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Natural skin oil: 25 Best Essential Oils for Skin

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40 Natural Face Serums & Oils of 2021, Rated by Beauty Experts

If you want to seriously boost your skin care routine, start by adding a potent organic face oil or natural serum to your daily regimen. Face oils and serums are concentrated concoctions made from powerful plant-based essences, oils, and nutrients. Unlike moisturizers, which work by adding a surface layer of hydration and protection, serums are made from nutrients which can penetrate deeply into the skin and target specific skin concerns such as dark spots, wrinkles, collagen production, and moisture retention. No matter what your skin is going through there is a natural serum to treat it. Simply put, these are a must if you want your skin to glow every single day.

Now that you’re curious about the benefits of face oils, I bet you have a few questions. Like, which natural face oil will be best for my skin? Which ingredients are the most effective and worth the money? How should I incorporate a face oil and/or serum into my skin care routine? How do I find the best natural face oil that’s truly organic and clean?

Lucky for you, our team of beauty experts have put together this simple guide to answers all of those questions and more. Included in this guide is a list of our top 40 organic and all-natural facial oils for every skin condition. Click here to skip ahead to our top list of organic face oils. Enjoy!

Facial Oils vs Facial Serums: What’s the Difference?

So far, we’ve used the terms interchangeably, but there are actually a few key differences that make them each very unique parts of a complete routine:

FACIAL SERUMS

  • Made from nutrients with small molecular sizes so they can easily penetrate deeply into the skin.
  • Designed to treat specific skin conditions or concerns (e. dark spots, acne, fine lines, wrinkles, dull complexion, oily skin, etc.).
  • Typically, serums have very lightweight water-based formulas which absorb easily.
  • Serums are designed to be applied under your natural moisturizer or facial oil and after cleansing and toning.

FACIAL OILS

  • Made from a blend of powerful plant-based oils (both carrier and essential oils).
  • Typically, natural facial oils are very rich. Though, many well formulated oils are non-greasy and absorb well.
  • Designed to moisturize, repair, and protect.
  • Oils mimic our skin’s natural sebum and help to maintain its lipid barrier to improve moisture retention.
  • Can be used as a replacement for a typical cream moisturizer or used together (simply add a few drops of facial oil to your cream moisturizer).

How to Use Natural Serums & Organic Facial Oils?

You don’t have to choose between these two. In fact, it is perfectly suitable to add both to your daily routine. Here’s how:

Cleanser > Mask + Exfoliate > Toner > Facial Serum > Facial Oil > Cream SPF Moisturizer

The above routine works for both AM and PM routines. While many can be worn both day and night, some are intended solely for night time use. This is because certain ingredients (such as vitamin A, carrot seed oil, vitamin C, and exfoliating acids AHA/BHA) can cause your skin to become sensitive to light.

There are many ways to apply serums and facial oils. One way is to use a jade roller or Gua Sha tool to massage the treatments into the skin. The most common is to add a few drops of the serum or oil to your hand and rub your hands together to activate. Then gently press the serum or oil into the skin and massage all around. Allow the product to fully absorb before layering on other products.

Which Natural Oils & Serum Ingredients Are Most Effective?

Natural serums are crafted with bioavailable and readily absorbed oils that are rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A and C, lycopene, beta-carotene and antioxidants. The essential fatty acids commonly found in premium natural serums play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin-barrier function, fighting the signs of aging, and alleviating inflammatory conditions.

Other star ingredients that are worth the money include hyaluronic acid, vitamin c, vitamin A, rosehip seed oil, lycopene, rose oil, carrot seed oil, prickly pear oil, blue tansy, borage seed, tamanu oil, vitamin E, squalene, and chia oil (just to name a few).

Vitamin C, for example, is a powerful antioxidant that has a wide variety of positive dermatological benefits such as UV protection, anti-aging, and skin brightening. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the production of collagen. Carotenoids (such as lycopene and beta-carotene) have significant photo-protective properties which can combat wrinkling, sagging, and hyperpigmentation.

All in all, the effectiveness of an ingredient really depends on your skin type and individual skin needs. Here are some tips for each skin type:

Sensitive: Sensitive skin needs ingredients that are non-reactive, anti-inflammatory, and moisturizing. For serums, look for lightweight and nourishing ingredients like aloe vera, chamomile, rosehip, calendula, tamanu, and seabuckthorn oil. For facial oils, look for calming and non-irritating oils like sunflower, jojoba, grapeseed, olive, avocado, and rosehip seed oil.

Dry: Dry skin types should look to combine a hydration boosting serum (like a hyaluronic acid serum) with a rich omega-3 fatty acid facial oil made with luscious oils like avocado, rosehip seed oil, rose oil, marula oil, vitamin E, squalene, and olive oil.  This combination will deliver a massive boost of hydration and maintain that moisture all day long.

Oily + Acne-Prone: Natural oils can help to balance your skin’s natural sebum production, fight acne-causing bacteria, and actually reduce the frequency of blackheads by keeping pores clear. The best oils for oily prone skin are castor oil, sunflower, grapeseed, jojoba, and olive oil. Essential oils and extracts that are great for treating acne include rosemary, pomegranate, coconut, neem, burdock, and tea tree oil.

Mature: Mature skin needs hydration, antioxidants, and omega fatty acids to maintain a plump, glowing, youthful look. The best ingredients found within a natural serum or organic facial oil for mature skin are hyaluronic acid, vitamin C, olive oil, squalene, pomegranate + other antioxidant packed berries, rosehip seed, vitamin E, tamanu, carrot seed oil, and rose oil. Mature skin types should combine a powerful vitamin C serum with a facial oil and moisturizer for maximum hydration.

Which Facial Oil & Serum Ingredients to Avoid?

Don’t be fooled by products that claim to be “organic” and “natural” while still containing all of the fillers, preservatives, and undesirable ingredients. Conventional or unauthentic organic facial oils often contain synthetic fragrances, parabens, phthalates, silicones, and petroleum-based ingredients.

Finding a truly organic face oil that is free from these ingredients is easier said than done. Our team of natural beauty experts researched over 300 products to bring you this list of the best organic and all-natural serums and facial oils. We tested everything from budget products to the most luxurious (and pricey) serums on the market. In the end, these  products met our standards for purity and effectiveness. As always, all ingredients were thoroughly reviewed to ensure that they are actually natural and/or organic.

Be sure to use the “FILTER BY” feature below to narrow this mega list down by your skin type and preferences! Still need help finding the best organic serum or facial oil for your skin? Then, check out the Ox Box Organic Beauty Box! Let our team of experts choose 6-8 high quality organic skin care products specifically for your skin.

Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

Abstract

Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

Keywords: plant oil, barrier function, barrier repair, wound healing, inflammation, antioxidant activity, skin aging

1. Introduction

Skin, the largest organ of the body, functions as the necessary interface between the internal and the external environment. Thus, it continuously protects the body from noxious stimuli, e.g., microorganisms, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, allergens, and irritants. Its unique role and function is a direct result of its structure and makeup, particularly of the most superficial part, the epidermis. The main cellular component of the epidermis includes keratinocytes, but there are also melanocytes, Merkel cells, gamma delta T-lymphocytes, and Langerhans cells. Keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis preserve their ability to proliferate upward to form the spinous layer and the granular layer. Beyond the granular layer, the keratinocytes terminally differentiate into corneocytes in the horny layer. In the outmost part of epidermis, corneocytes (compact keratinocytes without nuclei), together with the intercellular lamellar compartment (lipids), contribute to the structure and function of the stratum corneum (SC).

A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: plant oils and atopic dermatitis (AD), skin aging, skin barrier function, skin cancer, and wound healing (WH). Focusing on potential benefits of topically applied plant oils, we chose those that have been previously investigated in human skin, animal skin (mainly murine models of skin disease), or in vitro studies with keratinocytes. The search included clinical use of topical oil plants, but excluded more specific studies related to the biochemical extraction, purification, and modification of these plant oils and their byproducts.

1.1. Stratum Corneum Structure and Function

The structure of SC is like a brick wall, in which the corneocytes or “bricks” are surrounded by the intercellular lipid lamellae that act like the “mortar” to maintain both SC integrity and skin permeability barrier [1]. The skin’s barrier function depends mainly on the integrity of the SC. During differentiation, the plasma membrane of outer keratinocytes is replaced by the specialized cornified envelope (CE) of corneocytes. The CE gives corneocytes their rigidity. The development of the CE is attributed to the crosslinking of insoluble proteins (involucrin and loricrin) by transglutaminases. Some of the lipids (precursors of ceramides, free fatty acids (FFAs), and part of cholesterol) are synthesized in the keratinocytes at the stratum granulosum (SG) and then released from the lamellar bodies (LBs) into the SG-SC interface, whereas the remaining lipids are secreted onto the skin surface from the sebaceous glands (sebum). The permeability barrier is provided by the intercellular lipid-enriched matrix, which is composed of ceramides, FFAs, and cholesterol. Following the secretion of LBs, intercellular lipids are enzymatically modified to become the highly hydrophobic and organized lamellar structure. SC lamellar membranes are mostly composed of saturated FFAs of significantly longer chain length, which varies between C16 and C26. The main FFAs in the lamellar membranes are palmitic acid (C16:0) by 10% (mass/mass), stearic acid (C18:0) by 10% (mass/mass), behenic acid (C22:0) by 15% (mass/mass), lignoceric acid (C24:0) by 25% (mass/mass), and hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) by 10% (mass/mass) constitution of the total FFAs in SC [2]. Other FFAs that present less in the SC include oleic acid (C18:1, n-9), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4, n-6), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3), linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) as well as its derivatives that are linolenic acids [α-linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3, n-6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3, n-6)] [3]. The C22 and C24 saturated FFAs are present in relatively large amounts among the saturated FFAs, whereas the C18 unsaturated FFAs are the major constituents in unsaturated FFAs. In fact, linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid [4]. Aside from linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, the remaining FFAs can be synthesized in the keratinocytes [5,6,7].

The SC acts as a permeability barrier and an antimicrobial barrier. This antimicrobial barrier is attributed to the weak acidity of skin surface pH, free sphingoid bases generated from epidermal ceramides [8], and antimicrobial peptides within the intercellular compartment. Hydration of the SC is also crucial for the SC integrity and the maintenance of the skin barrier homeostasis. Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) components within the corneocytes contribute to the hydration of the SC. The composition of NMF includes free amino acids, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, lactic acid, urocanic acid, organic acids, peptides, sugars, urea, citrate, glycerol, etc. Filaggrin, one of the terminal differentiation markers of the epidermis, also aids in SC hydration. Filaggrin is degraded into free amino acids in the SC. These amino acids are further metabolized into hygroscopic derivatives such as pyrrolidone carboxylic acid from glutamine and urocanic acid from histidine. This makes filaggrin one of the major factors influencing the hydration status of the SC.

1.2. Atopic Dermatitis and Barrier Function

In the presence of dermatitis, the hydration of the SC decreases and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increases [9]. In clinical practice, the measure of TEWL is an important indicator of skin barrier function. Additionally, skin dryness (with or without clinical desquamation) is often associated to inferior barrier function [10]. It has been shown that emollient use for eczematous dermatitis such as AD improves barrier function by restoring hydration at SC and reducing TEWL [11]. AD is a common chronic skin inflammatory disease. The pathogenesis of AD is attributed to both epidermal barrier dysfunction and chronic Th3 inflammation within the skin. Impairments in skin barrier function are inevitably present everywhere on skin surface in all AD patients independent of the clinical appearance of the skin. As a result, this impairment of the skin barrier is considered a primary event in AD pathogenesis [12]. Perturbed barrier function largely contributes to the allergic sensitization to both protein antigens and staphylococcal superantigens. Moreover, the inflammation underneath the barrier can alter the differentiation of epidermis, leading to disrupted barrier function. Research has shown that Th3-related cytokines (IL-4) exacerbate skin barrier impairment by modifying the keratinocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis of the intercellular compartment of the SC [13,14]. Therefore, it has been proposed that early interventions to repair the epidermal barrier with the use of appropriate soaps, emollients, or moisturizers may be useful in the control of this chronic disease as well as the prevention of its progression, also known as atopic march [12].

1.3. Wound Healing

Wound healing (WH) is a dynamic and tightly regulated process of cellular, humoral, and molecular mechanisms. The process is depicted in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling [15]. In the hemostasis phase, the clotting cascade is instantly activated following an injury, creating a temporary wound matrix [16]. The inflammation phase consists of an innate immune response crucial in the breakdown and cleanup of tissue and pathogen debris at the site of injury. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) release reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide, facilitate degradation of foreign organisms, and initiate phagocytosis of pathogens. Additionally, PMNs secrete high levels of PMN collagenase, elastase, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which break down damaged cells and extracellular matrix [17]. Macrophages work through phagocytosis of pathogens and cell debris [18]. Increased numbers of macrophages along with persistent inflammation are observed in chronic wounds [18]. In contrast to acute wounds, where inflammation is crucial in the initial phases of wound repair, chronic non-healing wounds could result from the aberrant inflammatory response in proportion to its intensity and duration [15,16,17,18]. Therefore, inflammation can positively or negatively affect the WH process. Excessive inflammation and/or duration is correlated with increased number of macrophages, resulting in compromised WH outcomes. Additionally, excessive levels of MMPs that are released from PMNs and macrophages, lead to extensive damage of extracellular matrix. This interferes with the normal formation of the scaffold for new cells to migrate and proliferate in wounded areas [19]. Studies of impaired WH models of obese (ob/ob) and diabetic (db/db) mice have shown that the number of macrophages is elevated in those models [20]. Wound closure in obese mice (ob/ob) can be improved by systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) treatment through inactivation of macrophages [20]. Similarly, ROS and their oxidative reaction products present in the wound may also play a major role in tissue damage [15,16,17,18]. Although ROS are part of normal regulatory circuits of skin barrier function, inflammation, and WH under physiological conditions, an excess in ROS is detrimental to the WH process [18].

1.4. Skin Inflammation and Proliferation

The skin encounters daily onslaught by exogenous stimuli. Noxious stimuli sometimes result in injuries and/or infections, leading to wound, inflammatory dermatoses, skin aging, or skin carcinogenesis. Inflammation takes place in response to these damages to the normal skin barrier. At the molecular level, the inflammatory response participates in a series of complex repair pathways related to the innate immune response, cutaneous differentiation, and skin barrier repair [15]. Initially, upon inflammatory response, the keratinocytes and the innate immune cells such as leukocytes (PMNs, macrophages, and lymphocytes), mast cells, and dendritic cells are activated [15]. Secreted cytokines such as IL-1α, TNF-α and IL-6 induce the chemokines of chemotaxis that attract the immune cells to the site of injury and infection. ROS are produced by activated keratinocytes and immune cells. Immune cells also secrete elastases and proteinases [15]. The inflammatory microenvironment contributes to tissue repair and infection prevention/control. However, the chemokines produced by activated keratinocytes and immune cells are also able to damage the skin tissue in proximity to the target of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the intensity of inflammation and the time to resolution are critical in avoiding or at least limiting damage to normal skin tissue [15]. Thus, modulation of inflammation is important in maintaining skin homeostasis. If the initial acute response fails to resolve the causative factor, then the inflammatory response will continue and the subsequent inflammatory microenvironment will disrupt skin homeostasis. If the dysregulation of inflammatory skin response persists, chronic inflammatory dermatoses such as AD or psoriasis will arise [15,21].

In the epidermis, the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is highly active. Linoleic acid, the major 18-carbon n-6 PUFA in normal epidermis, in the epidermis is metabolized via the 15-lipoxygenase pathway mainly into 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, which possesses anti-proliferative properties [3]. Dietary deficiency of linoleic acid results in a scaly and pruritic skin disorder similar to AD in hairless mice [22]. Arachidonic acid, the second major PUFA in the skin, is another substrate of 15-lipoxygenase, by which it is transformed to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). 15-HETE specifically inhibits leukotriene B4-induced chemotaxis of human PMNs [23]. However, arachidonic acid is mainly metabolized via the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway into the prostaglandins E(2), F(2α), and D(2) [3]. At low concentrations, the prostaglandins function to modulate skin homeostasis, whereas, at high concentrations, they induce skin inflammation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes [24]. Moreover, squamous cell carcinoma of skin is the neoplasm that consistently overexpresses COX-2 in the parenchyma and the mesenchyma of premalignant and malignant lesions [25]. Increased levels of prostaglandins E(2) and F(2α) in premalignant and/or malignant epithelial skin cancers are due to the constitutive upregulation of enzymes such as COX-2, causing increased prostaglandin biosynthesis and the downregulation of 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), which is involved in the inactivation of prostaglandins [26]. Thus, topical supplementation with plant oils that provide local cutaneous anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative metabolites could serve as the monotherapy or as adjuncts to standard therapeutic regimens for the management and prevention of both inflammatory skin disorders and actinic keratoses.

1.5. Reactive Oxidative Stress, Skin Aging and Skin Cancer

The aging of our skin can be discussed as two entities: chronological and environmentally- influenced aging [27]. Clinically, chronological and environmentally-influenced aging show skin changes including thinning, loss of elasticity, roughness, wrinkling, increased dryness, and impairment of the skin barrier. Chronological aging depends on a decrease in cellular replacement (senescence) of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis, but also from impairment in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (e.g., collagen bundles and elastic fibers) [28]. The second type of skin aging is mediated by extrinsic factors such as UV radiation, air pollution, smoking, changes in external temperature, and other agents of skin aging exposome [29]. Photoaging by chronic exposure to UV radiation is the best characterized. Clinical signs of photoaging include dyspigmentation (mostly lentigo and freckling), solar elastosis, actinic keratosis, and seborrheic keratosis [30]. Photoaging is attributed to photo-oxidative damage to skin, mainly by high levels of ROS induced by UV radiation [31]. ROS result in collagen degradation and its accumulation in the dermis, also known as solar elastosis. ROS levels are regulated by anti-oxidant enzymes in skin such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). If anti-oxidant defenses are overwhelmed after extensive UV light exposure, ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defenses in the skin [32]. This causes oxidative stress, which damages skin cells and alters their gene expression, leading to photoaging, but also promoting cutaneous carcinogenesis (non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers) [33,34,35].

2. The Constituents of Plant Oils

Plant oils have long been used on the skin for cosmetic and medical purposes because they have been found to have many positive physiological benefits. For example, plant oil application may act as a protective barrier to the skin by an occlusive effect, allowing the skin to retain moisture, resulting in decreased TEWL values. Additionally, topical products have the benefit of higher bioavailability in the skin and having a localized effect rather than systemic effects. Previous research on plant oils have demonstrated that almond, jojoba, soybean, and avocado oils, when applied topically, mostly remain at the surface of skin, without deep penetration into the first upper layers of the SC [11]. Although triglycerides do not penetrate deeper in SC, glycerol contributes to the SC hydration. Free fatty acids (FFAs), specifically monounsaturated FFAs such as oleic acid, may disrupt skin barrier and act as permeability enhancers for other compounds present in plant oils [36]. Other components such as phenolic compounds and tocopherols exhibit an antioxidant effect and may modulate physiological processes such as skin barrier homeostasis, inflammation, and WH [37,38,39]. When topically applied to hairless mice, sodium dl-α-tocopheryl-6-O-phosphate, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol), enhances ceramide synthesis and gene expression of differentiation markers (transglutaminase 1, cytokeratin 10, involucrin, and loricrin) [40]. Phospholipids, another component of plant oils, mainly fuse with the outer lipid layer of the SC, potentially acting as chemical permeability enhancers [41]. In a study of the murine AD model with given dietary phospholipid supplementation, phospholipids have been shown to enhance skin barrier and display the anti-inflammatory effect by regulating the covalently bound ω-hydroxy ceramides in the epidermis and decreasing the gene expression of both thymus activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) [42]. Even without penetrating deeper into the epidermis, the occlusive effect of the plant oil topical application decreases the loss of water from the SC and regulates keratinocyte proliferation [43].

Plant oils can be classified into essential oils and fixed oils. This article focuses only on fixed oils, which are not volatile at room temperature. Although there are different ways to obtain plant oils, cold-pressed plant oils have better nutritive properties than those that have undergone the refining process. This is because cold-pressing procedure does not involve heat or chemical treatments, which may alter their composition and therapeutic effects. Fixed plant oil components include triglycerides, FFAs, tocopherols, sterols, stanols, phospholipids, waxes, squalene, phenolic compounds [44], etc. These different compounds, when topically applied, influence skin physiology (skin barrier, inflammatory status, antioxidant response, and proliferation) differently.

Plant oils also vary by the type and the amount of triglycerides and FFAs, e.g., straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Topical applications of SFAs and UFAs in healthy volunteers showed differences in TEWL and irritant skin response [45]. Since composition and concentration of SFAs and UFAs are important in topical products, it is important to characterize them in each type of plant oil. Particularly, UFAs show different physiological responses when topically applied compared to TEWL [45]. Linoleic acid, for example, has a direct role in maintaining the integrity of the water permeability barrier of the skin [46,47]. The major metabolite of linoleic acid in the skin is 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), which possesses anti-proliferative properties [3]. In contrast, oleic acid is detrimental to skin barrier function [48]. Oleic acid causes barrier disruption and eventually induces dermatitis under continuous topical application [48]. In addition to their role in skin barrier restoration/disruption, enriched FFA plant oils have also been studied as penetration enhancers (e.g., transepidermal drug delivery). Research has suggested that oils composed mostly of monounsaturated oleic acid increased skin permeability more than oils containing an almost even mixture of both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Viljoen et al. has suggested that the lipid penetration within the epidermis follows the order: olive oil > coconut oil > grape seed oil > avocado oil [49]. Moreover, the concentration of FFAs such as oleic acid with respect to triglycerides correlates with clinical measures of skin barrier function (TEWL). This ratio determines molecular interactions with SC lipids and the extent of their penetration within the epidermis [36].

Poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids may influence the inflammatory responses either as soluble lipoic mediators or in the form of phospholipids anchored in the cell membrane. Topical applications of linolenic (n-3), linoleic (n-6), and oleic (n-9) FFAs can modulate the closure of surgically induced skin wounds [50]. n-9 FFAs induced faster wound closure when compared to n-3, n-6, and control [50]. In fact, n-9 FFAs strongly inhibited the production of nitric oxide at the wound site. A mild improvement on wound closure was observed in the n-6 FFA-treated animals, correlating with a peak in nitric oxide production at 48 hours post-operatively. n-3 FFAs treatment significantly delayed wound closure, which correlates to a peak in nitric oxide at three hours post-operatively [50]. According to a previous study about the administration of pequi (Caryocar brasielense) almond oil in an acute hepatic injury model in rat, topical applications of poly- and monounsaturated FFAs may have a relevant role and potential therapeutic implication on WH through their modulatory effects on the inflammation rather than effects on cellular proliferation [51].

Unsaponifiables are also essential in the biological function of plant oils [44]. They have a high potential for antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity is derived from tocopherols, carotenoids, triterpenes, flavonoids, and phenolic acids that protect from ROS [33,34,35].

2.1. Phenolic Compounds

Phenolic compounds are present in all vegetable oils in different concentrations. Phenolic compounds are the main antioxidants found in virgin olive oil, a well characterized oil known for its health benefits. These compounds are very important for the oxidative stability of the PUFAs within the oil. The main phenolic subclasses present in olive oil are phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, and secoiridoids [52]. Another plant oil, grape seed oil, contains a large amount of similar phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, and stilbenes [53]. The main polyphenols in grape seed oil are catechins, epicatechins, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B1 [54].

2.2. Triterpenes

Triterpenes have been found in many plant species, and are usually present in a small fraction of plant oil constituents. This group of compounds contains a wide range of molecules that participate in many biological reactions. Triterpenes may induce cell migration, proliferation, and collagen deposition [55]. Triterpenes also enhance the tissue repair by reducing the length of time for wound closure, and modulating the production of ROS in the wound microenvironment [55]. Betulin, a form of triterpene, is a major component of birch bark, which has been clinically shown to accelerate acute WH. Betulin treatment in keratinocyte cultures has shown to increase mRNA levels of chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and mediators that are important in WH (). Upregulation of these crucial cytokines and mediators at the protein level were also demonstrated [56]. Of note, triterpenes are also abundant in shea butter, a popular plant oil used in skin care products and cosmetics [57].

The potential benefits of plant oil topical application are diverse. Physiological responses are a result of the interaction between the bioactive compounds and the pathophysiological context of the skin.

3. The Potential Beneficial Effects of Topical Application of Plant Oils on Skin

The following sections review the current evidence on some plant oils and their in vivo and ex vivo effects on the skin homeostasis ().

Table 1

The effects of topically applied plant oils on skin pathology.

Plant Oils Skin Barrier Repair Anti-Bacterial Effect Anti-Inflammatory Effect Antioxidant Effect Wound Healing Skin Aging Skin Cancer References
Olive oil No ? Yes Yes Yes Possible effect Yes Cardoso CR et al. , 2004 [50]
Nasopoulou C et al., 2014 [58]
Donato-Trancoso A et al., 2016 [59]
Zahmatkesh M et al., 2015 [60]
Budiyanto A et al., 2000 [61]
Danby SG et al., 2013 [62]
Cooke A et al., 2016 [63]
Norlen L et al., 2016 [64]
Korac RR et al., 2011 [65]
Sunflower seed oil Yes ? Yes ? Possible effect ? Yes Cardoso et al., 2004 [50]
Danby SG et al., 2013 [62]
Cooke A et al., 2016 [63]
Norlen L et al. , 2016 [64]
Kapadia GJ et al., 2002 [66]
Grape seed oil ? Yes Possible effect Yes Yes Possible effect Possible effect Kapadia GJ et al., 2002 [66]
Shivananda Nayak B et al., 2011 [67]
Khanna S et al., 2002 [68]
Chan MM et al., 2002 [69]
Park K et al., 2013 [70]
Davidov-Pardo G et al., 2015 [71]
Shinagawa FB et al., 2015 [72]
Coconut oil Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Evangelista MT et al. , 2014 [73]
Nevin KG et al., 2010 [74]
Kim S et al., 2017 [75]
Korac RR et al., 2011 [65]
Preuss HG et al., 2005 [76]
Oyi AR et al., 2010 [77]
Esquenazi D et al., 2002 [78]
Safflower seed oil ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? Chen CY et al., 2007 [79]
Lopez-Lazaro M, 2009 [80]
Argan oil Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? Possible effect Boucetta KQ et al. , 2015 [81]
Manca ML et al., 2016 [82]
Jordan M et al., 2012 [83]
Avsar U et al., 2016 [84]
Soybean oil Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Patzelt A et al., 2012 [11]
Jhan JK et al., 2016 [85]
Kim JN et al., 2017 [86]
Bonina F et al., 2005 [87]
Peanut oil Yes ? ? ? ? Yes Yes Korac RR et al. , 2011 [65]
Zhai H et al., 2003 [88]
Lasne C et al., 1991 [89]
Sesame oil Possible effect ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Kapadia GJ et al., 2002 [66]
Korac RR et al., 2011 [65]
Chiang JP et al., 2005 [90]
Nasiri M et al., 2017 [91]
Hsu DZ et al., 2013 [92]
Bigdeli Shamloo et al., 2015 [93]
Avocado oil ? ? Possible effect ? Yes ? ? Patzelt A et al. , 2012 [11]
De Oliveira AP et al., 2013 [94]
Nayak BS et al., 2008 [95]
Lamaud E et al., 1982 [96]
Borage oil Yes ? Possible effect ? ? ? ? Kanehara S et al., 2007 [97]
Jojoba oil Yes Possible effect Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Meier L et al. , 2012 [98]
Ranzato E et al., 2011 [99]
Oat oil Yes Possible effect Yes Yes ? ? ? Nebus J et al., 2009 [100]
Reynertson KA et al., 2015 [101]
Sur R et al., 2008 [102]
Chon SH et al., 2015 [103]
Pomegranate seed oil ? ? ? Yes ? Possible effect Possible effect Hora J et al. , 2003 [104]
Almond oil Possible effect ? ? ? ? Yes ? Timur Tashan S et al., 2012 [105]
Hajhashemi M et al., 2017 [106] Sultana Y et al., 2007 [107]
Bitter apricot oil ? ? ? ? ? ? Possible effect Li K et al. , 2016 [108]
Rose hip oil Possible effect ? Yes Yes ? Yes ? Chrubasik C et al., 2008 [109]
Shabykin GP et al., 1967 [110]
German chamomile oil Possible effect ? Yes ? ? ? ? Lee SH et al. , 2010 [111]
Shea butter Possible effect ? Yes Yes ? ? ? Verma N et al., 2012 [112]
Hon KL et al., 2015 [113]

3.1. Olive Oil

Olive oil comes from the fruits of Olea europaea trees. It consists mainly of oleic acid, with smaller quantities of other fatty acids such as linoleic acid and palmitic acid. More than 200 different chemical compounds have been detected in olive oil, including sterols, carotenoids, triterpenic alcohols, and phenolic compounds. Hydrophilic phenols are the most abundant antioxidants of olive oil. The phenolic contents have antioxidant properties higher than those of vitamin E. In fact, these phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity exhibit anti-inflammatory properties when olive oil is included in regular diet [58]. Unsurprisingly, olive oil has been used as a skin product and hair cosmetic for a long time in several cultures. Studies on mice have shown that topical application of olive oil on pressure ulcers improves WH through the effects of anti-inflammation, reducing oxidative damage, and promoting dermal reconstruction [59]. In rat experiments, wound contraction of full-thickness burns occurred faster with olive oil treatment when compared to the silver sulfadiazine and normal saline (control) group. Studies have also shown that concomitant use of other oils such as buckthorn oil with olive oil have positive effects on the skin [114]. In a randomized controlled trial by Zahmatkesh et al., a mixture of olive oil, sesame oil, and honey was demonstrated to be a useful treatment for burns, by preventing infections, accelerating tissue repair, and facilitating debridement [60]. Moreover, in a murine study with UVB radiation, Ichihashi et al. found that extra virgin olive oil applied to the skin delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of skin cancer development, likely secondary to reduced number of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) positive cell formation (a biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis) [61]. It has also been demonstrated that daily consumption of olive oil phenolics protect from DNA oxidation in postmenopausal women [115] and interfere with G1 cell cycle in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and promyelocytic leukemia cells [116].

In contrast to its positive role in WH promotion and reducing skin cancer development, topically applied olive oil has a detrimental effect on SC integrity and skin barrier function [62,117]. There is evidence of increased TEWL after topical application to the skin of the forearms of adult volunteers with and without AD [62]. Experiments on mice also elicited similar results [117]. Although skin barrier restoration is a key event in WH, olive oil may promote WH by modulating early phases such as inflammation, and stimulating dermal reconstruction, both of which are not related to subsequent re-epithelialization and the consequent permeability barrier restoration. At the present, it is widely accepted that minor components of olive oil also exert potent anti-inflammatory activities [58].

Olive pomace oil, a natural by-product of olive oil production, has also been found to contain minor constituents with antioxidant, antithrombotic, and antiatherogenic activities when it is included in the regular diet [58]. However, the effects of olive pomace oil in the skin have not been characterized yet.

3.2. Sunflower Seed Oil

Sunflower seed oil originates from the seeds of Helianthus annus. Sunflower oil has been recommended for the removal of hot tar in patients of tar burn [118]. The components of sunflower oil mainly consist of oleic and linoleic acids. Sunflower seed oil contains relatively higher linoleic acid concentration relative to olive oil. This property makes sunflower oil a suitable ingredient in skin products due to the positive benefits of linoleic acid [117]. Sunflower seed oil has been shown to preserve SC integrity and improve hydration of the adult skin without inducing erythema [62]. Linoleic acid serves as an agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which enhances keratinocyte proliferation and lipid synthesis [62]. This in turn enhances skin barrier repair. Natural oils such as sunflower, sesame, or safflower seed oil have been suggested as good options for their use in promoting skin barrier homeostasis [119]. However, in a pilot study conducted by Cooke et al. of neonatal skin topically treated with sunflower seed oil or olive oil, there were no differences in lipid structure changes, TEWL, hydration, skin surface pH, erythema, or skin assessment scores between the olive oil and sunflower oil groups [63]. According to Norlen (2016), however, this well-conducted pilot study needs a long-term observational study to investigate whether the topical application of oils from birth may contribute to the development of atopic eczema [64]. Moreover, in contrast to delayed improvement in lipid ordering observed after topical application of olive oil, this feature was not observed after application of sunflower seed oil [64]. Sunflower seed oil also exhibited a chemopreventive effect in a murine model of skin cancer with two-stage carcinogenesis. Sesamol, one of its constituent, specifically play a role in the chemopreventive effects [66].

3.3. Grape Seed Oil

Grape seed oil comes from the seeds of Vitis vinifera. It is rich in phenolic compounds, FFAs, and vitamins. Grape seed oil has been evaluated for WH activity in rat models. Shivananda Nayak et al. has shown that the hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with the grape oil [67]. Additionally, the rate of wound closure was also quicker, suggesting their WH potential [67]. However, the direct topical application of grape seed oil on human skin has not yet been well investigated. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract, which contains resveratrol, has been topically applied to mice, showing faster wound contraction, enhanced synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and greater connective tissue deposition [68]. Resveratrol displays a direct antimicrobial activity against pathogens, such as Staphylococcal aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Psedomonas aeruginosa [69]. Topically applied resveratrol increases cathelicidin production in normal skin [70]. Cathelicidin is one of the inducible antimicrobial peptides and inhibits the growth of Staphylococcal aureus [70]. Studies are currently being done to successfully encapsulate and preserve resveratrol from grape seed oil [71]. In addition to resveratrol, grape seed oil has a high content of linoleic acid, vitamin E, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, resveratrol, and vitamin E in grape seed oil provide most of its antioxidant activity. Moreover, phytosterols present in grape seed oil may modulate pro-inflammatory mediators [72].

3.4. Coconut Oil

Coconut oil is extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Coconut is composed of many FFAs including lauric acid (49%), myristic acid (18%), palmitic acid (8%), caprylic acid (8%), capric acid (7%), oleic acid (6%), linoleic acid (2%), and stearic acid (2%) [6]. Coconut oil has been shown to be as effective and safe as mineral oil when applied as moisturizers for mild to moderate xerosis [120]. In a study of pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical applications of virgin coconut oil was shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of the disease, ameliorating disease severity index (SCORAD), and improving barrier function (TEWL and skin capacitance) [73]. Topical applications of virgin coconut oil are effective in promoting WH through faster epithelization. A histopathological study by Nevin et al. revealed increased neovascularization, fibroblast proliferation, pepsin-soluble collagen synthesis, and turnover of collagen in wounds [74]. Kim et al. demonstrated that coconut oil increased expression of CE components, thereby contributing to protective barrier functions of the SC [75]. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory profile was lower in the coconut oil-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation [75]. Topical coconut oil protects the skin from UV radiation [65].

Of all the acid components of coconut oil, monolaurin has been shown to have additional significance. Monolaurin is a monoglyceride derived from lauric acid. It comprises nearly 50% of coconut’s fat content. Monolaurin displays antimicrobial activity by disintegrating the lipid membrane of lipid-coated bacteria including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis [76]. Coconut oil in concentrations of 5% to 40% (w/w) exhibited bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Bacillus subtilis [77]. Cellular studies have also shown that monolaurin exhibits antiviral and antifungal activity [78].

3.5. Safflower Seed Oil

Safflower seed oil comes from the seeds of the Carthamus tinctorius. It contains a large amount of the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (70%) and monounsaturated oleic acid (10%), and lesser amounts of stearic acid. Safflower has been shown to be a very good analgesic and antipyretic. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that the extracts of safflower had several physiological functions, such as anticoagulation, vasodilation, antioxidation, melanin production inhibition, immunosuppression, and antitumor activity. For example, the flavone luteolin and its glucopyranoside have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects at concentrations in the low micromolar range [79,80,121]. This anti-inflammatory effect is explained by inhibition of NF-κB activity [80]. Fatty acid constituents of topical applied plant oils may modify the fatty acid profiles of the babies. Solanki et al. have showed that topically applied safflower seen oil is readily absorbed in neonates and probably it has nutritional benefits [122]. Fatty acid profiles showed significant rise in linolenic acid and arachidonic acid under topical safflower oil treatment [122]. Since the metabolism of PUFAs by skin epidermal enzymes is related to the generation of anti-inflammatory molecules, the modification in fatty acid profiles might be of interest in clinical practice [3].

3.6. Argan Oil

Argan oil is produced from the kernels of Argania spinosa L. Argan oil is composed of mono-unsaturated (80%) and saturated (20%) fatty acids. It contains polyphenols, tocopherols, sterols, squalene, and triterpene alcohols. Traditionally, argan oil has been utilized in cooking, in the treatment of skin infections, and in skin/hair care products. Daily topical application of argan oil has also been shown to improve skin elasticity [81] and skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity [123]. Additionally, topical applications onto skin provide a softening and relaxing effect on the skin, as well as helping to facilitate the accumulation and transdermal delivery of topical drugs such as allantoin [82]. Recently, tocopherol-rich argan oil-based nanoemulsions has been developed as vehicles possessing anticancer activity in murine breast and colon carcinoma cells [83]. Argan oil has also been shown to be effective in enhancing WH created second-degree burns in rats [84].

3.7. Soybean Oil

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the Glycine max. Most research on soybean oil have been conducted on its extracts. Topical application of soybean oil extracts has been shown to decrease the TEWL of forearm skin [11]. This feature may be linked to the presence of soy phytosterols, which have shown a positive effect on skin barrier recovery [124]. On the other hand, anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soybean were shown to have anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity [85]. Black soybean anthocyanins attenuate inflammatory responses by suppressing ROS production as well as mitogen activated protein kinases that are important in the signaling of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages [86]. Moreover, topical soybean oil protects against UVB-induced cutaneous erythema [87].

3.8. Peanut Oil

Peanut oil has been shown to have hydrating effects in human skin without significantly increasing TEWL [88]. Topical peanut oil protects the skin from UV radiation [65]. Lasne et al. also showed the inhibition of chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice treated with topical peanut oil [89].The increasing prevalence of peanut allergy has led to new discussion about the safety of topical preparations containing peanut oil. However, research has suggested that the refined peanut oil-containing preparation is safe for topical use, even in persons who are sensitive to peanuts [125,126].

3.9. Sesame Oil

Sesame oil is derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesame oil has been incorporated in many food items in the past 6000 years. Sesame seeds contain significant amounts of lignans such as sesamin, sesamolin, and sesaminol [127], all of which exhibit antioxidative activity. Sesamin is highly hydrophobic. A significant positive correlation was observed between the oil content of sesame seed and the sesamin content in the oil [128]. Research has shown that the topical use of sesame oil might attenuate oxidative stress by inhibiting the production of xanthine oxidase and nitric oxide in rats [90]. Sesame oil has been used in traditional Taiwanese medicine to relieve the inflammatory pain of joints and wounds. Massage with topical sesame oil has shown to be effective in significantly reducing pain severity of patients with limb trauma [91]. In a rat model of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in a pseudosynovial cavity, orally administered sesame oil reduced inflammation [92]. In a clinical study by Shamloo et al., topical application of sesame oil was shown to lower the severity of pain and reduce the frequency of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in patients with limb trauma [93]. Topical sesame oil also protects the skin from UV radiation [65]. In addition, sesame oil showed a chemopreventive effect in a murine model of skin cancer with two-stage carcinogenesis. Its constituent, sesamol, has also been demonstrated to play a role in chemoprevention [66].

3.10. Avocado Oil

Avocado oil is derived from the fruit of the Persea americana. Avocado oil extracted from the pulp of the fruit is rich in linoleic acid (6.1–22.9%), linolenic acid (0.4–4.0%), and oleic acid (31.8–69.6%). It also contains β-sitosterol, β-carotene, lecithin, minerals, and vitamins A, C, D, and E [94]. It is an excellent source of enrichment for dry, damaged, or chapped skin [11]. Research has been conducted on the effect of topical administration of avocado fruit extract on wound models in rats, revealing faster re-epitheliazation and higher hydroxyproline content of the repaired wound [95]. The topical application of avocado oil in rats has also been shown to increase collagen synthesis and decrease the numbers of inflammatory cells during the WH process [94,96].

3.11. Borage Oil

Borage oil is derived from the seeds of the Borago officinalis. Borage oil contains high levels of the ω-6 series essential fatty acids that are important in skin structure and function [129]. The linoleic acid in borage oil contributes to its therapeutic actions in AD. Topical application of borage oil in infants and children with seborrheic dermatitis or AD has been shown to normalize skin barrier function [130]. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed to test clinical effects of undershirts coated with borage oil on children with AD [97]. In the group treated with borage oil, TEWL on the skin of back decreased. Additionally, no side effects were found in these subjects [97].

3.12. Jojoba Oil

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a long-lived, drought resistant, perennial plant. Jojoba oil exhibits a high oxidative stability and resistance to degradation [131]. Jojoba oil is widely used in cosmetic formulas such as sunscreens and moisturizers. It has been shown to be effective in enhancing the absorption of topical drugs [132,133,134]. The high content of wax esters makes jojoba oil a good repair option for dermatoses with altered skin barriers, such as seborrheic dermatitis, eczematous dermatitis, AD, and acne [98]. Jojoba oil also has a proven anti-inflammatory effect, with potential uses in a variety of skin conditions including skin infections, skin aging, and WH [99,132].

3.13. Oat Oil

Oat oil originates from Avena sativa. It consists of 36–46% linoleic and 28–40% oleic acid [135]. Oat in colloidal form is a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin conditions, including skin rashes, erythema, burns, itch, and eczema. Although oleic acid may disrupt skin barrier [62,117], the high percentage (36–46%) of linoleic acid may contribute to the final effect of oat oil on barrier repair [47,100]. Colloidal oat extracts exhibit direct anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may explain the efficacy of lotions containing colloidal oatmeal [101]. Avenanthramides are phenolic compounds present in oats. Avenanthramides inhibit activation of NF-κB and reduce inflammation by inhibiting cytokines [102]. In vitro studies have shown that oat oil can upregulate the expression of differentiation genes (e. g., involucrin, small prolin-rich protein family (SPRRs), and transglutaminase 1) and ceramide processing genes (β-glucocerebrosidase, sphingomyelinases 3 and ABCA12) in keratinocytes [103]. In addition, oat oil treatment in keratinocytes was shown to have significantly increased ceramide levels (70%) through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) [103].

3.14. Pomegranate Seed Oil

Pomegranate seed oil comes from the seed of Punica granatum. It is a good source of essential FFAs, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, and lipid-soluble fractions [136]. Pomegranate seed oil contains 63% UFA, including linoleic acid (29%) and oleic acid (10%) [136]. Pomegranate seed oil is well known for its high concentration of polyphenolic compounds and for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. An oil-in-water cream containing pomegranate seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improvement of skin changes associated with striae [137]. Pomegranate seed oil has been used in nanoemulsions to facilitate the delivery of pomegranate peel polyphenols [138]. Nanoemulsions with pomegranate seed oil has been shown to improve both photostability and in vivo anti-nociceptive effect of ketoprofen [139]. A study of CD1 mice with topically applied pomegranate seed oil has shown that pomegranate seed oil (5%) significantly decreased tumor incidence and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in the chemical-induced skin cancer model. The results highlighted the potential of pomegranate seed oil as a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer [104].

3.15. Almond Oil

Almond oil comes from Oleum amygdalae. Almond oil has emollient and sclerosant properties, which have been used to improve complexion and skin tone. In a nonrandomized study, Tashan and Kafkasli (2012) have demonstrated that massage with bitter almond oil may be effective in reducing the visibility of current striae gravidarum, and in the prevention of new striae [105]. Other formulations have been shown to ameliorate striae itching [106]. However, other products containing almond oil have not shown to have similar benefit [140]. For example, sweet almond oil in creams are more effective than the base cream at ameliorating the itching of striae and preventing its progression [106]. In a study by Sultana et al. done with murine models, topical almond oil was shown to prevent the structural damage caused by UV irradiation [107].

3.16. Bitter Apricot Oil

In Eastern medicine, bitter apricot seed (Semen Armeniacae amarum) has been traditionally used to treat skin diseases. Bitter apricot oil has been shown to induce apoptosis of HaCaT cells through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. Apoptosis has been shown to correlate with inhibition of the NF-κB pathway [108]. It has been suggested that apricot oil may be a potential candidate for psoriasis treatment given its pro-apoptotic effect on human keratinocytes [108].

3.

17. Rose Hip Oil

Rose hip oil is extracted from seeds of rose hip (Rosa canina L.). Rose hip oil contains substantial UFAs. The most abundant fatty acid is linoleic acid (35.9–54.8%), followed by α-linolenic acid (16.6–26.5%), and oleic acid (14.7–22.1%) [141]. An appreciable number of lipophilic antioxidants is present, especially the tocopherols and carotenoids. Rose hip oil also contains high level of phenolic acids, especially p-coumaric acid methyl ester, vanillin, and vanillic acid. Due its high composition of UFAs and antioxidants, this oil has relatively high protection against inflammation and oxidative stress [109]. Shabikin et al. has tested the efficacy of topical rose hip seed oil together with an oral fat-soluble vitamins on different inflammatory dermatitis such as eczema, neurodermatitis, and cheilitis, with promising findings of the topical use of rose hip seed oil on these inflammatory dermatoses [110].

3.18. German Chamomile Oil

German chamomile oil comes from Matricaria recutita. In a study with the murine AD model, serum IgG1 and IgE levels were significantly decreased in the group treated with German chamomile oil application. Topical application of this oil was associated with lower serum histamine level and decreased frequency of scratching among subjects. The result demonstrated the immune-regulatory potential of German chamomile oil for alleviating AD through modulation of Th3 cell activation [111].

3.19. Shea Butter

Shea butter is extracted from the kernels of the sheu tree (Vitellaria paradoxa). Shea butter is composed of triglycerides with oleic, stearic, linoleic, and palmitic fatty acids, as well as unsaponifiable compounds [142]. Shea butter is frequently used in the cosmetic industry due to its high percentage of the unsaponifiable fraction (e.g., triterpenes, tocopherol, phenols, and sterols), which possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [57]. In the study of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage cells, shea butter exhibited anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the NF-κB pathway [112]. Additional research on AD has shown that the cream containing shea butter extract had the same efficacy as ceramide-precursor product [113].

Facial oils for glowing skin

If you find yourself despairing about your dry, dehydrated or dull complexion, your skin could be crying out for a facial oil to restore its luminosity and rejuvenate its appearance. The rich, nourishing properties of face oils are an easy way to achieve smooth, radiant skin and there’s a whole host of them for every skin type and need. If you’re liking the sound of this so far, carry on reading to find out about 8 of the best facial oils for glowing skin.

1. Tea tree oil

An essential oil traditionally used in aromatherapy, tea tree oil has antibacterial and antiseptic properties which can effectively fight infections. This makes it one of the best face oils for combatting breakout-causing bacteria. One study found that tea tree oil gels and face washes reduced facial acne by 50% – that’s a lot! It’s also an effective treatment for eczema, psoriasis and dry skin, soothing the irritated areas and helping to reduce itching and inflammation. You’ll love this oil for your skin troubles.

Main skin types: oily, acne-prone and combination

How to use: you can use it as a topical treatment, but always dilute it with a carrier oil first (like coconut oil) to avoid irritation, or add it to your moisturiser for a tea tree hit – either way, make sure to do a patch test 24 hours before your first use. There are also various tea tree oil-enriched products on the market, ranging from facial washes to masks – so, take your pick!

2. Jojoba oil

Jojoba oil, derived from the jojoba shrub, is a multi-purpose face oil which is a great go-to for all skin types. This gem is even perfect for oily complexions since it’s lightweight, non-comedogenic (doesn’t clog pores) and balances oil production. Yes, face oils for oily skin do exist! It’s very similar to the skin’s natural oil (called sebum) so it’s a good option for providing some natural-feeling hydration. It’s safe for acne-prone skin too, with the ability to repair the skin’s top layer.

Main skin types: all skin types

How to use: apply to the face in small, circular motions to nourish the skin, or add to your existing skincare products like moisturiser. It is also an effective makeup remover.

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3. Squalane (not to be confused with squalene)

For a lightweight face oil that feels ‘barely there’ on the skin, squalane is your best friend. The perfect match for oily, acne-prone skin, this plant derivative provides replenishment without blocking pores. Better yet, squalane targets oily skin by stopping it from over-producing sebum and replacing your skin’s own production of oil. The result? Beautiful, re-balanced skin. It also facilitates a firmer, youthful complexion by encouraging the production of collagen and preventing signs of premature ageing.

Main skin types: all skin types

How to use: gently pat all over the face in its pure form or add to your moisturiser, both morning and night. Use alongside vitamin E oil to help protect the skin from environmental damage.

4. Rosehip seed oil

Hailed as the queen of antioxidant facial oils, rosehip seed oil is extracted from rose bush seeds and your skin will love it – it’s even gentle enough for sensitive skin (yay!). It’s a dry oil (non-greasy), fast-absorbing and will leave your skin smooth, soft and supple. Your skin will feel refreshed and polished as the oil encourages cell turnover, meaning that it acts as a natural exfoliator. It’s also effective for eliminating hyperpigmentation which can be notoriously difficult to get rid of. Get a bright, even-toned complexion with increased collagen by incorporating this oil into your daily routine.

Main skin types: mature, oily and sensitive

How to use: use as a topical treatment up to two times a day or add to moisturiser. It can even be taken in powder form if you really want an extra boost of skin-loving goodness (but, speak to your GP about this first). Rosehip seed oil can also be used to treat irritations such as eczema, rosacea and dermatitis.

5. Marula oil

If you’re after youthful, radiant skin, marula oil’s anti-ageing benefits make it a must for mature skin. From marula fruit trees in South Africa, it’s a trusty product for smoothing fine lines and wrinkles. It’s also a great facial oil for dry skin, leaving it feeling soft and smooth. This is because it has a high oleic acid content (a fatty acid) which helps restore moisture in skin that’s on the drier end of the spectrum. It also helps to prevent future moisture loss. Get ready to fight your dry and ageing skin woes with this facial oil saviour.

Main skin types: mature and dry

How to use: marula oil can be used both in the morning and the evening by applying a few drops to the whole face or by adding it to another skincare product. Its fast absorption means that it can be applied before makeup without leaving a greasy residue on the skin. If you’ve had a chemical peel, marula oil can also help calm the skin.

Top tip: double it up as a lip balm to keep your lips soft and hydrated.

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6. Coconut oil

This is one of the best facial oils for dry skin. A longstanding beauty favourite, coconut oil is an excellent thirst-quencher. If you’re suffering from a dry complexion, coconut oil’s richness is great for adding an intense shot of hydration back into your skin to relieve flakiness. According to a study, the penetrable nature of virgin coconut oil is also highly effective for treating dermatitis, more so than other oils. It’s also a great oil for reducing the redness and itching associated with eczema. So, if you’re looking for a natural, anti-inflammatory remedy, you might want to give this a try. But, steer clear if you often experience breakouts; this highly comedogenic (pore-clogging) oil is acne-prone skin’s worst nightmare.

Main skin types: dry

How to use: if using it in its solid form, work it between the fingers to slightly melt it and apply directly to the dry patches of your skin. It’s also a good carrier oil to add other skincare products (like tea tree oil) to. If you’re looking for a natural makeup remover, try using coconut oil to gently melt away everything from foundation to mascara.

Top tip: use coconut oil on the ends of your hair to help with dryness and add shine.

7. Argan oil

Argan oil has been a favourite for what feels like forever, and rightly so! Originating from argan trees in Morocco, this versatile oil works well for all skin types – everything from very dry to very oily. It helps to reduce inflammation whilst staying out of your pores, making it a great facial oil for soothing acne. But, it also works wonders for ageing skin by tackling wrinkles and repairing the skin, thanks to its antioxidant powers.

Main skin types: all skin types

How to use: argan oil can be used in its pure form all over the face (1-2 drops) and is suitable for both daytime and nighttime use. For even more of an argan oil boost, supplements can also be taken to improve skin health from the inside – but always talk to a healthcare professional first.

8. Camellia oil

Derived from tea plant seeds, camellia oil should be a principal element of your skincare if you want a smooth, youthful complexion. Containing oleic acid, this oil will provide your skin with rich nourishment, whilst still sinking into the skin quickly. It’s also a natural anti-inflammatory, with the ability to calm unhappy and irritated skin. It rivals most other oils for its high number of antioxidants, so your complexion will be plump and glowing in no time.

Main skin types: dry, mature and sensitive

How to use: apply a couple of drops straight to the face for instant hydration and apply more liberally to drier patches of skin for intense hydration.

And that’s 8 facial oils for glowing skin! Whether you’re looking to add nourishment back into your skin, fight acne-causing bacteria or target signs of ageing, these oils have got you covered. Want to find out more about what face oils can do for your skin? Have a look through our guide for all the info. And for the low-down on how to properly apply facial oils, check out our 10 top tips.

Top 10 Oils and Butters For Skin | Natural Skin Care

Top 10 Oils & Butters for Skin

With so many options at your fingertips, how do you make sure you’re spending your hard-earned money where it counts? Here’s a quick guide to our Top 10 Oils & Butters For Skin, and in which type of product they will provide the most benefit.

1. Organic Camellia Oil

Profile: Certified Organic, Cold-pressed

Green Tea strikes again! Used widely in Japan and China, and for centuries by the Japanese Geisha for face, hair, scalp and body care. Camellia oil protects the skin from free radical damage, refines mature skin, and nourishes the complexion. It is lightweight and easily absorbed, leaving the skin silky smooth without a greasy feeling. It is rich in anti-aging nutrients, oleic acid and antioxidants. Camellia oil soothes skin irritations and prevents stretch marks, restoring a youthful glow. Look for this powerhouse in facial products that help with sun damage and wrinkles.

2. UK Hemp Oil

Profile: Food Grade, Unrefined, Cold-pressed

One of our favourite of the list of top 10 oils and butters for skin, Hemp oil is a cold-pressed oil that acts as a humectant, helping draw moisture to the skin and providing a protective barrier against moisture loss and environmental damage. This oil is able to penetrate more deeply than any other plant oil, so it draws out dirt and impurities from deep within your pores. Great for blemish-prone and dry skin. Look for it in anti-blemish products, cleansers and in face creams that boast about intensive hydration.

3. Pumpkin Seed Oil

Profile: Unrefined, Cold-pressed

Made with organic oils that are naturally high in Vitamins A. C + E.

Pumpkin seed oil is considered to be extremely nourishing as a result of its rich content of Vitamins A, B, D and E, anti-aging minerals and proteins. High in Omegas 3 and 6 fatty acids, it is made up of over 60% unsaturated fatty acids which help combat fine lines and moisture loss. Pumpkin is ultra high in zinc and antioxidants, therefore it has tremendous benefits for the skin in terms of retaining moisture, fighting free radicals and maintaining a youthful appearance. The high amounts of zinc and Vitamin E also improve skin tone and elasticity. Considering it packs so much punch, you would think it might be ultra expensive. It’s actually quite an affordable oil and is an excellent choice for those with very dry, mature, lack-luster or under-nourished skin. Look for it in facial products that promise loads of natural Vitamin A and hydrating properties.

4. Wild Rosehip Seed Oil

Profile: Certified Organic, Unrefined, Cold-pressed

Rosehip seed oil is extremely high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which contain a high concentration of Vitamin C. This naturally occurring vitamin enables remarkable tissue rejuvenation and regeneration, helping to prevent wrinkles and firm skin. This oil is also known to help treat dry, irritated, weathered skin. It is also great for treating scars and stretch marks, as well as counter the effects of sun damage. This oil is a superstar, and a favourite at Awake Organics! Look for it in everything, but only pay top dollar for the unrefined version (the red/orange stuff). This is best in unheated products like face oils and body serums.

5. Sea Buckthorn Oil

Profile: Unrefined, Cold-pressed

Used in Chinese medicine over 1000 years ago, Sea Buckthorn oil is rich in skin-loving vitamins and minerals. The fruit contains an exceptional concentration of natural anti-aging Vitamin C, approximately 12 x that of an orange. This oil has anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce swelling and redness associated with many skin conditions, including Eczema, Psoriasis and Rosacea. Look for it in face care products that are designed for sensitive skin, as well as in concentrated formulas to get a punch of Vitamins A, C & E.

6. Organic Evening Primrose Oil (EPO)

Profile: Certified Organic, Unrefined, Cold-pressed

Is exceptionally rich in essential fatty acids that help to rejuvenate your skin and prevents wrinkles from forming. Regular use of this oil dramatically decreases fine lines and wrinkles, helps smooth rough skin, hydrates extremely dry skin, produces new skin cells, aids in repairing the skin at the cellular level, helps to lighten dark circles under the eyes and improves skin elasticity. Look for it in concentrated serums, moisturisers and eye creams: organic EPO is a superstar when it comes to improving your complexion, restoring that youthful glow and leaving skin looking radiant and refreshed.

7. Meadowfoam Seed Oil

Profile: Cold-pressed

Meadowfoam Seed oil is definitely one of the top 10 oils & butters for skin! This oil is pressed from the seeds of the flowering plant and is native to the North American Pacific Northwest. It contains over 98% long chain fatty acids and also has higher triglyceride content than other oils. It is resistant to degradation due to high levels of naturally occurring Vitamin E, and is one of the most stable lipids known. Meadowfoam seed oil has wonderful anti-aging, moisturising and rejuvenating properties. Look for it in facial serums and other waterless products, as it helps extend the shelf life of less stable ingredients and boosts the natural Vitamin E profile.

8. Organic Shea Butter

Profile: Certified Organic, Unrefined

The most widely used of all the cosmetic skincare butters, Shea Butter is renowned for its anti-aging skin moisturising and firming properties. It has been used to help heal burns, sores, scars, dermatitis, Psoriasis, dandruff, and stretch marks. It also helps diminish wrinkles by moisturising the skin, promoting cell renewal, and increasing circulation. Shea Butter contains Cinnamic Acid, a substance that helps protect the skin from harmful UV rays. It also protects the skin from both environmental and free-radical damage, containing Vitamins A and E, and has demonstrated both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. This luxurious butter is known for leaving a silky, glowing appearance. Look for it in for body butters and ultra-hydrating face creams that promise a natural SPF factor. Shea butter is quite heavy for the face, and best for mature skin. Excellent for body skin!

9. Organic Babassu Oil

Profile: Virgin, Cold-pressed

Used in traditional medicine for thousands of years to soften skin and treat Eczema and Psoriasis, this versatile oil also protects the skin against environmental damage and promotes cellular healing. Babassu oil is one of the top 10 oils & butters for skin because it feeds the skin with natural fatty acids, giving it a more youthful, healthy appearance. Keeps skin supple, reducing the “sag” effect. Very similar to Coconut oil but it has the added bonus of absorbing into the skin faster and having a less of a chance of blocking pores. Look for it in everything from moisturisers, neck creams, to lip balms, to hair conditioners.

10. Organic Cocoa Butter

Profile: Certified Organic, Unrefined

A 100% natural, organic Cocoa Butter is a very hard saturated fat pressed from cacao beans. When warmed the butter forms oil, which provides a protective layer on top of skin and holds in moisture. This oil is renown for softening skin, preventing stretch marks, and for healing scars and discolouration. Look for it in products that provide extra hydration, like lip balms and hair conditioners.

There you have the Top 10 Oils & Butters For Skin!

We take great care in selecting unadulterated ingredients that are ultra rich in naturally occurring anti-aging antioxidants, minerals and fatty acids. We choose ingredients based on their purity, their locality, their organic certification and the ethical and sustainable practices put in place by their suppliers. Read more about the process here.


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How To Balance Your Skin’s Natural Oil & Water Levels

There are numerous iconic duos, but in the skincare world the only one that matters is oil and water. The caveat? One is produced naturally (oil) and the other relies on internal and topical solves (water). The key to balance here is making sure you aren’t depleting your skin or forcing it to overcompensate. Over time, a lack of natural oil can compromise your skin’s natural barrier to defend against further water hydration loss. Are you recognizing a cycle here?

The Difference Between Dry and Dehydrated Skin

At first glance, it seems like these skin descriptors can be interchangeable. In short, not exactly. Dehydration is a skin condition and occurs when your skin lacks water. Dryness, however, is a skin type and occurs when your skin lacks oil. Regardless of skin type or condition, you need proper water content. A good tip here is adding a hydrating toner to your oil to help with penetration.

It might seem counterintuitive to acneic or oily skin types, but a lack of moisture can actually make things worse. Habits like over-cleansing, using harsh active ingredients (think retinols, salicylic acids, and benzoyl peroxide), and skipping moisturizer can exacerbate the issue and actually increase your skin’s oil production.

The Importance of Water Moisture

At the end of the day, our skin is an organ on the outside of our bodies. And when it lacks water moisture, it’s dehydrated. Our skin doesn’t produce water content other than sweat. Instead, it only receives it from water put into our bodies and water-based moisturizers put onto our skin.

Your skin only retains about 20% of the nutrients that you put into your body, so even if you are drinking a gallon (or two) of water per day, your skin is the last thing to receive any of that hydration. Thankfully ingredients like hyaluronic acid, honey, and aloe found in products like toners, serums, or moisturizers help retain water.

The Importance of Oil Moisture

Many people (including some of our clients!) consider themselves to be a combination skin type because of an oily T-Zone, but a lack of oil may actually be the culprit.

In turn, your skin starts to overproduce oil in all of the areas it can produce it, leaving you with crepe paper-like skin with oil happily sitting on top of it. Essentially, your skin is so dehydrated that it forces itself to produce its own oil with the hope of rebalance. #Mindblown.

But before you reach for just any oil, you have to take your skin type into account. For example, oils like jojoba, grapeseed, and safflower are skin-friendly because it mimics what our natural sebum feels like IRL. And, yes even those with acne can benefit from using them. Those with super dry or mature skin may have better luck leaning towards heavier oils including rosehip, coconut, caraseed, argan, or shea butter.

Find a Moisturizer That Works for You

We won’t debate you on this, but we daresay finding the perfect moisturize might be one of the trickier tasks. You have to ask yourself a variety of questions including: What ingredients work with your skin type? Does the moisturizer last all day long? Do you like the feel of it? To name a few. Our Skin Quiz is a great starting point to teach you about your skin type and condition, how to care for your skin, and how to confidently pick products that work for you.

Choosing the Right Products

According to Heyday Skincare Educator, Chrissy Carrano, when it comes to skincare there isn’t really a “universal” product that all skin types will respond to. Instead, she suggests thinking about a skincare equation if you will. For example, combine a “serum + toner” or “moisturizer + oil” or “toner + oil” to strike the right balance of what you’re trying to achieve. Here are a few recommendations to get you started on your duo:

This Balancing Serum

Stress from everyday life to environmental factors like air pollution can throw your skin for a loop. This gentle serum helps restore balance to skin freak outs by reversing dehydration and irritation via ingredients like beet root extract, sodium hyaluronate, and copper PCA.

This Hydrating Toner

Opting for a hydrating toner (rather than an astringent) will boost product penetration, so your serums oils, balms, and creams, can seamlessly absorb deeper into your epidermis. This one in particular includes nourishing marula oil and restorative evening primrose to block dehydration, congestion, and future breakouts.

This Multitasking Oil

Dry and mature skin types might find themselves reaching for facial oils more often than not, thanks to age-defying and brightening benefits. Pai’s formula in particular features a high concentration of essential nutrients designed to boost your skin’s natural overnight regeneration process.

This Expert-Approved Mist

There’s a reason that our Skin Therapists love this facial mist trifecta of stone crop juice, calendula, and glycerin. Together, these hydrating ingredients nourish, heal, and most importantly moisturize the skin.

This Soothing Moisturizer

Those with sensitive skin will love the soothing capabilities of Calendula to quickly calm down inflammation and dilated capillaries. Plus, the luxurious creamy texture is a daily treat. https://www.heydayskincare.com/products/naturopathica-calendula-essential-hydrating-cream

Your Skin Is There To Protect

Remember, the main function of your skin is protection. If it’s out of whack, the ‘good stuff’ seeps out and ‘bad stuff’ is absorbed. Keeping your skin balanced helps make sure you maintain the glowing, dewy complexion you deserve.

Natural Skin Care Made Easy

DIY Natural Skin Care made easy! Ditch the toxic chemical skin care and beauty products and make your own instead. 

There are so many chemicals in bath, beauty and home products. People use these products EVERY DAY. Do you know that most of these toxic chemicals can be linked to allergies, eczema, skin issues like acne, asthma, hormone disruptors and even cancer. That’s crazy!

These mainstream body products should not be on your skin. Do you know that it only takes 26 seconds for chemicals in your personal care products to enter your bloodstream. These chemicals are being absorbed into your body through topical application. 

About 10 years ago, I made a huge change and swapped out all of my mainstream body and home products {including my garden products too!} for natural and homemade DIY products. Having my first child was all it took to push me towards choosing safer options for me and my family.

Natural Skin Care Made Easy

Natural Skin Care Products I Use:

I am all about safe, natural skin care that is easy. When it comes to skin care, I want ingredients that are gentle, nourishing, won’t clog your pores, won’t strip your skin’s natural oils, and will get the job done.

NOTE: Every person’s skin type is different. This is what I use and what works best for my skin and my family. For example, many people love using coconut oil on their skin – which is great! But for me, coconut oil clogs my pores and I react to it, so I avoid it. I would encourage you to play around with these ingredients and figure out what works best for you.

Raw Honey

I love natural skin care that is safe enough to eat! You can’t do much better than honey! Raw Honey and Manuka Honey are my daily go-to’s. Raw honey is known for its healing properties and is gentle and nourishing for the skin. It won’t dry and strip your skin of all of the good oils like most mainstream soaps do.

Raw honey is an awesome way to gently cleanse the skin. I use it daily for face washing as well as for weekly face masks. The great thing about honey is a little goes a long way. I prefer Manuka honey for washing my face and raw honey for weekly face masks, but both are great.

Bentonite Clay

I LOVE Bentonite Clay! I always keep it on hand for so many things. It’s a must have in my natural first aid kit. Bentonite Clay is known for its healing and detoxing properties. It’s also known for helping draw stuff out when made into a poultice/paste for a face mask.

Raw Organic Apple Cider Vinegar

What can’t apple cider vinegar do? It’s amazing stuff! I’m not going to go into all of the amazing benefits of ACV here. In terms of skin care, it’s an amazing toner and known for helping balance the skin. Instead of using water to make a clay paste, I always use apple cider vinegar.

Organic Jojoba Oil

I love this oil because it’s super gentle and known for being a great for all skin types. Bonus … it’s non-comedogenic {meaning it doesn’t clog pores, other oils like coconut oil, olive oil, etc. can clog pores}.

Konjac Sponge

This natural sponge with activated charcoal is super helpful for skin issues on the face. It’s known to deeply clean your pores and gently exfoliate your skin removing excess oil or dead skin and is known to help keep your face in a ph-neutral state. There are tons on the market, and I’ve tried several, but this one is the one my husband and I use and prefer.

Therapeutic-Grade Organic Essential Oils

Essential oils are a must in my skin care routine. There are three in particular that I love for the skin – Frankincense, Lavender and Manuka.

Frankincense essential oil is AMAZING!!! It’s known for helping support the skin, is great for aging skin and also helps promote relaxation and calm.

Lavender essential oil is very gentle and is loved by so many people. It’s known for its calming and relaxing abilities, making it lovely for your nighttime face care routine.

Manuka essential oil is so fabulous! It is known for helping support the skin and is perfect for your natural body care routine.

I only use these therapeutic-grade organic essential oils and would never use other essential oils on my body. I choose these essential oils because they are unrivaled in their quality and they are not adulterated with synthetic substances like most store-bought oils {which are perfume grade}.

How to Use these Natural Skin Care Ingredients

Easy Natural Face Wash

Instructions

    1. Lightly wet your face with warm water.
    2. Add honey to the palm of your hand. Rub your hands together and massage honey into the skin in a circular motion, making sure to cover your whole face.
    3. Wash off with warm water and pat your skin dry with a washcloth.

Easy Natural Honey Face Mask

Instructions

    1. Add honey to the palm of your hand. Rub your hands together and massage honey into the skin in a circular motion, making sure to cover your whole face.
    2. Let honey sit on face for 10-15 minutes.
    3. Wash off with warm water and pat your skin dry with a washcloth.

Notes

I use this face mask several times a week, ranging from 1-3 times per week.

Easy Natural Clay Face Mask

Instructions

    1. Use a glass bowl (do not use a metal bowl) to make a paste using equal parts bentonite clay and apple cider vinegar. Use a wooden spoon (do not use a metal spoon) to stir the mixture until it forms a paste. If you find the paste is not thick enough for you, add a little more clay.
    2. Place clay/ACV mixture in your hands and apply to face, making sure to cover your whole face.
    3. Let clay paste sit on face for 7-15 minutes.
    4. Wash off with warm water and pat your skin dry with a washcloth.

Notes

  • I use this face mask once a week. I prefer to do this mask at night with my bedtime face care routine.
  • You may notice your face is pink or reddish after washing off the mask, mine always is. This is due to the detoxing process and the clay drawing stuff out of your skin. The pink or red will go away after a short period of time.
  • It is very important not to use a metal bowl or metal spoon to mix the clay. Bentonite clay draws out heavy metals and you don’t want the metals from the spoon in your face mask.

Easy Natural Face Moisturizer

Materials

  • organic jojoba oil (<< I use this jojoba oil)
  • 1-2 drops of therapeutic-grade Frankincense, Lavender or Manuka essential oil

Instructions

    1. Place 1-2 drops of therapeutic-grade Frankincense, Lavender or Manuka essential oil in the palm of your hand with about a pea size amount of organic jojoba oil (a little jojoba oil goes a long way).
    2. Massage essential oil and jojoba oil into the skin on your face and neck in a circular motion, making sure to cover your whole face. I like to rub the mixture into the skin for several minutes.
    3. Leave this moisturizing mixture on your face.

Notes

I only use these therapeutic-grade Frankincense, Lavender or Manuka essential oils.

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Disclaimer: ALL information you read on Recipes to Nourish is purely for informational and educational purposes only. I love to share and share with love, but I am not a health care practitioner. Information is not intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease. Statements within this site have not been approved by the FDA, meaning information and statements regarding health claims on this blog have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. All blog posts are solely my personal experiences and opinions and should not be interpreted as an attempt to offer a medical opinion. If you have questions about food, diet, nutrition, natural remedies or holistic health, please do your own research and consult with your health care practitioner. For more information please see all of my disclaimers and disclosures. 

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Basic cosmetic oils: useful properties and features

Contents

In this article, we will tell you more about the beneficial properties of base oils. What cosmetic oil should you choose, how does it differ from essential oil?

Base oils are obtained by pressing, extraction or by chemical extraction of plant materials, that is, those parts of plants that contain the greatest amount of fat, for example from seeds, seeds, nuts.Oils obtained by any of the above methods are refined.

Base oils are very often used in soap making, in the production of various cosmetics for the care of body skin, face, hair and in the manufacture of massage oils.

Cosmetic base oil with various beneficial properties.

Naturally moisturizes and protects the skin. Our skin is very often exposed to such external negative environmental influences as: wind, frost, scorching sun or aggressive improper care.The oil on the surface of the skin forms a protective film that prevents moisture from evaporating.

Saturation of the skin with useful substances. The substances included in the cosmetic oil are able to penetrate deeply into the skin, enriching it with a large number of useful elements.

Improving tone and elasticity Some oils with regular use have a tonic effect. They improve microcirculation and stimulate collagen production. The surface of the skin is restored. The skin becomes smoother and looks beautiful and healthy.

Each of the oils has a unique composition. The most popular base oils that are most commonly used are:

  • Coconut. Contains panthenol, ascorbic, folic, lauric, caprylic acids, thiamine and pyridoxide. Lauric acid, which is part of the composition, is the basis of this oil. It has antiseptic and bactericidal properties. Coconut oil has a nourishing and rejuvenating effect on the skin.
  • Shea Butter (Shea Butter) Contains squalene, tocopherols, carotene, phytosterols, xanthophyll and triterpene alcohols.Shea butter is an excellent protector against the negative effects of UV rays and prevents dehydration. Its constituents contribute to the production of collagen and elastin, thereby slowing down the aging process of the skin.

Base oils are good for all skin types. Whether dry, sensitive or oily. And which oil is ideal for your type, we will tell you below.

Meela Meelo has a wonderful selection of products based on base oils not only for the skin of the body, face, but also for the hair.

For example, Meela Meelo Moisture Whipped Body Butter is formulated with Shea Butter, which effectively treats dry and dehydrated skin by removing flaking, leaving it smooth and silky.

How does a base oil differ from an essential oil?

Base oil differs from essential oil in that the former is more fatty and dense. Most often, base oils do not have a pronounced aroma.

Base oil can be used as an independent product, as well as as a base in the manufacture of various cosmetic products, such as: ointments, masks, creams.

Often, the base is mixed with ethers, while both types of oils do not lose their useful properties: on the contrary, they are added together.

Essential oil is a concentrate of active volatile substances. Esters are extracted from leaves and other parts of plants. This oil does not contain fatty acids. And its certain feature is a rich aroma. Therefore, in natural cosmetics, esters are often used as natural fragrances. In addition to aroma, essential oil contains a large number of biologically active components.

Very important! Concentrated essential oils cannot be used in their pure form. This can lead to burns and allergic reactions.

Cosmetic base oils should be stored in a dark, cool place.

Natural oils are effective in face care

Natural oils for the skin contain ingredients that have an intense anti-aging effect. It is not surprising that more and more women are drawn to them, who are not indifferent to the beautiful appearance of their skin.

Currently, the cosmetics market lacks innovative paraben-free oils that have a beneficial effect on the skin. Natural oils are those that are not refined during the production process, produced by cold pressing. What’s more, they do not contain artificial additives or preservatives that are harmful to the skin.

Just about a dozen years ago, oils contained only natural ingredients in the form of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. Today, oils are pressed using innovative technologies and enriched with valuable ingredients such as peptides, vitamin C and retinol, thanks to which they have an even more intense anti-wrinkle effect.Innovative oil-based facial oils and serums work gently on the skin, and their natural ingredients effectively penetrate deep into the skin, thereby restoring its silkiness and radiance to the skin.

How to apply oil to your face to make it special?

Oil-based oils and serums should be applied to clean, damp skin. First, generously apply flower water (hydrolat) to the skin, then rub a few drops of oil (oil serum) in your palms, apply oil to your face and take a deep breath.Thanks to this, the aromatherapy effect of the oils will allow you to relax and unwind for a moment. Apply oil along the massage lines with light movements.

Why use them and which face oils to choose?

The use of natural oils for the face is very beneficial for the skin. Natural plant extracts contained in the oils leave the skin smooth, silky and free from unsightly wrinkles. Properly used oils deeply regenerate, moisturize and smooth the skin.Regular use significantly improves skin firmness and tone. In addition, they normalize sebum secretion for oily, acne and combination skin. What’s more, natural face oils have anti-inflammatory properties and are effective in treating skin rashes and any irritations that are often caused by allergies.

When deciding to buy natural oil, you should pay attention to the fact that it is a completely natural product and therefore does not contain preservatives.

The oil must be properly selected for the type of skin. For dry skin, coconut oil, cocoa oil, flaxseed oil, avocado oil, olive oil, peach oil, rosehip oil or walnut oil are suitable. Also, for dry skin, it is worth purchasing sweet almond oil, shea butter, argan oil, or raw pumpkin oil.

In turn, oils of sea buckthorn, pomegranate seeds, prickly pear, strawberry seeds, black currant are perfect for sensitive and couperose skin – these oils can be used both individually and in combination, for example, all these oils are contained in our Light Day serum Serum Primer.

For oily, combination skin, jojoba, mango, grape seed, calendula, raspberry seed oil, watermelon oil, pumpkin seed oil, black cumin oil, milk thistle oil, sesame oil, raw flax seed oil and walnut oil are suitable.

In our cosmetics, we use high-quality imported oils, as well as Oils of our own production – high-altitude live crude oils obtained by pressing, at an altitude of 960 meters above sea level.

Coconut oil for the face – benefits and harms, how to use it correctly

Coconut oil is a natural remedy for the face, which was known to Ayurveda healers for another 4 thousand.years ago. Coconut oil perfectly moisturizes and nourishes the skin. Today this miraculous elixir is chosen for its high efficiency in the fight against the first wrinkles, flaking and age spots.

Composition and benefits of coconut oil

The composition of the healing agent includes the following acids:

• hyaluronic acid – retains moisture on the surface of the skin of the face, smoothes fine wrinkles;
• caprylic acid – saturates cells with oxygen, normalizes the work of the sebaceous glands;
• lauric acid – protects the skin from the external environment, has an antibacterial effect, heals microcracks;
• oleic acid – normalizes the work of the epidermis, improves lipid metabolism, returns velvety to the skin, strengthens the cell walls;
• myristic acid – is a kind of “invisible bridge” that helps all the valuable natural components to penetrate into the skin;
• palmitic acid – normalizes metabolism, promotes cell regeneration.
Also the composition of coconut oil for the face includes:
• vitamin A – has a calming effect;
• vitamin B1 – prevents premature aging of the skin, protects the skin from low temperatures and UV rays;
• vitamin B6 – relieves inflammation, has wound healing properties;
• vitamin E – slows down the aging process;
• Vitamin PP – stimulates regeneration processes in cells.
Thus, the benefits of coconut oil for the face are obvious. Perhaps the secret of this tool lies in its unique composition.

IMPORTANT! The oil can be used no longer than 2 consecutive weeks. Then you should take a short break (10-14 days).

Application of coconut oil

Coconut oil for the face is widely used in cosmetology. It is perfectly absorbed without leaving an oily sheen on the skin. As a rule, it is used in its pure form, or as part of scrubs, creams and other cosmetic products.

In its pure form, the oil is used as a nourishing cream:
1.Place a hard piece in your hand and hold it until it melts.
2. Apply a thin layer to the skin.
The product can be mixed with other oils or added in a 1 to 3 ratio to the finished cream.

When mixing with other cosmetic formulations:
1. Keep the oil in a water bath until it becomes liquid.
2. Add it to a mask, cream, etc. Try to make one-time mixtures.
Now you know how to use coconut oil for your face. With regular use, the skin becomes beautiful and elastic, fine wrinkles and age spots disappear, and skin turgor improves.

ATTENTION! Solid coconut fat should be stored between 4 and 24 C and the oil should be kept in a warm place. For example, in the kitchen.

What effect does the oil have

Since coconut oil is a fat obtained from raw coconut nuts, its properties will be beneficial for the following skin types:

1. Flabby, aging skin – increases the elasticity of the dermis, smoothes fine wrinkles …

2. Skin before and after tanning – makes tanning more beautiful, protects the skin from harmful UV radiation.

3. Problem, oily skin – has bactericidal properties, relieves inflammation.

4. Dry, rough skin – nourishes, forms the thinnest film on the skin surface and maintains water balance.

Benefits of using oil

Coconut oil has a rich nutty flavor and does not require the addition of any thickeners or fragrances. Its main advantages include:

1. Hydration. The tool helps to strengthen the protective barrier layer of the dermis, retains moisture inside.The skin becomes hydrated.

2. Reduction of inflammation. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory properties, making it unique for irritated skin.

3. Increase in collagen production. Collagen helps the skin maintain its elasticity. The content of lauric acid in oil has a positive effect on collagen production.

4. Lightening of dark spots. Coconut oil reduces the appearance of dark spots on the face, visibly transforming the skin. The effect is enhanced by adding lemon juice.

You can use coconut oil for your face instead of a cream. Also, coconut oil is the basis for other plant extracts and essential oils that are used in facial cosmetics. Therefore, it can often be found in other cosmetics.

NOTE! To increase the rejuvenating and moisturizing effect, apply the product only to previously steamed skin.

How to Choose Coconut Oil

Choosing a good oil is not an easy task, but it can be done.Due to the fact that some manufacturers add cheaper components and chemical impurities to the oil, it is possible to purchase a low-quality product. After using such a miracle remedy, not only an allergic reaction, but also the appearance of a rash and other aesthetic imperfections will become an unpleasant bonus. Therefore, you need to choose your coconut oil carefully.

Buy coconut oil from your local drugstore or specialty natural cosmetics store. A quality product has a pleasant coconut scent.The texture of the product can be solid or liquid. With temperature drops, the healing properties of coconut oil are not lost. The color can vary from milky to pale yellow in the solid state and from transparent to sandy in the liquid state. A dark color indicates that there are impurities in the coconut oil.

Packaging plays an equally important role. Prefer glass containers. The oil in such a jar retains its useful composition. Good oil should be stored for up to 2 years.

Cold pressed unrefined oil is suitable for dry to normal skin. With this extraction, it retains all its unique properties. But products labeled “Expeller-Pressed” should be discarded. This means that the coconut oil has been heat-treated and therefore has lost its benefits.

IMPORTANT! For oily skin, choose refined, fragrance-free and multi-stage refined oil.

There is another secret that you can use to find a good coconut oil.A quality product can be eaten, not just used as a cosmetic. The manufacturer always indicates this information on the packaging. If not, there are other ingredients in coconut oil. Hence the conclusion: it is better to refuse such a purchase right away.

Top 5 Coconut Oil

Based on user ratings, we have compiled a list of the best coconut oil for face and body from different price points, but with consistently high quality:

1.DIVA MASK Coconut oil for hair, face and body Coconut Oil 100%

2. LIGNE ST BARTH Universal coconut oil Huile de Coco

3. ORGANICZONE Coconut oil for hair and body 100% Coconut Oil

4. SPIVAK Refined Coconut Oil

5. BIOTHAL Coconut Oil Body Oil Coconut Oil

Summing Up

Coconut oil is a real gift for those who want to put their skin in order, but do not want to purchase several cosmetics at once.Perhaps this is a universal product, the competent use of which will make the skin of the face elastic and beautiful.

Sources used

1) https://med-look.ru/kokosovoe-maslo-dlya-litsa.html
2) https://makeupkey.ru/lico/kokosovoe-maslo-dlya-lica-primenenie- polza-vred-otzyvy-kosmetologov-kak-ispolzovat /
3) https://Maslico.ru/lico/kokosovoe-maslo-dlya-litsa
4) https://city-glam.com/krasota/kokosovoe-maslo -dlya-lica /
5) https://alter-zdrav.ru/kokosovoe-maslo-primenenie-polza-i-vred/
6) http: // polza-ili-vred.ru / kokosovoe-maslo-dlya-kozhi-pol-za-i-vred.html
7) https://sostavproduktov.ru/produkty/rastitelnye-masla/kokosovoe
8) https://natural-cosmetology.ru/ coconut-oil-for-face /
9) https://blog.altaimag.ru/kokosovoe-maslo-primenenie-dlya-kozhi-lica/
10) https://vam-polezno.ru/polza-i- vred / kokosovoe-maslo-polza-i-vred-dlya-kozhi.html

Aromatherapy Body Energy Natural oil for face, body and hair

Buy Aromatherapy Body Energy Natural oil for face, body and hair

Excellent daily care product that gives firmness and freshness to all skin types.Vegetable oils – macadamia, grape seed, wheat germ and sunflower seeds, nourish and moisturize the skin. The special avocado oil with a high content of linoleic and oleic acids is effective for restoring water balance and skin regeneration. Bright mint-camphor composition of 100% essential oils energizes and good mood. Meadow mint refreshes, restores physical and emotional strength, awakens the skin. Lime oil stimulates skin regeneration. Cedar has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, enhances lymphatic drainage.Light herbal aroma of thyme oil tones up. Camphor oil relieves fatigue and has a beneficial effect on the skin, preventing inflammation. The aromas of sweet orange and tangerine are natural antidepressants, stabilize mood swings. Energy body oil – a symbol of nature’s energy, softens the skin after a shower, providing gentle care. Suitable for aromatherapy care massage.

Contains: vitis vinifera seed oil, macadamia integrifolia seed oil, Triticum Vulgare Germ Oil, caprylic / capric triglyceride, Persea Gratissima Oil, helianthus annuus seed oil, tocopheryl acetate, Mentha Arvensis Leaf Oil, Citrus Sinensis Peel Oil, Citrus, Reticulata Oil Citrus Aurantifolia Leaf Oil, Cedrus Deodara Seed Oil, Elettaria Cardamomum Seed Oil, Citrus Clementina Peel Oil, Thymus Serpillum Oil, Cinnamomum Camphora Linalooliferum Leaf Oil, Melaleuca Leucadendron Cajaput Oil, Leaf Oil, Cinnamomum Cassia Oil, Gaultheria Procumb Extract *, Cinnamal *, Coumarin *, Geraniol *, Linalool *, Limonene * * components of natural essential oils

How to use: Apply to the skin with massaging movements

Storage conditions: Store at room temperature

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  • Can I order by phone?

Orders are accepted only through the website after registration.

  • Is it possible to see the product and try it in your warehouse?

You cannot try the products, because it is in stock. There is no showroom. You can choose a Product either according to the description on the website, or by testing it in retail stores in your city.

  • Can the operator add / combine my orders, change the payment or delivery method?

There is no such possibility, in order to avoid errors in the verbal transmission of information.You can place a new order.

  • When I placed the order, the delivery date was one, and when the order was confirmed, the operator gave a later date of dispatch, why?

The order is put into operation after its confirmation and / or after we receive payment for the order. At this point, there may already be a later delivery date for delivery.

  • I paid for the order, but the status in my account has not changed, why?

We receive payment within three working days, we can process it on weekdays from 9:00 to 18:00.After that, the status of your order in your personal account will change to paid.

  • Today the price is one, but yesterday it was different, why?

Prices on the site are updated daily in automatic mode. Therefore, a situation is possible when yesterday the price for a certain position was higher than today and vice versa. The prices for the Goods that are part of the Order confirmed by the Seller are not subject to change, except for the cases stipulated by the Offer agreement.

  • Why paid shipping?

Delivery at Beautydepot store.ru is paid and depends on the geography of delivery. Unlike other online stores, the cost of our delivery is not included in the cost of each product, therefore, when ordering several items, the Buyer saves even more, and therefore we have no restrictions on the minimum order amount and the Buyer has the opportunity to place an order for goods with a cost of 1 ruble or more …

  • What is Perfume ( parfum)?

The most expensive and refined product of all perfumery is perfume (French name – Parfum or Extrait).The perfume contains the highest percentage of aromatic composition, the percentage of aromatic oils (20-40%). It is customary to use perfume in the evening, on special and solemn occasions. It is enough to apply a few drops on the inner side of the wrist, elbow bends, on the hollow at the chest and your favorite aroma will accompany you everywhere, from 6 to 12 hours

  • What is Eau de Toilette?

Eau de Toilette is an alcohol-water solution with an average of 80-85% with the addition of aromatic compositions, most often it contains from 4 to 7% of essential oils.The longevity of eau de toilette is limited from 2 to 4 hours, but it is an ideal daytime option for the summer heat, office and other situations when a strong and haunting scent is inappropriate. Eau de toilette can be applied not only to skin and hair, but also to clothes

  • What is Eau de Parfum / Parfum de Toilette?

Eau de Parfum / Parfum de Toilette (also called Eau de Parfum / Parfum de Toilette) is a product that, in terms of the concentration of essential oils, is between perfume and eau de toilette.The perfume composition contains 8-13% of aromatic extract in 90% alcohol. Eau de parfum is often called daytime perfume, as it replaces perfume during the day and stays on the skin for up to 5 hours

  • What is a tester?

The tester is an original bottle supplied by the manufacturer of perfumery products in a cardboard box (usually with the inscription Tester demonstration / probador) or without a box, some manufacturers pack testers without a cap (lid) or with a lid.The tester has no differences (quality, aroma persistence, components, etc.) from the basic version

  • What is vintage?

As a rule, these are fragrances that were produced 5 years ago or more. The older the fragrance, the more collectible value it acquires. Claims for vintage products will not be accepted

  • What is Selective Perfumery?

Manufacturers of selective perfumery do not invest large advertising budgets in their promotion, but the fragrances are intended for true lovers and connoisseurs of perfume.The main difference between such fragrances is their individuality, uniqueness, and the more sophisticated the better. Those. they are not to everyone’s liking. Also, some selective brands are fond of the production of mono aromas, in which this or that note is erected on the pedestal of the composition or is present in the singular. The fragrances of selective perfumery have their own note, their own distinctive feature, which will either hook you or push you away

  • What is casting?

The cast is a part of the fragrance taken from the original bottle and distributed among smaller atomizers.

we use improvised means for a chocolate skin tone!

Often there is not enough money or time to buy a professional expensive tanning cream, but you want to get a beautiful skin tone in the shortest possible time. There is an exit! Many creams have natural alternatives that are not only as effective, but may also be more beneficial for your skin.

There are natural base oils and essential oils that will also perfectly protect the skin from burns and dehydration and provide a beautiful tan.Moreover, thanks to their rich composition, these oils have a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin: they smooth, tighten and make it velvety to the touch.

Each oil in this article will help protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV rays, but it is worth remembering that natural tanning products have a much lower protection factor. Unlike the oil you choose, it can vary from 3 to 15 units, which is quite enough for those with medium to dark skin types.If you go to the hot coast, then of course, you may need more serious means of protection, but in case of vacation somewhere in Europe, natural oils can be great helpers in the struggle for a beautiful skin tone. Their advantage is that they also strengthen the natural defenses of the skin, helping it to resist adverse factors. So, by using natural tanning oils, you will not only get a tan, but also make your skin healthier.

Since the level of protection of natural products is lower, then the first tanning sessions should be extremely careful.Limit sunbathing to 15 minutes and gradually increase the time each day. This will help avoid stress on the skin and give the body the time it needs to “get ready”. The fact is that under the influence of sunlight, the formation of free radicals that contribute to skin aging accelerates. The body takes time to build up melanin and antioxidants to protect against the damaging effects of free radicals.

Stay in the sun before 10 o’clock in the morning and after 17 o’clock in the evening.During this time, the sun is the least aggressive and the likelihood of getting burned is significantly reduced.

Natural oils can be divided into those that have SPF-protection, prevent the appearance of burns, while maintaining the necessary level of moisture and oils-tanning activators, which help to acquire a beautiful skin tone, efforts to produce melanin and antioxidants.

Base oils with SPF: calendula, argan, cocoa, wheat germ, sesame, green coffee, raspberry seeds, tamanu, avocado, cedarwood, hemp, jojoba, macadamia, rice, rosehip, peanut, watermelon seeds, coconut, shrimp baobab, mango, olive, etc.

These oils can be used alone or in mixtures with each other. You can not be afraid to experiment with them: in whatever proportions you create a mixture, it will only bring benefits.

It is worth handling essential oils more carefully. They greatly enhance protection, but due to their strong concentration, only a few drops are required. They are usually added to base oil blends to enhance the effect.

Essential oils: blue chamomile, rose, immortelle, iris, lavender, geranium, cypress, wild carrot, sandalwood, mint, basil, patchouli, myrrh, rosewood, vetiver, hyssop.

If you are thinking about choosing a specific oil, give preference to base oils and extracts from succulent plants (cactus). They are distinguished by their special survivability in harsh desert conditions and hold the record for their ability to retain moisture. They contain a huge amount of antioxidants, and they protect against burns as well as possible. These include oils of prickly pear seeds, oils with extracts of agave, Kalanchoe, aloe.

Base oils-enhancers: St. John’s wort (add no more than 20% of the total volume to the mixture, use in the evening), cottonseed (in the evening), sea buckthorn, coconut, Brazil nut, baobab, walnut.

Gives a dark tan: Brazil nut, baobab, St. John’s wort, walnut (can give a very dark tan). Flaxseed oil can give your tan an earthy hue.

Essential oils: seeds of wild carrots, turmeric, green coffee, citrus oils (mandarin, lime, bergamot, neroli – use with caution, in the evening and not in the first 3 days of tanning).

Take a shower before tanning. Pat dry the skin with a towel, but do not dry it dry. Apply the mixture warmed in your hands to the body with smoothing movements.If you can’t take a shower, then moisturize your skin with boiled water or green tea.

Also, do not forget about the protection of hair, under the influence of sunlight without proper protection, they also dehydrate, become more dry and brittle. One of the advantages of natural oils is their versatility. You can use the mixture for the body for hair as well. To protect your curls, use base oils without adding essential oils: apply them in small amounts (just a couple of drops) along the entire length.

After preparing the mixture, leave it to infuse for three days.