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Natural staph infection treatment: Home Remedies for Staph Infection


Home Remedies for Staph Infection

Staphylococcus aureus infection or staph infection as it is commonly known occurs when staph bacteria enter the body through bruised skin infecting skin and blood. The staphylococcus bacteria usually reside on the outer skin, nose and genitals not affecting the person normally. But a cut or wound on the skin might lead bacterial strains to enter skin and bloodstream causing serious infections. It results in redness, swelling, itching, pus-filled boils and painful rashes on the body affecting face and neck the most. An even grave infection can affect blood, bones, heart and lungs causing pneumonia and other life-threatening conditions.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is another strain of staph bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics and cannot be treated by medication easily. Staph infection is extremely contagious and is spread by direct skin contact with the infected person and objects.

What Causes Staph Infection?

Staph bacteria enter through a cut or bruised skin. Direct skin contact with staph bacteria can be due to various factors such as:

  • Contact with infected persons exposed skin

  • Using infected objects, towels, clothes, utensils, etc

  • Drug abuse – injecting infected needles

  • Low immunity due to any medical condition

  • Using an internal medical device such as catheter, feeding tube or fitted artificial joint

  • Sharing gym and sports equipment

  • Long duration of hospital stay

All these may result in serious staph infection on skin and other body organs. Staphylococcus infection is generally treated by antibiotic medicines, however, in recent times bacteria are getting more and more resistant to different antibiotics posing a difficulty in treating the infection. The MRSA strain of staph bacteria is hard to treat with antibiotics. Thus, it is extremely important to learn about home-based natural remedies for staph infection.

Home Remedies for Staph Infection

  • Turmeric: Turmeric is an excellent antibiotic and anti-inflammatory food product effective in curbing staph infection. A tonic made of turmeric powder mixed with black pepper, water and coconut oil taken several times a day is helpful in curing the infection. Turmeric powder mixed with lime powder and water can also be applied as a paste on the affected area to reduce the pain and redness. It dries up the pus in the blister and reduces infection.

  • Coconut oil: Coconut oil has a lasting soothing effect on blistered and itchy skin. Its antibacterial properties help in reducing infection and healing skin gently. Apply a dab of coconut oil on blisters for cooling effect and faster cure.

  • Apple cider vinegar: It is shown to have anti-bacterial and antifungal properties that effectively help lessen infection. Cotton soaked in apple cider vinegar applied over an infected region or mix with baking soda and apply it as a paste to rapidly reduce pain and discomfort. A mixture of apple cider vinegar in honey and water if consumed two to three times a day help alleviate the pain and eliminate the infection.

  • Tea tree oil: Another bactericidal herb is tea tree. Its oil decreases the growth of bacteria reducing the effects of staph infection. A mixture of tea tree oil and honey is efficient in preventing growing staph bacteria and soothing boils. Apply a few drops of tea tree oil to help reduce pain and itching due to staph infection on face.

  • Castor oil: Castor oil shows improved healing in staph infection as a result of its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. It provides warmth to infected areas drying out the pus and relieving pain. Apply some warm castor oil with a cotton swab on the wound and cover it lightly with bandage or flannel cloth. This will give necessary warmth to the wound and fasten healing.

  • Basil: Basil is a proven preventive against numerous infections. Daily intake of few basil leaves in tea is recommended to keep infections away. Fresh basil leaves extracted into juice is applied on the affected area to cure staph infection. It helps reduce various symptoms related to staph infection such as redness, itching and prevent it from increasing. Basil oil is also effective in treating the infection.

  • Eucalyptus oil: Eucalyptus yields oil rich in terpenoids such as eucalyptol and cineole which are antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and expectorant in nature. Such a therapeutic profile makes it a potent treatment against a wide range of bacteria. It is considered as a good broad-spectrum antiseptic herb for antibiotic-resistant bacteria like MRSA. Prepare a tea by boiling a few drops of eucalyptus oil in water and drink it 2 times a day to cure staph infection or apply it directly over the affected area.

  • Goldenseal: Leaves of goldenseal show antibiotic properties helpful in treating various infections and related symptoms. It is also effective against staph infection, boils and impetigo. Wash the infected area with goldenseal powder mixed with water several times in a day to lessen pain and discomfort.

  • Witch hazel: Witch hazel is anti-bacterial and antimicrobial in nature having anti-inflammatory properties. It also acts as an astringent which sterilizes the skin preventing further bacterial infection. Apply witch hazel mixed with water to infected area for relief from redness, bursting blisters and pain. Regular witch hazel bath prevents microbial infections and keeps skin healthy.

  • Ginger and Manuka honey: A paste made of crushed ginger and salt in manuka honey is effective in treating a staph infection. It stops further bacterial growth and decreases infection. Apply it over the affected area 2-3 times a day to efficiently reduce the symptoms and speedy cure.

These home remedies are beneficial in treating staph infection and reducing its symptoms. They lessen pain and prevent bacterial growth naturally and are effective even against antibiotic-resistant strains like MRSA on which most antibiotics fail to act. Try out these easy and simple home remedies for staph infection.

Treatments for Staph Infection: Antibiotics, Surgery, and More

Treatment options for an infection caused by staphylococcus bacteria depend on the type of infection you have, how severe it is, and where it’s located on or in your body. Staph can cause a variety of types of skin infections, as well as infections of the blood, bones, joints, heart, and lungs.

Serious staph infections can be life-threatening, and even minor infections can turn serious if not treated appropriately, so any symptoms of a skin infection caused by staph — such as persistent skin redness, swelling, or sores — should be brought to the attention of a doctor.

That being said, some minor skin infections will heal on their own and won’t require any treatment other than keeping the skin clean and protected. (1) Most other staph infections — whether a skin infection or an internal infection — will require treatment with antibiotics. And sometimes, surgery is necessary to treat a staph infection. (2)

Antibiotics for Staph Infection

Antibiotics work by killing bacteria. Since the first antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered in the 1920s, hundreds have become available for use. (3) But even as more antibiotics have been developed, certain disease-causing bacteria have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics, meaning those antibiotics are no longer effective at treating infections caused by those bacteria. (4)

Staphylococcus aureus, the most common type of staph, is notorious for developing resistance to antibiotics.

But luckily for those with staph infections, a number of antibiotics are still effective against it. Some are applied topically to the skin or the insides of the nose, some are taken orally, and some are given as an injection or intravenous (IV) infusion.

Your doctor will choose an antibiotic for you based on the location of your infection, how serious it is, and, sometimes, the type of staph you have. In some situations, you might be given a combination of several different antibiotics.

Some commonly used antibiotics for staph include (5):

Although side effects will depend on the specific medicine you take, antibiotics may cause:

If you’re given an oral antibiotic, be sure to follow the instructions on the product label carefully. Some antibiotics should be taken on an empty stomach, but others can be taken with food, which can help reduce any stomach irritation caused by the drug.

Finish all of your prescribed medication, even if your symptoms start to improve, to increase the likelihood of the infection being completely cured.

Surgical Treatment for Skin and Internal Staph Infections

Surgery may be necessary to empty a wound, abscess, or boil. A doctor will make an incision in the sore to drain it. Sometimes extra fluid is also taken out of an infected joint.

Additionally, some people might need certain devices, such as artificial grafts, pacemakers, heart valves, or prosthetics, surgically removed if they develop a staph infection. (7)

Treating Staph Food Poisoning

Staph food poisoning is caused by toxins produced by the bacteria, not by the bacteria itself.

Symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, and stomach cramps, typically develop within 30 minutes to eight hours of consuming a contaminated food, and are best treated by drinking fluids. If necessary, your doctor can prescribe anti-nausea medication, and severe illness may require intravenous fluids.

The toxins do not respond to antibiotics. (8)

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)

Children with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome generally need to be treated in the hospital with antibiotics, intravenous fluids, skin creams or ointments, and pain medicines.

Because SSSS causes large areas of skin to peel off, similar to a scalding burn, kids with this condition are often treated in the burn unit or intensive care unit of the hospital. (9)

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotic methicillin and other drugs in the penicillin class.

MRSA can be identified by taking a swab of the insides of a person’s nostrils or of a wound or skin lesion, and either culturing the specimen (to see if MRSA grows in the specimen) or using a faster, molecular test that detects staph DNA.

For minor skin infections caused by MRSA, a variety of oral antibiotics are still effective — as long as every dose of the prescribed antibiotic is taken.

People with serious MRSA infections are usually treated with the antibiotic vancomycin, although in recent years some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have become resistant or less sensitive to it, too.

Vancomycin is given intravenously and can cause serious side effects, such as:

  • Severe diarrhea
  • Stomach pain
  • Peeling or blistering skin
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Swelling of the eyes, face, throat, tongue, or lips
  • Hearing loss or ringing in the ears
  • Hoarseness
  • Dizziness (10)

Some serious MRSA infections are treated with a combination of two or more antibiotics.

Honey as a Treatment for MRSA

As antibiotic resistance has become a growing concern, researchers have tested the effectiveness of other substances, including various types of honey, at helping to stop the growth of staph bacteria.

Manuka honey, in particular, has been found to have antimicrobial activity and to augment the effects of certain antibiotics in treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. (11)

But the use of honey in treating staph infections is still in the experimental stages. Simply slathering a possible skin infection with honey is unlikely to be effective and not recommended.

Home Remedies for Skin Infections

Some home remedies that may be used to help symptoms of staph infections include:

  • Warm Compresses Placing a warm washcloth over boils for about 10 minutes at a time may help them burst.
  • Cool Compresses Using cool compresses may reduce pain due to infections such as septic arthritis.
  • Pain Relievers Taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen for minor infections can decrease pain.
  • Topical Antibiotic Ointment Over-the-counter (OTC) topical antibiotic ointment can help to prevent minor wound infections or speed their healing. But if a wound is getting worse rather than better, see a medical provider for care.
  • Alternative Remedies Some people apply substances with reported antimicrobial properties, such as tea tree oil, apple cider vinegar, coconut oil, eucalyptus essential oil, oregano essential oil, and others to skin infections to help them heal. But there is limited — and for some products, no — evidence that these are effective against staph bacteria. In addition, essential oils and other substances can be irritating to the skin if applied in a concentrated form.

Home Care for a Staph Infection

If you do develop a staph infection on your skin, some basic hygiene measures will encourage healing and help to prevent the spread of infection:

  • Keep it clean. Follow your doctor’s instructions on how to clean your wound or skin condition.
  • Keep it covered. Cover the affected area with gauze or a bandage, as recommended by your doctor, to protect it and avoid spreading the infection to other people.
  • Don’t touch it. Avoid touching the area, so you don’t spread the bacteria to other parts of your body.
  • Use towels only once. After you bathe, dry yourself off, then wash the towel in hot water before using it again. (12)

Who Treats Staph Infections?

Primary care doctors, such as internists, family medicine physicians, and pediatricians, can treat a mild case of staph. In some cases, your primary care doctor may refer you to a dermatologist for staph infections of the skin.

If your infection progresses or you develop complications, you might have to see an infectious disease specialist or a surgeon.

If you experience severe symptoms, such as a red or tender area of skin going numb, a reddened area becoming larger or hard to the touch, worsening pain, or high fever or chills, you should seek emergency medical attention at once.

Skin infections that occur in or around the eyes should also be treated as an emergency.

Prognosis for Mild and Severe Staph Infections

Most minor skin infections have a very good prognosis. But infections that are caused by drug-resistant bacteria, turn severe, or develop into conditions like sepsis (an extreme immune response to infection) or pneumonia (infection of the lungs) can be deadly.

Each year, about 90,000 people in the United States get an invasive MRSA infection, and about 20,000 die. (13)

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sepsis potentially causes 6 million deaths worldwide every year. (14) While any infection can lead to sepsis, bacterial infections are the most common cause. (15)

Pneumonia kills about 50,000 people in the United States annually, although not all pneumonia is caused by staph bacteria. (16)

Being aware of the symptoms of a staph infection, seeking help promptly, and following an effective treatment approach are the best ways to fight staph.

Re:  Herbs Offer Help in Treatment of MRSA Staph Infections

Re:  Herbs Offer Help in Treatment of MRSA Staph Infections

Yarnell E, Abascal K. Herbal support for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Altern Complement Ther. August 2009;15(4): 189-195.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
infections are occurring more frequently; they have higher rates of mortality,
cost more to treat, and result in longer hospital stays than do other S. aureus infections.1 These
infections are unlike other antibiotic-resistant infections in that they occur
more often in the community in people with no exposure to health care
institutions.2 Herbal medicine offers two potential solutions:
first, in some cases, herbs may be substituted for antibiotics altogether,
which would help prevent the worsening of antibiotic resistance while
controlling MRSA; and second, herbs can be used to augment the effect of antibiotics
and even overcome drug resistance. This article discusses herbs that
potentially have these effects.


MRSA can infect the skin, muscles, joints, and various
organs. Most community-acquired cases are in skin or soft tissue, although the
number of invasive infections is increasing.3 According to the
authors, MRSA should be suspected with new-onset inflammatory skin lesions
(e.g., impetigo, folliculitis, and furunculosis) that are very severe or
resistant to therapy.


Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is among the few herbs
that have been subjected to clinical
trials that suggest that it can augment the effects of antibiotics in
humans infected with MRSA. The authors cite a Japanese study in which MRSA
clearance was significantly greater in subjects with MRSA treated with green
tea and a larger trial, also in Japan,
which suggested that nebulized green tea is a potentially safe way to help
people with respiratory MRSA infections. Green tea acts in many different ways
against MRSA. Several of its compounds, including epigallocatechin gallate
(EGCG) and epicatechin gallate, show a range of resistance-modulating effects.
The authors suggest that green tea should be strongly considered in the
protocol with any patients with MRSA infection. It can be delivered as an infusion
(1-5 g per cup of water, several cups daily), powder in capsules (10-15 g per
day), topical in cream or ointment, or by nebulization of infusion of extracts
dissolved in water.


Chocolate (Theobroma cacao) also contains significant
levels of EGCG and other important molecules found in tea. Therefore, say the
authors, it is reasonable to consider consuming 2-4 oz of dark chocolate (at
least 60% cocoa solids, but probably greater than 75% would be ideal) daily to
reduce antibiotic resistance in MRSA.


The use of volatile oils presents a more directly
antimicrobial approach to MRSA infections. Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia)
leaf oil is the subject of clinical and preclinical research. The authors cite
a randomized trial reporting that treatments with 10% tea tree cream
intranasally and 5% tea tree oil topically, along with standard antimicrobials,
were equally effective in reducing MRSA carriage. For MRSA skin infections, tea
tree oil applied topically several times a day is recommended. Internally, as
part of an anti-MRSA protocol, 2-5 drops of tea tree oil can be taken 4-5 times
per day by people with normal liver and kidney function. The authors mention
other volatile oils that have shown anti-MRSA activity in vitro and that might
be appropriate to combine with tea tree oil: African geranium (Pelargonium
), lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), thyme (Thymus
), and lavender (Lavandula spp.). It should be noted that
the internal use of essential oils should be under the care of a qualified
health professional, medical grade essential oils should be the only kind taken
internally, and the essential oils should be taken in a carrier substance
(e.g., olive oil, ghee).


In cases of severe MRSA infection, antibiotics are required.
Certain herbs can be used with antibiotics to enhance their efficacy and reduce
antibiotic resistance. Ginsenosides from Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng)
root have been mildly antistaphylococcal in vitro and significantly synergistic
with cefotaxime and kanamycin against MRSA strains.4 American
ginseng (P. quinquefolius) has shown similar effects and can be
considered in the treatment of MRSA infections, say the authors. A typical dose
is 1-3 g of powdered root three times per day or 3-5 mL of tincture three times
a day. Pineywoods geranium (Geranium caespitosum), rosemary (Rosmarinus
), and bugle weed (Lycopus europaeus) all have inhibited
antibiotic efflux pumps, thus reducing antibiotic resistance, in MRSA.


Finally, garlic (Allium sativum) is recommended for
patients with MRSA infections. Although the ability of garlic bulb to directly
kill MRSA has been seen in vitro and in mice, no clinical trials are available.
A typical recommendation for a patient with MRSA is to eat 5-10 fresh cloves of
garlic per day (this may be intolerable to some people, but lower doses are not


The authors include a detailed table with a proposed
comprehensive approach to MRSA infections.


“Research on herbs to prevent or treat MRSA infection
is a burgeoning field with many promising early results,” write the
authors. Although more research is needed, clinicians do have some natural
options to add to their approach to MRSA infections.


Shari Henson


1Lode HM. Clinical impact of
antibiotic-resistant gram-positive pathogens. Clin Microbiol Infect.

2Liu C, Graber CJ, Karr M, et al. A
population-based study of the incidence and molecular epidemiology of
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in San Francisco,
2004-2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1637-1646.

3Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J, et
al. Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in
the United States.
JAMA. 2007;298:1763-1771.

4Sung WS, Lee DG. The
combination effect of Korean red ginseng saponins with kanamycin and cefotaxime
against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biol Pharm Bull.

11 Natural Remedies To Get Rid Of A Staph Infection + Causes And Symptoms

More than 119,000 people had bloodstream staph infections in 2017, and nearly 20,000 of them died (1). According to the WHO, MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) has reached epidemic proportions in the US, Canada, Japan, and Indonesia (2).

Staph infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria that are found on the skin of many humans. They usually do not cause any harm. However, in some instances, these bacteria can trigger minor infections. On rare occasions, infections caused by Staphylococcus may become life-threatening if not treated in time.

Read on to know more about staph infection, its treatment options, and prevention tips.

What Is A Staph Infection?

Staph infections are bacterial infections caused by different strains of the Staphylococcus bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found on the skin and inside the nose of healthy individuals. They hardly cause any issues most of the times, excluding some minor skin infections in some people.

However, if the staph bacteria enter deeper into your body, the situation can turn deadly. They can invade your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs, and heart. Of late, a growing number of otherwise healthy people have been developing lethal staph infections.

The signs and symptoms of a staph infection may vary depending on the type of infection it triggers.

Staph Infection – Types And Symptoms

The common skin infections triggered by the Staphylococcus bacteria are:

  • Boils – They usually develop as pockets of pus in the hair follicles or oil glands. The skin surrounding the infected area tends to look swollen and red.
  • Impetigo – It is a contagious infection characterized by painful rashes and large fluid-filled blisters that develop a honey-colored crust.
  • Cellulitis – This staph infection occurs in the deeper layers of the skin. It causes redness, swelling, and, in some cases, oozing ulcers on the skin.
  • Staphylococcal Scalded Skin SyndromeStaphylococcus bacteria can produce toxins, which results in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. It is quite common in babies and children. This infection is characterized by fever, rashes, and blisters. In some cases, the topmost layer of the blistered skin may come off to reveal a raw surface that resembles a burn.

A staph infection may also trigger the following conditions:

  • Food Poisoning – One of the leading causes of food poisoning is staph bacteria. Its symptoms usually include nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhea, and/or low blood pressure.
  • Septicemia – This condition is also known as blood poisoning. It is caused as a result of staph bacteria entering a person’s bloodstream. The symptoms are fever and low blood pressure. Septicemia can also result in infections that affect the internal organs (like the brain, heart, or lungs), bones, muscles, and surgically implanted devices (like artificial joints).
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome – This condition is also triggered by the toxins released by some strains of the Staphylococcus bacteria. It has been linked to certain kinds of tampons, surgery, and wounds. The symptoms of toxic shock syndrome are:
    • High fever
    • Vomiting
    • Nausea
    • Diarrhea
    • Stomach pain
    • Confusion
    • Muscle aches
    • Rashes on the palms or soles
  • Septic Arthritis – It targets the knees, fingers, toes, hips, and shoulders. This type of arthritis is caused due to the invasion of the joints by infectious agents like staph bacteria. The symptoms of septic arthritis may include:
    • Swelling in the joints
    • Pain in the affected area
    • Fever

Let us now understand the main cause of this infection.

What Causes Staph Infections?

As already discussed, staph infections are caused by Staphylococcus bacteria. Many people carry these bacteria without even realizing it. If you have developed a staph infection, there is a good chance that you have been carrying these microbes around for quite some time.

These bacteria can easily spread from person to person and may also live long enough on inanimate utensils like towels or pillowcases to infect the next person who touches them.

Staphylococcus bacteria are known to be able to survive extreme temperatures and high levels of salt as well as stomach acid.

If you have been diagnosed with a staph infection, your doctor may either put you on appropriate antibiotics or discuss other treatment options like wound drainage or removal of infected devices. Treatment often depends on the type of infection you are battling.

Listed below are some all-natural remedies that can assist ongoing medication in managing staph infections.

11 Natural Remedies To Get Rid Of A Staph Infection

1. Essential Oils

a. Tea Tree Oil

The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of tea tree oil can help treat skin infections triggered by Staphylococcus bacteria. It works best as adjuvant therapy to existing treatments (3).

You Will Need
  • 2-3 drops of tea tree oil
  • 2 teaspoons of coconut oil (or any carrier oil)
What You Have To Do
  1. Add two to three drops of tea tree oil to two teaspoons of coconut oil.
  2. Mix well and apply the mixture to the infected area.
  3. Leave it on overnight.
  4. Rinse it off the next morning.
How Often You Should Do This

You may do this once daily.

b. Oregano Oil

Oregano oil exhibits bactericidal activity on some strains of Staphylococcus bacteria and may be used to treat wound-associated skin infections (4).

You Will Need
  • 2-3 drops of oregano oil
  • 2 teaspoons of coconut oil (or any carrier oil)
What You Have To Do
  1. Add two to three drops of oregano oil to two teaspoons of any carrier oil.
  2. Mix well and apply the mixture to the affected area.
  3. Leave it on overnight.
  4. Rinse it off the next morning.
How Often You Should Do This

You may do this once daily.

2. Apple Cider Vinegar

The antimicrobial properties of apple cider vinegar can help eliminate microbes like staphylococcus and can thus help in the treatment of infections triggered by them (5).

You Will Need
  • 1 tablespoon of raw apple cider vinegar
  • 1 cup of water
What You Have To Do
  1. Add a tablespoon of raw apple cider vinegar to a glass of water. Mix well.
  2. Consume this mixture daily.
  3. You can also use this solution topically for skin infections.
How Often You Should Do This

You can do this once daily.

3. Basil Oil

Basil oil shows a powerful inhibitory effect against microbes like Staphylococcus and may be a great option to treat staph infections (6).

You Will Need
  • 2-3 drops of basil oil
  • 2 teaspoons of any carrier oil
What You Have To Do
  1. Add two to three drops of basil oil to two teaspoons of any carrier oil like coconut oil.
  2. Mix well and apply it to the affected skin.
  3. Leave it on overnight.
  4. Rinse it off the next morning using water.
How Often You Should Do This

You may do this once daily.

4. Vitamins

Deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with an increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage (7). Vitamin C has an inhibitory effect on the bacteria (8).

Hence, increasing the intake of foods rich in these vitamins like dairy products, citrus fruits, green leafy veggies, and egg yolks can help in battling staph infections. Talk to your doctor if you want to take additional supplements for these vitamins.

5. Aloe Vera

Aloe vera possesses antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus bacteria (9). These activities may be used to treat staph infections.

You Will Need

1 teaspoon of freshly extracted aloe vera gel

What You Have To Do
  1. Take a teaspoon of freshly extracted aloe vera gel and apply it to the affected area.
  2. Leave it on for 20-30 minutes and rinse it off with water.
  3. Drink one-fourth glass of fresh aloe juice for additional benefits.
How Often You Should Do This

You may do this once daily for best results.

6. Probiotics

Probiotic lactobacilli exhibit immunoregulatory activities that can help in eliminating staphylococcus infections from within (10).

You Will Need

Probiotic supplement

What You Have To Do

Take any probiotic supplement daily. Make sure you consult a doctor before taking any additional supplements.

How Often You Should Do This

You may take this once daily or as advised by your doctor.

7. CBD Oil

CBD oil exhibits antibacterial activities against many Staphylococcus bacterial strains and can thus be used in the treatment of staph infections (11).

You Will Need

A few drops of CBD oil

What You Have To Do
  1. Apply CBD oil to the affected area.
  2. Leave it on until it dries.
How Often You Should Do This

You may do this once daily or as directed by your physician.

8. Garlic

Garlic extracts enhance the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics used on methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, garlic can work well as adjuvant therapy in treating staph infections (12).

You Will Need

2-3 garlic cloves

What You Have To Do
  1. Peel the garlic cloves and
  2. crush them.
  3. Add them to your favorite salads and dishes.
  4. You can also chew on the garlic cloves directly.
How Often You Should Do This

You can do this once daily.

9. Goldenseal

Goldenseal exhibits antimicrobial properties against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and may thus be able to treat staph infections (13).

You Will Need
  • 1 teaspoon of goldenseal tea
  • 1 cup of hot water
What You Have To Do
  1. Add a teaspoon of goldenseal tea to a cup of hot water.
  2. Steep for 5 minutes and strain.
  3. Drink the warm tea.
  4. Alternatively, you can also take goldenseal supplements after consulting your doctor.
How Often You Should Do This

You may take this concoction 1-2 times daily.

10. Ginger

Ginger exhibits antibacterial properties that may be used against bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus bacteria (14).

You Will Need
  • 1 inch of sliced ginger
  • 1 cup of water
What You Have To Do
  1. Add an inch of ginger to a cup of water.
  2. Bring it to a boil in a saucepan and simmer for 5 minutes.
  3. Strain and drink the tea.
How Often You Should Do This

You may drink this 1-2 times daily.

11. Cranberry Juice

The antibacterial potential of cranberry juice can work wonders against staphylococcus infections (15).

You Will Need

1 ½ cups of cranberry juice

What You Have To Do

Consume cranberry juice.

How Often You Should Do This

You may drink this juice once daily.

In addition to the above remedies, here are some tips that can help prevent the recurrence of staph infections.

How To Prevent A Staph Infection

  • Wash your hands with soap and water at regular intervals, especially after using the washroom and before eating.
  • Keep the open wounds and cuts covered with bandages until they heal completely.
  • Change your tampon every 4-8 hours to avoid staph infections like toxic shock syndrome.
  • Do not share personal items like razors, towels, sheets, and clothing with others.
  • Wash possibly infected clothing and bedding in hot water.
  • Follow the necessary safety precautions while handling food. Refrigerate leftovers as soon as possible.

The remedies discussed above can work wonderfully in battling staphylococcus infections. However, you must avail medical intervention for such infections and use the home remedies only to assist ongoing medical treatments.

Hope you found this post helpful. Do you have any more queries related to staph infections? Get in touch with us through the comments section below.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long does it take for a staph infection to go away?

The healing of staph infections may vary depending on the type of the infection. For example, a boil may take anywhere between 10-20 days to heal completely. Availing treatment may speed its healing.

What is the difference between sepsis and staph?

MRSA or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a strain of Staphylococcus bacteria that has become immune to many antibiotics. Unchecked or undiagnosed MRSA is at a high risk of developing into sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition triggered by your body’s response to an infection.

Does hydrogen peroxide kill staph?

Yes, hydrogen peroxide can kill Staphylococcus bacteria like S. aureus by forming a hydroxyl radical post reaction with staphylococcal iron.

What kills staph bacteria on the skin?

The home remedies mentioned above, like topical application of tea tree and oregano oils as well as aloe vera gel are some of the best natural remedies that can help in the treatment of bacterial skin infections.

Is staph infection contagious?

Yes, Staphylococcus bacteria are highly contagious and can easily spread by direct contact with an infected person or utensil.


  1. “Staph infections can kill” Vital Signs, Centers for Disease Control.
  2. “MRSA SURVIVORS NETWORK” World Health Organization.
  3. “Staphylococcus aureus and wounds: a review of tea tree oil as a promising antimicrobial.” American Journal of Infection Control, US National Library Of Medicine.
  4. “Bactericidal Property of Oregano Oil Against Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates.” Frontiers In Microbiology, US National Library Of Medicine.
  5. “Antimicrobial activity of apple cider vinegar against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; downregulating cytokine and microbial protein expression” Scientific Reports, US National Library Of Medicine.
  6. “Comparative studies on the activity of basil–an essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L.–against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas by using different test methods.” Journal of Microbiological Methods, US National Library Of Medicine.
  7. “Vitamin D and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, US National Library Of Medicine.
  8. “Vitamin C inhibits staphylococcus aureus growth and enhances the inhibitory effect of quercetin on growth of Escherichia coli in vitro.” Planta Medica, US National Library Of Medicine.
  9. “Aloe vera extract: A novel antimicrobial and antibiofilm against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.” Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, US National Library Of Medicine.
  10. “Probiotic Lactobacilli Modulate Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Activation of Conventional and Unconventional T cells and NK Cells” Frontiers In Immunology, US National Library Of Medicine.
  11. “Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” Journal of Natural Products, US National Library Of Medicine.
  12. “Fresh Garlic Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Antibiotics on Resistant Strains in Vitro” Jundishapur Journal Of Microbiology, US National Library Of Medicine.
  13. “Quorum quenching and antimicrobial activity of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).” Planta Medica, US National Library Of Medicine.
  14. “Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens.” East African Medical Journal, US National Library Of Medicine.
  15. “The antimicrobial effects of cranberry against Staphylococcus aureus.” Food Science and Technology International, US National Library Of Medicine.

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Shaheen holds a postgraduate degree in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology. She is a Geneticist with proficiency in Biotechnology, Immunology, Medical Genetics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Genetic Counseling. Her passion for writing and her educational background have assisted her substantially in writing quality content on topics related to health and wellness. In her free time, Shaheen loves to explore the world and the different flavors/cuisines it has to offer. Photography is another hobby she has developed of late.

Antibacterial apple cider vinegar eradicates methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and resistant Escherichia coli

Chemical reagents, microorganisms, media and culture conditions

Microbial strains: resistant E. coli strain (NCTC 13353) which is highly resistant to cefepime and cefepime-enmetazobactam combination was purchased from LGC Promochem. MRSA strains (ATCC 33591, NCTC8325 resistant to methicillin) were purchased from Public Heath, Colindale, England. U937 cell line CRL-1593.2 was purchased from the American type culture collection.


Dulbecco’s modified iscoves media, dimethyl-ethyl-sulphonyl-oxide, HANKS balanced salt solution, histopaque, ethanol, phosphate buffered saline, paraformaldehyde, acetone, dithiothreitol, iodoacetamide, trypsin from porcine pancreas of proteomics grade, formic acid, acetonitrile, HPLC-grade water, methanol and Whatman Mini-UniPrep syringeless filter devices (pore size 0.45 µm) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Poole, U.K.). TNF-alpha, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA’s) were purchased from Research and Development Systems (Abingdon, U.K.). Mueller Hinton agar was purchased from Oxoid, UK. Bragg’s Apple Cider Vinegar and apple cider vinegar tablets (500 mg) were purchased from Troo healthcare, Colchester, UK.

Inoculum preparation and measurement of anti-microbial activity of ACV which was based on previously published methods by Yagnik et al.


Cultures of resistant E. coli and MRSA were grown in nutrient media. All cultures were cultivated in a shaking incubator at 37 °C for 24 h overnight prior to use. Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) was prepared by dissolving 38 g in 1 L of distilled water, boiling the mixture for 1 min, after cooling and autoclaving, it was poured into plates. These were left to dry and subsequently stored at 37 °C. All microbial cultures were adjusted to 0.5 McFarland’s standard 1.5 × 108 CFU/ml and 4 × 106 CFU/ml of each organism were used in experiments. Each microbe was swabbed evenly onto plates containing MHA. For sample addition, 100 µL of ACV at varying concentrations was added to the wells which were punched into the agar. The plates were then incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Zones of inhibition surrounding samples were identified, photographed and measured in mm. Experiments were repeated at least five times.

Ethical approval

All experimental protocols were approved by the Middlesex University Natural Sciences Ethics Committee, UK number 2323. In addition, the methods were carried out in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.

Human mononuclear cell culture as similarly published previously by Yagnik et al.


The human monocyte cell line U937 was used as a source of monocytes purchased from American type culture collection (ATCC). Cells were cultured at a density of 4 × 105/ml with either rE. coli , MRSA or varying concentrations of ACV at counts of 4 × 106 CFU/ml respectively for 24 h at 37 °C and 5% CO2 after which supernatants were collected and analysed for TNF-α secretion using ELISA kits following manufacturer’s protocols.

Monocyte phagocytic capacity measurement by flow cytometry

U937cells were cultured at 4 × 105/ml in 24 well plates over a period of two days after which they were incubated with microbes (4 × 106 CFU/ml) for 4 h at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Cells were then scraped replenished in ice cold PBS containing 1 mM EDTA, washed and removed from plates. The resultant pellets were fixed in 400 µL of 4% paraformaldehyde and analysed using a FACS Calibur flow cytometer (Beckton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, UK and Cell Quest software 2019).

Sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis as similarly published previously by Yagnik et al.


MRSA and rE. coli was incubated with or without ACV at 1/25 dilution for 24 h at 37 ∘C and centrifuged at 900 rpm, supernatant was removed leaving bacteria pellets. At least 12 sample repeats were used. Bacteria cell pellets were resuspended in cold acetone (600 μL) and centrifuged at 14,800 rpm for 5 min to precipitate protein. The supernatant was removed and 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate (400 μL) was then added to dissolve the extracted proteins. The protein concentration was measured using a nano drop device (Thermo Fisher UK).

Samples were reduced with 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 15 min at 56 °C and alkylated with 100 mM iodoacetamide for 30 min at room temperature in the dark. Each sample was then digested with trypsin at 37 °C overnight.

Mass spectrometry methods for microbial analysis based on those published previously by Yagnik et al.


LC–MS/MS data acquisition based on methods similarly published previously by Yagnik et al.


Tryptic digests were analysed using a Dionex Ultimate 3000 RSLC Nano ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a Q Exactive. Aliquot (15 μL) of tryptic digest was desalted and concentrated using a 5 mm × 300 μm i.d. C18 trap cartridge and solvents composed of a mixture of water and acetonitrile (98:2%, v/v) containing 0.05% TFA (loading solvent A) and a mixture of acetonitrile and water (80:20%, v/v) (loading solvent B) at a flow rate of 20 μL/min was used. The concentrated sample was separated using a binary gradient elution profile composed of a mixture of water and acetonitrile (95:5,v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid (eluent A) and a mixture of acetonitrile and water (80:20%, v/v) (eluent B) containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 6 μL/min. The gradient was 0 min—0% B, 4 min—5% B, 5 min—8% B, 40 min—40% B, 41 min—80% B. The auto sampler and column oven temperature were set to 4 and 40 °C respectively. The Q Exactive was operated in a data dependent mode. MS survey scans were acquired from m/z 350 to 2000 at resolution of 70,000 with AGC of 3e6 and maximum IT of 100 ms. The 10 most abundant ions were subjected to MS/MS and measured with a resolution of 17,500 and AGC of 1e5 and maximum IT of 200 ms14.

Data processing and analysis based on methods similarly published previously by Yagnik et al.


LC–MS/MS data was processed using Proteome Discoverer v2.1 (ThermoFisher Scientific, UK) with database searching against a downloaded FASTA file originating from Uniprot_SwissProt_2019_02. Search parameters were set to match MS/MS spectra to peptides created by fully specific trypsin cleavage within a precursor mass tolerance of 10 ppm and with a fragment mass tolerance of 0.02 Da. Carbamidomethyl (CAM: + 57.021 Da) was set as a static modification to cysteines whereas methionine oxidation (MetOx: + 15.995 Da) was set as a variable modification. Results were initially visualised within the software and then exported to Excel for further review14.

Statistical analysis

All experimental results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analyses were carried out using one way ANOVA or students t-test, outcomes were considered significant where p < 0.05 (when comparing apple cider vinegar treated microbes to the untreated groups in all experiments). All experiments were repeated at least 3–5 times. Analysis was carried out using Excel software version 2019.

A Herbal Sceptic – Cured with Garlic

Being a product of the 1990s British state education system, I grew up with a very ‘conventional’ western mind-set towards science and medicine. I have always been naturally sceptic of medicine applied through plants, even while hearing the tales my grandmother had told me of Camomile lotion helping rashes, and ginger helping a bad stomach. But these were always remedies you purchased in bottles and packets, carefully tested and scrutinised by the infallible knowledge of the modern pharmaceutical scientist. Believing that plants could be used to help alleviate or cure medical problems? That was pure witchcraft, akin to dancing under a full moon on a Tuesday to help a sprained ankle, or rubbing crystals on your eyelids for the flu. To think that only a few decades later, I was putting aside the advice of registered doctors, and getting my medicine from my modest balcony garden.

The beginning of my (so far short) journey into herbal healing started when I got some pretty nasty battery acid burns, while I was working in a metal scrapyard in Australia. One of the products we recycled was the lead from lead acid batteries – the ones under the hood of every car/van. It was my job to weigh, stack, and wrap the batteries onto a pallet before sending them away for processing. It just so happened that one morning, a battery I picked up fell apart in my hands, spreading a lovely solution of 38% Sulphuric Acid on to my arms and hands. The somewhat minor burns turned into irritated skin, and due to the dirty environment I worked in, ended up being infected with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (1). A quick trip to the doctor should get that sorted, right? Well, 4 months later, and countless courses of Bactoban, Flucloxacillin, and two other antibiotics I cannot remember, yielded nothing except a slice out of my pay check.

It was thanks to google, and a desperation not to look like my skin was falling off, that I found a forum post with many people promising that crushed garlic, cures staph infections (2). The original post states –

‘Freshly crushed raw garlic kills all or almost all harmful bacteria, including staph, on contact. One study (Walton, Herbold & Lendegren 1936-1938 – Journal of Food Science) even showed that the vapours alone from nearby crushed raw garlic killed all bacteria, including staph, out to 8″ away just from the fumes.
Numerous other studies, such as Abdou et al., 1972 have confirmed that crushed raw garlic kills staph on contact.’

This statement had my brain ticking. Peer reviewed proof that a plant can treat bacterial infections? Is this the evidence I needed to extend the true value of plants into the medical realm too? A bit more digging soon yielded much more recent journal releases on the subject, including the testing of garlic compounds on a variety of types of problematic bacteria, with positive results (4) (5) Importantly too, garlic based compounds can seemingly overcome the problems in treatment associated with antibiotic resistant strains of Staph, such as MRSA. (3) This gives us humans a good avenue for treatment of bacteria which is learning to dodge our best scientific efforts.

So, I was sold. I had found a bridge between my steadfast belief in the scientific world, and my love and belief in the intrinsic value of plant life. Maybe all those old wives tales were based in truth? After doing some reading though, I realised I could not just rush out to the shop and eat 40 garlic cloves and consider the problem fixed and do a little celebration dance. There are a few things that have to be adhered to when working with garlic as a healing agent – the garlic used must be non-irradiated, and it must be chopped or crushed and allowed to breakdown into the powerful compound allicin.(6) (For those organic pest control users out there, allicin is the compound which naturally protects the plant against pests, and can be used as a spray-solution to protect your crops (7)

To ensure you are working with non-irradiated Garlic, you are best off growing it yourself, or sourcing it from a local grower. Second to this – organic, nationally grown Garlic is your next best bet. A simple test for non-irradiated Garlic is to take a clove, and using a sharp knife, slice long-ways through the middle of the clove. You should end up with a centre that has a healthy green shoot, ensuring that the clove is still living and not blasted with radiation. Most imported garlic is irradiated to stop it sprouting and spoiling. You want to find a glove with an intact endosperm (the green bit) like this one.

For treatment of my staph infections, I made a poultice and applied to directly to my wounds I mixed it with coconut oil, as I found that using it directly was far too strong, and burnt very harshly. I also bathed in a mix of 1-4 activated garlic per bathtub. As garlic is gram-negative, and staph is a gram-positive bacteria, the garlic compound actively seeks out the staph bacteria and helps neutralise it. The allicin is not degraded further when suspended in a water solution, so chucking it in the bath will do a decent amount of good. I soaked for an hour or so, making sure I submerged my whole body every now and again.

After around a week of garlic baths, and topical application, my wounds had lost all of their redness and tenderness, and were starting to heal up. Within a few weeks, it was all seemingly gone. After such a long period of pharmaceutical medicine had failed, my doctor was amazed with the work garlic had done. But, he said to me with a touch of dismay in his voice, he would likely lose his job if he recommended it to any patients.

Globally, as we approach a post-industrial society, medical knowledge of this sort is going to become invaluable. Laboratories, factories and scientific communities will not exist in the current format forever. That understanding of a unavoidable transition away from the availability of modern medicine, coupled with the increasing resistance from bacteria towards antibiotics, makes this plant based medicine a powerful and effective tool for anybody. As permaculturists, we need to work on healing our decimated ecosystems, bringing life back to our deadened soil, and reinvigorating long-suppressed communities. In order to do this in the most effective manner, we need to be healthy, and strong. I believe that this tiny glimpse into effective herbalism provides us with proof that we can achieve true health, with a thriving garden and the correct knowledge. With something as simple and true as a few cloves of garlic. My Year 9 science teacher would be mortified.



(2) https://www.mrsa-forum-usa.com/index.asp?forumID=16059&subject=Garlic-and-staph

(3) Antibacterial activity of a new, stable, aqueous extract of allicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15250668

(4) In vitro activity of an aqueous allicin extract and a novel allicin topical gel formulation against Lancefield group B streptococci

(5) https://www.researchpublications.qmul.ac.uk/publications/staff/21841. html

(6) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allicin

(7) https://www.doityourself.com/stry/using-garlic-as-a-natural-pesticide

Staphylococcus aureus Infections – Infections

  • Sometimes surgical removal of infected bone and/or foreign material

Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are treated with antibiotics. Doctors try to determine whether the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and, if so, to which antibiotics.

Infection that is acquired in a hospital is treated with antibiotics that are effective against MRSA. They include vancomycin, linezolid, tedizolid, quinupristin plus dalfopristin, ceftaroline, telavancin, or daptomycin. If results of testing later indicate that the strain is susceptible to methicillin and the person is not allergic to penicillin, a drug related to methicillin, such as nafcillin or oxacillin, is used. Depending on how severe the infection is, antibiotics may be given for weeks.

MRSA infection can be acquired outside of a health care facility. The community-acquired MRSA strains are usually susceptible to other antibiotics, such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, minocycline, or doxycycline, as well as to the antibiotics used to treat MRSA infections acquired in the hospital.

Mild skin infections due to MRSA, such as folliculitis, are usually treated with an ointment, such as one that contains bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B (available without a prescription) or mupirocin (available by prescription only). If more than an ointment is required, antibiotics effective against MRSA are given by mouth or intravenously. Which antibiotic is used depends on the severity of the infection and the results of susceptibility testing.

If an infection involves bone or foreign material in the body (such as heart pacemakers, artificial heart valves and joints, and blood vessel grafts), rifampin and possibly another antibiotic are sometimes added to the antibiotic regimen. Usually, infected bone and foreign material has to be removed surgically to cure the infection.

Abscesses, if present, are usually drained.

90,000 Infections caused by staphylococci

Staphylococci are well known as causative agents of purulent-septic infections in humans and animals. Along with representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae family, they occupy a leading place in the etiology of purulent diseases. Genus Staphylococcus includes 35 different species. Depending on the ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that causes blood plasma coagulation, they are divided into two groups: coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative.The habitat of staphylococci is humans and warm-blooded animals, the external environment. Localization in humans – skin and mucous membranes, large intestine. The source of staphylococcal infections is a sick person or a healthy carrier. Transmission routes: airborne, airborne dust, contact, food. Susceptibility to infection depends on the general condition of the body and age. The most susceptible are children, especially newborns and infants. Normally, the ability of staphylococcus to invade and host resistance are well balanced, so the infection does not develop until a situation arises when a highly virulent microorganism or a microorganism with reduced resistance is encountered.

The most famous representative of coagulase-positive staphylococci is S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus). It occurs in the anterior nasal passages in 20–40% of healthy adults. In about 1/3 of the population, it is constantly excreted from the nose, in 1/3 there is a transitory carriage and 1/3 is free of carriage. S. aureus is most often isolated in purulent pathology, causes a number of diseases: folliculitis, boils and carbuncles, hydroadenitis, mastitis, wound infections, bacteremia and endocarditis, meningitis, pericarditis, pulmonary infections, osteomyelitis and arthritis, purulent myositis, food poisoning, syndrome toxic shock.These diseases are caused by pathogenic factors: capsular polysaccharides, peptidoglycans and teichoic acids, protein A, enzymes, hemolysins, toxins (exfoliative, enterotoxins from A to E, H and I), a superantigen that belongs to the enterotoxin (TSST-1), shock syndrome.

All other coagulase-positive staphylococci are isolated mainly from animals and rarely from humans, but in some cases they can cause purulent-inflammatory diseases in humans.

Among coagulase-negative staphylococci, the most significant in human pathology are S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus . They can cause urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis, bacteremia, infections in newborns in intensive care units, eye diseases, skin infections, heart valves, cause purulent inflammation during surgery to replace heart valves with artificial ones, during organ bypass surgery, use of intravenous catheters, catheters for hemodialysis, as well as for angioplasty.

Currently, microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus play a leading role among the causative agents of nosocomial infections. Until a certain time, penicillin was the main drug of choice in the treatment of severe purulent infections caused by S. aureus . Then strains resistant to this antibiotic began to appear. It turned out that resistance to penicillin was due to the production of the enzyme.-Lactamase, which destroys the β-lactam ring in the penicillin molecule.Currently, about 80% of the isolated S. aureus strains synthesize β-lactamase. Instead of penicillin, in the case of isolation of penicillin-resistant strains, semi-synthetic penicillins resistant to β-lactamase are used. But since the 80s, strains S. aureus resistant to this group of antibiotics, in particular to oxacillin and methicillin, begin to emerge. The resistance of such strains is associated with the production of penicillin binding protein (PBP 2a), the synthesis of which, in turn, is associated with the acquisition of the chromosomal mecA gene by staphylococci.Strains S. aureus possessing this gene are resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins. S. aureus with the mentioned resistance mechanism is assigned the term methicillin-resistant strains. In some cases, resistance to semi-synthetic penicillins may be due to the overproduction of β-lactamases. In this case, resistance to semi-synthetic penicillins, when determined in laboratory conditions, is characterized as moderate. Methicillin-resistant strains S.aureus often show resistance to other antibiotics, in particular to erythromycin and clindamycin. Due to their spread in a number of foreign countries, vancomycin and teicoplanin are beginning to be used as antibiotics of choice. But already in 1996, the first reports appeared on the isolation of strains S. aureus with moderate resistance to vancomycin (MIC = 8 μg / ml), and since 2002, strains with high resistance (MIC> 32 μg / ml). Methicillin-resistant strains are also found among S.epidermidis, and vancomycin-resistant among S.haemolyticus .

For the treatment of purulent-septic infections caused by staphylococci, therapeutic bacteriophages, both monophages and combined, containing phage races that lyse cells of several types of pathogens, are now widely used. Unlike antibiotics, they do not inhibit the growth of normal human symbiotic microflora and do not lead to dysbiosis. Nevertheless, it must be borne in mind that phages also cause the development of resistance in staphylococci, therefore, before using them, as well as before using antibiotics, it is necessary to check the sensitivity to them in isolated strains of staphylococci.

Indications for examination. Signs of purulent-septic infection, examination of medical personnel for carrier.

Material for research. Blood, CSF, pus, wound discharge, breast milk, nasal swabs; flushes from medical equipment and supplies.

Etiological laboratory diagnostics includes isolation of the pathogen on nutrient media, identification of its DNA.

Comparative characteristics of laboratory diagnostic methods, indications for the use of various laboratory tests. The technique of isolating the pathogen is now well established. Microorganisms are quite resistant to environmental factors, so if the selected biological material cannot be used immediately for research, you can use special containers and transport media. The technique of selection and transportation of biological material to the clinical diagnostic laboratory is described in more detail in the section on preanalytical stages of the study. For isolation of the pathogen, as a rule, 3-4 days are enough.An exception is the isolation of staphylococci from the blood. In this case, the success of the technique will largely depend on the correct timing of blood sampling and the presence of antibacterial drugs in the patients’ blood.

The detection of a specific DNA fragment S. aureus , S. epidermidis , S. haemolyticus , S. saprophyticus by PCR is carried out in the study of various biological material. The results of DNA detection by PCR have a qualitative and quantitative format.It is possible to simultaneously detect and quantify the DNA of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This study is simple and reproducible, which makes it possible to optimize the epidemiological surveillance of the spread of methicillin-resistant strains, significantly reducing the time and labor intensity of the study. However, the detection of a specific DNA fragment S. aureus , S. epidermidis , S.haemolyticus , S. saprophyticus by PCR does not allow the identification of viable microorganisms, as well as to determine their sensitivity to antibiotics.

Features of the interpretation of laboratory research results. In the study of sterile biological material (blood, CSF), the detection of S. aureus in any concentration is of clinical importance. In non-sterile biological material, only high concentrations of S.aureus , indicating its leading role in the inflammatory process.

“Scary animal” Staphylococcus aureus / “My baby and me”

September 2010

Natalia Rubina; consultants: Irina Perrin, head of the pediatric department of the European Medical Center; Natalia Taran, neonatologist, Ph.D.

Immediately after birth, the baby is faced with a very dangerous enemy – Staphylococcus aureus.How to recognize a staphylococcal infection and, if possible, avoid it?

The story of a mother

On the 12th day after discharge from the hospital, Olesya discovered that her little daughter’s eyes were swollen and began to fester, and redness appeared on her bottom. At the same time, the baby cried incessantly. The local doctor examined the girl and suggested that the redness on her skin was the result of inaccuracies in her mother’s diet. Olesya went on a cruel diet. However, two weeks later, some rashes appeared around the child’s mouth, the skin began to desperately peel off, and Olesya herself had cracks on her nipples, her breasts became hard and very painful, and the temperature rose.

At the children’s clinic she was offered to donate breast milk for analysis. A couple of days later, its results became known – epidermal and Staphylococcus aureus were found in milk. The local doctor insisted on stopping breastfeeding and prescribed the formula. For a month Olesya and her daughter took antibiotics. At the same time, she continued to express milk, not giving it to the child. During this month, the baby became noticeably better, and there was no need to give her medicine. The second analysis of milk showed the presence in it only of epidermal staphylococcus, but the doctor still insisted on the abolition of breastfeeding.Then Olesya decided to seek advice from another doctor, and he assured her that the presence of any type of staphylococcus in milk is not dangerous for the child. When Olesina’s daughter was 2 months old, she again ate exclusively mother’s milk.

We asked neonatologist Natalya Taran to comment on this situation: “Most likely, the girl contracted staphylococcal infection while still in the hospital, and after discharge the disease became active. And already from the child through the cracks in the nipples, the mother also became infected.Those rashes on the skin, which the local doctor took for the result of an unhealthy mother’s diet, most likely were also caused by a staphylococcal infection. At the same time, it is strange that the doctor did not pay any attention to the symptoms of conjunctivitis. After all, it can also be caused by staphylococcus. Purulent discharge from the eyes had to be taken for analysis in order to identify the pathogen. But the doctor clearly overdid it, canceling breastfeeding. If the mother receives antibiotics against staphylococcal infection, then the child receives treatment against the disease with milk.Breastfeeding is canceled in the only case – if the mother has purulent mastitis. But the child will not drink milk with purulent discharge himself. It is good that my mother was not at a loss and, feeling hesitant, turned to another specialist for additional advice. ”

Staphylococci are a whole genus of bacteria. Today, many types of staphylococcus are known, many of which live on the skin and mucous membranes of humans, as well as in the intestines. Most staphylococci are absolutely harmless, only three members of this family can cause disease – epidermal, saprophytic and Staphylococcus aureus.And the last one is the most dangerous. The body of a healthy person easily copes with staphylococcus. However, if for some reason immunity decreases, staphylococcus aureus goes on the attack, causing various diseases. This microbe can also enter the body where the integrity of the skin is broken (in a woman in labor, for example, through cracks in the nipples, and in a newborn – through an umbilical wound).

Acquaintance with staphylococcus is possible immediately after birth – the baby can get this bacterium, passing through the birth canal or from the mother’s skin, as soon as she first applies it to the breast.Most children easily deal with the germ, but in premature babies and those who were born with reduced immunity due to complications during pregnancy, staphylococcus aureus can cause various diseases.


Both children and adults distinguish between early and late forms of staphylococcal infection. The early one manifests itself within a few hours after the bacteria enters the body, the disease begins acutely and severely – the temperature rises sharply, diarrhea, vomiting may begin, the child becomes lethargic, loses appetite.Tellingly, in infants, all infections begin with such symptoms. Therefore, do not even try to diagnose yourself, and when the first signs of the disease appear, consult a doctor. The late form of staphylococcal infection appears after 3-5 days. As a rule, the infection primarily affects the skin and, if treatment is not started on time, it can go deeper, affecting internal organs, and even cause sepsis.

However, in some cases, the disease is asymptomatic or with minor pustular skin lesions.So, if you notice any rashes on the child’s skin, do not rush to blame them on errors in your diet or prickly heat – show them to the doctor. If the doctor suspects that they are infectious, he will prescribe the necessary tests to identify the pathogen. As a rule, in such cases, skin scrapings and a general blood test are done, which will show if the child is sick.

Asymptomatic carriage in an adult is extremely dangerous for others – after all, a person does not know that he is sick and does not take any measures, being at the same time a source of infection.At the same time, in the body of a sick person, the amount of staphylococcus increases sharply, and its pathogenic properties increase. Since staphylococcal infection is transmitted by contact, you can get it by simply touching the patient.

“In a child’s body, whose immunity is weakened for certain reasons, the balance of beneficial and harmful bacteria is disturbed, and Staphylococcus aureus can begin to actively multiply,” says Irina Perrin, a pediatrician at the European Medical Center.- But I want to especially note: even if staphylococcus is detected in the analyzes, but there is no clinical picture of the disease (the child feels good, gains weight), then no drug treatment is required. The patient is treated, not the tests.

It is necessary to sound the alarm if the child has signs of a bacterial infection: fever, loss of appetite, decreased weight gain, the appearance of pustules on the skin, inflammation of the umbilical ring, diarrhea, etc. In this case, you should immediately consult a doctor who will prescribe necessary treatment ”.


Staphylococcal infection causes many different diseases in newborns. All of them are extremely dangerous, so if you find the first symptoms, see your doctor.


Signs of illness

Frequent (up to 15 times a day) mushy, slimy, watery stupor, the child cries, often spits up, his tummy is swollen.A high temperature may rise and vomiting may begin. The latter is especially dangerous for babies, as it leads to rapid dehydration of the body.


Hospitalization required. As soon as you notice the first symptoms, call your doctor as soon as possible. In the meantime, the doctor is driving, fill up the fluid deficit in the child’s body – give him a tablespoon of water every 10 minutes.

Folk remedies – they can only be used in parallel with treatment in the hospital or after discharge.

  • Infusion of calendula flowers: 1 tsp. flowers on a glass of water. Give your baby a little bit between feedings.
  • Infusion of chamomile flowers: 1 tbsp. l. dry flowers pour a glass of boiling water, boil for 5 minutes, leave for 4 hours, drain. Give 1 tsp. after feeding.

Decoction of pomegranate fruit peels: take 20 g of dry peels or 50 g of pomegranate seeds, pour a glass of water, simmer for 30 minutes, strain.Give 1 tsp to drink. 2 times a day.


Signs of illness

The child is crying, his eyes are red, swollen and watery, pus is released from them, yellow-green crusts are formed. After sleep, the eyelashes are glued together with pus so that the baby can hardly open his eyes.


Prescribed by a doctor. It is necessary to pass the discharge from the eyes to the laboratory for analysis in order to identify the causative agent of the disease and choose the right antibiotic.

Folk remedies

  • Wipe baby’s eyelids with breast milk. However, this remedy is not suitable if staphylococcus is also detected in the mother’s milk analysis.
  • Wipe the child’s eyes with cotton swabs dipped in tea leaves (strong solution of black tea).
  • Boil one teaspoon of honey in a glass of water for 2 minutes. When the honey water cools down, eye lotions are made from it 2 times a day for 20 minutes.The same water is dripped into the eyes 2-3 drops 2 times a day.
  • Pour one teaspoon of calendula flowers with a glass of boiling water, leave for 30-40 minutes, then strain thoroughly. With the resulting solution, rinse the child’s eyes several times a day.


Signs of illness

Many bubbles with cloudy contents form on the skin (in the lower abdomen, in the folds of the neck, on the back).The skin in these places is swollen, reddened. The child is lethargic, refuses to eat.


Medicines are prescribed only by a doctor. Typically, this is a course of antibiotics.

Folk remedies

  • Wipe the bubbles with a cotton swab dipped in camphor oil (up to 4-5 times a day).


Signs of illness

Crimson-red pustules appear on the skin, which open with the release of yellow-green pus.The child’s temperature rises, he is lethargic or, conversely, moody.


At the first sign of disease, consult a doctor.


According to the course of the disease, septicemia and septicopyemia are distinguished. Septicemia begins violently with the development of jaundice, rapid weight loss, tachycardia. The child is restless and may have seizures. Septicopyemia begins with the appearance of pustules on the skin, sometimes abscesses develop.With umbilical sepsis, the umbilical wound becomes inflamed, the skin around is swollen, red.


Treatment is prescribed by a doctor. As a rule, these are broad-spectrum antibiotics, stimulating therapy – blood transfusion, plasma administration, vitamins.

Nona Hovsepyan, Consultant Physician of the Independent Laboratory “INVITRO

In order to determine the presence of staphylococcus, as well as other harmful bacteria in breast milk, it is necessary to inoculate milk on microflora and Staphylococcus aureus with the determination of sensitivity to antibiotics.For analysis, breast milk is pumped into a sterile tube or jar (you can purchase these from a pharmacy or laboratory). Before pumping, the hands and mammary glands must be treated with soap, the nipple areola should be wiped with 70% alcohol (each breast is treated with a separate swab).

The first portion (5-10 ml) of the analysis is not used, it is decanted into a separate container, and the second (10 ml) – into a sterile container for analysis. Milk from the left and right breast must not be mixed; it must be collected in separate containers.For an accurate result of the analysis, no more than 3 hours should pass between expressing milk and delivering it to the laboratory.

In parallel with determining the quantity and quality of bacteria in milk, their resistance to antibiotics and bacteriophages is being investigated, this is necessary for the correct selection of a drug for the treatment of staphylococcal infection.

In case of suspicion of staphylococcal infection in a newborn, it is necessary to study feces for pathogenic and opportunistic microflora.The material for this analysis is feces after natural defecation, which must be collected in a disposable container and delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible (within 3 hours). In order for the results to be more reliable, it is recommended to conduct a 2-3-fold study at intervals of 1-2 days.

Staphylococcus aureus can cause the development of bronchitis, pneumonia and a number of other inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. In such a situation, a culture is taken from the pharynx and nose in order to identify Staphylococcus aureus.All patients, including the smallest, take this analysis strictly on an empty stomach, and adults should not brush their teeth before this analysis (since the true picture may be distorted).

The inoculation is taken using a special probe, which is then placed in a special medium for the growth of bacteria.

In case of conjunctivitis, it is advisable to take the material for analysis in the morning before washing. In the presence of abundant purulent discharge, use a sterile swab. Pus is collected from the inner surface of the lower eyelid by moving from the outer to the inner corner of the palpebral fissure.In this case, the eyelids must be held with your hands so that when blinking the eyelashes do not touch the tampon. If there is a small amount of pus, then the tampon is pre-moistened with distilled water.

In case of skin diseases caused by staphylococcus, it is necessary to take a skin scraping or examine the discharge from the wound for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. To do this, you should treat the skin around the wound with an antiseptic or a cotton swab moistened with 70% ethyl alcohol. Necrotic (dead) masses and pus are removed with a sterile gauze napkin, then the discharge from the wound is taken with the help of a special cotton swab.

“Hospital” infection

Staphylococcal infection is called hospital or maternity hospital. In patients of these institutions, immunity, as a rule, is weakened, and staphylococcus against this background goes into attack. However, for the infection to become widespread, it must have a focus – a sick person. It can be someone from the staff, one of the women in labor, or a sick child. The transmission mechanism is simple – through the hands. For example, a carrier of the infection is a nurse in a maternity hospital.She has small pustules on the skin, which she did not attach due importance to. Swaddling or treating a newborn without disposable gloves, this nurse immediately infects him. Or if the child is sick, and the nurse took him in her arms, then she already becomes infected. And it can pass the infection on to the next baby it comes into contact with.

To prevent outbreaks of infection from the hands of medical staff, furniture and equipment, washings are regularly made – the epidemiological service processes them with a special solution, and then examines it for the presence of various bacteria, simultaneously finding out the degree of their pathogenicity.For the same purpose, maternity hospitals are closed for washing twice a year (and, of course, this is done unscheduled as soon as an infection is detected). In this case, all surfaces, including the ceiling, are treated with disinfectant solutions that destroy staphylococcus bacteria. Therefore, when choosing a maternity hospital, ask when the last time it was closed for the sink. If it was a few months ago, it may make sense to contact another hospital.

Is milk harmless?

The main “gateway” for staphylococcal infection in a woman is cracked nipples.Therefore, as soon as they appear, they must be immediately treated with aniline solutions, to which Staphylococcus aureus is very sensitive – green, fucorcin, or methylene blue. At the same time, it is necessary to breastfeed the baby using special pads on the nipples (including for the relief of painful sensations). You should not wash your breasts with soap and water before each feeding; it is quite enough to take a shower twice a day. Frequent washing dries out the skin, and this in turn contributes to the appearance of new cracks in the nipples, where infection can penetrate.

If the crack is sharply painful, inflamed, a seal has appeared around it, and pus is released from the chest, then perhaps we are dealing with a staphylococcal infection. In this case, your doctor may recommend that your breast milk be tested. However, if you just have cracks, this is not a reason to run with milk for analysis. For this, there must be symptoms of inflammation (sharp throbbing pain in the chest and purulent discharge). In any case, it is worth coming for an examination to a doctor who will determine what is wrong with you and help you cope with cracks faster.

If Staphylococcus epidermidis is detected in the milk analysis, most likely, the analysis was submitted incorrectly, and the microbe got there from the skin. If Staphylococcus aureus is found in milk, then with a high probability it can be argued that it is also in the woman’s blood. And this is already a serious situation that cannot be asymptomatic – there must be manifestations of a bacterial infection (high fever, weakness).

But it is important to remember that the presence of any type of staphylococcus in milk (if the woman does not have purulent mastitis) is not a reason to stop breastfeeding.In this case, a woman will need to undergo a course of antibiotics that are allowed during lactation, which, when they get to the baby with breast milk, at the same time protect him from infection.


Only a doctor should diagnose, let alone prescribe treatment for staphylococcal infection. As a rule, penicillin antibiotics and bacteriophages (microorganisms that selectively attack bacterial cells) are prescribed.

The most common mistake moms make is self-medication.As soon as you or your child have pustular rashes on the skin, high fever, diarrhea or vomiting, loss of appetite, consult a doctor immediately.

The biggest mistake doctors make is overestimating the severity of the situation. If you think that your doctor is reinsuring, for example, canceling breastfeeding, do not be lazy to seek additional advice from another specialist.


The child has been diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus in the feces, while there are symptoms of ordinary dysbiosis (slight stool disturbance, regurgitation, slight anxiety).Is it necessary to treat staphylococcus aureus? And then what to do in general?

NATALIA TARAN: Staphylococcus does not cause dysbiosis. The reason for the appearance of staphylococcus in the analysis is most likely that it (the analysis) was collected incorrectly, and the microbe got there from the skin. So, first of all, such an analysis must be retaken (see above). And then look for and eliminate the cause of the dysbiosis.


Leave the maternity hospital with the baby home as soon as possible, of course, if the doctors do not mind.During your stay in the hospital, if there is such an opportunity, you are in a single room and together with the child.

Be sure to wash your hands before feeding and caring for your baby. If you have cuts, scratches on your hands, then treat them with fucorcin or brilliant green. Well, if pustules, sore spots appear on your skin, then be sure to show them to the doctor. Until their reason is found out, it is better to take care of the child to dad or grandmother.

Watch your child carefully.A rise in temperature, lethargy, refusal to eat, “unreasonable” crying, skin rashes, diarrhea – all this should alert you and prompt you to call a doctor.

Be sure to ask all relatives, doctors from the polyclinic who want to come up and pick up the newborn to wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water. Allocate a separate towel for them. Do not hesitate to refuse people whose health makes you fearful.

Temper your baby from the first days of life (see article in No. 5 of the magazine “My baby and I” for 2010.) so that he has good immunity.

The first bacteria a newborn receives depends on the mode of delivery

Children born as a result of caesarean section receive a fundamentally different microflora, which, possibly, causes their less resistance to a number of diseases. Moreover, unlike babies born in the usual way, they can “pick up” the microflora not of a mother, but of a father or an obstetrician.

What does the average man in the street know about childbirth, besides the general mechanism of the process? Probably, the fact that in some more complex cases a cesarean section is performed, but it has already become a completely common procedure, perhaps that’s all.But Moscow clinics are happy to tell pregnant women that giving birth lying on their backs, as was customary with our mothers and grandmothers, is no longer fashionable. You can give birth in the water (well, almost like dolphins), standing, squatting or even on all fours (like our distant ancestors gave birth like that). And how can the method of childbirth really help the unborn baby?

A study by doctors from the University of Puerto Rico showed that


method of childbirth determines the microbiological environment that is transmitted to the baby in the first minutes of life.

Their work is published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences .

The bacterial background of a child largely determines his future health, therefore, taking into account the method of its formation can have a positive effect in the treatment of growing children. The picture of the microflora of each person is individual: what will be an anomaly and evidence of a disease in one may be within the normal range for another. Therefore, data on the initial formation of the microbiological background can help in the choice of drugs for treatment and a more accurate diagnosis.

A natural birth is more beneficial for babies than a cesarean section

Natural childbirth is much healthier for babies than a cesarean section, says University of New South Wales

What methods of childbirth are fundamentally different in terms of the future bacterial background, and which are similar? According to the article, the only thing that matters is whether the birth was vaginally or a cesarean section was used.Children born in the usual way inherit mainly the vaginal microflora of the mother, and those born as a result of caesarean section inherit the microflora of the skin.

Doctors studied 10 newborns born to nine women aged 21 to 33 years in a hospital in Venezuela. Within 24 hours after delivery, microflora samples were taken from the mouths of children, from their skin and from the gastrointestinal tract.

Then the fragments of microbial DNA were isolated and subjected to the so-called procedure amplification .The scientists emphasized that only the use of modern equipment for DNA analysis made it possible to obtain such prompt results in relatively small laboratories in developing countries (the experimental part of the work was carried out directly in Venezuela).

“In the bacterial communities of babies born by cesarean section, bacteria from the Staphylococcus branch dominate.Most are harmless, but some can cause severe infections. Perhaps, the more frequent cases of some diseases of such children are associated precisely with an initially different microflora, ”says Maria Dominguez-Bello, the first author of the work.

Indeed, doctors have already noted that

babies born by caesarean section are less resistant to a number of pathogens and are more prone to allergies and asthma than babies born in the usual way.

In particular, these children are more likely to “catch” Staphylococcus aureus, resistant to methicillin (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA).This difficult-to-treat bacterial disease, according to the staff of inpatient hospitals, occurs more and more often in recent years. Perhaps this is the result of the “fashion” for cesarean section.

There is another explanation for the observed phenomenon. Perhaps the reason for the better immunity in vaginally born babies is the initial “usefulness” of such microflora for the newborn.

Nature arranged so that the microflora of the mother received by the baby during childbirth gives him the first protective barrier against pathogens.Children born with a caesarean section are deprived of it.

Another important result: bacteria are evenly distributed throughout the body of newborn babies, unlike adults. Last year, the same group by Robert Knight published a paper on “mapping” the human microflora ( “Gazeta.Ru “). The fact that the distribution of bacteria throughout the body changes throughout life and the “adult” microflora is more differentiated than the infant, requires additional research, says Knight.

“The prospects for studying how the individual microbial communities of humans differ is indeed very broad. We may use such data for biomedical diagnostics. Mapping the microflora of adults was the first point, and the new study of microflora in babies was the second, now we have something to compare, ”said Knight.

“The skin of a newborn baby, figuratively speaking, is freshly plowed soil waiting for seeds – in this case, bacterial communities. And which seeds are the first to fall into this soil determines its future to a large extent, ”said Noah Firer, one of the authors of the work.

Another interesting result is the possibility of inheriting the microflora of an “outsider” person during cesarean section. Perhaps the first transmission of bacteria to a child in this case comes from the skin of the person who took him in his arms.And this is not necessarily a mother, it can be either an obstetrician or the child’s father or grandmother.

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A Zebrafish Embryo Model for In Vivo Visualization and Intravital Analysis of Biomaterial-associated Staphylococcus aureus Infection

Biomaterial associated infection (buy) is a serious clinical complication.A better understanding of the pathogenesis of Bai in vivo will provide new insights for better prevention and treatment of Bai. However, current experimental buy animal models of such mouse models are expensive, time consuming, and require specialized personnel trained in complex surgical techniques. Therefore, these models are not suitable for high throughput analysis. Because the requirements for the zebrafish embryo model are less complex, and the costs are generally lower than for mouse models, the present study assessed whether the zebrafish embryo can be used as a novel vertebrate model for studying bai in vivo, in addition to the mammalian model.

To customize the zebrafish embryo model, we have developed a protocol for the co-introduction of bacteria and microspheres based on the method for intramuscular injection of microspheres into embryos, described to 33 . Thus, most bacteria are located near microspheres in embryos, mimicking the bacterial biomaterial interaction that occurs during or shortly after implantation of biomaterials in humans / mammals.

To be able to compare the progression of infection in the presence and absence of microspheres in a zebrafish embryo, embryos must be challenged with similar initial numbers of bacteria with and without microspheres.However, according to our experience, co-injection of bacteria-microspheres of the suspension results in more bacteria injected than the injection of “Bacteria Only” suspension. To solve this problem, one should consider the ratio between the concentration of bacteria in “bacteria only” suspensions (without microspheres) and bacteria in microspheres of suspensions. In the present study, the concentration of S. aureus in the “Bacteria Only” suspension, needed approximately 1.5 times higher than the concentration in the bacteria-microsphere suspension.Whether this ratio also applies to other types of bacteria and other biomaterials remains to be verified. Note that injecting a similar number of bacteria with and without microspheres, the opening of the injection needles or suspension should be as close to identical as possible.

Several properties of a biomaterial such shape and size play an important role in determining its injectability and co-injection with bacteria. In this study, we used 10 μm Polystyrene microspheres ( 10 L.C.) as a model of biomaterials. According to our experience, microspheres up to 15 µm are injectable for 3 days old embryos after the protocol developed in this study 33 . For relatively large microspheres (eg , ≥ 10 μm), we do not recommend the use of non-monodisperse or irregularly shaped microspheres / microparticles, which tend to cause clogging of the needle. If biomaterials in other forms than round and in different sizes are chosen for use, their injectability must be tested.For (co-) injections of microspheres and bacteria, we used a 4% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution to facilitate dispersion. It can be useful for injecting biomaterials with and without bacteria into embryos in general.

As in the case of microspheres injection only 33 , 40 , the number of microspheres injected together with bacteria into embryos is varied per injection, mainly from 1 to 4 microspheres per embryo. However, since such changes did not result in differences in response levels provoked by immune cells in embryos 33 , they were not expected to also influence the potential effects of microspheres on the progression of infection.However, new approaches would be desirable that would allow injection of a single microsphere (alone or together with bacteria).

We assessed whether microscopic scoring for the presence of fluorescent bacteria can be used as a “yes or no” scoring system to analyze the progression of infection in living embryos. The criterion for evaluating positive microscopic was defined as the presence of visible fluorescent bacteria, regardless of the fluorescence intensity. Compared to the quantitative culture of bacteria, the results of our representative suggested that microscopic scoring can distinguish embryos with 20 or more CFU S.aureus bacteria from embryos with lower CFU numbers or no infection. Therefore, since only a small number of bacteria are required for positive scores, this method is almost as sensitive as quantitative cultures. Since embryos do not need to be sacrificed and no powerful microscopes or sorting systems for fluorescence are required to perform analysis using this method, we believe microscopic scoring is a simple but reliable way to monitor the progression of bacterial infection in living embryos.To quantitatively analyze the level of infection (and not a “yes or no” scoring system as described above) and the response of an immune cell in one living embryo, we used the ObjectJ project file “In Zebrafish Immunotest” to quantify the intensity of fluorescence Fluorescent bacteria and fluorescent macrophages recorded with time. We used standard areas (with a diameter of 100 m) surrounding the injection site to measure fluorescence, as this area has been shown to include most bacteria and infiltrating macrophages.A detailed guide “Danio rerio-Immunotest” was published previously 33 , 40 . Of note “Danio rerio-Immunotest” is an open source plugin for ImageJ that can be customized by the user. For example, you can freely change the diameter in the analysis area and other parameters of the “Danio rerio-Immunotest” according to the study setup (see examples in the link provided in step 7 in the protocol).

In order to show possible infection enhancing effects of biomaterials in the zebrafish embryo, challenge dose of bacteria must be assessed.In the present study, we found that a challenge dose of 1000 cfu S. aureus per embryo or higher is required. Higher levels of infection Staphylococcus aureus in embryos with 10 HP than in those without PS 10 were found in the first 2 days after injection, indicating that the presence of biomaterials temporarily facilitates the outgrowth of S. aureus in embryos. Whether the infection remains at a high level in the presence of biomaterials at a later time points should be studied using old embryos under ethical approval according to the applicable regulations.Since the sale of S. aureus in the zebrafish embryo depends mainly on phagocytosis and killing, macrophages and neutrophils 23 , 24 , bacterial growth can be explained by the decreased efficiency of phagocytes to kill bacteria, thanks to the presence of biomaterials. This corresponds to an increase in the known risk of infection, biomaterials in patients 2 , 4 , 15 , is also often observed in more complex animal models, such as mouse and other animal models 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 .In addition to infection with S. aureus , progression of infection with S. epidermidis or other pathogens in the presence of biomaterials can be investigated following the protocol described in this study. In terms of biomaterials, several material properties (e.g. , chemical composition, hydrophobicity, roughness and surface charges) can influence cellular reactions and / or bacteria material interactions 41 , 42 .Our previous studies showed that injections of biomaterial (in the presence of PVP) provoked more infiltration of macrophages, compared to injections of PVP alone into a zebrafish embryo. In addition, zebrafish embryos reacted differently to poly (β-caprolactan) and polystyrene microspheres 33 . Thus, injections of microspheres of different nature can also have a different effect on the increase of infection, which can be relatively easily detected by the method described here.

For further development, this model bye zebrafish embryo can be modified for high throughput systems featuring automatic robotic injection 27 , 43 , sophisticated object parametric analysis and sorting (COPAS) systems and high throughput RNA sequence analysis 27 , 44 . Such high-throughput-based zebrafish embryo buy models can be used as whole animal systems for in vivo screening and testing of anti-infectious biomaterials (novel), as well as testing the efficacy of antibiotic treatments or other anti-buy strategies.In addition, intracellular survival is one of the main strategies of bacteria to survive in the presence of biomaterials 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 . The usefulness of the zebrafish embryo for the study of intracellular infection has been shown in several studies 36 , 46 . Thus, our embryo model can be used to study the intracellular survival of staphylococcus or other intracellular pathogens in the presence of biomaterials and strategies for the treatment of such intracellular infections.In addition, in situ hybridization techniques 45 can be used in a model to study the effect of bacteria or biomaterials, or a combination of both, to express specific genes at the injection site, which may be useful for detecting marker genes for BYN.

Thus, the present study demonstrates the potential of the zebrafish embryo with the methods developed here to study biomaterial associated infection in real time in vivo. This zebrafish embryo model can therefore be used to investigate novel infection of persistent biomaterials and promising prevention and treatment strategies by and by the gap between in vitro studies and larger animal models.

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What is staphylococcus aureus? When is he dangerous, and when can you be friends with him?

Staphylococcus is found everywhere. To date, it is known about fifty of its types, of which only fifteen can be identified on the skin or mucous membranes of a person. However, only three species can be harmful, and then under some circumstances.

Excessive sterility is the best abode for staphylococcus

Many are convinced that by observing excessive sterility in the house, they protect themselves from all kinds of diseases.Actually this is not true. Thorough daily cleaning, bordering on disinfection, kills many bacteria and in such cases Staphylococcus aureus is the real “king of the hill”. Many cocci are resistant to even real disinfection. And when bacteria that are able to displace them are destroyed, they begin to actively multiply. That is why staphylococcus aureus can often “take over” in hospitals. The environment should be natural. Then there will be a natural “bacterial harmony” in it, which does not harm health.

Main types of human staphylococcus

The most aggressive cocci are: saprophytic, golden and epidermal.

Saprophytic staphylococcus harms women more often than men. It manifests itself in the form of inflammation in the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys.

Staphylococcus aureus (aureus), which got its name from its color, is the most “formidable” among others.It provokes a large number of diseases (from acne to sepsis and infectious toxic shock) and affects various organs. If it is not treated, it may even be fatal in some cases.

Staphylococcus epidermidis usually “likes” to settle on mucous membranes and skin. People with good immunity, as a rule, do not have problems with it. If the bacterial culture revealed staphylococcus epidermidis within the normal range, then it should not be touched. Especially if the coccus doesn’t bother you.However, when it is present inside the body of a seriously ill person, it can provoke a very serious deterioration in the condition and disease. In some cases, it can cause pustules.

Staphylococcus is spread by bacteria carriers. Moreover, many carriers (asymptomatic) themselves are unaware of its existence. According to some reports, 40% of healthy people have staphylococcus aureus.

Staphylococcus infection process

It is very important to know the sources by which they are introduced into the body in order to find out the causes of infection with cocci.

– Drip-air path. Thus, a patient with pneumonia can transmit the bacterium. During a cough, cocci float in the air and settle on interior items.

– Infection through food . Staphylococcus aureus can often live in poor-quality meat and unwashed products. The first symptom of an unwanted guest is food poisoning. If measures are not taken in time, severe intoxication of the body can occur with all further negative consequences.

– Disregard for personal hygiene. Use of things and personal hygiene products of a person suffering from staphylococcus, especially by persons with poor immunity.

– Damage to the skin and mucous membranes. Even through microtraumas, the bacterium easily penetrates the body and multiplies quickly in it. A special risk group is patients with poor immunity in the postoperative state.

The key factors for the progression of staphylococcus are: weak immunity, immunosuppressants (drugs for suppressing immunity, for example, during organ transplantation), long-term antibiotics, some chronic diseases.

The main symptoms of staphylococcus

Symptoms are quite varied, and their nature depends on the type of coccus. However, bacterial culture will help to pinpoint its presence.

Skin diseases. Acne, boils, abscesses and other similar manifestations.

Angina. With staphylococcus, it is very difficult and is often accompanied by complications.

Urethritis. Staphylococcus in this case settles on the mucous membrane of the urethra, harming the entire genitourinary system. It can form due to questionable sexual contact with carriers of the bacteria.

Prostatitis and prostate adenoma. Weakened immunity allows cocci to move and multiply along the urethra, ulcerating all male genitourinary organs.

In men, staphylococcus aureus usually affects 90,039 the skin and the genitourinary system. In some cases, it is introduced into internal organs and can cause sepsis and toxic shock.

How to identify staphylococcus aureus?

The main detection method is bacterial culture. For its implementation, materials are taken in which the bacterium is localized. The culture result reveals the type of coccus and its amount.

Treatment of staphylococcal infections

Getting rid of staphylococcus is quite difficult, but possible.The main difficulty in treatment is that it is resistant to many antibiotics. Moreover, it is almost impossible to overcome it with simple antibiotics. He quickly becomes insensitive to them. Its vitality lies in the content of penicillinase, which breaks down antibiotic molecules. To date, bacteriophages, staphylococcal toxoid and methicillin have shown high efficiency in the fight against coccus. In combination with the main treatment, p should enhance immunity, use vitamin and mineral complexes and improve metabolism in the body. Including an effective surgical method , providing for the local removal of foci (boils, abscesses).

To improve immunity, you can use ginseng, rhodiola, milk thistle, echinacea and Chinese magnolia vine. Skin manifestations can be lubricated with brilliant green, which staphylococcus does not like very much.

Staphylococcal bacteria can be a serious concern if they cause disease. In other cases, if cocci do not bother and are present in small quantities in the body, usually there are no problems.You do not need to eliminate them. Moreover, be friends with them as long as they do not touch you.

A source

90,000 The substances from red wine have found the ability to fight staphylococcus – Science

SAINT PETERSBURG, March 16. / TASS /. Russian scientists have discovered that flavonoids – compounds found, for example, in red wine – can be a natural antidote against Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria that causes many infectious diseases in humans.Olga Ostroumova, Chief Researcher at the Institute of Cytology (ITS) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, told TASS about this.

Staphylococcus aureus can cause a wide range of diseases – from skin, respiratory, bone, joint and wound infections. It is also one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections.

“We investigated naturally occurring plant nutrients called flavonoids. They are found in large quantities in wine and other fruit drinks. We have found that a number of flavonoids are able to regulate the entry of harmful substances into the cell that arise as a result of the vital activity of staphylococcus.” Ostroumova.

The fact is that Staphylococcus aureus produces a special toxin – alpha hemolysin. Seven molecules of such a protein, when interacting with the human cell membrane, form a relatively large hole in it. Thus, a gap appears in the cell, due to which the metabolism of the cell is disrupted. In most cases, this leads to cell death.

“Our studies have shown that some flavonoids are just capable of turning such a pore into a closed state. These substances can be used as a kind of prototype of an antidote,” Ostroumova noted.

Apples against fungal infections

Interestingly, a flavonoid from apples, phloretin, can also enhance the effect of antibiotics, which are used to treat systemic (general or deep) fungal infections in immunocompromised people, including those with HIV, after organ transplantation or chemotherapy for cancer, Ostroumova said.

Statistics say that more than 1.5 million people die from fungal infections a year, and more than 1 billion people suffer from them.A serious problem is the constant increase in the number of pathogenic microorganisms resistant to the drugs most often used in the treatment of fungal infections (azoles group).

“Now we are developing a prototype of an innovative dosage form of polyene macrolides, which includes both lipids, which reduce their toxicity, and phloretin, which increases the effectiveness of these antifungal drugs,” Ostroumova clarified.