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Moodiness sign of pregnancy: Signs, Symptoms, and Ectopic Pregnancy


I’m Having Symptoms – Could I Be Pregnant?

Have you been sexually active and noticed unusual things happening with your body?

“During early pregnancy, symptoms you experience are your body’s way of alerting you to the drama that is happening inside. From the very moment of conception (when egg and sperm join), your body undergoes an avalanche of change in a very short time.”[1] Early on pregnancy symptoms can be subtle, but even before you miss a period you may experience some of the following:

Classic Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms:

  • Missed Period: Your period is officially late if it has been beyond 30 days since your last period. However, if you have an irregularly existing menstrual cycle, you may want to wait for more pregnancy symptoms to arise.
  • Fatigue: During the early stages of pregnancy, high levels of the hormone progesterone is released into the body causing you to feel worn out and sleepy.
  • Moodiness: “The flood of hormones in your body in early pregnancy can make you unusually emotional and weepy. Mood swings also are common.”[2]
  • Swollen, tender breasts: You may feel some discomfort with you breasts like sensitive nipples and darkness. However, this is not uncommon when the body has began to make preparations to produce milk.
  • Frequent urination: Pregnancy can cause an increased amount of blood to be produced in the body also modifying the kidneys, producing extra fluids in the bladder, that must be released.
  • Nausea with or without vomiting: Though morning sickness is an unpleasant event, it is also a symptom of pregnancy that many women share. According to a survey conducted by the American Pregnancy Association, “25% [of the women surveyed] indicated that nausea was the first sign of pregnancy.”[3]
  • Food aversions and cravings: After becoming pregnant you may become sensitive to certain odors or aromas. Your desire for certain foods may also increase or decrease. Hormonal changes are the main cause of these developments during pregnancy.

While the above pregnancy symptoms can fall on the usual spectrum of being with child, some symptoms can be very unusual, like the following:

Weird Early Pregnancy Symptoms:

  • Taste of metal: During pregnancy, some women undergo a condition called dysgeusia, which causes changes in taste. These changes can result in your mouth or certain food tasting salty, burnt, or like metal.
  • Dry skin: It is a common occurrence for pregnant women to experience dry skin. Because of the change in hormones, the skin loses both elasticity and some of its moisture with the growth of your belly.
  • Insomnia (trouble falling or staying asleep): During pregnancy, the quality of sleep you acquire will lessen. Though being pregnant can cause you to feel tired all day, it too can cause you to have insomnia at night.

Remember that the above symptoms are not solely used for determining pregnancy.  A reliable pregnancy test is the only way to find out if you are truly pregnant.

Think you’re pregnant? Contact us for assistance, support, and free pregnancy testing.



1. “Signs of Pregnancy: Could I Be Pregnant?” Lamaze International, https://www.lamaze.org/signs-and-symptoms-of-pregnancy. Accessed February 20, 2020.

2. “Symptoms of Pregnancy: What Happens First.” Mayo Clinic, https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/getting-pregnant/in-depth/symptoms-of-pregnancy/art-20043853. Accessed February 20, 2020.

3. “Pregnancy Symptoms – Early Signs of Pregnancy.” American Pregnancy Association, https://americanpregnancy.org/getting-pregnant/early-pregnancy-symptoms/. Accessed February 21, 2020.



Early Signs of Pregnancy and Symptoms


1. Missed period

If you have a regular menstrual cycle, this is often the earliest physical sign. Bear in mind that you can get a little light bleeding or spotting around the time of your period even if you are pregnant, and when the fertilized egg implants in your womb. If your cycles aren’t regular you may notice other pregnancy symptoms before you notice a missed period.

Some women find that after having had a completely regular cycle for a number of years, they may then not have a period for a significant length of time. The first thing to do if this happens is to rule out pregnancy, by doing a home pregnancy test .

The medical term for missing your periods for more than 6 months is ‘amenorrhea’. There are lots of reasons why your periods may suddenly stop, including putting on or losing weight very quickly, excessive exercise and stress. If you find that you are having hot flushes and a decreased interest in sex, it might be that you have the first signs of the menopause (peri-menopause). Whatever your symptoms, see your doctor if your regular periods change or stop.

Answers from our Experts

Miss Emma Kirk is a Consultant in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
at the Royal Free Hospital London

Is it normal to still have periods during pregnancy?

Mrs Emma Kirk:

No, you should not be having periods during pregnancy. Any bleeding in early pregnancy may be a sign of a threatened early pregnancy loss. However many women with light bleeding, will go on to have a normal pregnancy. If you do have any bleeding, it is important to discuss with your doctor or midwife who may refer you on for an early ultrasound scan.

I know that if you test early (before your period) it’s less accurate – I just got a ‘Pregnant’ result but my period isn’t due just yet – can I trust the result?

Miss Emma Kirk :

If you have tested before your period is due and got a ‘Pregnant’ result this is very accurate and you can rely on the result. This means the level of pregnancy hormone was high enough to be detected.

Result 6 days before your missed period

Early Detection Pregnancy Test

Find out



2. Changes in your breasts

Your breasts might grow larger and feel tender or highly sensitive. The veins on your breasts may become more noticeable and your areola (nipples) may darken.

My test said ‘pregnant’ but I don’t feel pregnant – how can I be sure?

Mrs Emma Kirk :

Not all women will suffer from pregnancy symptoms, such as morning sickness. Look out for breast tenderness (which may be intermittent) as this is the symptom that is most commonly reported. However all pregnancies are different so do not worry.

Am I pregnant?

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You are likely to feel unusually tired in the first few weeks of pregnancy. This could be due to the rising levels of progesterone in your body as it maintains the lining of your womb to help support the pregnancy.

4. Feeling sick/morning sickness

You could start feeling sick, and even vomit, between the 2nd to the 8th week of pregnancy. This usually passes by the 16th week. Although this is often called ‘morning sickness’ it can happen at any time of the day or night – and can even affect you all the time

I feel very sick and am struggling to eat, will this affect my baby?

Mrs Emma Kirk :

Nausea and vomiting is very common affecting 8 out of 10 pregnant women. Whilst it is very unpleasant and can affect your day-to-day life, there is no evidence that nausea and vomiting has a harmful effect on your baby. In fact, you have a slightly lower risk of miscarriage.

Your baby will take what it needs from your body. When suffering from morning sickness make sure that you drink plenty of water and try to eat little and often. It is also recommended that you avoid any food or smells that trigger symptoms. Some women find that acupressure bands may help. If you are really struggling, you can see your doctor who may be able to prescribe you some anti-sickness medication.


5. Hyperemesis gravidarum

Around one in 100 pregnant women could suffer from hyperemesis gravidarum. Normally continuing well past the first trimester (12 to 13 weeks), hyperemesis gravidarum causes vomiting so often and severe that no food or liquid can be kept down. Usually, the condition can be treated and only in very rare cases will cause complications for the pregnancy, but please seek doctor advice if you are suffering from severe sickness.

Miss Emma Kirk :

Hyperemesis gravidarum is extreme nausea and vomiting and can be potentially life-threatening. Symptoms include prolonged episodes of vomiting, dehydration, having ketones in your urine and weight loss. Hospital treatment may be needed. Many units now offer treatment on a day case basis, but in severe cases admission may be needed. Treatments include intravenous fluids and anti-sickness medication.


6. Going to the toilet more often

About 6 to 8 weeks after conception you may need to urinate more frequently. This is due to your uterus (the medical term for your womb) growing larger and pressing on your bladder. At the end of the first trimester your uterus rises up into your abdomen which will takes some of this pressure off your bladder.

7. Mood swings

Your changing hormones may cause some mood swings in the early stages of pregnancy – you could even find yourself crying without really knowing why.

8. Changing tastes in food (cravings) and sensitivity to smells

You may go off certain things like tea, coffee or fatty food and might start to crave things you don’t normally like. You might feel queasy when you smell certain things too – like coffee, meat or alcohol.

9. Cramps

You may get cramps in your legs or feet in the first trimester, and sometimes later in your pregnancy. This is due to changes in the way your body processes calcium.


How will I know if my pregnancy is progressing normally? My friend had an ectopic pregnancy and I’m worried this could happen to me too?

Miss Emma Kirk :

An ectopic pregnancy is when the pregnancy develops outside the uterus (womb). Almost 99% of pregnancies are normally located in the uterus; however ectopic pregnancies can affect any woman. Be aware that ectopic pregnancy can present with a variety of symptoms. Not all women experience symptoms. Initial ectopic pregnancy symptoms could be pain (requiring more than a mild painkiller like paracetamol to relieve) and bleeding. If the ectopic pregnancy is rupturing you may experience a generalised tummy pain which is often associated with shoulder tip pain. Other reported symptoms include pain on passing urine, pain when opening your bowels or pain when walking. If you experience these symptoms you should seek immediate medical attention.You need an ultrasound scan to confirm the location of the pregnancy.

Coping With Mood Swings During Pregnancy

Mood swings during pregnancy are caused by a variety of factors, including your rapidly changing hormones, the physical discomforts of pregnancy, and the very-normal worries of upcoming life change. If you find yourself feeling excited one moment and in tears the next, you’re far from alone.

There’s a reason for the clichéd image of a crying pregnant woman eating pickles and ice cream. It’s based on real life. Here’s why you may experience emotional ups and downs during pregnancy and how to cope.

Pregnancy Hormones and Mood Swings

One big reason for pregnancy mood swings is your rapidly changing hormones—specifically estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen levels soar during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, increasing by more than 100 times.

Estrogen is associated with the brain chemical serotonin. You may know serotonin as the “happy” hormone, one that many anti-depressant medications attempt to boost. But serotonin isn’t a straightforward connection to happiness. Imbalances and fluctuations in this neurotransmitter can cause emotional dysregulation.

How exactly estrogen and serotonin interact with each other isn’t fully understood. What does seem to be apparent is that changes in estrogen levels—and not a particular level of estrogen—are what cause mood imbalances. Anxiety and irritability, in particular, are associated with estrogen changes.

But it’s not just estrogen that’s increasing. The hormone progesterone also rapidly increases during pregnancy, especially during the first three months. While estrogen is usually associated with energy (and too much of it associated with nervous energy), progesterone is associated with relaxation.

In fact, that’s just what progesterone does in the body during pregnancy. It tells the muscles to relax, partially to prevent premature contractions of the uterus. This muscle relaxation is also a factor in why women experience constipation during pregnancy. Progesterone doesn’t only act on the uterine muscles but also affects the intestinal tract. When your bowels slow down, constipation can be a result.

Relaxation hormones sound nice. But, for some women, progesterone makes them “too” relaxed. This can mean fatigue and even sadness. Progesterone is the hormone that has you crying at all the Hallmark commercials. Taken together—the anxiety and irritability from estrogen and the fatigue and tearfulness from the progesterone—is it any wonder pregnancy triggers mood swings?

Early Pregnancy Mood Swing Triggers

Hormones trigger mood swings during pregnancy, but it’s not only the hormones. The discomforts of pregnancy can cause emotional distress as well. For example, morning sickness, which can really hit you at any time of day, affects up to 70% of pregnant women.

Feelings of nausea and sometimes vomiting can be triggered by the slightest hunger pangs or even the smell of your neighbor’s cooking. For those that experience more severe morning sickness than others, anxiety may arise over whether they will suddenly feel the urge to throw-up during a business meeting. Or they may worry that they will suddenly smell something “off” as they walk down the street.

The stress of not knowing when they might feel sick, and the stress of possibly throwing up unprepared or in public, can be intense. Fatigue is another common early pregnancy symptom and one that can contribute to mood swings. No one feels well emotionally when they are tired, and you may feel really tired during those first months of pregnancy.

Lastly, women who have experienced miscarriage or infertility may be anxious about losing the pregnancy. This fear may be worse during the first trimester when the majority of pregnancy losses occur.

Second Trimester Mood Swings

The second trimester of pregnancy is often called the “honeymoon” phase. Hormones are still changing but much less so than during the first three months. Most women feel more energy and don’t have morning sickness any more—or at least, it’s not as bad.

Still, there are potential emotional triggers. For one, during the second trimester, the body shape changes really kick in. Some women can avoid maternity clothing during the first trimester, but by the second, the need for extra room is unavoidable.

Some women feel excited about their body changes. Finally, they don’t have to pull their stomach in! But others can feel anxious. This is especially true for women who have a history of body image struggles.

Prenatal testing during the second trimester also can cause emotional distress. Amniocentesis, when recommended, is usually done during the early second trimester. Deciding whether or not to have prenatal testing, and anxiety about the results, can cause emotional distress.

Another thing that can lead to mood swings is reading about everything that can possibly go wrong during pregnancy and childbirth. Some pregnancy books are more like long lists of every possible complication. This can occur during any trimester of pregnancy, of course.

Not all of the “mood swings” of pregnancy are negative, however. Some women experience an increase in libido and sexual desire during the second trimester. This is possibly because they are starting to feel physically better, and because of the increased blood flow to the pelvic region.

Third Trimester Mood Swings

During the third trimester, getting comfortable at night can be a problem. Fatigue and difficulty with sleep can lead to mood swings. Fears and worries about the upcoming birth can get intense during the last trimester, along with worries about becoming a mother or worries about mothering another child.

A “new” mood swing you may find yourself experiencing during the third trimester is “nesting.” Nesting is when you are suddenly overcome with a desire to clean, organize, and physically prepare for the baby. Not everyone experiences nesting, and for most, it can be a positive mood experience. For others, especially if there are fears about not having enough to provide for the new child, nesting may lead to anxiety.

Is It Normal to Feel Angry During Pregnancy?

Some women experience irritability and even anger during pregnancy. Hormone changes are one reason for these mood swings. Just like some women experience irritability just before their period arrives every month, these same women may struggle with feelings of frustration and anger during pregnancy.

Additionally, when you aren’t feeling well, your ability to stay calm and collected is lower. As a result, pregnancy fatigue and physical discomfort is a big contributor to pregnancy anger. Keeping your temper under control when you feel constantly tired is challenging.

Then, there are some women who may have feelings of resentment during pregnancy because of their life situation. Maybe their finances aren’t where they want them to be, maybe they are facing stress on the job, or maybe they didn’t truly want to be pregnant. Perhaps their partner pressured them into having another baby when they weren’t ready, or maybe the pregnancy wasn’t planned.

While occasional feelings of frustration are normal, it’s important not to ignore anger if it’s frequent or interfering with your ability to cope with daily life. Some research has found that anger during pregnancy may impact the unborn child. One study found that prenatal anger was associated with reduced fetal growth rate.

Also, if your anger is rooted in not wanting the pregnancy, getting therapy before the baby arrives is essential. Otherwise, early bonding between you and your infant may be negatively impacted. Bonding between a mother and child isn’t just about emotional health, but also affects the child’s physical well-being.

Coping With Pregnancy Mood Swings

Mood swings are pretty much an inevitable part of pregnancy. But that doesn’t mean there aren’t things you can do to make it a little easier. Here are some things you can do to cope.

Be Patient With Yourself

This is a big one. The only thing worse than feeling bad is feeling bad about the fact that you’re feeling bad. Remember that you’re not alone in your experience, that hormones are to blame for much of what you feel, and that this will all pass with time.

Talk to Your Partner and Kids

You might lose your temper, or start to cry unexpectedly. Let your partner—and your kids—know it’s not them. Apologize in advance for those momentary periods of irritability. When talking to your kids, however, be careful not to blame the baby for your moods.

They are likely already nervous that they’ll need to share you with another child. Keeping that in mind, you don’t want to give them additional reasons to be unhappy about the upcoming family change. Instead, just explain that mommy isn’t feeling well lately, but everything is OK and will get better.

Put Down the Fear-Based Pregnancy Books

Of course, you want to have a healthy pregnancy. And of course, you want to be informed so you can make educated choices about your prenatal care, diet, and upcoming birth. However, if those pregnancy books are making you anxious, don’t read them. Find something more positive to read or ask your doctor directly during your prenatal checks.

Prepare for Waves of Morning Sickness

Emotionally, one of the worst parts about morning sickness is that it can strike without warning. This can make you feel out of control, and that can lead to mood swings and worry. To lessen the fears, try to be prepared.

Carry around snacks for sudden hunger pangs. Bring plastic bags such as sandwich baggies in your pockets or in your purse for when you feel like you’re going to vomit and there’s no bathroom available.

If your morning sickness is triggered by unpleasant or strong odors, try carrying something that smells good, to quickly grab and block the unwanted scents. A container of cloves or cinnamon might work or a small bottle of a hand lotion you love.

Prioritize Sleep

In the first trimester, you’re likely to be tired no matter how much you sleep. During the third trimester, you may struggle to get comfortable, and that leads to a lack of sleep. But you need sleep. Fatigue is a one-way road to more severe mood swings.

If you can take a nap during the day, take one. Even if it means napping at your desk at work. At home, do whatever you can to make bedtime a calm, quiet period, so you are more likely to get the sleep you need.

Find a Supportive Friend

Feeling fat and “ugly” when you’re looking for pregnancy clothes? Take someone with you who will stand outside the dressing room and tell you how beautiful you are.

You can also take a friend to prenatal appointments. This can be your partner, your friend, or a relative. But having someone with you, especially for ultrasounds or procedures like amniocentesis, can help with nervousness.

Take a Childbirth Course and Hire a Doula

Being fearful of delivery day is common. The more you know, and the more supported you feel, the less anxious you’ll be.  Taking childbirth education classes and hiring a doula or a labor support person can help reduce that anxiety.

Connect With Other Expecting Moms

Talking to others about your mood swings and worries can help you feel normal. There are forums and social media groups just for expecting mothers. You can likely find local support groups as well on sites like Meetup, or you may meet other women through a childbirth education class.

Try Yoga or Meditation

Yoga and meditation can help reduce anxiety and increase feelings of well-being. There are many free meditation apps online to try. If you decide to take a yoga class, make sure it’s for pregnant women. Or, if you can’t find a prenatal yoga class, take a gentle or restorative yoga class, and talk to the yoga instructor before class begins about possible adjustments in positions.

See a Counselor

Sometimes, you need a professional to help you cope. That’s OK. You don’t have to be “clinically depressed” to see a therapist. Counselors are there to help people cope with major life changes, and pregnancy and childbirth—whether it’s your first or fifth child—is always a major life change.

Also, a counselor can help you determine if your mood swings are something more than the “typical” experience. And if you’re worried you might actually be depressed or have an anxiety disorder, a therapist can help with this. Your doctor also can help. So, be sure to mention your concerns.

A Word From Verywell

Mood swings are a normal experience during pregnancy. Your body is going through physical and hormonal changes, and your day-to-day life is about to change. Of course, you’re having emotional ups and downs.

While mood swings are common, depression is a different matter. There is also a difference between feeling nervous and having anxiety that interferes with your ability to get through the day. Depression and anxiety aren’t the same as “mood swings.”

Depression or anxiety during pregnancy can increase the risk of experiencing postpartum depression or anxiety. Both depression and anxiety can have adverse health effects on your newborn baby and yourself.

It’s important that you talk to your doctor about your emotional struggles if you think you may be depressed or dealing with an anxiety disorder. According to one study, less than 20% of women who experienced postpartum depression ever mentioned it to their healthcare provider. But your doctor can help, so please, speak up. You don’t need to suffer silently.

Pregnancy mood swings | BabyCenter

What are pregnancy mood swings? 

It’s common to have mood swings during pregnancy because of stress, fatigue, and hormonal changes that affect your levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain). And, of course, there’s also the broad range of feelings you may have about becoming a parent.

Everyone responds to these changes differently. Some moms-to-be experience heightened emotions, both positive and negative. Others feel more depressed or anxious. Many pregnant women find that moodiness flares up around 6 to 10 weeks, eases in the second trimester, and then reappears as their due date approaches.

Pregnancy can be a stressful and overwhelming time. One day you may be overjoyed at the thought of having a baby, and then just as quickly wonder what you’ve gotten yourself into. You may be worried about whether you’ll be a good mom, whether the baby will be healthy, and how the cost of adding a child to your household will affect your family’s finances. And you may worry about how having a baby will impact your relationship with your partner and your other children – like if you’ll still be able to give them the attention they need.

Even if your pregnancy was planned, at times you may have mixed feelings about what’s ahead. That’s not surprising, considering the high expectations placed on parents. And the pressure starts even before the baby is born. You may be constantly wondering: Am I reading the right books? Am I buying the right products? Will I know how to stimulate my child’s development properly and build his self-esteem?

In the meantime, you may be feeling unattractive as your body changes, and you may be concerned about putting on too much weight or looking “fat,” especially if you aren’t able to exercise as much as you’d like.

The physical symptoms of pregnancy, such as heartburn, fatigue, and frequent urination, can also be a burden. It’s not uncommon to feel like you’ve lost control over your body and your life during this time. All these concerns may take your emotions on a roller coaster ride.

How can I manage pregnancy mood swings?

Try to remind yourself that emotional upheaval is normal right now. That said, making a conscious effort to nurture yourself can help you stay on an even keel during turbulent times.

  • Take it easy. Resist the urge to tackle as many chores as you can before the baby comes. You may think you need to stencil bunnies on the nursery walls, reorganize all the closets, or put in serious overtime before going on maternity leave, but you don’t. Put yourself at the top of your to-do list instead. After all, pampering yourself is an essential part of taking care of your baby.
  • Bond with your partner. Expressing how you’re feeling while reassuring your partner of your love will go a long way toward nurturing your relationship. Make sure you’re spending plenty of time together, and even go on a vacation if you can. Strengthen your connection now, so you can really be there for one another after the baby comes.

    If you’re single, do something to nurture your relationship with your friends and family, or look for a support group for single moms-to-be. This will provide vital support for you now as well as after your baby is born.

  • Do something that makes you feel good. This might mean carving out some special time for you and your partner. Or it might mean taking time alone to do something just for you: Take a nap, go for a walk, get a prenatal massage, or see a movie with a friend.
  • Talk it out. Air your worries about the future with understanding friends. Just putting your concerns into words often helps you get a handle on them or gives you insight into solutions. Keep the lines of communication open between you and your partner, and make it a two-way street: In addition to pouring out your feelings, listen to your partner, too.
  • Manage your stress. Rather than let the frustration in your life build up, find ways to decompress. Get plenty of sleep, eat well, exercise, and have some fun. Identify sources of stress in your life and change what you can, such as trimming your to-do list. If you still find that anxiety is creeping in, try taking a pregnancy yoga class, practicing meditation or other relaxation techniques, or consulting a professional counselor.

What if I can’t shake my moodiness?

If your mood swings are becoming more frequent or more intense, or if they last longer than two weeks, talk to your practitioner and ask for a referral to a counselor. You may be among the 14 to 23 percent of women who battle mild to moderate depression during pregnancy.

If you notice that your anxiety is interfering with your ability to function in your daily life, you may be suffering from an anxiety disorder. And if your mood swings become more frequent and intense, and you have difficulty sleeping, you might be having symptoms of bipolar disorder, a condition in which you alternate between periods of depression and mania.

If you suspect that you have any of these conditions, it’s crucial to get professional help and treatment while you’re pregnant. Research has shown that untreated emotional health problems can affect your baby’s physical well-being and increase your risk of preterm labor and postpartum depression. Both psychotherapy and medication can be very effective for treating these conditions so that you and your baby can be well during pregnancy and afterward.

How They’re Different| Banner Health

Tender breasts? Mood swings? Exhaustion?

“Wait, am I getting my period, or am I pregnant?”

One of the most common signs of an early pregnancy is a missed period. But all women know, it isn’t that simple. There are a lot of subtle signs that could indicate it’s that ‘time of the month’ or that you’re pregnant—or even that something else may be going on.

“There are some distinct differences when it comes to pregnancy and premenstrual syndrome or PMS symptoms, but some can be very subtle and can vary woman to woman,” said Robin Giles, a certified nurse practitioner with Banner – University Medicine North in Tucson, AZ.

Whether you’re anxious to have a baby or not, wondering can certainly be nerve-wracking. Here are some ways to help spot the differences and next steps on what to do.

Similar symptoms of PMS and pregnancy

The signs and symptoms of PMS and early pregnancy can be similar but can vary from one woman to another. Some of the common related symptoms for the two are:

  • breast tenderness
  • increased urination
  • fatigue
  • headaches
  • constipation
  • bloating
  • mood changes

“Early pregnancy symptoms of breast tenderness and fatigue often mimic the symptoms of PMS,” Giles said. “However, breast tenderness and fatigue generally go away once your period starts.”

PMS-specific symptoms

PMS occurs in the second half of a woman’s cycle and can include physical, behavioral and emotional symptoms.

“Typically, women may have mild symptoms prior to the onset of their period each month, such as breast tenderness, fatigue, bloating and decreased mood,” Giles said. “If your symptoms are more severe than that, it could be premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD, a more severe form of PMS.”

Pregnancy-specific symptoms

While your breasts may feel tender during PMS, they can be tender during early pregnancy as well. “You may also be pretty fatigued,” Giles added. “The key difference between the two, however, is that with pregnancy, your period doesn’t occur.”

Nausea is also a symptom that can accompany pregnancy and is often not experienced with PMS. “The nausea in early pregnancy often resolves after the 12th week of gestation, “Giles said.

A sign your symptoms indicate something else

If you skip your cycle or have irregular periods and you’re not pregnant, there could be several other reasons. Some of the most common things to cause a change in the usual pattern can be fluctuations in your weight, hyper- or hypothyroidism, extreme stress and extreme exercise. Some hormonal methods of contraception can also affect your periods. There is a medical condition called Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, or PCOS, where women often stop getting their periods or have irregular cycles.

“It’s always a good idea to see your health care provider if you’re not having a regular monthly period,” Giles said. “We can do a workup for irregular cycles or for absence of cycles (amenorrhea) that may include a blood test and a pelvic ultrasound. It’s important to get treatment for amenorrhea or irregular cycles to prevent a condition known as endometrial hyperplasia. There are many treatment options to prevent this from happening.”

Next steps

If you’re not using contraception, are sexually active and your period is late or missed, it is advisable to do a home pregnancy test. If your test is negative, your doctor can help further investigate the cause for your symptoms. If your test is positive, make an appointment with your health care provider to confirm your pregnancy.

“Your provider will do a urine pregnancy test in the clinic and, if warranted, a blood test to detect the level of hCG (a pregnancy hormone),” Giles said. “It’s important that if you’re not using contraception and are sexually active that you take a prenatal vitamin, stop smoking and drinking and do not use any recreational drugs. Fetal development begins even before you may know you are pregnant.”

For more helpful tips about your period and/or pregnancy, check out:

Join the Conversation

Mood swings in pregnancy – BabyCentre UK

It’s quite normal to experience mood swings during pregnancy (NHS 2018a, NCT 2019). Your moods may be changing on a daily basis from feeling weepy to irritated during your pregnancy. The emotional effects of pregnancy hormones and common pregnancy worries are to blame if you feel you’re getting mad while pregnant for no apparent reason. But there is plenty you can do to look after yourself and reduce anger, moodiness and irritability during pregnancy. And your midwife will be able to help you access extra support if you do need it.

Why am I so moody while pregnant?

One of the main reasons for your mood swings is the change in your hormone levels. When you conceive, the amount of oestrogen and progesterone in your blood increases (NHS 2018a). This helps to prepare your body for pregnancy, but it can also affect your mood, making you feel tearful or easily irritated (NHS 2018a).

Hormones can also have a huge impact on your sex drive. There may be times during your pregnancy when you feel particularly turned on by the thought of sex, whereas at other times, sex could be the furthest thing from your mind (NCT 2018). This rollercoaster of emotions may make you, and your partner, feel a bit bewildered and overwhelmed at times.

It’s not all about the hormones, though. With so much happening in your life, it’s only natural to find that your moods are changeable (NCT 2019). You can suddenly be overwhelmed with excitement about meeting your baby then suddenly wonder what you’ve got yourself into. You may feel anxious, vulnerable or apprehensive about what the future holds for you and your baby.

Common worries during pregnancy include:

  • whether you’ll be a good parent
  • whether your diet or lifestyle is affecting your developing baby
  • how having a baby will affect your relationship
  • whether your baby will be born healthy
  • how you’re going to manage financially
  • how your career may be affected by becoming a parent
  • your changing body, and whether your partner still finds you attractive
  • how you’ll cope with labour and birth
    (NCT 2019)

If you’ve had a problem with a previous pregnancy, you may also be worrying that it could happen again (NCT 2019).

Many people also find themselves becoming more forgetful during pregnancy, which can be frustrating. And it’s hard to stay cheerful all the time when you’re facing the physical side-effects of pregnancy, such as heartburn and morning sickness (NHS 2018b).

When will I stop having pregnancy mood swings?

Moods tend to become more manageable in the second trimester, as your body adapts to these higher levels of hormones (NCT 2019). You may find that you have more control over what you’re feeling, and that you’re not as weepy or irritable as you have been. Sometimes, however, mood swings can last throughout pregnancy (NCT 2019).
Even if your mood swings have passed, you may still find you have the occasional wobble, and that’s perfectly normal too. This may be particularly true as you get closer to your due date, when the imminent arrival of your baby makes concerns about labour, and those first few weeks of parenthood, hard to put from your mind.

How to manage mood swings during pregnancy

Firstly, it’s important not to judge yourself for the way you’re feeling. Pregnancy can be a very emotional time, for all sorts of reasons. You’re certainly not alone in struggling to manage what can sometimes feel overwhelming.

There are plenty of things you can try that may help to boost your overall emotional wellbeing and give you techniques to tackle moments of anxiety, doubt or sadness:

Talk it through

One of the best antidotes to feeling down or stressed is to talk to someone (NCT 2019). Try to be honest about what you’re feeling with your partner, friends and family. You may be surprised by how understanding and supportive they can be.

Joining a pregnancy yoga class or an antenatal class will help you understand that you’re not the only one feeling this way (NCT 2019). You’ll meet others at the same stage of pregnancy as you, who can provide an instant support network (NCT 2019).

You can also find support and advice in the friendly BabyCentre community.

If you’d rather talk to someone confidentially, you can always chat to your midwife about anything that’s worrying you at one of your routine appointments, or make an appointment with your GP.

Ask for practical help

It’s understandable that you want to get everything done before your baby arrives. But pregnancy is already hard work. Don’t feel that you have to decorate the baby’s room, clean out every cupboard and shop for every piece of clothing and equipment single-handed.

If things are getting on top of you, lean on your partner, friends and family for support. They’ll probably be only too happy to help, once you tell them what you need.

Find moments of calm

Many people find it helpful to use mindfulness or relaxation techniques to help them improve their mood and feel calmer during pregnancy (NCT 2019). Mindfulness can help you become more aware of your moods and feelings, and train yourself to notice any signs of stress or anxiety, sooner rather than later (NHS 2018d).

There are lots of free apps, some with specific pregnancy mindfulness exercises, that you can tr. Or you can lie down and listen to one of our relaxing visualisation techniques.

Get plenty of rest

It’s easy to feel more overwhelmed if you’re tired, so try to make sure you’re getting enough sleep if you can (NHS 2019).

If you’re finding it hard to drop off at night, try writing a list at bedtime of any worries you have, or any tasks you have to do the next day (NHS 2019). This can help to clear your mind.

If your work is making you feel exhausted, talk things over with your manager to see if there’s a way for you to take more breaks. If you’re nearing your due date, consider taking your maternity leave earlier than you’d planned. This may give you the extra time you need to recharge your batteries before your baby’s born.

Sleeping with a bump

It’s hard to rest comfortably with a bump getting in the way. Our video shows two positions that will help you sleep. More pregnancy videos Make time for self-care

Do something for yourself that will help to take your mind off your pregnancy for a while and have you feeling relaxed. Watch a feel-good movie, catch up with friends over lunch or listen to your favourite podcast. You can even create your own mini spa to pamper yourself at home.

Do some gentle exercise

Exercise is a mood-lifter, and you don’t have to do a strenuous workout to get those feel-good chemicals flowing (NHS 2019). Next time you feel irritated or anxious, go for a swim, take a walk in the fresh air or do some simple yoga exercises.

Bond with your partner

It’s often those closest to us who bear the brunt of our mood swings. This is probably because we feel loved and safe enough around them to express our sadness, anger and frustration.

It can be tough for your partner to know how to take your emotions when they’re so unpredictable. Letting them know that you still love and cherish them may stop your partner from taking things too personally and ease any tensions between you.

In your calmer moments, try to spend some quality time together. It will help to strengthen your relationship before your baby arrives.

Your partner may also have their own worries about becoming a parent. Chatting about them may help to take your mind off your troubles, as well as helping you to feel closer to each other.

Stop feeling guilty

Pregnancy is a life-changing event. You’re bound to feel overwhelmed, irritable and anxious at times, even if you’ve wanted a baby for years. So be kind to yourself and accept that you will have some negative feelings and some wonderful feelings about your pregnancy.

What should I do if I can’t shake anger in pregnancy?

If you often or consistently feel angry or moody, or your worries interfere with your daily life, you may need a little extra help.

More than one in eight people are thought to experience depression or anxiety during pregnancy which can lead to feelings of moodiness and anger. Many people experience both in pregnancy (NCT 2019, NICE 2020).

Talk to your GP or midwife sooner rather than later, if you:

  • feel sad, worthless or hopeless for prolonged periods
  • feel like you can’t control your worries or anxiety
  • lose interest in the things you normally like doing
  • find yourself repeating certain behaviours frequently, such as washing your hands or checking social media
  • are having panic attacks
  • find it hard to concentrate or make decisions
  • have lost your appetite
  • have difficulty falling or staying asleep
  • are scared of giving birth
  • are having thoughts of harming yourself or others
    (NCT 2019, NICE 2020)

Your GP or midwife will be able to get you the help and treatment you need. If you live in England, you can also refer yourself directly to the NHS psychological therapies service (IAPT) without a referral from your GP.

For more information on understanding mental health during pregnancy, check out our articles on anxiety and depression.

Last reviewed: February 2021


NCT. 2018. Pregnancy hormones: progesterone, oestrogen and the mood swings. National Childbirth Trust. www.nct.org.uk [Accessed October 2020]

NCT. 2019. Emotions during pregnancy. National Childbirth Trust. www.nct.org.uk [Accessed October 2020]

NHS. 2018a. Trying to get pregnant. NHS Choices, Health A-Z. www.nhs.uk [Accessed October 2020]

NHS. 2018b. Common health problems in pregnancy. NHS Choices, Health A-Z. www.nhs.uk [Accessed October 2020]

NHS. 2018c. Mental health problems and pregnancy. NHS Choices, Health A-Z. www.nhs.uk [Accessed August 2015]

NHS. 2018d. Mindfulness. NHS Choices, Health A-Z www. nhs.uk[Accessed October 2020]

NHS. 2019. How to be happier. NHS Choices, Health A-Z. www.nhs.uk [Accessed October 2020]

NICE. 2020. Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, guideline CG192. www.nice.org.uk [October 2020]

Full Guide, And No, You Are Not Crazy!

kieferpix/ Getty

You’re pregnant; yay! If you’ve been trying to conceive, this is undoubtedly cause for celebration. So, uh, why can’t you stop crying? Don’t worry — mood swings during pregnancy are common symptoms of pregnancy, and they usually aren’t any cause for concern. On any given day while you’re expecting, you might run the gamut from ecstatic to overwhelmed and everything in between. It’s natural, Mama.

Even so, there are certain instances in which pregnancy mood swings merit a call or visit to your OB-GYN. To help you get a handle on what’s happening with your emotions, here’s a little more information.

Related: What You Must Know About High Blood Pressure And Preeclampsia During Pregnancy

When do mood swings in pregnancy start?

The Mayo Clinic cites emotional ups and downs among first-trimester pregnancy symptoms, so you may start to notice marked moodiness relatively early. Because every woman and every pregnancy is different, you may not experience mood swings at all. Or, if you do, they may be short-lived.

But they could also endure throughout your pregnancy — and that’s understandable. Think about it: Every trimester comes with its own challenges, whether they’re biological, psychological, or even social. No one is going to blame you if you burst into tears watching a commercial about dish soap or get irrationally irritated over how loudly your partner opens a bag of chips.

OK, so it might not always be easy, but it is typically normal.

What causes mood swings during pregnancy?

Your body is busy building a human being, which means you’ve got a lot going on inside of you. That includes a spike in things like estrogen and progesterone, making you a walking maelstrom of hormones. Hello, emotions! To put it in more scientific terms, the American Pregnancy Association explains that changes in hormone levels can affect your level of neurotransmitters. Since these neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that regulate mood, it’s not hard to see how the hormonal influx during pregnancy could lead to mood swings.

Other pregnancy-related issues like added stress — bringing children into the world can be anxiety-inducing — and fatigue can also contribute to moodiness.

Read More:

Pregnancy Food Cravings And Aversions: Here’s Why You Want To Eat All The Things

Pregnancy Heartburn Will Have You Breathing Fire For 9 Months Because, Why Not?

Vaginal Discharge During Pregnancy: What’s Normal, What’s Not, And What To Keep In Mind

What can you do to help with mood swings?

It may sound cliché, but clichés exist for a reason: Treat yo’ self. Keeping your stress level low can help manage mood swings, so you’ve never had a better excuse for self-pampering. Take naps to minimize fatigue. Squeeze in exercise to take advantage of those mood-boosting endorphins. Eat a balanced diet, but don’t feel bad about occasionally indulging in your cravings. Do more things that make you happy and calm.

It could also help to have conversations with loved ones about the possibility of mood swings during your pregnancy. Knowing that they understand your emotional pendulum right now might minimize tensions that could add to your stress level.

Do mood swings ever merit professional help?

Although it’s normal to experience mood swings during pregnancy, there are times where you may need to consider calling in backup. If your mood swings become severe enough to concern you or loved ones, there’s zero shame in reaching out to your health care provider for support. The sooner you address the issue, the better.

According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 52 percent of women who have been pregnant reported increased anxiety or depression while pregnant. So, if you have a history of depression, clinical anxiety in your family history, or have struggled with traumatic experiences in the past, call your doctor to discuss options that will help you deal with what you’re feeling.

To be clear, you don’t have to be suffering from severe mood swings to benefit from therapy during pregnancy — this is a time of profound change in your life and having someone help you sort through your emotions could be healthy.

Written by Julie Sprankles.

“Protective function is activated”. Why pregnancy changes a woman | HEALTH: Healthy Living | HEALTH

On the last Sunday of the month, November 24, Russia celebrates Mother’s Day. About how to prepare for motherhood, what it is worth protecting yourself from during pregnancy and what is the danger of sacrifice, “AiF-Voronezh” told the psychologist of the antenatal clinic at Voronezh Clinical Hospital No. 11 Olga Rusina .

From dolls to real parenting

Faina Mania, AiF-Voronezh: Olga Vladimirovna, when should a woman start preparing for motherhood?

Olga Rusina : Many people mistakenly believe that the process of preparing for motherhood begins immediately with the onset of pregnancy.But this is not the case. For the first time, a girl encounters the concept of “motherhood” in childhood, playing with dolls, cribs and strollers. This is how she first tries on the role of a mother. In kindergarten, the girl begins to interact with her peers, and already the “fitting” takes place not with dolls, but with people. How many funny photos can be found on the Web when a boy and a girl are driving a baby carriage together. In adolescence, a girl first begins to seriously think about childbirth, she has a fear of the future.And here it is important for the mother to explain to the girl what a great happiness it is to have a child, that the first touch of the baby heals all unpleasant memories of childbirth. The next stage of preparation for motherhood begins when a girl meets her man and gets married. Then she already begins to try on the behavior of the surrounding women and imagine what kind of mother she will be: “And I would not behave like that with my child”, “If a girl is born, I will name her …”. She begins to feel her man for what kind of parent will come out of him in the future.And when a woman comes to the thought: “It’s safe for me to give birth with you,” only then does the direct work on real parenting begin.

– At this moment, the woman is already fully aware that she is ready for motherhood?

– Not a single woman, not even one who got pregnant with IVF, has yet admitted that she is one hundred percent ready to have a baby. After all, we always have a lot of requirements for ourselves. Maybe we were in a hurry? Can we give the child all the best? Shouldn’t we ourselves still grow to this step? Pregnant women come to me with such questions. And this is completely normal. If women are worried about their unborn child, then this step is truly responsible for them.

– How does a woman change with pregnancy?

– A lot of humor about women getting moody, demanding strawberries in December. Although, by the way, men themselves are not averse to fulfilling these whims, and then they also boast about what exotic fruit they were able to get for their beloved. Sometimes a woman does have such physiological needs.Some women begin to pay special attention to their diet, and some go to bed “star” and once again do not get out of bed. So, each in its own way, they take care of the baby.

– Is it useful to lie as a “star”? Or is it still worth giving preference to yoga, walking or swimming, for example?

– There is no one size fits all advice for all pregnant women. The main thing is that the woman is comfortable. Maybe she had been waiting ten years for the gestation period in order to sit down to her fill? All the more often, in the first trimester, women manifest apathy – they want to be alone with themselves in order to fully understand and accept all the changes that are happening to them. When toxicosis recedes, a woman, on the contrary, often wants some kind of activity. That’s when you need to go to the pool, to yoga. Moreover, during this period, physical activity is beneficial for the cervix. In any case, it is always important to first of all listen to yourself and your desires.

Ashamed and scared

– What concerns do pregnant women most often address you?

– Everyone faces two problems – shame and fear. Being twice a mother, I can say that in my first pregnancy I was shocked by the excessive attention to my body.Never in my life have I been touched so many times as during pregnancy. Women are primarily concerned about two points – it is scary to be left alone in the hospital and ashamed to undress in front of the medical staff. And the word “enema” is generally the main “horror story” on the Internet about childbirth. And that also applies to shame. By the way, about the Internet. No need to read creepy stories on the forums and cheat yourself once again. Such a story, read at the beginning of pregnancy, can then come to mind in the delivery room at the most inopportune moment.In addition, excessive anxiety can lead to increased blood pressure or early labor. Did you see the negative? Close the page. Don’t try it on yourself. And here you need to understand that the good is often not shared on the Web, but the bad is talked about in order to find answers or support from others. How do we know what’s behind those creepy stories on the forums? Do we know how a woman behaved before giving birth? It cannot be denied that the emotional state of a woman and the way her pregnancy proceeds are linked.Often difficult childbirth for those women who did not want a child and even thought about an abortion. Internal self-punishment occurs for the fact that the child was unwanted.

– Is postpartum depression really common, or is it a myth?

– Who diagnoses women like that? Most often they are themselves. And this is an erroneous definition of one’s condition. Yes, a woman can have postpartum fatigue. She may need a period of adaptation to the motherhood process.But this is not depression. A woman cannot get out of this state on her own. And true postpartum depression begins even before pregnancy. It is associated with specific prerequisites, often they are tied to the relationship with the child’s father. When depressed, a woman cannot be near her child. In this case, the baby is recognized by the woman not only as an extension of herself, but also of the man. But the cause of a decadent mood can be a change in the focus of attention. During pregnancy, everyone took care of the woman – her husband, doctors, relatives.And with the birth of a child, she faded into the background. The environment began to demand a lot from the woman: “Did you feed the baby on time? Have you changed diapers? Why did you dress so warmly? ” A lot of demands fell on the woman at once. Of course, her inner self suffered greatly from this.

– And what to do in this situation?

– Others do not need to provoke a woman. Mom is the main thing in the child’s life. She determines which hat he should wear and when to change diapers. The woman should be left alone so that she can breathe with her baby.It is not for nothing that in the old days a mother with a newborn did not show herself to anyone for a month and a half. Moreover, she did not cook or clean, but only came to her senses after giving birth and served her child.

– What other common myths do you have to deal with?

– Popular myth – in the first trimester, a woman becomes very emotional. Many husbands are surprised: “I was always calm, but here in line I yelled at a passer-by.” But this is just trying on a protective function.If earlier a woman could pass by when she was pushed, now she reacts sharply to this – after all, we are talking about the safety of her baby. In addition, the first trimester, especially if it is accompanied by toxicosis, is the most difficult in pregnancy. By the way, in some Asian countries, women in a position from the first weeks hang a badge telling others about her pregnancy. Perhaps, if we walked with such a badge, then the environment would provoke us to inadequate reactions less.

Another common myth is that a woman becomes dull during pregnancy.Yes, pregnancy can affect intelligence. But in most cases, the reason lies elsewhere. Work and the rest of the world around a woman becomes simply uninteresting. Absent-mindedness is due to the fact that the woman’s priorities have changed. Not skipping lunch becomes more important than doing overtime. As a rule, a return to the usual relationship with the outside world occurs when the child turns three months old. By the way, at about this time in the Soviet Union, women sent their children to a nursery and went to work.

What other advice would you like to give to expectant mothers?

– After the birth of a child, do not forget about yourself. The sacrificial attitude “I will give everything” is not needed. And you need to learn to keep your personal boundaries even before the birth of a child, in order to avoid mistakes later, completely dissolving in the baby. You have to understand that at some point our resources will run out, and emotional burnout will come. Don’t set yourself super goals – to be a super mom. Know how to stop in this frantic race and listen to yourself.

90,000 “Capricious” nose – articles from the specialists of the clinic “Mother and Child”

Why do some people cope with a cold quickly and easily, while in others it is delayed and complicated by troubles? What solutions does modern medicine offer?

Andrey Kuzmich Boklin, candidate of medical sciences, head of the otolaryngology department of the Lapino Clinical Hospital of the Mother and Child Group in the capital, talks.

First reason


As a rule, we are talking about the curvature of the nasal septum. This condition can be suspected by frequent nasal congestion and shortness of breath. At the same time, the runny nose arising from colds and SARS lasts a long time and is complicated by various types of sinus inflammation.


The problem is solved surgically.ˇNowadays, it is possible to carry out minimally traumatic intervention. It is called septoplasty. The operation is performed without incisions on the skin of the face. Through a puncture in the nasal cavity. And the final success is determined by the postoperative period. To speed up the healing of the nose, advanced clinics today use breathable tampons and silicone stents. This relieves patients of discomfort. And it allows them to reduce their hospital stay to a day.

Reason two


In medical language, this condition is called vasomotor rhinitis. And it develops more often in young people with vascular dystonia and low blood pressure. And also occurs with some endocrine problems. The essence of this type of rhinitis is that a person’s so-called “nasal cycle” changes. Normally, the turbinates skillfully regulate the volume of inhaled air, changing in size due to filling with blood. Thus, they react to temperature and humidity. In this case, the tone of the vessels in one of the turbinates is greater than in the other. And about every hour it changes.

But with “weak” vessels, this cycle is lengthened or shortened. There is “causeless” congestion. Problems with breathing and smelling when the weather changes, pressure drops. Even stress can exacerbate vasomotor rhinitis.


It is important to improve the work of the vegetative-vascular system as a whole. And from this point of view, hardening, massage of the neck-collar zone, physiotherapy exercises are useful. Be sure to appoint special drops and sprays that strengthen the vascular wall and relieve swelling. As well as inhalation and physiotherapy. In particular, phonophoresis with drugs, UHF and laser.

If conservative treatment does not bring success, endoscopic ENT surgery comes to the rescue. The point of the operation is to destroy the excess vascular plexuses in the nose and prevent them from enlarging due to filling with blood.

Technically, this manipulation is carried out in different ways – using ultrasound, radio waves or a laser.They all have their pros and cons. But the most effective today is considered to be radio wave exposure.

Third reason


In this case, nasal discharge usually remains clear. And besides them, a person is worried about itching in the nose and bouts of sneezing.

The eyes often turn red and watery.There is a sore throat and dry cough. Unfortunately, against the background of lingering allergies in the nose, irreversible changes can occur. Its mucous membrane grows, forming polyps. And they, in turn, begin to interfere with proper breathing and contribute to chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. In this situation, you cannot do without accurate diagnostics. Therefore, not only X-ray or ultrasound is performed, but also computed tomography of the sinuses. And then, to clarify the intricacies, – endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx.In addition, nasal culture and blood tests are done. This allows you to identify or exclude a bacterial infection.


Antihistamines – tablets, sprays and drops are the basis of the fight against allergic rhinitis. Sprays based on seawater should be used 2–4 times a day. They help cleanse the nasal cavity of allergens and germs. Vasoconstrictor drops relieve the symptom of congestion.But they should not be used for more than 5-7 days. In difficult cases, hormonal preparations in the form of sprays are also used. They effectively relieve swelling and allergic inflammation in the nose. But you need to use them only as directed by a doctor and for at least a month.

Medication is well combined with physiotherapy. As a rule, this is phonophoresis or electrophoresis with antihistamines. These procedures cleanse the nasal cavity and the respiratory tract in general. The so-called salt mines and inhalations are very effective.

However, it should be borne in mind: it is possible to completely recover from allergic rhinitis only by getting rid of the allergen. Or, if this is not possible, undergo a special “vaccination” by an allergist. Then the sensitivity to this substance or product will be reduced to a minimum.

Fourth reason


In this case, the long-term use of the medicine is a provocateur of problems.

The most common culprits of medication rhinitis are vasoconstrictor drops and sprays, designed, on the contrary, to facilitate breathing with a runny nose.

In addition to the addictive effect, these seemingly harmless drugs can increase the heart rate and worsen the condition of people with hypertension and glaucoma.

In addition, few people know that medicinal rhinitis can be caused by high blood pressure pills and some psychotropic drugs.


The only way out of this situation is to cancel the causative drug, or replace it with an alternative, but safe one. However, in the first days of cancellation, the nose can be “capricious”: it swells, breathes poorly, and it is difficult to distinguish odors. Sprays

can help here

based on seawater and inhalation. As well as restorative self-help measures – gymnastics, hardening, breathing according to Strelnikova.

And in a very extreme case – if the nose still does not breathe – this is a small surgical correction. In meaning and technically, it resembles that in vasomotor rhinitis.

Reason Fifth


Doctors call this problem atrophic rhinitis. It can be related to heredity or due to poor ecology.Work in hot, dry, dusty rooms is especially unfavorable in this regard. But in addition, this type of rhinitis may indicate a deficiency of vitamins or iron in the body.

A specific symptom of such a cold is the appearance of dry crusts in the nose and periodic nosebleeds.


The first step is to identify the factors causing the disease and eliminate them.Then local treatment is prescribed. It includes drugs that soften the crust in the nose. These are seawater-based sprays and vegetable oils. They need to be used for a long time. Ointments containing vitamins, microelements and healing substances are also useful for a “dry” nose. They improve the nutrition of the mucous membrane, due to which the structure and function of the organ is restored.

Another component of the treatment regimen is agents that reduce the viscosity of nasal discharge. These are drugs with fluimucil, alkaline inhalation or simply nasal irrigation with alkaline solutions.

Vitamins and biostimulants also play an important role. They mobilize the restorative properties of the body and promote the healing of nasal tissues.

Reason six


These formations are nothing more than overgrown areas of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity or sinuses. For the time being, they can behave quietly, without showing themselves in any way.But as they grow and in the case of infection, they provoke the development of a special type of rhinitis – polypous rhinosinusitis.

Computed tomography and endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity help to clarify the diagnosis and measure polyps with millimeter precision.


There are both conservative and surgical treatments for this problem.However, an integrated approach is most effective.

First, the doctor removes the polyps themselves. The operation is performed through the nose, without incisions and does not leave any marks on the face.

And then outpatient treatment is carried out. Its meaning is to cleanse the nasal cavity and restore damaged tissues with the help of

special sprays. Slow down the growth of new polyps in the nasal cavity.

For this, metered-dose inhalers are used, with which you need to irrigate the nasal cavity every day for at least three

months.These are hormonal agents by nature. But you should not be afraid of their long-term use. They act directly on the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and sinuses and are not absorbed into the bloodstream.

You can download the article in .pdf format here


90,000 Signs of pregnancy


Since we are talking about the functions of the body, it is worth mentioning the disturbances in the intestines caused by the same hormonal changes.You may have to put a book in the toilet!

Vivid dreams and nightmares

Expectant mothers often have vivid dreams and nightmares. One of the reasons is all the same notorious changes in hormonal levels.

But there is another explanation: the sleep of a pregnant woman is often interrupted due to going to the toilet, movements of the child or seizures, and the fresher the dream, the higher the likelihood of remembering its content.


A woman’s body often reacts to the birth of a new life by lowering blood pressure.In addition, as the abdomen grows, the center of gravity changes. All this leads to the fact that a pregnant woman begins to stand uncertainly on her own feet.



As the fetus grows, the uterus increasingly compresses the inferior vena cava, a large blood vessel that runs in the right side of the body.

An increase in pressure in the pelvic area leads to a decrease in blood flow to the legs – and, as a result, an unpleasant disease such as varicose veins develops.

Alas, this is not the end! Stagnant processes can spread throughout the body. It is not uncommon for pregnant women to compare their bodies to a roadmap because of the web of blue veins protruding on it.

Other children

Changes in the body are not only felt by the expectant mother. Pregnant women who already have children say that in the early stages they become more moody and require more attention.

And if the mother is still breastfeeding, she may notice that the baby is increasingly refusing milk – its taste changes due to hormones “raging” in her body.

Source: kidspot.com.au

Vitamin D for children | Children’s City Hospital

Today, with a large selection in pharmacies of all kinds of multivitamin complexes and dietary supplements, you can safely stop at one thing. However, our body is a very complex structure, and the violation of any link in it leads to a failure in a number of systems. Especially in children who grow up, develop and require a lot of nutrients.

Manufacturers of vitamins are often concerned only with the receipt by a person of a number of essential vitamins, so to speak, “vital”.At the same time, completely forgetting about the “intermediaries” that help the assimilation and synthesis of the main ones. Let’s talk about one of the “intermediaries” whose role is no less important – vitamin D.

Vitamin D deficiency

It is generally accepted that all vitamins, minerals and nutrients we obtain from food and supplements. However, vitamin D can be synthesized (produced) by the body itself and in sufficient quantities. During the photolysis reaction, which is accelerated by ultraviolet light, cholecalciferol is synthesized from the internal metabolic product (endogenous metabolite) – the very one that our body needs.

This reaction is beautifully written, but in modern conditions of polluted megacities, a disturbed ozone layer or a lack of sunlight, a deficiency in vitamin D is still formed. But this does not mean that the inhabitants of the northern regions completely suffer from hypovitaminosis D or rickets. The diet of a health-conscious person (and even more so a child) certainly contains fish, eggs, butter. Thus, it is possible to maintain a balance of vitamin D intake.

Vitamin D is the main regulator of the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the human body, so the need for it in a child’s body is very high.Lack of vitamin D, as well as calcium and phosphorus, is one of the most common causes of rickets in babies. Rickets can begin to manifest itself as early as the second month of a baby’s life, and even earlier in premature babies. The main symptoms are the following: tearfulness, increased irritability, poor sleep, a slowdown in the pace of development, baldness in the back of the head, and bone pliability.

And yet our children get sick. They suffer from rickets and suffer from spasmophilia. Let’s conditionally divide such children into two large groups. The first group includes children who do not receive sufficient amounts of vitamin D and do not have adequate nutrition, and the second includes children who are completely safe, with adequate nutrition and receiving a prophylactic dose of vitamin D (we will talk about it later).

So, with the first group it is quite simple and understandable – children need not only a diet, but also physical exercises, sunlight (after all, we all remember that glass does not transmit ultraviolet rays). With the second group, the situation is more complicated: such children, at first glance, should not have rickets and should not, however, “face” and curvature of the limbs, deformities of the chest and skull.Such children are capricious and easily excitable.

The fact is that vitamin D indirectly (mentioned at the beginning of the article) participates in the formation of the musculoskeletal skeleton and the nervous system. Without sufficient amounts of it, calcium and phosphorus simply cannot be absorbed. Through a series of complex chemical reactions, phosphorus is gradually lost from the kidneys, and calcium cannot be absorbed in the intestines. Therefore, minerals do not reach the bones for their growth and strengthening.

And we observe a picture in children: up to 5 months, with the main emphasis on the hands, the shoulder and forearm are bent, the head takes on an unnatural shape, the fontanelles do not close well, their edges are soft and pliable.Such children sweat a lot (and do not blame everything on the imperfection of vegetation), often cry, shudder restlessly in a dream. Toddlers later sit down due to muscle weakness.

From 6 months, the child sits down, the weakness of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall allows the lower ribs to “open”, which in medicine is called “the reversal of the lower aperture of the chest.” The baby’s body becomes like a triangle: narrow shoulders and a strong expansion above the tummy.

Later, when it comes time to stomp their feet, mothers notice a significant curvature of them. Decreased muscle tone can be noticed and felt, most likely, only by a doctor.

But nothing lasts forever, children develop and by the age of three, metabolic processes in most cases are normalized. The body gets used to living in such conditions. However, bone deformities remain, as does reduced muscle tone. This predisposes to the development of flat feet, scoliotic posture and scoliosis, visual impairment and, in fact, to very, very many diseases.

after all, everything started so well: my mother strictly followed the doctor’s instructions, dripped vitamin D into the baby’s mouth, walked with him, kept him in the sun.But even doctors cannot always determine the required number of hours of ultraviolet baths or walks. A significant role is played only by the totality of all preventive measures: walks, and massage, and movement, and balanced nutrition of a nursing mother, and even a pregnant woman’s diet.

That is why in most regions today doctors prescribe vitamin D.

Standard prophylaxis regimen: from the 21st day of a child’s life, 1 drop of an oil solution containing 500 IU of vitamin D.Reception daily, with the exception of the temperate summer months. For premature babies, the dosage is doubled, the admission is carried out for two years.

But, taking into account a number of factors (mothers forget to give, the child has concomitant pathology or deep prematurity), the terms are negotiated individually. The doctor is obliged to monitor the intake of vitamin D, as well as detect the initial signs of its deficiency in time. The therapeutic dose for rickets 1 is prescribed in 4 drops of an oil solution; with rickets 2 – at least 5 drops; with a more severe degree, the dosage is selected individually, more often concomitant somatic pathology is first treated.

Vitamin D overdose

An overdose of vitamin D (hypervitaminosis) is less relevant, but therefore more difficult. It is possible with the use of excessive doses unnecessarily or with excessive insolation with the simultaneous use of an oil solution. According to the manifestations in a child, hypervitaminosis corresponds to intoxication: vomiting, fever, constipation, exicosis (dehydration). But gradually (more often in the second half of life) chronic intoxication develops, which can manifest itself in almost any acute condition – both a hypertensive crisis and acute renal failure.

Treatment of this condition is reduced to excluding the intake of vitamin D, foods containing calcium. Vitamin D blockers or antagonists are often used – vitamins A and E. In order for calcium to be less absorbed in the intestine, antacids are acceptable for use. In more severe conditions, combined treatment is prescribed, the essence of which boils down to removing calcium from the body, accelerating the processing of vitamin D in the liver, as well as replenishing magnesium and potassium. If necessary, drugs are used to treat concomitant pathology that has arisen due to hypervitaminosis.

Summing up everything written above, I would like to wish parents to try to observe the “golden mean”, not to be afraid to ask doctors and pay attention to children.

90,000 Symptoms of the eruption of the first milk teeth in infants and children

At about six months old, your baby’s first baby tooth will erupt. While it is impossible to predict the exact date of this disturbing event, there are several (unfortunately rather unpleasant) signs that the moment is near.This process is different for all children, but in most cases some – if not all – of the following teething symptoms are observed:

Swelling of the gums. Almost every child has swollen gums to varying degrees. When a tooth begins to erupt, the surrounding soft tissue swells and becomes tender.

Salivation. It’s amazing how much saliva can flow out of such a small mouth! Teething almost always causes increased salivation, which sometimes begins several months before the first tooth appears.

Skin rashes. A small rash on your baby’s cheeks or chin caused by increased salivation should not be a cause for concern. Try to wipe up the drool as it develops, and if your baby’s skin is already irritated, just moisturize it until the rash goes away.

Pain. In some children, teething is very painful, while in others everything seems to be easy and simple. Yet almost every infant experiences pain in one way or another, as evidenced by crying and irritability.

Irritability. Because of the discomfort caused by teething teeth, your little one is likely to become moody and irritable. Someone only stays in such a mood for a short time, while for someone it can persist for weeks at the eruption of each tooth.

Chewing. Children quickly learn that gum pressure reduces teething discomfort. Be prepared for the fact that the baby will begin to pull into the mouth and gnaw everything in a row – from special teething rings to his own fingers.

Slight heat. Sometimes swelling of the gums can lead to a rise in temperature up to 37. 5-38 degrees. You can fight this heat using the most common methods. If the temperature does not subside for more than three days or rises above 38 degrees, you should consult a doctor.

Loss of appetite. During teething, sucking can be uncomfortable for children, making them reluctant to eat. Even children who have already begun to eat solid foods can refuse to eat.If your baby starts to miss more than two feeds in a row, check with your pediatrician.

Sleep problems. If a child is uncomfortable during the day, it is likely that he will feel uncomfortable at night. During teething, babies often wake up at night (even if they’ve slept well all night long before).

Food allergy in children – symptoms, treatment, diet

Food allergy in childhood

Rash, redness, mood swings – these are just a few of the symptoms that can accompany food allergies – an abnormal reaction of the immune system to any dish or its individual components. What are its causes, what are the risk factors, and what kind of food to choose in case of an allergic reaction – read in this material.

Food allergy symptoms

The causes of food intolerances are related to the fact that the immune system “incorrectly” recognizes them as potentially dangerous, and produces an excess of protective antibodies. An overly violent reaction leads to the fact that the child is allergic to certain types of food. 1.3

Symptoms of food allergy in children are different.But most often, food allergy manifests itself on the part of the skin – itching, feeling of tightness and dryness. Local edema may occur on the skin, a rash (urticaria), redness, blisters may appear. The second most frequent manifestation is reactions from the respiratory system. Runny nose, nasal congestion, sore throat, cough of varying intensity. Also, reactions from the organs of the gastrointestinal tract can indicate food allergies. Colic, dyspepsia, stool disturbances from diarrhea to constipation begin to disturb a very young child. Older children complain of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, a scratching sensation in the throat, behind the breastbone.

Do not forget about the general symptoms of food allergies: the child becomes lethargic, capricious, does not sleep well, does worse in school (or psycho-emotional development), is prone to sleepiness during the day. 2.3

Causes of food allergy

Newborns and young children with a predisposition may suffer from allergies due to their physiological characteristics.The fact is that a child is born with an immature gastrointestinal tract, the intestinal walls are permeable to many substances, the enzyme system is still imperfect. Therefore, it is difficult for the body to cope with the digestion of proteins. The body seems to be in a state of constant “alert” and the ingress of even a small amount of allergens leads to a response from the immune system and the development of a violent allergic reaction. 1.2

In older children, many internal and external conditions become risk factors. For example, heredity – after all, if one of the child’s parents suffered from an allergic disease, then with a high degree of probability, the baby will also have a tendency to it. Unfavorable environmental factors influence – polluted atmosphere, car exhaust, lack of green plants in cities. Very often, a dysfunction of the immune system in the form of an allergic reaction occurs in children with a labile, mobile psyche, with abrupt transitions from friendliness and calmness to crying and back.Finally, bad habits become an important factor, both in children and mothers during pregnancy. This is incorrectly introduced complementary foods and the early introduction of potentially allergenic foods into the child’s diet: citrus fruits, nuts, chocolate, berries, honey, and, of course, the children’s habit of eating only something tasty (usually unhealthy; chocolate, carbonated drinks, fast food ) 2.3.4

List of foods that provoke allergies

Due to the extreme individuality of the immune system, it is almost impossible to predict its response. However, there is an approximate list of foods, divided into groups depending on their allergenicity – that is, the ability to cause a sharp reaction from the immune system and allergy symptoms. It is important to remember that it is not at all necessary that any product from the first column will cause a reaction. Like any low-allergenic product, in some cases, it can cause an overreaction to it. 2.3.4

Examples of the most typical exoallergens

Highly allergenic products Products of medium allergenicity Low allergy products
all citrus fruits, strawberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, pineapples. peaches, cranberries, lingonberries, cherries, blueberries, black currants. pear, gooseberry, dried apricots, plums, white currants, apples and pears.
carrots, tomatoes, bell peppers, radishes. potatoes, beets, peppers, peas, corn. broccoli, green peas, zucchini, squash, white cabbage and cauliflower, cucumbers, pumpkin.
eggs, sausages and sausages, chicken, sea fish. beef, rabbit, pork. lamb.
Whole cow’s milk, cheeses, yoghurts with additives. fermented milk products.
wheat, rye. buckwheat, oats, rice, peas, beans. pearl barley, millet.
coffee, cocoa, chocolate, nuts, honey. xylitol, fructose
mushrooms, carbonated drinks, packaged juices. vegetable oil.

Oral candidiasis: symptoms, features, diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Contents of the article:

  1. What is candidiasis?
  2. Causes of oral candidiasis URL
  3. Symptoms and features of the course of candidiasis in children
  4. Symptoms of oral candidiasis in adults
  5. Diagnosis of oral candidiasis
  6. Treatment of candidiasis

The health of our body directly depends on the state of the oral cavity. However, if you thought that only the integrity of the teeth affects the state of the oral cavity, this is not the case. In addition to dental units, the oral mucosa, which is an ideal breeding ground for various bacteria, which can both strengthen immunity and adversely affect the general state of the body, have a no less effect on human health, causing various diseases. One of these ailments is oral candidiasis, which has no age restrictions, and therefore occurs in people of any age.

What is candidiasis?

Oral cavity candidiasis (thrush) is a white curdled plaque on the oral mucosa caused by a single-celled fungus of the genus Candida. Ideally, this organism is present in a small amount among the useful microflora of the intestine, vagina, nasopharynx, or on the skin of 70-80% of people. This state of affairs in medicine is considered the norm, since in small quantities this type of fungus is completely harmless. However, under the influence of certain factors, the acidic environment in the human body may become less concentrated, which will lead to an increase in the pH level and the proliferation of a fungus such as Candida.

Oral candidiasis is most common in children and old people who are forced to wear a denture, under which an ideal environment for the growth of the fungus is formed. Adults also suffer from candidiasis, whose immunity has weakened for one reason or another.

Causes of thrush in the oral cavity

The following circumstances can serve as the reasons for the appearance and development of candidiasis:

  • Weakened immunity. These can be age-related changes or a deficiency of immune cells as a consequence of a previous illness.
  • Pregnancy. In women who are in an “interesting” position, the hormonal background changes, which leads to metabolic disorders and weakening of the immune system. As a result, the body turns into a favorable environment for the development of a harmful fungus.
  • Taking antibiotics. Antibiotics destroy many representatives of the beneficial microflora, and fungi resistant to its effects, on the contrary, begin to multiply.
  • Radiotherapy (radiation therapy). Exposure to radioactive rays not only kills cancer cells, but also disrupts the body’s microflora.
  • Wearing a denture. An ideal breeding environment for harmful organisms of candidiasis develops under the construction of the prosthesis.
  • Bad habits (smoking, alcohol and drug use).
  • Microtrauma of the oral mucosa.
  • Chronic dysbiosis. For some organisms, an imbalance in microflora is common. In such patients, the disease may be mildly chronic.

Also among the factors that can cause the development of candidiasis include some diseases that significantly weaken the immune system: tuberculosis, HIV, diseases of the digestive tract and adrenal glands.

Symptoms and features of the course of the disease in children

Children belong to the risk category, which is more susceptible than adults to the “attack” of white Candida. According to statistics, 20% of infants under the age of 1 year and 5% of newborn babies carry thrush, having become infected from the mother or from the staff of the maternity hospital. The reason for infection and active reproduction of the fungus is the lack of formation of the oral mucosa, weak immunity, as well as the instability of microflora, which is the norm for children of this age.

Usually, the inner side of the baby’s cheeks becomes the breeding ground for the fungus. But tonsils, tongue and pharynx can also be affected. As a rule, it is quite difficult to identify thrush at an early stage in infants. A slightly reddened oral cavity, on which there is not even a sign of plaque, does not cause concern for mothers. However, after a few days, characteristic grains appear in the baby’s mouth, which in appearance resemble particles of semolina. If at this stage you do not start treatment of oral candidiasis, then small “semolina” dots will gradually turn into large cottage cheese-like lumps, and in some places – into white films.Both those and other manifestations of the disease are easily removed using a sterile swab. After removing plaque, pink spots remain in place of lumps and films, and sometimes even droplets of blood appear.

In the absence of treatment, the child’s oral cavity is covered with a uniform white coating, hiding the inflamed oral membrane. The child becomes moody, refuses to eat and breast. There may also be an increase in temperature up to 39C.

Symptoms of oral candidiasis in adults

Candidiasis in adults, as well as in children, does not appear immediately.Therefore, the symptoms of the disease at different stages will differ. However, with an increase in the number of bacteria on the surface of the mucous membrane, the signs of the disease become more and more evident.

  1. Slight redness, swelling and dry mouth. These are signs of the initial stage, when the fungus is just beginning to “conquer” the territory. Candida penetrates into cells and, releasing enzymes, dissolve mucosal tissues. As a result, the patient experiences slight discomfort (it can also be more or less noticeable painful sensations).
  2. The appearance of a white curdled bloom. First, small, barely noticeable white grains appear on the mucous surface of the cheeks, gums, palate or tongue, which subsequently turn into well-visible lumps and merge together into white films. At this stage, the flakes are easily removed, and under them red spots with small drops of blood are found. Also at this stage, the patient may experience slight itching and burning.
  3. Severe itching and burning. These symptoms of candidiasis indicate deep tissue damage and allergies, with which the body reacts to the secretion of enzymes by fungal organisms.At this stage, not only the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, tongue and palate, but also the pharynx and even the surface of the lips can be affected. Also at this stage, an increase in temperature and the appearance of a mycotic seizure in the corners of the mouth is possible.

The most severe stage of candidiasis is complete poisoning of the body with the enzymes of candida white, and, as a result, a significant weakening of the immune system. However, such severe manifestations are currently extremely rare, since most patients seek to cure oral candidiasis, the symptoms of which do not yet indicate extreme stages.

Diagnosis of thrush of the oral cavity

In order to confirm the diagnosis, the doctor performs a visual examination of the oral cavity, and also listens to the patient’s complaints. In addition, the patient will also have to pass some tests, which include:

  • scraping from the outer mucous membrane;
  • blood sugar test;
  • clinical blood test.

After receiving the results of the laboratory test, the doctor will be able to make the right appointments.Indeed, often an ailment is a side effect of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, leukemia and gastrointestinal diseases. Accordingly, without eliminating the listed diseases, you should not hope to get rid of thrush.

Treatment of candidiasis

Treatment of the disease in each case will be assigned on an individual basis. However, any system will contain drugs such as:

  1. Antimycotics (polyene antibiotics and imidazoles). They destroy candida not only on the surface of the oral mucosa, but also in other organs, contributing to the restoration of damaged tissues.
  2. Vitamins (B2, B6, C and PP). Helps strengthen the immune system.
  3. Calcium gluconate and iron. Calcium will reduce the manifestation of an allergic reaction, and the constant intake of new doses of iron into the body will restore the exchange of iron, which is disturbed due to the multiplication of candida.
  4. Preparations for local exposure (iodine, lysozyme tablets, levorin ointment). The funds have a local effect on the foci of thrush.
  5. Rinsing solutions.These can be disinfectants and alkaline solutions, which are used to rinse your mouth every 2-3 hours.

Also, during the course of therapy, it is recommended to follow a diet, during which you should limit the amount of confectionery, spicy and sour foods, focusing on warm and semi-liquid dishes with a neutral taste.