service straight away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • extreme thirst
  • feeling unusually tired (lethargic) or confused
  • not passing urine for eight hours
  • rapid heartbeat
  • dizziness when you stand up that doesn’t go away after a few seconds

You should also contact your GP if your baby has had six or more episodes of diarrhoea in the past 24 hours, or if they have vomited three times or more in the past 24 hours. 

Kids Health Information : Dehydration

Dehydration occurs when there isn’t enough fluid in the body to keep it working properly. The body needs water to help maintain body temperature, make bodily fluids and for day-to-day functioning.

Young children and babies are at greater risk of becoming dehydrated than adults. Keeping your child hydrated is important at all times, but especially when they are unwell.

If your child is very thirsty, they are probably already dehydrated. The effects of severe dehydration can be serious.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration

If your child is mildly dehydrated, they may have:

  • dizziness or light-headedness 
  • nausea or headaches 
  • dark yellow or brown urine (wee) – urine should be pale yellow 
  • fewer wet nappies or nappies not as wet as usual; or older children will not go to the toilet as much 
  • dry lips, tongue, mouth or throat.

If your child has severe dehydration, they may be:

  • extremely thirsty
  • lethargic or less active than usual 
  • pale and have sunken eyes, tears may be absent when crying 
  • cold – especially their hands or feet 
  • breathing faster than usual and have a fast heart rate 
  • irritable, drowsy or confused.

If your child shows signs of severe dehydration, see your GP or go to your closest hospital emergency department.

Care at home for mild dehydration

The best treatment for mild dehydration is to give your child more fluid to drink, such as water or oral rehydration solutions. Gastrolyte, HYDRAlyte, Pedialyte and Repalyte are different types of oral rehydration solutions (fluids) that can be used to replace fluids and body salts. These are the best option if your child is
dehydrated, and can be purchased from your local pharmacy or supermarket. They are also available as icy poles, which children are often happy to have.

If your child refuses water or oral rehydration fluids, try diluted apple juice. You can also give your child their usual milk. Do not give drinks that are high in sugar (e.g. flat lemonade or sports drinks), because they can make dehydration worse.


If your baby is under six months old, they should always be seen by a doctor if they are dehydrated.  For babies over six months:

  • If you are breastfeeding your baby, continue to do this but feed more often. You can also give an oral rehydration solution or water for the first 12 hours.
  • If you are bottle feeding your baby, replace formula feeds with oral rehydration solution or water for the first 12 hours, then give normal formula in small, but more frequent amounts.

Older children

For older children (over 10 kg) who are dehydrated, give at least one cup (250 mL) of water (or oral rehydration solution) to drink, every hour for four hours. Give them more than this to drink if they are vomiting or have diarrhoea. Your child may want to drink it all at once or
drink smaller sips frequently.

Smaller children will need less to drink than older children.

When to see a doctor

Babies and young children are at greater risk of becoming dehydrated. If your child is under six months of age or has a chronic (long-term) illness, see your GP if you think your child is dehydrated.

If your child shows signs of severe dehydration or you are concerned for any reason, see your GP or go to your closest hospital emergency department.

If your child is unwell, they may need medical treatment to help replace lost fluids. This can involve using a feeding tube that goes into the stomach via the nose, or fluids given directly into a vein through a drip (intravenous or IV therapy).

What causes dehydration?

Children are more likely to become dehydrated:

  • after lots of physical activity or exercise
  • with severe vomiting or diarrhoea
  • if they have a fever
  • if they take certain medications, such as diuretics
  • if they don’t drink enough, especially during times of illness
  • if they are younger than six months of age
  • in hot weather.

Making sure your child drinks enough water each day can help prevent dehydration. Providing extra drinks of water in hot weather, during and after exercise and during illness is particularly important.

Key points to remember

  • Young children and babies are at most risk of becoming dehydrated.
  • If your child is very thirsty, they are probably already dehydrated.
  • Mild dehydration can be treated at home by giving oral rehydration fluids or water. Do not give drinks that are high in sugar.
  • If your child show signs of severe dehydration, see your GP or go to your closest hospital emergency department.

For more information

Common questions our doctors are asked

Should my child drink sports drinks when playing sports to
prevent dehydration?

Sports drinks are not recommended for hydration, as there is often a high sugar content. Drinks that are high in sugar can make dehydration worse. During sports, children can drink water or oral rehydration solutions.  

What illnesses are most likely to cause

Gastroenteritis is the most common cause of dehydration, because the body loses fluids through the vomiting and diarrhoea, and oral intake is usually reduced. Illnesses where children have a sore throat or sore mouth (e.g. tonsillitis or hand, foot and mouth disease) can lead to
dehydration if the pain is making your child reluctant to eat or drink. Having a high fever is also linked with dehydration, because your child is losing fluids through sweating.

Developed by The Royal Children’s Hospital Community Information and Anaesthesia and Pain Management departments. We acknowledge the input of RCH consumers and carers. 

Reviewed August 2018. 

Kids Health Info is supported by The Royal Children’s Hospital Foundation. To donate, visit

How Does Mild Dehydration Affect the Body?

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Water is essential for human life. It is a vital component for extracellular fluids and all living cells. In the human body, body weight is comprised of approximately 55% and 75% of water in infants and the elderly, respectively. Therefore, it’s imperative to ensure that the body has adequate stores of water for processes such as homeostasis to occur effectively.

Despite the well-researched importance of staying hydrated, previous studies suggest that 40% of women, 60% of men, and 20% of children across 12 countries did not meet the recommended water intake values outlined by the European Food Safety Authority. So what are the effects of mild dehydration on the body?

What is Mild Dehydration?

Water plays an essential role in metabolic processing, and the balancing electrolytes alongside regulating body temperature and acting as lubricant for internal organs and joints. Therefore, it’s important for humans to maintain balance between water output and input in order to remain constantly hydrated.

Water balance is influenced by water input versus water output and several factors can influence it such as, environmental conditions, level of physical activity, dietary intake, and age. If the balance of water input and output isn’t controlled, then it can result in deficits or excesses.

Mild dehydration can occur when fluid loss or diminished fluid intake leads to a decrease in total body water content.

Research suggests that individuals can become dehydrated if they lose just 2% of their total body weight due to water depletion. This can cause a range of adverse effects and symptoms, including:

  • Inability to focus on tasks
  • Light-headedness
  • Dizzy spells
  • Headaches
  • Thirst
  • Dry tongue or mouth
  • Muscle weakness
  • Tiredness
  • Feelings of lethargy
  • Dry skin

Dry lips and dark color lips caused by dehydration. Image Credit: FlyingFlokerr / Shutterstock

It is recommended that individuals consume between 1.2 -1.5 liters the equivalent to six to eight glasses of water per day for those living in average climates. This water intake can be in the form of liquid water as well as through food consumption, so diet composition affects how much drinking water must be consumed each day. Also, water present in other beverages (such as milk) contributes toward the total water intake needed for a day. However, beverages containing alcohol should not be counted toward this total, as alcohol can actually increase water loss.

For those living in hotter climates, or a quite active, water intake may need to be increased to account for water lost as sweat. If an adequate amount of water isn’t consumed, even mild dehydration can cause a range of health consequences.

The Effects on The Brain

Thirst sensation can be triggered if the body loses between 1-2% of its total water content. As a result, this can lead to deficits in cognitive function which may be of particular concern for those in hot climates as well as the elderly and the very young.

Specifically, mild dehydration has been found to affect short-term memory, alertness and concentration, and subsequently impair performance on tasks such as visual-motor tracking, perceptual discrimination, arithmetic ability and psychomotor skills. However, these effects are thought to be short-lived and are thought to be able to be reversed by the consumption of fluids.

Further studies suggest that cases of mild dehydration can alter the visual vigilance and visual working memory response latency of men. However, when comparing performance of men and women on the same tasks, key aspects of cognitive performance in women are not substantially altered. This disparity in results, may been that sex differences may need further research.

Effects on Mood

Alongside experiencing cognitive deficits, research has highlighted that those with mild dehydration are also more susceptible to experience mood alterations.

A particular study has shown that adults under conditions of mild dehydration reported significantly higher self-reported scores of fatigue, anger and confusion.

Effects on Energy Levels

As well as deficits in cognitive performance, mild dehydration has also been found to severely impair physical performance. Individuals with mild dehydrating undergoing demanding physical activity, have been found to experience a decrease in performance due to increased fatigue, reduced motivation and endurance.

Furthermore, mild cases of dehydration are thought to adversely affect physical performance due to an increase in body temperature, which causes an increase in the perceived effort need to complete the task and can ultimately make it harder to performance in general.

Additionally, as a consequence of dehydration decrease stroke volume and increase heart rate can occur, resulting in an increase in the heart’s work to maintain homeostasis.

Effects on Gastrointestinal Function

Fluids are typically absorbed in the proximal small intestine. Research has found that fluid intake is closely linked to the likelihood of developing bouts of constipation.

One study found that fluid intake restriction resulted in reduced frequency and weight of stools  and an increased tendency to develop constipation. However, like most symptoms, gastrointestinal function seemed to improve following an increase in water consumption.

Mild dehydration can have a range of adverse health effects that can impair both cognitive and physical function. Most importantly, most of the effects can be reversed by increasing water intake.


  • Liska D., Mah E., Brisbois T., et al. (2019). Narrative Review of Hydration and Selected Health Outcomes in the General Population. Nutrients. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010070
  • Popkin B. M., D’Anci K. E., & Rosenberg I. H. (2010). Water, Hydration and Health. Nutrition Reviews. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00304.x
  • Benton D. (2011). Dehydration Influences Mood and Cognition: A Plausible Hypothesis? Nutrients. DOI: 10.3390/nu3050555
  • Zhang J., Zhang N., Du S., et al. (2018). The Effects of Hydration Status on Cognitive Performances among Young Adults in Hebei, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph25071477
  • Hodges M. (2012). The Effects of Dehydration on Cognitive Functioning, Mood and Physical Performance. The Corinthian. https://kb.gcsu.edu/thecorinthian/vol13/iss1/2
  • Stookey J D., & Konig J. (2018). Describing water intake in six countries: results of Liq.In7 surveys, 2015-2018. European Journal of Nutrition. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1746-6
  • Shaheen N. A., Alqahtani A. A., Assiri H., et al. (2018). Public knowledge of dehydration and fluid intake practices: variation by participants’ characteristics. BMC Public Health. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6252-5

Further Reading

Dehydration – familydoctor.org

Path to improved health

Your body is made up of 55%-60% water. You need to drink a lot so it can carry out its normal functions. The average adult needs about 3 quarts of water every day. When you don’t get enough water because of illness or for other reasons, you may start to experience dehydration.


Common causes of dehydration in healthy adults include:

  • sweating too much (especially in hot weather)
  • fever
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea


Symptoms of dehydration depend on your age and how badly dehydrated you are.

Signs of dehydration in babies or young children include:

  • dry mouth and tongue
  • crying without tears
  • no wet diapers for 3 hours or more
  • high fever
  • sunken eyes
  • being unusually drowsy or sleepy

Signs of mild to moderate dehydration in adults include:

  • feeling thirsty
  • dry or sticky mouth
  • dry skin
  • not urinating much
  • darker yellow urine
  • headache
  • muscle cramps

Signs of moderate to severe dehydration include:

  • dizziness or light-headedness
  • irritability or confusion
  • rapid heartbeat
  • rapid breathing
  • listlessness
  • delirium
  • fainting or unconsciousness


Mild to moderate dehydration can usually be treated at home. Here are things you can do to feel better.

  • Sip water.
  • Suck on ice cubes or ice pops.
  • Slowly drink a sports drink that contains electrolytes.
  • Don’t drink anything with caffeine, including coffee, tea, or colas. Caffeine may cause you to urinate more.

Moderate to severe dehydration needs medical attention. Go to an emergency room or call 911. Untreated severe dehydration can cause seizures, permanent brain damage, and even death.

Call your family doctor if you’re not sure if your symptoms are serious enough to go to the hospital.


In general, adults can prevent dehydration just by drinking when they are thirsty. Eating foods high in water content, such as fruits and vegetables, also helps.

Know the causes of dehydration. Drink more fluids when you need to, including when:

  • The weather is hot, especially if you’ll be outside.
  • You are exercising or sweating a lot.
  • You have a fever, diarrhea, or are vomiting.

Don’t wait for signs of dehydration to start drinking more. Plan ahead and always make sure you have access to plenty of water.

Dehydration: 9 symptoms to be aware of

As temperatures soar across the country, it’s a good time to take stock of your hydration habits.

Drinking enough water is important regardless of the season, but we tend to sweat more in hot weather, making it especially important that we refill that water bottle.

Heat can sometimes be very subtle in how it affects the body. If you’re out in the sun, it can take just 30 minutes or up to a few hours for the heat to cause dehydration, nausea or trouble concentrating, said Dr. Corey Slovis, professor of emergency medicine and internal medicine at Vanderbilt Medical Center.


Dehydration is a serious health concern. A study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that more than half of all children and adolescents in the U.S. aren’t getting enough water.

“People don’t realize the amount of fluid they can lose in the heat, or while exercising,” explained Michael F. Bergeron, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Youth Sports of the Americas. “And it’s important to note that your hydration needs are very individual.”

This health issue is more serious than you might think and could land you in the hospital.

Heatstroke occurs when the body temperature gets above 105 degrees. “One of the earliest signs of a heat-related illness is just not feeling right,” said Slovis. “There’s no one specific symptom.”

How much liquid do we need each day? And how can you tell if you’re dehydrated? Here are a few signs and symptoms that you might be dehydrated and tips to stay healthy all summer long.

1. Increased thirst and a dry or sticky mouth

“If you feel thirsty, you’re already dehydrated,” explained Dr. Laura Goldberg, pediatric sports medicine specialist in the Division of Sports Medicine at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The easiest remedy is to start drinking water (and beverages with electrolytes) as soon as you notice this, but try not to let yourself get to this point.

The best way to prevent this from happening is to meet your daily hydration needs, for women, the National Academy of Sciences recommends 2.7 liters of water a day (about 11.4 cups), and for men, 3.7 liters (15 cups). Try to drink more water if you’ve spent excessive time in the sun, or exercising.

2. Signs of fatigue, confusion or anger

Studies have found that mild levels of dehydration can affect your mood and cognitive functions. This is especially common in the young or elderly, who may seem less alert, or forgetful.

A study from the University of Connecticut’s Human Performance Laboratory found that even mild dehydration can alter a person’s mood, energy and ability to think clearly. The researchers defined mild dehydration as an approximately 1.5% loss in normal water volume in the body — and the adverse reaction is the same whether you’re exercising or sitting still.


3. Dry eyes or blurred vision

“When you’ve been exercising for a long time, you’re sweating and your overall body fluid goes down — this can result in dry eyes or blurred vision,” said Goldberg, who also noted that any part of the body that is normally moist is going to feel dry or irritated.

“Monitor your hydration levels and make sure you’re drinking throughout any form of exercise,” she explained further.

4. Headaches or disorientation

Dehydration can result in a headache or migraine, light headedness or delirium. “I’ve seen marathon runners running in zigzags because they’re dehydrated. You can’t make decisions and feel delirious,” elaborated Goldberg.

“You may also experience weakness, dizziness or nausea, because the body doesn’t have enough fluid to send to other parts of the body. This could also result in heat exhaustion. You can collapse if you don’t stop exercising and cool down,” warned Bergeron, who also added that these specific symptoms can also be signs of over hydration, so be aware of how much you’re drinking.


5. Muscle cramps

“If you’ve been exercising, it’s natural for your legs to feel tired, but if it’s more than that and you’re experiencing muscle cramping, that’s a serious sign of dehydration,” Goldberg explained. This is because of the loss of water and salt in the body — you also might experience tightness in your muscles, instead of cramping.

“Wandering and progressively widespread muscle cramping is a certain clue of a sodium deficit and dehydration in the fluid spaces surrounding certain muscles,” Bergeron elaborated. “But don’t confuse it with an overworked muscle which would just affect a small area.”

To prevent this from occurring, it’s important to drink sports beverages that contain sodium, or snack on salted pretzels or low-fat cheeses. The sodium helps your body to re-hydrate and retain the water.

6. Lack of sweat

According to Goldberg, this is one of the more serious symptoms to look out for and a sign of severe dehydration. It means your body is in dire need of water. Though, on the other hand, Bergeron notes that more likely it may be a sign of overheating or heatstroke — though either can occur in the presence of continued sweating. Either way, it’s crucial to cool down rapidly if you’re not sweating anymore.


7. Dark urine

“Straw-colored or light yellow urine means you’re properly hydrated. If your urine is dark, or if there’s blood in your pee, you need to stop exercising immediately,” warned Goldberg. Notably, perfectly clear urine may mean that you are over-hydrated.

8. Fever

“Dehydration can lead to hyperthermia and a fever-like symptoms (e.g. chills) because over-heating can alter your body’s normal temperature ‘set point,’” explained Goldberg. Excessive overheating is an urgent red flag. Stop exercising immediately, take an ice bath and hydrate.

9. Shriveled and dry skin

If your skin is hydrated, it will appear doughy. If you’re dehydrated, your skin will lack elasticity and won’t bounce back. “If you pinch your skin and it appears thin and doesn’t melt back onto your body quickly, you’re dehydrated,” said Goldberg.

Some key things to remember when exercising in the summer is that the longer you’re working out, the more water you need. Also, plain water is good for you, but a combination of water, electrolytes and sodium is really the best way to stay hydrated.

It’s also crucial to understand that hydrating properly isn’t 100% preventative, if you’re working too hard and too long in the summer heat, you can still overheat no matter how much water you’re drinking. So be aware of your body, and stop what you’re doing if you notice any of these symptoms.


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90,000 Edema syndrome / edema and selection of an adequate water regimen

The average amount of liquid that should be consumed is 30–35 ml per 1 kg of body weight per day.

Excess fluid in the body and dehydration are equally dangerous.

Edema syndrome is a pathology caused by the accumulation of excess fluid in the tissues of the body and internal cavities.
In this case, the edematous tissues increase in volume, and the serous cavities decrease in size.The functions of the affected tissues change, their turgor and elasticity are impaired.
Edema is a symptom of a number of serious somatic diseases: glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, thrombosis and varicose veins, cirrhosis and hepatosis, angina pectoris and cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism and obesity, oncopathologies. Edema develops during pregnancy, exhaustion, prolonged use of certain medications, and allergic reactions. Edema syndrome occurs in children and adults, in men and women.
Mild edema in healthy people may appear by the end of the day and disappear on their own after a good rest.

Causes of edema:

  • Diseases of internal organs – heart, kidneys, liver.
  • Allergic reactions – Quincke’s edema.
  • Endocrinopathies – myxedema, cushingoid.
  • Vascular disorders – disorders of venous outflow and lymph flow with varicose veins and lymphadenitis.
  • Long-term use of certain medications – hormonal drugs, NSAIDs, antihypertensive drugs.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Cachexia.
  • Severe intoxication.
  • Paresis, paralysis, hemiplegia.
  • Traumatic injuries.

Factors contributing to fluid retention in the body include: hyperthermia, overwork, hormonal imbalance, excessive salt intake.

Symptoms of local edema syndrome:

  • thickening and reshaping of the organ,
  • smoothness of body contours,
  • doughy consistency of subcutaneous fat,
  • skin swelling and loss of elasticity,
  • quickly disappearing pits on the skin on palpation,
  • pallor or cyanosis,
  • stretched and shiny leather,
  • microcracks through which edematous fluid is released,
  • the formation of ulcers on the hyperemic skin.


  • Electrophoretic separation of plasma proteins,
  • determination of triglycerides, amylase, glucose, bilirubin in blood,
  • presence of atypical cells in biopsy,
  • determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone in blood serum using RIA,
  • electrocardiography,
  • dopplerography of veins,
  • venography,
  • lymphography.


  • Treatment is aimed at eliminating the causes of the development of edema, and should be comprehensive.
  • In case of cardiac pathology, consultation of a cardiologist, kidney – nephrologist, liver – a therapist or gastroenterologist is required.
  • Effective treatment of the underlying disease will not only allow to get rid of edema syndrome and other clinical signs, but also improve the general well-being of patients.
  • An important rule in the treatment of edematous syndrome is the observance of proper nutrition. You should reduce the amount of liquid you drink and sharply limit the use of salty foods.The diet should consist of easily digestible, low-calorie food, which should be consumed in small portions 5-6 times a day.

Dehydration, or dehydration, is a life-threatening, abnormal condition in the body in which the overall fluid level drops to critical levels.

Reasons for dehydration

  • uncontrolled intake of laxatives, diuretics;
  • hypertension;
  • chronic heart failure;
  • chronic renal failure;
  • stress;
  • overheating of the body, heatstroke;
  • sports training.


  • it is necessary to increase fluid intake and do not forget to take it on time;
  • Drink only water, preferably at room temperature, refrain from coffee, tea and sugary carbonated drinks;
  • In severe stages, you need to eat foods rich in carbohydrates.

90,000 6 symptoms you need to know about

The days are getting hotter and the jogging is getting more intense. Have you already had time to warm your head in the sun? Do not rush to spend all your free time in training in the heat: a long run without drinking threatens the body with dehydration. To avoid this trouble, it is best to know the first signs of a lack of water in the body. The article collected 6 symptoms of dehydration and 1 life hack on how to calculate the amount of water you need, as well as 1 table with drinking norms for people with different weights and lifestyles. Do you want some water? Then we are saturated with moisture in the process of reading the article.

Like running, drinking plenty of fluids is one of those things that should become our healthy habit.Everything seems to be very simple, but it is better to understand well why one should not forget about the importance of water.

Each of us needs a different amount of water depending on physiology and even the time of year and day in which we run. If you do not pay attention to the first signs of a lack of water in the body, then you will have to face unpleasant things: decreased performance, a feeling of fatigue and, as a result, poor-quality training.

By the time we feel thirsty, the body is already dehydrated – which means that it has lost approximately 1-2% of its water.If 20-25% of the fluid leaves the body, then the risk of death will become maximum. But we’re not going to push ourselves to extremes, right?

At the same time, you should not be zealous with drinking if you exercise less than an hour in time. Overhydration, or excess water in the body, leads to a violation of the water-salt balance, swelling of the face and legs, muscle weakness and headache.

The most unpleasant news is that chronic dehydration can occur imperceptibly for a person. The European Journal of Sport Science study shows that 91 percent of professional basketball, volleyball and soccer players train in a state of constant water shortage.

How to identify the symptoms of dehydration? Here are the main ones.

1. You have a headache
Dehydration causes cells in the brain to shrink, so headache is the main symptom of dehydration. For this reason, a dull headache occurs after long and hard training on hot days or after drinking too much fluids after a competition.

2. Your reaction slowed down
Dehydration greatly affects concentration and coordination of movements.Doctors associate this with the very shrinking brain cells that cause headaches.

3. Your urine has darkened (sorry for the details)
When the body is dehydrated, the kidneys try to return all waste products back to the body. As a result, the urine becomes darker and its volume is greatly reduced.

4. You find it unexpectedly difficult to run
That said, your usual pace can suddenly feel like a challenge.The loss of fluid changes the concentration of the blood volume, so the heart needs to work harder to provide the muscles with oxygen and nutrients. The heart rate will increase by 10-15 beats, which can be reported by your fitness tracker. If not, check your watch more often and listen to your condition.

5. You have cramps and dry mouth
Dry mouth is a sign that the body has lost about 1% of its water. Lack of fluid changes the concentration of sodium and potassium in the body, which are responsible for muscle contraction.At the first sensations of cramps, take a sip of water and slow down a little.

6. You are tired. No, you are very tired!
Even mild dehydration can make you want to take a nap. As the internal temperature rises, it can affect the brain and cause fatigue. The load on the cardiovascular system also increases, which will be signaled by a rapid heart rate. Failure to make up for the lack of water will reduce the heart’s ability to deliver oxygen – which, you guessed it, makes us feel tired.

To avoid the unpleasant symptoms listed above, it is better to know in advance how much water your body needs to work without interruption.

How to determine the volume of water you need?

  • Weigh yourself without clothes before running. Then run at your usual pace for an hour and track how much you drink while running.
  • After your run, undress again and measure your weight. Calculate the difference between the two.Add to this the amount of liquid you drink. For example, if your weight has decreased by half a kilogram, and before that you drank half a liter of water, the total fluid loss will be approximately 1 liter.
  • To determine how much you should drink every 15 minutes, divide your hourly fluid loss by 4. Since the test only measures water loss for the conditions in which you exercise on that particular day, repeat the test on a hotter, cooler day or days of speed training.

So how much fluid should you consume per day?

Scientists from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States have found that on average women should consume 2.7 liters and 3.7 liters for men per day. At the same time, 40% of the liquid comes to us with food, which means that an adult needs to drink on average 1. 5-2 liters of water per day.
The table will help you understand how many liters of water a person needs per day, taking into account body weight and level of physical activity:

Weight (kg) Low physical activity Average physical activity High physical activity
50 1.1 1.3 1.8
60 1.3 1.5 2.1
70 1.5 1.8 2.4
80 1.8 2.1 2.7
90 2.1 2.4 3.0
100 2.3 2.7 3. 3

What to do at the first sign of dehydration?

For mild symptoms, drink water and snacks with sodium (i.e.That is, salty) – this will help the body retain fluid. Drink the water in small sips instead of large ones, as too much water can overload the stomach and cause nausea.

If water and salty snacks aren’t enough to get you back to normal, try an electrolyte sports drink. Electrolytes are minerals in body fluids and if you sweat a lot, you will need to replenish them as well.

And finally, simple truths for the runner: don’t forget to cover your head from the sun, take a sports bottle with you, use sunscreen and listen to your well-being.

Run on health!

Photo: runireland. com, upgradedpoints. com, swj. com, runneresworld. com

What else to read on the topic:

How to identify and avoid the 9 most common running-related foot injuries

What is taping and how does it work?

Physician-rehabilitation, Ironman and ultra-marathon runner Igor Manzhos about injuries and overtraining

90,000 Dehydration in a dog: causes, symptoms, treatment

Contents of article

Water is the most important element for maintaining the vital activity of the body, the task of which is to deliver nutrients, oxygen and vitamins to organs and systems. Lack of water leads to dehydration – dehydration. This phenomenon is often not perceived as a severe deviation from the norm, meanwhile it is very dangerous and in some cases can be fatal.

Causes of dehydration in dogs

Like any living creature, a dog is capable of being thirsty, which means excessive consumption of fluid. The body of a pet will never be oversaturated with water and will always experience a slight deficiency of it. If the process of moisture release is continuous and the water consumption is not replenished, dehydration sets in.

Dehydration can occur in any dog, regardless of age, sex and breed, however, according to the observations of veterinarians, the risk group includes decorative dogs, animals living in regions with a hot climate, individuals suffering from chronic diseases that are accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting and lack of appetite.

Factors provoking a lack of fluid in the body are:

  • thermal, sunstroke, overheating;
  • skin burns;
  • attacks of vomiting, diarrhea;
  • hematomas, trauma, internal hemorrhage and bleeding;
  • chronic diseases;
  • metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus;
  • renal failure;
  • The predominance of dry food in the diet and insufficient fluid intake;
  • refusal of food and water for more than a day.

Dehydration often occurs in dogs during pregnancy and childbirth, so the owner must provide his pet, whose body is weakened, a sufficient amount of fluids, such as sweet tea, warm milk with honey and just water.

How to identify dehydration

There are three types of dehydration – mild, in which the dog loses 5% of the liquid, medium (10%) and acute (more than 10%). The first stage passes almost imperceptibly, at most, the animal may experience slight weakness.The most severe and dangerous is acute dehydration.

When there is a lack of fluid, the blood thickens and fills the vessels and capillaries, in connection with which the mucous membranes starve, therefore, excessive dryness of the gums is a characteristic sign of dehydration. To make sure that the dog is dehydrated, you can use a simple manipulation – pressing your finger on the gum.

If the tissue is fallen, pale, pigmented and does not recover after 2-3 minutes, then the degree of dehydration is at least 10%. It is necessary to urgently take action, otherwise, after 10-24 hours, irreversible changes will occur in the dog’s body.

Another way to make sure your dog is dehydrated is to pull the skin at the withers. If the four-legged pet is not obese, the skin will instantly return to its previous position.

Other signs of dehydration include:

  • Thick, sticky, saliva flowing profusely;
  • dry, coarse skin that has lost elasticity;
  • the wool loses its shine, strays into lumps;
  • attacks of vomiting;
  • 90,014 diarrhea;

  • weak, slow pulse;
  • lack of appetite, weight loss;
  • sunken cloudy eyes and a changed shade of the eyeballs;
  • cold extremities;
  • shortness of breath;
  • collapse.

The behavior of the dog also changes. She becomes lethargic, inactive, refuses to walk and prefers to lie down.

What to do if a dog is dehydrated

First aid for dehydration is easy to provide, as long as it is timely. The dog should be placed in a cool place and offered to drink. The animal may refuse to drink, so it needs to be persuaded, hand-fed. If attempts are still unsuccessful, it is advisable to use a syringe without a needle and force water into the mouth.

Even if a pet starts drinking, this does not mean that its water balance is restored. For this, the body will take time. To speed up the process, the dog is injected with saline, if possible with added glucose. The dose is calculated based on the weight of the animal. For example, a dog weighing 5-7 kg is injected with 5 cubes (1 injection).

Preparations that retain moisture in the body should be given only if the dog does not have kidney pathologies.

The animal must be shown to the veterinarian, as the consequences of dehydration can manifest themselves after a while.It is possible that the dog will need to be left in the clinic for a while in order to use infusion therapy to fully restore water balance.

Prevention of dehydration in dogs

Any phenomenon, including dehydration, can be prevented, it is enough to adhere to simple rules:

  1. Provide your pet with free access to fresh water. You need to change it daily, and wash the bowl so that it does not become a breeding ground for bacteria.
  2. Keep track of how much water your dog is consuming during the day. The norm is 30 ml per 1 kg of body weight. If the four-legged pet refuses to drink or uses less water than it should, consult your veterinarian.
  3. The water bowl must have a heavy bottom so that the dog cannot tip it over.
  4. Always close the toilet door tightly. Thirsty, the dog can drink from the toilet, and this is fraught with intestinal infections.

If you notice that your dog is drinking less, examine his mouth.Perhaps there are wounds, injuries, splinters in the oral cavity that cause discomfort and make it difficult to consume food and water.

Interesting topics

90,000 Main Symptoms of Rotavirus Enteritis – Patient Information

Chronic enteritis in adults – clinical symptoms, treatment

Enteritis – inflammation (acute or chronic) of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, characterized by dystrophic changes in the membrane and dysfunction of the organ.Signs of acute enteritis in children: loose stools, bouts of nausea, rumbling in the abdomen, fever, dry skin, headache. The causes of this condition can be viruses, bacteria, toxic substances, an allergic reaction to food or drugs.

Causes of chronic enteritis in adults:

  • autoimmune diseases;
  • giardiasis;
  • intoxication with chemical, toxic substances;
  • overeating fatty foods;
  • heredity;
  • chronic gastrointestinal diseases;
  • long-term medication intake;
  • bowel operations.

Predisposing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, abdominal trauma, circulatory disorders, adhesions.

Classification of the disease, intestinal infectious enteritis

Depending on the course, an acute and chronic form is distinguished. According to the mechanism of development, enteritis can be primary and secondary. By severity – mild, moderate, severe without complications and severe with complications.

Infectious intestinal enteritis. The disease occurs as a result of the development of pathogens in the intestines.The disease is usually acute. Symptoms of rotavirus enteritis are loose stools up to 10 times a day, cramping pain in the navel, white plaque on the tongue, bloating, weakness, signs of dehydration. For infectious enteritis, tachycardia, a decrease in blood pressure, and increased respiration are characteristic.

On our website Dobrobut com you can sign up for a consultation with the right specialist. The doctor will answer questions and tell you about the enteritis virus vaccine.

Symptoms of the disease

The manifestations of enteritis depend on the form of the disease and the cause that caused it.Doctors divide clinical manifestations into intestinal and extraintestinal. The latter include general weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, dry skin, brittle hair, grayish skin, thinning nails.

Intestinal symptoms:

  • increased gassing;
  • rumbling in the stomach;
  • diarrhea alternating with constipation;
  • aching pain in the right iliac region;
  • unpleasant taste in the mouth.

Diagnostics of the disease enteritis

Diagnostics begins with examination of the patient and collection of anamnesis. As an additional examination, the doctor will prescribe a general blood test, biochemistry, coprogram, feces for virological examination, X-ray using a contrast agent, ultrasound examination of the liver and pancreas, endoscopy. Diagnosis of enteritis disease should be comprehensive. It is extremely important to differentiate pathology from thyrotoxicosis, ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Treatment of enteritis

Therapy is carried out in two directions: elimination of the root cause and treatment of symptoms.

Drug treatment:

  • enzymes;
  • antibiotics;
  • sorbing, fixing preparations;
  • vitamins;
  • probiotics.

Diet is very important in the treatment of enteritis. Doctors recommend eliminating smoked meats, milk, fatty meat and fish, fresh baked goods, and semi-finished products.Alcohol and smoking are prohibited. The basis of the menu for enteritis is mashed soups, porridge on the water, steam cutlets, boiled lean meat, stewed vegetables. If the doctor’s recommendations are followed, acute symptoms disappear within 3-4 days, and complete recovery occurs after one and a half to two weeks.

A good addition to drug treatment will be recipes for traditional medicine, which can be used after consulting a doctor.

At a personal appointment at our medical center, you can learn how to treat viral enteritis in humans and avoid complications such as vascular insufficiency, intestinal ulceration, perforation, intestinal bleeding, intestinal necrosis.

Prevention and prognosis

Mild and moderate enteritis with timely diagnosis and qualified treatment ends with a complete cure without any consequences. The prognosis for a severe form is ambiguous.

Chronic enteritis tends to progress. Without proper treatment, the disease can lead to serious consequences (bowel necrosis, organ perforation and ulceration).

Disease prevention is quite simple and consists of:

  • careful processing of all products;
  • personal hygiene;
  • rational nutrition;
  • timely treatment of chronic diseases;
  • 90,014 medical examinations every six months.

Related services:

Gastroenterologist’s consultation

INVAR Kids – Dehydration in a child: causes and symptoms

When the balance in the body is disturbed, health problems arise. One of the manifestations of a dangerous imbalance is dehydration – a pathological condition when the water level in the body is below normal.

And if the need to treat symptoms such as pain or cough is clear to parents, then the word “dehydration” raises questions.

Is dehydration a disease?

Dehydration is not an independent disease. This is one of the manifestations of any pathology. Under normal conditions, there is a balance between fluid intake and excretion. The amount of fluid is regulated by the work of the kidneys, skin, respiratory system and intestines.Dehydration can occur in two main situations:

  • Insufficient water supply;
  • Excessive fluid loss.

Liquid deficiency can occur not only in emergency situations when there is no access to its source. Surely, everyone will remember a couple of films where the heroes suffered from dehydration, finding themselves in the desert, in the sea after a shipwreck or in a confined space.Such situations are rare in ordinary life. However, insufficient fluid intake still occurs. For example, in hot weather, at temperatures, in case of unsatisfactory child care or when the baby refuses to drink.

What are the causes of dehydration?

Fluid loss is much more common as a cause of dehydration. This happens for various reasons.

  • Most often, fluid is lost with vomit or loose stools.Therefore, all diseases accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, or both at the same time, can lead to dehydration.
  • Another cause of excess fluid loss is high fever with fever. When the body temperature rises (fever), the liquid evaporates more intensively. In addition, each division on the thermometer in excess of the norm increases the metabolism by about ten percent. This means that the child is actively losing fluid when breathing.
  • Temperature reduction with antipyretics is accompanied by perspiration, which also leads to increased fluid loss.
  • Excessive sweating, even in the absence of fever, can lead to an imbalance in water and electrolyte balance, therefore, parents should be careful when the child is highly active, especially in hot weather.
  • Excessive urination due to kidney disease or other causes can also lead to a lack of fluid in the body.

What diseases lead to dehydration in a child?

All diseases in which there is loose stools, vomiting, frequent and profuse urination, fever, can lead to dehydration.The risk is especially high if you have several symptoms at the same time.

What kind of diseases are they? In the first place – intestinal infections and SARS. Children are more likely than adults to suffer from acute respiratory infections, and fever is one of the main symptoms. Even if the child is worried about nasal congestion and sore throat, but there is a fever, then the likelihood of dehydration is present.

Among the causative agents of ARVI, viruses that infect the digestive tract are especially dangerous.These are rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus and a number of others. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines is accompanied by both vomiting and diarrhea. This means that the likelihood of dehydration is even higher.

Acute infectious gastroenteritis and enterocolitis can be caused not only by viruses, but also by bacteria. E. coli, salmonella and other disease-causing bacteria and protozoa present in poorly washed, undercooked food or contaminated water can cause vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and subsequent dehydration.

There are also so-called non-infectious gastroenteritis. For example, allergies, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, poisoning.

Various acute inflammatory processes, accompanied by fever and intoxication, can lead to disruption of the water and electrolyte balance. We are talking about pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, pyelonephritis and other diseases.

Why are children at risk for dehydration?

Children are more likely to develop fluid deficiency than adults.There are several explanations for this.

In childhood, the immune system has not yet fully matured, which means that it does not work effectively enough. Children are in contact with a large number of people – in kindergarten, in transport, on the playground and matinees. And the rules of hygiene are not always carefully observed by children. Consequently, the likelihood of “catching an infection” in children is especially high. Namely, a viral infection is most often accompanied by dehydration.

Therefore, in general, the need for water in childhood is higher.

The area of ​​skin in relation to weight in children is larger than in adults. Skin respiration is also more intense. This means that by sweating, a child loses more water than an adult.

Finally, young children are often unable to tell about their thirst or satisfy their need for fluids on their own.

What is the danger of dehydration in a child?

Water deficiency leads to thickening of the blood and impairment of its circulation throughout the body.The delivery of nutrients to all organs is disrupted. Excretion of toxins worsens, they accumulate in the body. All types of metabolism suffer.

During dehydration, not only water is lost, but also salts dissolved in it. Sodium, potassium, chlorine are especially important. A decrease in the concentration of minerals in the blood impairs the functioning of internal organs, especially the heart and brain. This can be manifested by disturbances in the rhythm of the heart, loss of consciousness, convulsions.

In the most severe cases, there is a danger to the life of the child.

How to tell if a child is dehydrated?

Parents should be alert if a child complains of dry mouth all the time and asks for a drink. However, this is not bad, because this is how the body itself tries to cope with the lack of water. But a child under one year old cannot complain of thirst, so parents should focus on other symptoms. For example, a sign of dehydration is the retraction of the large fontanelle – the soft membrane at the junction of the skull bones at the crown of the child.

A child of any age with dehydration can become apathetic, weak, drowsy. The opposite can also be observed – the child is excited, capricious. The dryness of the lips and tongue is noteworthy. Due to a lack of fluid, tears may be absent when crying. The voice becomes low, hoarse, or even absent.

Urination becomes less frequent. Be vigilant: the absence of urination for 4-6 hours in conditions accompanied by loss of fluid makes you think about dehydration.A single portion of urine also decreases, and its color becomes dark, a pungent odor appears.

The elasticity of the skin decreases. If you collect the skin in a fold, and then release it, then due to dryness it will not straighten out immediately. At the same time, they speak of a reduced turgor (elasticity) of the skin.

In severe cases, eyeballs sink in, facial features sharpen. Consciousness can be confused, and speech – slurred, sometimes convulsions develop. Due to problems with blood circulation, the skin can be pale or even bluish.

Dehydration leads to weight loss in the child. Moreover, the severity of the situation can be judged by the degree of weight loss.

Is any dehydration equally dangerous?

There are three degrees of dehydration.

Light – characterized by a fluid deficit of three to five percent of body weight. Symptoms such as dryness and color of the skin and mucous membranes, skin turgor change slightly.

Medium – six to nine percent fluid deficit.The symptoms of dehydration get worse and more severe.

Severe – fluid deficiency of more than ten percent of body weight. The skin is cold, pale, or marbled, there is little or no urination, and all symptoms are marked.

Of course, only a specialist can determine the severity of the condition, he will also prescribe

Optimal treatment corresponding to the degree of dehydration.

What to do if a child is dehydrated?

The basic principle of the treatment of dehydration is the replenishment of fluids and salts.

If the child is very small and breastfed, the pediatrician may recommend increasing the frequency of breastfeeding up to 8-10 times a day. In most cases, consuming milk frequently, albeit in smaller portions, will help stabilize fluid levels in the body. In severe cases, additional fluid administration may be required. Remember that if you suspect dehydration in an infant, you need to see a doctor urgently, and you need to correct dehydration in babies only under the supervision or as recommended by a doctor!

Eliminate “heavy” food from the child’s diet – fatty, fried, baked.These products are undesirable for a healthy child, but they are especially dangerous during the period of illness.

To combat dehydration, it is better to use special solutions that contain important electrolytes. Do not insist that the child drinks a large amount of fluids at one time. Excessive stretching of the stomach in this case can provoke vomiting, and dehydration will only worsen.

It is especially convenient to give your baby a lot of liquid when drinking from a bottle with a teat.Let him drink a little, 30-50 ml, but often. You can use a teaspoon, syringe, or straw. If fluid loss continues, strive for the volume of fluid drunk per day to approach 100 ml per 1 kg of the child’s weight.

Dehydration can very quickly lead to serious consequences, therefore, if you stop vomiting or diarrhea and replenish fluid levels, you should immediately consult a doctor and, if necessary, call an ambulance.

What kind of drink should you offer your child?

Of course, if you have nothing at hand, you will have to use ordinary boiled or purified water, tea, compote. However, this is undesirable. Indeed, with dehydration, the body loses not only water, but also extremely necessary minerals – potassium, sodium, chlorine.

The presence of glucose in such solutions is desirable. It gives the child strength, facilitates the intake of minerals into the body and normalizes the metabolism.You can find many recipes for the self-production of medicinal solutions at home, but it should be understood that the amount of minerals in such solutions is unlikely to correspond to the norm, so trust only the doctor’s recommendations and proven remedies.

Optimal are special solutions containing all the necessary components at once. But there is one big “but”: often these solutions have a specific taste, and it can be extremely difficult to convince children to drink the required amount of liquid.

Is there a tasty cure for dehydration?

If your child is over three years old, then the way out of the situation can be the INVAR KIDS children’s rehydration product, developed in Switzerland. The soft orange taste of the drink will please the child and will save you from persuading you to take a few sips “for mom and dad.” The product contains everything you need and nothing more: glucose, potassium, sodium, citrate and chloride. The amount of electrolytes is in accordance with the WHO recommendations for children.Release form – sachet. All you need to do is dilute the contents of the sachet in a glass of water. An additional bonus from the manufacturer is a cute packaging design that will undoubtedly appeal to the child and remember

When there is not enough water. How to Know When You Are Getting Dehydrated | Nutrition and diet | Kitchen

The issue of sufficient fluid intake and, in particular, ordinary water is important all year round. But it acquires particular importance in the summer, when the body tries to cool down and consumes much more fluid than in cool seasons.About how much to drink in the summer and what exactly – we wrote in detail >>>

But very often we do not pay attention to how much we drink, we do not count the number of glasses of drinking water per day, and suddenly we find that the head, for example, began to hurt more than usual, that by the end of the day our legs are very swollen. And we wonder – what is the reason? And these are the first signs of dehydration.

Angelica Mikhailova, Clinical Nutrition Specialist, told how to understand that your body lacks fluid:

We are 60-70% water, and blood 92%.Therefore, maintaining water balance is vital for the normal functioning of the body.

Water flushes toxins from the body, helps to assimilate nutrients from food, improves skin elasticity, lubricates joints, keeps the tissues of the ear, throat, nose moist, softens vital organs, reduces blood viscosity.

On average, an adult loses about 10 glasses of water per day during breathing, urination, sweating, and bowel movements.

First symptoms

Have you noticed that edema can appear even in healthy people in the heat? The reason is, oddly enough, dehydration.

The body, trying to cool, retains water in the tissues. Plus, summer sweating contributes to the loss of precious fluids. As a result, the body stores water in the form of edema.

Other symptoms of dehydration: lethargy, decreased performance – we may not even notice at first. But then the pressure may rise, as the blood thickens, the load on the heart increases.

The work of the gastrointestinal tract is disrupted, because the production of gastric juice decreases.

Joint pain is also a characteristic sign of dehydration.

Dry mouth, headache, dizziness, dark circles under the eyes should be on the alert.

It is important to listen to the signals of the body. Often we think we are hungry, but in fact we are thirsty. Therefore, a good maneuver is to drink a glass of water if you are hungry. And if after 10-15 minutes the hunger has not passed, satisfy it with a clear conscience.Introduce the habit of drinking a glass of water before any meal to prevent dehydration and overeating.

A good guide to knowing if you are drinking enough water is the color and odor of your urine. If it is light straw in color and almost odorless, everything is in order. If the color is saturated, with a pungent odor, this is a sign of dehydration.

What to do?

First of all – to maintain and restore the water balance. And to do this, drink clean fresh water so that the body does not turn into a laboratory for the purification of the incoming fluid and does not spend additional resources on it.

Previously, the following recommendations were popular: at least 30 ml of pure water per kilogram of weight for a healthy person. This is an approximate figure, since the personal need for water depends on a particular person and environmental conditions. The rate of moisture consumption also changes depending on the weather and climate.

For example, in hot weather or if you live in a dry climate, you will need an additional 400-600 ml of water per day.

Breastfeeding mothers need to drink a glass of water before each feeding.

When exercising, add 200 ml for every 20 minutes of exercise.

If you are traveling by plane, you need to drink an extra glass of water for every hour of flight.

Promote dehydration

An important point: coffee and tea have a diuretic effect. Therefore, for each glass of coffee and tea, drink an additional glass of clean water. By the way, in Italy coffee is always served with a glass of water – this is no coincidence.

Alcohol also contributes to dehydration.In the heat, it is better to give up alcoholic beverages altogether.

Nutritional Advice

Immediately after waking up, drink 1-2 glasses, and then set the alarm for every hour marked “drink a glass of water”.

If you do not like pure water yet, feel free to add lemon slices, mint sprigs, any berries and fruits, cucumbers, raspberries, orange, lime.

These simple guidelines can help you stay hydrated, even in extreme heat and other situations.

We warn you that self-medication is unacceptable! In case of any health problems, it is necessary to consult a specialist.

90,000 Tumor intoxication – diagnosis, symptoms, causes and treatment at the Medskan clinic

Symptoms of cancer intoxication

The symptoms of tumor intoxication are characterized by a gradual manifestation. An exception is the development of tumor lysis syndrome after chemotherapy. The rapid growth of symptoms requires an immediate response, there is a risk of developing an acute stage of renal failure.

Typical symptoms of cancer intoxication:

  • Weakness and fatigue .Appear even with minor physical exertion. The patient spends most of the time in bed.
  • Increase in subfebrile temperature . The formation of a necrotic cavity and the disintegration of most of the tumor conglomerate (may be accompanied by an increase in temperature up to 400C).
  • Skin discoloration . At first it becomes pale, then an earthy tint appears. Pallor can be the cause of the development of anemia, as a result of disruption of the kidneys and the endocrine system.
  • Cardiac dysfunction . The rhythm of heart contractions changes, breathing quickens.
  • Damage to the nervous system . Night sleep is disturbed, daytime sleepiness appears with signs of depression. Periodic attacks of migraine and dizziness are characteristic.
  • Renal dysfunction . Metabolic products block the renal tubules, resulting in decreased urinary function. A high concentration of urea in the blood is manifested by itching and the formation of spots on the body that look like bruises.

Tumor intoxication is manifested by increased sweating and swelling. Constant feeling of nausea, does not go away even after vomiting. Liver function is impaired, which leads to a decrease in resistance to toxins and a change in blood viscosity.

Diagnostics and treatment of tumor intoxication

At the first stage of diagnostic measures, the patient is examined and the symptoms of cancer intoxication and the prognosis for life are assessed.Further, blood tests for biochemistry and additional instrumental studies are prescribed. An important role here is played by the determination of the main cause that led to the development of symptoms. If a picture of clinical manifestations characteristic of tumor intoxication is observed, a comprehensive study is prescribed.

The main diagnostic measures for cancer intoxication:

The research plan has an individual approach.To determine the severity of tumor intoxication in diagnosed cancer, a list of standard tests is used.

It is difficult to give an unambiguous definition of endogenous or cancer intoxication. This is due to the fact that intoxication in renal failure has a certain similarity with endotoxicosis. Many intermediate metabolites that have toxic effects have not yet been identified. A high level of oligopeptides is used as a nonspecific marker.Without careful research and correction of cancer intoxication, adequate treatment cannot be carried out, therefore, there can be no complete cure.

Cancer intoxication treatment

With the intensive growth of the tumor focus, signs of intoxication can be observed at earlier stages. Therefore, oncologists prescribe measures for the patient to prevent or alleviate intoxication syndrome. All known procedures (hemodialysis, extracorporeal hemosorption, etc.)) have an insufficient level of efficiency and short-term results.

To improve the performance of treatment for cancer intoxication, an integrated approach is used:

  • carbon fiber and granular enterosorbents;
  • extracorporeal hemosorption (with chemotherapy).

The result is short-lived but powerful.Enterosorption with granular or fibrous sorbents makes it possible to achieve a slow but significant decrease in the level of endotoxemia. When conducting numerous studies, it was possible to establish that enterosorbents, when taken orally, give a long-term and pronounced detoxifying effect. This is exactly what is needed for chronic cancer intoxication.

Therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating symptoms and restoring the functions of damaged organs and systems.Severe tumor intoxication involves the use of plasmapheresis or hemodialysis.

The main directions of treatment of patients with tumor intoxication:

  1. Vomiting symptoms are eliminated with antiemetics (metoclopramide, domperidone).
  2. For constipation, laxatives are prescribed (bisacodyl, macrogol).
  3. Sorbents are widely used, which have established themselves as a means for detoxification.They have the ability to bind toxins, and remove them from the body with feces.
  4. The body is detoxified by introducing a large amount of liquid, followed by its accelerated elimination.
  5. Patients with low hemoglobin levels are prescribed iron-containing drugs, in the form of droppers or injections (erythropoietin).
  6. In the presence of mental disorders, patients are prescribed sedatives, with depressive conditions – antidepressants and tranquilizers.

In accordance with the indicators of long-term practice, the majority of patients with endotoxicosis develop heart or renal failure. These pathologies in most cases are the cause of the sudden death of the patient. With the adoption of emergency oncological care, this outcome can be prevented. A treatment program aimed at eliminating severe symptoms can improve the patient’s condition, improve the quality and duration of life.The main way to improve the prognosis of life with cancer intoxication is to strengthen the early diagnosis of a malignant process through the implementation of preventive programs in health care practice (health train, oncopatrol, etc.).

The diet for cancer intoxication involves eating food in small portions. In this case, the intervals between meals should be small. The diet should include the most essential minerals and trace elements for life support.In no case should dehydration be allowed. The fluid is known to flush out toxins. If it is impossible to eat, it is administered parenterally. The daily diet should include foods rich in vitamins and minerals. An obligatory component is protein, carbohydrates and fats.