Fruit type 2 diabetes: 7 Healthy Meal Tips for Type 2 Diabetes
7 Healthy Meal Tips for Type 2 Diabetes
2. Know Which Foods Should Be Staples in Your Diabetes Diet
Kathy Honick, RN, CDCES, a diabetes educator at Mercy Diabetes and Nutrition Center in Washington, Missouri, provides additional details about what you should keep in your pantry and refrigerator:
- Fruits and vegetables are usually good choices, but enjoy fruit in moderation. Your healthcare team can tell you what “in moderation” means for you.
- Nonstarchy vegetables are a good choice. These include spinach, carrots, broccoli, and green beans.
- Eat whole-grain foods, such as brown rice, whole-wheat bread, and whole-wheat pasta.
- Include legumes like lentils, kidney, or pinto beans in your meal plans.
- Choose fish over meat two to three times a week.
- For meat, choose lean pork or beef, or chicken or turkey with the skin removed.
- Dairy (cheese, yogurt, milk) is important, but go for nonfat versions, even for ice cream.
3. Limit or Eliminate Certain Foods From Your Diet
Honick adds that you’re better off cutting back on or avoiding certain foods when you’re managing diabetes. These are the types of foods that tend to contribute to weight gain or carry a higher glycemic load, meaning that they can lead to a swift blood sugar spike, according to Harvard University. Nutrition is also an important consideration.
- Avoid junk food, she says. This fare tends to be high in saturated fat and sodium, notes past research. If a food is high in carbohydrates (looking at you, french fries), that’s all the more reason to avoid it or enjoy it in moderation and infrequently.
- Sodas are chock-full of sugar, as are fruit punches and other sugar-sweetened drinks. For example, a 12-ounce container of fruit punch contains a whopping 42 g of sugar, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Diet soda may be acceptable, though some research, including a study published in March 2014 in the American Journal of Nutrition, has noted that in people without diabetes diet soda may be associated with higher caloric intake and thus weight gain. However, researchers relied on self-reported data and more studies are needed. Your best bet is plain or sparkling water without sugar added, Honick says.
- Sugary snacks, including cookies, cakes, and ice cream, fill you up with empty calories, she says. Choose healthier snack options, such as nonstarchy bell peppers with hummus, instead.
If you’re not sure of the nutritional content of a food or drink option, check the USDA’s Food Central database. (Pro tip: When “energy/kcal” is listed on page, it’s simply a more technical term for calories).
RELATED: 13 Quick and Easy Snack Ideas for People With Diabetes
4. Use Diabetes-Friendly Cooking Methods When Preparing Your Food
When trying to follow a healthy diet, how you cook your food makes a big difference in the end product.
- Bake or broil instead of frying to reduce fat.
- Use extra-virgin olive oil instead of vegetable oil, because olive oil confers more heart benefits, notes the Mayo Clinic. People with diabetes are at a higher risk for heart disease than the general population, per the American Heart Association.
- Completely avoid trans fats (found in some processed foods and foods cooked in oil, though they’re being phased out, per the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and limiting saturated fats (found in meats and whole milk) to less than 20 g per day, if possible.
- Limit sodium to 2,000 to 2,400 g per day, unless you’re on a sodium-restricted diet. In that case, you should follow your doctor’s recommendations.
- Choose fresh or frozen foods, or canned foods with no salt.
Eating well is one of the pleasures of life. If you have type 2 diabetes, you don’t have to forgo the enjoyment of food. You just have to adapt and change your eating habits and, maybe, some of the foods you eat.
RELATED: How Diabetes and Heart Disease Are Connected
5. Limit Ordering Takeout, and Take These Precautions
Home-cooked meals are preferable to takeout orders, because you have total control over portions and ingredients. However, if you’re craving a break from meal preparation, keep in mind that during the pandemic you must not only manage diabetes but protect yourself from the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.
“If you order takeout or delivery, be smart about it. Being a person with diabetes means that if you get COVID-19, you have an increased chance of experiencing complications from the virus,” says Gorin, echoing information from the CDC. Take precautions to decrease your risk of contact with others, because even people without symptoms may be infected, according to the CDC. “If you order delivery, see if you can prepay — including the tip — and have the delivery driver leave the food at your door so that you’re limiting contact. If you’re ordering takeout, aim to also prepay and either pick up food via a drive-through, or if you must go into a restaurant, request that the food is left for you at pickup, away from another person.”
She also suggests taking food out of its packaging and transferring it onto a new plate and heating it in the microwave before eating. Cooking food to a safe temperature should kill germs, according to FoodSafety.gov.
Also, order the most diabetes-friendly options you can. The Cleveland Clinic suggests that you prioritize vegetables. Choose whole grains in modest portions over processed ones, whether it’s opting for brown rice over white, or whole-wheat pasta over regular. Opt for proteins that are leaner than red meat, such as skinless poultry and fish, or plant-based sources like beans and tofu. Scale back on dairy and sauces, which can be laden with calories. And avoid fried food, which is full of carbs, fat, and calories. Order steamed, baked, roasted, or grilled fare instead.
Related: The Best Diabetes-Friendly Takeout Orders When You Don’t Want to Cook
6. Fresh Food Is Fantastic, But So Are Packaged Options
There are few yummier — or healthier — simple pleasures than choosing fresh fare from your garden, a farmers market, or a roadside stand. But if these aren’t options for you, you can enjoy nutritional food that is canned, frozen, or dried.
“Go for a combination of frozen fruits and vegetables, frozen lean protein such as seafood, canned beans, bagged brown rice, canned vegetables, spices, and healthy fats such as olive oil,” says Gorin. Among her favorite selections:
Canned Beans “Beans not only provide protein, they also provide fiber — and this combination of nutrients can help keep you fuller for longer,” Gorin says. “Purchase the no-salt-added variety if you have diabetes, and make sure to drain and rinse them.” According to the USDA, ½ cup of boiled black beans without salt contains about 20.4 g of carbs.
Don’t like black beans? The American Diabetes Association notes that other types, including kidney, pinto, and navy beans, are also rich in vitamins and minerals such as potassium and magnesium.
Frozen Fruit “Frozen fruit is great to have on hand for anything from an oatmeal topping to an ingredient in a wild blueberry–peanut butter smoothie,” says Gorin, suggesting her own recipe. To cut down on the possibility that your smoothie will spike your blood sugar, the London-based nonprofit Diabetes U.K. recommends preparing it with whole fruits rather than juice, and limiting your smoothie portion to 1 small glass, or 5 ounces per day. Increase the size of your smoothie by diluting it with water.
Dried Spices “It’s super easy to get bored when you’re cooking most or all of your meals,” Gorin says. “Spices can quickly jazz things up.” Certain spices, including turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and ginger, may help lower your blood sugar, though more studies in humans are needed, according to a review published in February 2017 in the journal Food Chemistry. Regardless, sodium-free varieties of spice mixes are a good option to infuse food with new flavor without adding calories and carbs, Gorin explains.
RELATED: 7 Creative Smoothie Ingredients That Are Also Diabetes Friendly
7. Consider Exercising After Eating Your Healthy Meal
As you enjoy healthy meals at home, take time to consider what you’ll do once you get up from the table. “Physical activity helps your body be more sensitive to insulin, which helps you manage your diabetes,” says Gorin, supporting findings cited in a review published in March 2017 in BMJ Open Sport — Exercise Medicine. “Right now, with quarantine measures in place, it may be difficult to get traditional forms of exercise. Try to be creative.” You might take a virtual yoga class, or make a workout out of cleaning your home. Check with your doctor before you begin exercise to ensure you are doing the right activities for your health condition.
Additional reporting by Marijke Vroomen-Durning, RN.
Eating Fruit with Diabetes | diaTribe
By Eliza Skoler
How can fruit affect blood sugar, and are there certain types of fruit that are better for people with diabetes?
It’s important for people with diabetes to be careful about what they eat, especially when it comes to sweet foods. That’s what can make eating fruit so tricky.
Even though fruits are natural and full of healthy vitamins and minerals, many of them also pack in fructose (the sugar found in fruit), a carbohydrate that can raise your blood glucose levels. The good news is that fruits are fine to eat so long as you monitor the types and amounts. (Where this doesn’t apply is allergies. If you are allergic to a certain fruit, you’ll want to stay away from that – for obvious reasons!)
How does fruit affect blood sugar?
The main sugar in fruit, called fructose, is quickly taken up by the liver, converted to glucose, and released into the bloodstream. So, fruit can cause glucose levels to rise. However, fruits also contain fiber, a nutrient that can slow carbohydrate digestion and help manage blood sugar levels. Different fruits contain varied amounts of fructose, glucose, and fiber, meaning that the type of fruit you eat will determine how it affects your blood sugar.
The type of sugar found in fruit is different from the simple sugar that is added to processed foods, like soda or ice cream. Because the carbohydrates in fruit are accompanied by fiber, vitamins, and minerals, eating fruit in moderation will generally affect blood sugar levels differently – and more slowly – than eating candy.
Is it important for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes to be careful about how much fruit you eat?
Yes. For all people, and for all people with diabetes, fruit can affect your blood sugar level. That doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t eat fruit at all – fruit still includes important nutrients that your body needs, some of which can lower your risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic conditions.
How much fruit should someone with diabetes eat?
The US Dietary Guidelines recommend that all adults eat about two cups of fruit per day, where one piece of fruit is about the size of a one-cup serving. People with diabetes should still eat fruit, but should be more mindful of fruit intake, paying attention to the type and amount of fruit that you eat. Pairing fruit with foods that also have protein and fat (like eating an apple with peanut butter or eating berries with plain yogurt) can help prevent a blood sugar spike.
How to manage your fruit intake
How can you determine how much fruit you should eat?
It’s important to take a fruit’s carbs into consideration when you are planning meals, dosing insulin, or calculating carbohydrate intake. One serving of fruit has 15 grams of carbs; however, this is where it can get tricky – one serving of fruit looks different depending on what you are eating. Here are some examples of single servings of fruit (all contain about 15 grams of carbohydrate):
Half an apple
Half a banana
One cup of blackberries
One big cup of strawberries
One cup of watermelon or cantaloupe
A handful of grapes
One big tablespoon of dried fruit
If you eat a serving a fruit, be sure to account for its carbs.
Glycemic Index (GI)
You may have heard that some foods have a “high glycemic index” and others have a “low glycemic index.” A glycemic index ranks foods on a scale from 0 to 100 according to how much the food raises blood sugar levels. Foods are assessed in a lab and compared to pure glucose, which is given a glycemic index of 100. A high glycemic index (greater than 55) means a food spikes blood sugar more rapidly than a food with a low glycemic index (less than 55). To search the glycemic index of foods you typically eat, click here.
While the glycemic index can be helpful for planning meals with diabetes, it’s important to know that it’s not a perfect indicator of exactly how much a food will affect your blood sugar levels. For example, a fruit that is very ripe will raise your blood sugar more than the same fruit that is not ripe (since fruits develop more sugar as they ripen.) The glycemic index also does not take into account how much of a particular food you eat or how that food is prepared.
When it comes to fruit, the fiber found in whole fruits typically brings the glycemic index down.
Fruits with a low glycemic index include blackberries (4), cherries (20), and grapefruit (25).
Fruits with a higher glycemic index include pineapple (66), watermelon (76), and dried fruits such as dates (62) or raisins (66).
For reference, ice cream has a glycemic index of 88.
The plate method
If you use the plate method to manage your diabetes diet, eat a small piece of whole fruit or a handful of berries for dessert. This can accompany your normal plate that’s half full of non-starchy vegetables, one quarter full of protein, and one quarter full of starch. Don’t forget your glass of water on the side!
Other healthy strategies for eating fruit
What else can you do to make sure you eat healthy fruit?
Portion size is key! Set out the amount of fruit that you want to eat, and then stick to that portion – this will help you avoid eating too much fruit and experiencing a blood sugar spike. It’s also helpful to spread multiple servings of fruit out over the course of the day, rather than eating a lot of fruit at once.
Choose fresh fruit whenever possible. Canned fruit, dried fruit, and sometimes frozen fruit often have added sugars (and other chemicals). Processed fruit (like applesauce) also generally contains added sugar.
Try to avoid fruit juice. Fruit juice contains all of the sugar of fruit without the fiber to help your body process it. This means that juice can cause your blood sugar to spike quickly. If you are drinking fruit juice, drink a very small portion (half a cup) and consider adding water to it; make sure you get “100% fruit juice” so that no extra sugars are added to sweeten the drink. Note: this is why juice can be used to quickly raise your blood sugar if you are experiencing hypoglycemia.
Healthiest fruits for people with diabetes
For those with diabetes, the healthiest fruits are the ones that contain the least sugar. Fruits that are lower in sugar include:
Berries – blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries
Fruits to avoid or limit with diabetes
No fruit should be considered “bad” for people with diabetes, but some fruits have a higher sugar content than others and may affect your glucose levels more. While berries tend to have less sugar, other fruits have more sugar:
If you’re looking for dessert for a special occasion, read about fruit-based recipes here. You can also try making a dessert chia pudding with fresh fruit.
Growing evidence fruit may lower type 2 diabe
image: Woman standing holding a basket of red apples.
Credit: Edith Cowan University
Eating at least two serves of fruit daily has been linked with 36 percent lower odds of developing type 2 diabetes, a new Edith Cowan University (ECU) study has found.
The study, published today in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, revealed that people who ate at least two serves of fruit per day had higher measures of insulin sensitivity than those who ate less than half a serve.
Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health concern with an estimated 451 million people worldwide living with the condition. A further 374 million people are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
The study’s lead author, Dr Nicola Bondonno from ECU’s Institute for Nutrition Research, said the findings offer fresh evidence for the health benefits of fruit.
“We found an association between fruit intake and markers of insulin sensitivity, suggesting that people who consumed more fruit had to produce less insulin to lower their blood glucose levels,” said Dr Bondonno.
“This is important because high levels of circulating insulin (hyperinsulinemia) can damage blood vessels and are related not only to diabetes, but also to high blood pressure, obesity, and heart disease.
“A healthy diet and lifestyle, which includes the consumption of whole fruits, is a great strategy to lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.”
Fresh is best
The study examined data from 7,675 Australians participating in the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute’s AusDiab Study and assessed fruit and fruit juice intake and the prevalence of diabetes after five years.
Dr Bondonno said they did not observe the same beneficial relationship for fruit juice.
“Higher insulin sensitivity and a lower risk of diabetes was only observed for people who consumed whole fruit, not fruit juice,” she said.
“This is likely because juice tends to be much higher in sugar and lower in fibre.”
Dr Bondonno said that it’s still unclear exactly how fruit contributes to insulin sensitivity, but it is likely to be multifaceted.
“As well as being high in vitamins and minerals, fruits are a great source of phytochemicals which may increase insulin sensitivity, and fibre which helps regulate the release of sugar into the blood and also helps people feel fuller for longer,” she said.
“Furthermore, most fruits typically have a low glycaemic index, which means the fruit’s sugar is digested and absorbed into the body more slowly.”
The study builds on Dr Bondonno’s research into the health benefits of fruit and vegetables, particularly those that contain a key nutrient known as flavonoids. The research is part of ECU’s Institute of Nutrition Research.
‘Associations between fruit intake and risk of diabetes in the AusDiab cohort’ was published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.
Eating whole fruits linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes | News
For immediate release: Thursday, August 29, 2013
Boston, MA — Eating more whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples, was significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a new study led by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers. Greater consumption of fruit juices was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The study is the first to look at the effects of individual fruits on diabetes risk.
“While fruits are recommended as a measure for diabetes prevention, previous studies have found mixed results for total fruit consumption. Our findings provide novel evidence suggesting that certain fruits may be especially beneficial for lowering diabetes risk,” said senior author [[Qi Sun]], assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition at HSPH and assistant professor at the Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
The study appears online August 29, 2013 in BMJ (British Medical Journal).
The researchers examined data gathered between 1984 and 2008 from 187,382 participants in three long-running studies (Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study). Participants who reported a diagnosis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at enrollment were excluded. Results showed that 12,198 participants (6.5%) developed diabetes during the study period.
The researchers looked at overall fruit consumption, as well as consumption of individual fruits: grapes or raisins; peaches, plums, or apricots; prunes; bananas; cantaloupe; apples or pears; oranges; grapefruit; strawberries; and blueberries. They also looked at consumption of apple, orange, grapefruit, and “other” fruit juices.
People who ate at least two servings each week of certain whole fruits — particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples — reduced their risk for type 2 diabetes by as much as 23% in comparison to those who ate less than one serving per month. Conversely, those who consumed one or more servings of fruit juice each day increased their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 21%. The researchers found that swapping three servings of juice per week for whole fruits would result in a 7% reduction in diabetes risk.
The fruits’ glycemic index (a measure of how rapidly carbohydrates in a food boost blood sugar) did not prove to be a significant factor in determining a fruit’s association with type 2 diabetes risk. However, the high glycemic index of fruit juice — which passes through the digestive system more rapidly than fiber-rich fruit — may explain the positive link between juice consumption and increased diabetes risk.
The researchers theorize that the beneficial effects of certain individual fruits could be the result of a particular component. Previous studies have linked anthocyanins found in berries and grapes to lowered heart attack risk, for example. But more research is necessary to determine which components in the more beneficial fruits influence diabetes risk.
“Our data further endorse current recommendations on increasing whole fruits, but not fruit juice, as a measure for diabetes prevention,” said lead author Isao Muraki, research fellow in the Department of Nutrition at HSPH. “And our novel findings may help refine this recommendation to facilitate diabetes prevention.”
Other HSPH authors include JoAnn Manson, professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology, Walter Willett, Fredrick John Stare Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition Department chair, and Rob van Dam, adjunct associate professor of nutrition and epidemiology.
Support for the study came from research grants CA87969, CA17626, CA55075, CA50385, CA167552, DK58845, and DK082486 from the National Institutes of Health. Sun was supported by a career development award R00HL098459 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
“Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies,“ Isao Muraki, Fumiaki Imamura, JoAnn E. Manson, Frank B. Hu, Walter C. Willett, Rob van Dam, and Qi Sun, BMJ, online August 29, 2013
For more information:
Harvard School of Public Health brings together dedicated experts from many disciplines to educate new generations of global health leaders and produce powerful ideas that improve the lives and health of people everywhere. As a community of leading scientists, educators, and students, we work together to take innovative ideas from the laboratory and the classroom to people’s lives—not only making scientific breakthroughs, but also working to change individual behaviors, public policies, and health care practices. Each year, more than 400 faculty members at HSPH teach 1,000-plus full-time students from around the world and train thousands more through online and executive education courses. Founded in 1913 as the Harvard-MIT School of Health Officers, the School is recognized as America’s first professional training program in public health.
Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta‐analysis
Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta‐analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods
Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand‐searching journals and contacting experts.
The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum‐adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81–0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57–0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67–0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88–0.99) for fruit fiber in these high‐quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80–0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow‐up period of 10 years or more.
A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Meta‐analysis, Nutrition intake, Type 2 diabetes
Diabetes has become a serious and increasing global health burden. An estimated 382 million people worldwide were affected by diabetes in 2013, and this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 20351. Consequently, diabetes is predicted to become the major cause of death and disability in the world by 20302, 3. Primary prevention of diabetes is clearly a major public health priority. Type 2 diabetes makes up >90% of all diabetes cases. Although the development of type 2 diabetes is complicated, dietary factors could play an important role in its pathogenesis. Dietary modification has been shown to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes4, 5.
Intake of sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables is recommended as a part of a healthy diet, though the individual contribution from different food sources remains largely unknown. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption could reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, stroke and type 2 diabetes6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. These foods contain considerable protective constituents, including potassium, folate, vitamins, fiber, anti‐oxidant content and phenolic compounds13, 14, 15. However, the mechanisms by which fruit and vegetables reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes have not been precisely elucidated. To date, many epidemiological studies have examined the association between type 2 diabetes risk and fruit and vegetable intake12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Findings from these studies have been surprisingly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, especially the intake of berries and green leafy vegetables, has the inverse associations with the risk of type 2 diabetes12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. Some studies have not shown such associations with the intake of fruit or vegetables23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. The discrepancy of these results could arise from the complicity of the disease itself and functional heterogeneity of the biological responses to various foods.
In the present study, we sought to carry out a meta‐analysis to investigate the relationship between fruit or vegetable intake, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Notably, several previously carried out meta‐analyses used relatively limited pooled results around 2008. They primarily focused on the relationship between the intake of fruit or vegetables and type 2 diabetes11, 16, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30. They reported no significant association of fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined with type 2 diabetes11, 29, 30. Only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes11, 29. Presently, we collected a more up‐to‐date and large number of prospective cohort relevant studies in the present meta‐analysis. Additionally, we included the relationship between the intake of fruit and vegetable fiber, and the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods
Two authors (Ping‐Yu Wang and Jun‐Chao Fang) carried out the literature search. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014. To ensure a broad range of relative issues, the search strategy included a combined text and the medical subject headings (type 2 diabetes, diabetes mellitus, prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, fruits, vegetables, fiber, fibre, follow‐up, and prospective studies). Furthermore, to search for more studies, we also sought expert opinion and additionally hand‐checked the reference lists of original publications and previous meta‐analyses or reviews. There were no language restrictions.
To be included, studies had to fulfil the following criteria: (i) prospective cohort studies with healthy participants at baseline; (ii) an individual measure of intake of fruits, vegetables, fruit and vegetables, or fruit and vegetable fiber; (iii) an assessment of the development of type 2 diabetes; (iv) multivariate adjusted relative risk (RR) or hazard ratios (HR) with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded during the initial review. When uncertainty existed, we retrieved and assessed the full text article. Two reviewers (Ping‐Yu Wang and Zong‐Hua Gao) resolved any uncertainty through discussion. If duplicate reports from the same study cohort were identified, only the most recent publication with the most detailed information or the study with the largest population was included.
Data Extraction and Validity Assessment
Data extraction was carried out independently by two authors (Ping‐Yu Wang and Jun‐Chao Fang), and any differences were resolved through discussion. From each study, the following details were extracted: the first author, publication year, country, number of participants, participants’ age, sex, duration of follow up, number of events, methods used to measure exposure, outcome assessment, multivariate adjusted RR or HR of type 2 diabetes and corresponding 95% CI for the highest vs lowest level of intake with the greatest number of adjustments, and confounding factors in the statistical analysis.
For assessing the quality of an observational study, the Newcastle–Ottawa quality assessment Scale (NOS) is recommended31. Two authors (Can Zhang and Shu‐Yang Xie) independently assessed all studies for quality and validity using the NOS, and any discrepancies were resolved by discussion. For cohort studies, the NOS consisted of three dimensions of quality: selection (4 points), comparability (2 points) and outcome (3 points). It allowed a total score from 0 to 9 points, with a total score of 7 or greater reflecting high‐quality studies.
HRs or RRs were used to measure the association between intake of fruit, vegetables or their fiber and risk of type 2 diabetes. We transformed these values by taking their natural logarithms and calculating their standard errors and corresponding 95% CIs. Then we generated pooled estimates to calculate summary hazard ratios and 95% CIs for the highest vs lowest level of intake.
For each outcome, tests of heterogeneity were carried out (using the χ2‐test of heterogeneity and I² statistic). If there was no heterogeneity, a fixed‐effect meta‐analysis was carried out. If there was substantial heterogeneity (I
2 greater than 50%), the review authors looked for a possible reason for this (e.g., participants). We carried out subgroup analysis based on the quality of the study (high quality vs lower quality), sex (men and women included vs women only), length of follow up (<10 years vs ≥10 years) and location (USA and Europe vs China), as these were thought to be possible sources of heterogeneity. If the heterogeneity could not be explained, we used a random‐effects model with appropriate cautious interpretation.
We also carried out sensitivity analysis to assess the stability of the results by excluding or including studies at high risk of bias (e.g., those follow‐up years <5 years) or using the trim and fill method. The effects of publication bias were assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s regression test to measure funnel plot asymmetry32, 33. All statistical analyses were analyzed with Stata (version 12.0; StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA).
The systematic search identified 2,626 articles (Figure ), of which 2,589 were excluded on the basis of titles and abstracts. We obtained 37 potentially relevant articles for full‐text assessment. Of these, several articles, which examined fruit and vegetable intake within dietary patterns only or were meta‐analyses, were not included. Two articles reported the same cohort data, so we excluded the article with the smaller population16, 29. One study, which examined plasma vitamin C level with the risk of incident of type 2 diabetes, was excluded for data presented as odds ratios22, but we added the data from the study to see if it significantly altered the observed associations in the sensitivity analysis. One additional article was included by checking the reference lists of identified reports24. A total of 22 articles, published between 1992 and 2014, were included in this meta‐analysis.
Process of study selection in the meta‐analysis. OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk; T2D, type 2 diabetes.
Study Characteristics and Quality Assessment
There were 11 articles including 15 independent cohorts on fruit and vegetable intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (Table ). In the publications of Muraki et al.20, Ford and Mokdad21, and Kurotani et al.28, the results, reporting for sex or independent cohorts separately, were treated as separate cohorts in the current meta‐analysis. The age of participants ranged from 25 to 79 years. Study duration of follow up ranged from 4 to 24 years. In most papers, some adjustments including age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, smoking, alcohol and family history were made for potential confounding factors. None of the papers met all of the criteria of the quality assessment tool, and the quality scores ranged from 5 to 8.
Characteristics of included studies on fruit and vegetable intake and risk of type 2 diabetes
|Study||Country||Sex||Age (years)||Follow‐up (years)||Cases/size||Assessment of T2DM||Measure of intake||Adjustments||Quality score|
|Meyer (2000)26||USA||F||55–69||6||1,141/35,988||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, energy, WHR, physical activity, education||6|
|Ford (2001)21||USA||M||25–74||20||416/3,874||Self‐report and HM||24 h recall||Age, BMI, sex, smoking, alcohol, SBP, cholesterol, exercise, education||6|
|Ford (2001)21||USA||F||25–74||20||602/5,791||Self‐report and HM||24 h recall||Age, BMI, sex, smoking, alcohol, SBP, cholesterol, exercise, education||6|
|Liu (2004)23||USA||F||≥45||8.8||1,614/38,018||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, exercise, total calories, history||6|
|Hodge (2004)24||Australia||M&F||40–69||4||365/31,641||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, sex, BMI, WHR, country of birth, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol, education, weight change, energy||5|
|Montonen (2005)12||Finland||M&F||40–69||23||383/4,304||HM and via Social Insurance Institution register||DHI (dietary history interview)||Age, sex, BMI, energy intake, smoking, family history of diabetes, and geographic area||7|
|Bazzano (2008)25||USA||F||38–63||18||4,529/71,346||Self‐report and confirmed if met WHO criteria or ADA criteria||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, family history, postmenopausal hormone, alcohol, smoking, energy||7|
|Villegas (2008)18||China||F||40–70||4.6||1,608/64,191||HM||FFQ||Age, energy, meat, BMI, WHR, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, income, education, occupational status, and hypertension||6|
|Cooper (2012)29||Europe||M&F||40–79||11||10,821/24,939||Self‐report, linkage to primary‐care registers, secondary‐care registers, medication use, hospital admissions||FFQ and 24 h recall||Age, sex, education, BMI, physical activity, smoking, energy, alcohol||8|
|Kurotani (2013)28||Japan||M||45–75||5||530/21,269||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, public health centre area, BMI, smoking, alcohol, leisure‐time activity, history of hypertension, family history of diabetes, coffee, Mg, Ca, energy intake||7|
|Kurotani (2013)28||Japan||F||45–75||5||366/27,168||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, public health centre area, BMI, smoking, alcohol, leisure‐time activity, history of hypertension, family history of diabetes, coffee, Mg, Ca, energy intake||7|
|Muraki (2013)20||USA (NHS)||F||38–63||24||6,358/66,105||Self‐report and supplementary questionnaires/medical records||FFQ||Age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, multivitamin use, physical activity, family history of diabetes, energy intake and other factors||6|
|Muraki (2013)20||USA (NHS II)||F||26–46||18||3,153/85,104||Self‐report and supplementary questionnaires/medical records||FFQ||Age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, multivitamin use, physical activity, family history of diabetes, energy intake and other factors||6|
|Muraki (2013)20||USA (HPFS)||M||40–75||22||2,687/36,173||Self‐report and supplementary questionnaires/medical records||FFQ||Age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, multivitamin use, physical activity, family history of diabetes, energy intake and other factors||7|
|Mursu (2014)27||Finland||M||42–60||19.3||432/2,332||A self‐administered questions for a physician‐set diagnosis||4‐d food recording||Age, examination years, BMI, waist‐to‐hip ratio, smoking, alcohol, education, physical activity, family history of diabetes, and other factors||7|
There were 12 articles including 19 independent cohorts studying on intake of fruit and vegetable fiber and risk of type 2 diabetes (Table ). In the publications of Sameron, Stevens and Hopping34, 35, 36, the results, reporting for independent cohorts separately, were treated as separate cohorts in the current meta‐analysis. The age of participants ranged from 26 to 79 years. Study duration of follow‐up ranged from 4.6 years to 14 years. All papers made some adjustments for potential confounding factors. The quality scores ranged from 5 to 8.
Characteristics of included studies on fruit and vegetable fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes
|Study||Country||Sex||Age (years)||Follow‐up (years)||Cases/size||Assessment of T2DM||Measure of intake||Adjustments||Quality score|
|Colditz (1992)37||USA||F||30–55||6||702/84,360||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, alcohol, follow‐up period||5|
|Salmeron (1997)35||USA||F||40–65||6||915/65,173||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, energy, physical activity, family history of diabetes||8|
|Salmeron (1997)35||USA||M||40–75||6||523/42,759||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, energy, physical activity, family history of diabetes||8|
|Meyer (2000)26||USA||F||55–69||6||1,141/3,5988||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, energy, WHR, physical activity, education||6|
|Stevens (2002)36 White||USA||M&F||45–64||9||971/9,529||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, sex, smoking, physical activity, education, field center||6|
|Stevens (2002)36 Black||USA||M&F||45–64||9||476/2,722||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, sex, smoking, physical activity, education, field center||6|
|Montonen (2003)38||Finland||M&F||40–69||10||156/4316||Social insurance institution register||Dietary history interview||Age, BMI, sex, smoking, energy, area||7|
|Schulze (2004)39||USA||F||26–46||8||741/91,249||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, energy, family history, hormone, magnesium, caffeine||7|
|Hodge (2004)24||Australia||M&F||40–69||4||365/31,641||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, sex, BMI, WHR, country of birth, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol, education, weight change, energy||5|
|Schulze (2007)54||Germany||M&F||35–65||7||844/25,067||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, sex, BMI, education, sports activity, smoking, alcohol, waist circumference, energy, carbohydrate intake, PUFA‐SFA ratio, MUFA‐SFAratio||7|
|Barclay (2007)40||Australia||M&F||>49||10||138/1,833||Fasting plasma glucose level/self‐report||FFQ||Age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and other factors||7|
|Wannamethee (2009)41||British||M||60–79||7||162/3,428||Self‐report||FFQ||Age, waist circumference, smoking, physical activity, social class, alcohol, total calorie intake and other factors||6|
|Hopping (2010)34||Caucasian||M||45–75||14||1,080/15,116||Self‐report/medical records||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, education, and calories||7|
|Hopping (2010)34||Caucasian||F||45–75||14||715/1,4643||Self‐report/medical records||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, education, and calories||7|
|Hopping (2010)34||Japanese American||M||45–75||14||2,677/16,572||Self‐report/medical records||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, education, and calories||7|
|Hopping (2010)34||Japanese American||F||45–75||14||2,374/18,672||Self‐report/medical records||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, education, and calories||7|
|Hopping (2010)34||Native Hawaiian||M||45–75||14||798/4,568||Self‐report/medical records||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, education, and calories||7|
|Hopping (2010)34||Native Hawaiian||F||45–75||14||943/5,941||Self‐report/medical records||FFQ||BMI, physical activity, education, and calories.||7|
|Weng (2012)42||Taiwanese||M&F||≥30||4.6||141/1,604||Fasting plasma glucose concentration/self‐report||FFQ||Age, sex, caloric intake, family history of diabetes, BMI, education, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and other factors||6|
The overall maximum‐adjusted pooled RR based on all available data for the highest intake of fruit vs the lowest intake with risk of type 2 diabetes was 0.91 (95% CI 0.87–0.96). The I
2 statistic for heterogeneity between studies was 11.2% and P = 0.33 for homogeneity, suggesting low between‐study heterogeneity. The meta‐analysis showed a significant reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence for consumption of fruits (Figure ).
Maximum‐adjusted relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes, comparing highest vs lowest intake of fruit. Weights are from fixed effect analysis. CI, confidence interval.
Some cohort studies also examined the intake of citrus, strawberries and blueberries with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Eight cohort studies investigated the association between citrus intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the summary RR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.96–1.09) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake, with no evidence of between‐study heterogeneity (I
2 = 0.0% and P = 0.67 for homogeneity). Five cohort studies investigated the association between strawberry intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the summary RR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.78–1.18) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake. Four cohort studies investigated the association between blueberry intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the summary RR was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.84) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake, with a significant reduction in risk of type 2diabetes.
The overall maximum‐adjusted pooled RR based on all available data for highest intake vegetables vs lowest intake with risk of type 2 diabetes incidence was 0.91 (95% CI 0.82–1.01). The I
2 statistic for heterogeneity between studies was 57.2% and P = 0.01 for homogeneity, suggesting substantial between‐study heterogeneity.
Some cohort studies also examined intake of green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Seven cohort studies investigated the association between the intake of green leafy vegetables and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the summary maximum‐adjusted RR was 0.87 (95% CI 0.81–0.93) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake, with no evidence of between‐study heterogeneity (I
2 = 0.0% and P = 0.50 for homogeneity; Figure ). Three cohort studies investigated the association between yellow vegetables intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the summary RR was 0.72 (95% CI 0.57–0.90) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake. Three cohort studies investigated the association between cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the summary RR was 0.82 (95% CI 0.67–0.99) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake.
Maximum‐adjusted relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes, comparing highest vs lowest intake of green leafy vegetables. Weights are from fixed effect analysis. CI, confidence interval.
Fruit and Vegetables Combined
We identified nine cohort studies on the association between the intake of fruit and vegetables combined and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The summary maximum‐adjusted RR was 0.95 (95% CI 0.90–1.02) for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake, with marginal between‐study heterogeneity (I
2 = 34.4% and P = 0.14 for homogeneity).
The overall maximum‐adjusted pooled RR based on all available data for the highest intake of fruit fiber vs the lowest intake with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence was 1.00 (95% CI 0.99–1.02). The I
2 statistic for heterogeneity between studies was 1.5% and P = 0.44 for homogeneity, suggesting almost no between‐study heterogeneity. However, subgroup analysis results showed that a significant reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence for consumption of fruit fiber in these high‐quality studies in which scores were 7 or greater (Figure ).
Maximum‐adjusted relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes, comparing highest vs lowest intake of fruit fiber. Weights are from fixed effect analysis. CI, confidence interval.
The overall maximum‐adjusted pooled RR based on all available data for the highest intake vegetable fiber vs the lowest intake with risk of type 2 diabetes was 0.94 (95% CI 0.86–1.03). The I
2 statistic for heterogeneity between studies was 53.4% and P = 0.005 for homogeneity, suggesting moderate between‐study heterogeneity. We then carried out subgroup analysis to investigate the potential sources of between‐study heterogeneity. Sex, quality score of studies, duration of follow up and location, as these were assumed to be potential sources of bias, were analyzed separately. Overall, there were significant associations between the risk of type 2 diabetes and the consumption of vegetables fiber in studies with a follow‐up time of 10 years or more (Figure ).
Maximum‐adjusted relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes, comparing highest vs lowest intake of vegetable fiber. Weights are from random effect analysis. CI, confidence interval.
Subgroup and Sensitivity Analyses
Table shows the subgroup analysis results of intake of fruit, vegetables or their fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes, comparing highest vs lowest intake. Sex, quality score of studies, duration of follow up and location were separately analyzed. In addition, we made sensitivity analysis by including studies that presented data as odds ratios, or excluding studies with follow‐up periods less than 5 years or that used the trim and fill method or both using a fixed and random model. The summary results did not greatly alter the associations.
Subgroup analyses of fruit and vegetable and their fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes, comparing highest vs lowest intake
|Fruit only||Vegetable only||Fruit and vegetable||Fruit fiber||Vegetable fiber|
|Cohorts, n||RR (95% CI)||Cohorts, n||RR (95% CI)||Cohorts, n||RR (95% CI)||Cohorts, n||RR (95% CI)||Cohorts, n||RR (95% CI)|
|All||13||0.91 (0.87,0.96)||10||0.91 (0.82,1.01)||9||0.95 (0.90,1.02)||18||1.00 (0.99,1.02)||17||0.94 (0.86,1.03)|
|Male||3||0.98 (0.85,1.12)||2||0.81 (0.65,1.00)||3||0.87 (0.71,1.06)||4||0.95 (0.86,1.04)||5||0.91 (0.73,1.14)|
|Female||7||0.92 (0.86,0.97)||5||0.95 (0.80,1.13)||5||1.00 (0.92,1.08)||7||0.96 (0.89,1.04)||7||1.01 (0.93,1.10)|
|M&F||3||0.84 (0.74,0.96)||3||0.91 (0.83,1.01)||1||0.90 (0.80,1.01)||7||1.00 (0.99,1.02)||5||0.86 (0.70,1.05)|
|Duration of follow‐up (year)|
|<10||6||0.99 (0.90,1.09)||6||0.89 (0.75,1.07)||4||1.03 (0.91,1.16)||11||1.00 (0.99,1.02)||9||1.03 (0.92,1.14)|
|≥10||7||0.88 (0.83,0.94)||4||0.94 (0.83,1.06)||5||0.93 (0.86,1.00)||7||0.94 (0.88,1.02)||8||0.86 (0.77,0.97)|
|Asia||3||0.96 (0.82,1.12)||3||0.77 (0.61,0.98)||2||0.97 (0.75,1.25)||1||0.55 (0.32,0.95)||1||0.45 (0.25,0.82)|
|Non‐Asia||10||0.91 (0.86,0.96)||7||0.97 (0.90,1.05)||7||0.95 (0.89,1.02)||17||1.00 (0.99,1.02)||16||0.95 (0.88,1.04)|
|<7||5||0.91 (0.84,0.98)||3||0.85 (0.60,1.19)||4||0.98 (0.87,1.12)||6||1.00 (0.99,1.02)||5||0.97 (0.80,1.18)|
|≥7||8||0.92 (0.86,0.98)||7||0.96 (0.88,1.04)||5||0.94 (0.88,1.02)||12||0.93 (0.88,0.99)||12||0.93 (0.84,1.03)|
There was no evidence of substantial publication bias by using funnel plots and Egger’s regression test (P = 0.50 fruit, P =0.15 vegetables, respectively; Figure ).
Publication bias was analyzed using funnel plot. (a) Fruit. (b) Vegetables. SE of Ln RR, standard error or natural logarithm of relative risk.
The present meta‐analysis has quantitatively assessed the relationship between the intake of fruit, vegetables and their fiber, and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The results show that an increased consumption of fruit, especially berries, is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Increasing intake of green leafy vegetables, yellow leafy vegetables or cruciferous vegetables could help to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, there are significant associations between the risk of type 2 diabetes and the consumption of vegetable fiber in studies with follow‐up times of 10 years or more, and also a significant reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes for the consumption of fruit fiber in these high‐quality studies in which the scores are seven or greater. These findings provide strong support for the recommendations encouraging the public to consume more fruit and vegetables. An important point is that different types of fruit and vegetables could have different effects on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Berries, green leafy vegetables, yellow leafy vegetables or cruciferous vegetables might be good choices for reducing of the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Fruit and vegetables are rich sources of fiber, flavonoids and anti‐oxidant compounds (carotenoids, vitamin C and E), folate, and potassium, which could explain the protective effects of fruit and vegetables on type 2 diabetes. Dietary fiber was associated with insulin sensitivity, and improved the ability to delay the absorption of carbohydrates and secrete insulin adequately to overcome insulin resistance, resulting in lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels12, 43. A high intake of dietary fiber can promote the feeling of fullness and reduce the intake of energy‐dense foods, resulting in a reduced risk of overweight/obesity, which is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes22, 44, 45. The aforementioned studies supported our main finding that consumption of fruit or vegetable fiber decreased the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Fruits and vegetables also contain polyphenols, including flavonoids and anti‐oxidant compounds (carotenoids, vitamin C and E) that could also decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes by mitigating the oxidative stress that interferes with the glucose uptake by cells46. Intake of anti‐oxidants has reportedly improved insulin sensitivity and lowered the risk of incident type 2 diabetes30, 47. Berries with high amounts of anthocyanins, thus, could have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and bodyweight regulation19, 48, 49. Green leafy vegetables and yellow vegetables also contain polyphenols, such as vitamin C and carotenoids (a‐carotene, β‐carotene and lutein), and cruciferous vegetables contain substantial amounts of glucocinolates, which are known for their anti‐oxidant properties, in addition to vitamins A and K, folate, fatty acid, and magnesium content50, 51, 52, which further supports the intake of fruits, especially berries, and vegetables, as they are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in our research.
The previous epidemiological studies, or systematic reviews and meta‐analyses have generated somewhat mixed results for the association between the intake of fruit only, vegetables only, fruit and vegetables combined, fruit fiber, vegetable fiber or dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, no other systematic review and meta‐analysis involving only prospective studies has been carried out to examine the combined effects of fruit and vegetable intake as well as their fiber with the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Three previous independent meta‐analyses investigated the association between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes11, 29, 30. Two meta‐analyses investigated the association between fiber intake and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes53, 54. However, compared with this current updated meta‐analysis, some results limited their superiority.
Our meta‐analysis showed that an increased consumption of fruit is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Not similar to the previous independent meta‐analyses, which were based on a limited number of studies and significant between‐study heterogeneity, the present results were similar to subgroup analysis results according to duration of follow up by Cooper29. In contrast to total fruit consumption, we also analyzed fruit type with the risk of type 2 diabetes, and found that the intake of berries in particular was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, using the data from these high‐quality studies with scores of 7 or above, we further found that high fruit fiber intake reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Similar to the previous independent meta‐analyses, we also found that there was no significant association between total vegetable intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes11, 29, 30. However, we discovered that increasing the intake of green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables or cruciferous vegetables could help to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we also found that high vegetable fiber intake reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes using the data from these studies with follow‐up period of 10 years or more.
Our meta‐analysis had some strengths. The present study included a large number of prospective cohort studies on the intake of fruit, vegetables and their fiber, and the risk of type 2 diabetes, which should eliminate selection bias and recall bias, and allowed for further subgroup analysis. Furthermore, all cohort studies were assessed for quality and validity using NOS, and most studies had high‐quality scores, with a large sample size and long duration of follow up, and maximum‐adjusted RR for risk of type 2 diabetes.
However, several limitations should also be considered. First, measurement errors were inevitable in the assessment of dietary intake and type 2 diabetes. The potential misclassification of individuals with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes might also have attenuated the present findings. Different studies used different methods of dietary assessment, such as 24‐h recall, dietary assessment interviews or Food Frequency Questionnaire. Different studies split dietary intake into different fractions – either thirds, quarters or fifths. Different studies also used different units of measurement. However, we only collected the data based on the highest vs lowest level of intake, and did not make further dose–response analysis or a standard for dietary measurement in future nutritional studies. Second, although we used the data based on the maximum‐adjusted RR for risk of type 2 diabetes, not all authors of the original studies made the same adjustments, in addition, residual or unknown confounding cannot be ruled out. Third, the possibility of publication bias is of a concern. Although there was no evidence of substantial publication bias by using funnel plots and Egger’s regression test, it is noteworthy that there were more female cohorts than male cohorts in the original study populations included in our meta‐analysis. Further studies in male cohorts are required in future.
In conclusion, findings from the current meta‐analysis suggest that a higher intake of fruit, especially berries, as well as green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. These results support recommendations on increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables for the primary prevention of many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. However, large randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings, and further studies are required to explore potential mechanisms underlying the observed associations.
Eating at least two servings of fruit per day reduces diabetes risk by 36%
The number of people with diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. The prevalence of the illness continues to balloon more rapidly in low-and middle-income countries. To date, about 451 million worldwide have diabetes, with numbers projected to exceed 693 million in 2045.
Annually, type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 2 million deaths and is the seventh leading cause of disability globally. With the increasing number of cases, it is crucial to develop strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Researchers at Edith Cowan University revealed that people who consumed at least two servings of fruit per day had higher measures of insulin sensitivity than those who ate less than a half serving. The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, showed that a healthy diet including whole fruits, but not fruit juice, may play a role in mitigating type 2 diabetes risk.
What is type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. As a result, blood glucose levels increase, causing a wide range of symptoms and complications.
This chronic disease occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or the body cannot effectively use the insulin that it produces. The hormone insulin plays an important role in controlling blood sugar levels.
Further, T2DM is the most common type of diabetes. People develop this condition at any age, even during childhood. However, it often occurs in middle-aged and older people. Those who are overweight, obese, or have a family history of diabetes are at a higher risk. It can also be caused by physical inactivity and other health conditions such as hypertension.
Previous studies have shown that a healthy diet and regular physical activity can help mitigate the risk of T2DM. The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend consuming two servings of fruit tied to a 32-percent reduced risk of T2DM over 12 years in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study.
Reducing diabetes risk
The current study examined the relationship between fruit types eaten and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.
The team examined data from 7,675 Australians who participated in the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute’s AusDiab Study to arrive at the study findings. They measured the fruit and fruit juice intake by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline.
The team determined the associations between fruit and fruit juice intake and fasting plasma glucose, two-hour post-load plasma glucose, insulin resistance and sensitivity, and fasting insulin levels, and the presence of diabetes after the 5-year and 12-year follow-ups.
The study findings showed that participants with moderate total fruit intake had a 36-percent reduced risk of having diabetes at five years.
“A healthy diet including whole fruits, but not fruit juice, may play a role in mitigating T2DM risk,” the team concluded in the study.
The team emphasized that the study support encouragement of consuming whole fruits, but not fruit juice. This way, insulin sensitivity is preserved, reducing the odds of developing type 2 diabetes.
“Promoting a healthy diet and lifestyle which includes the consumption of popular fruits such as apples, bananas, and oranges, with widespread geographical availability, may lower T2DM incidence,” the team added.
Eating fresh fruit lowers risk of type 2 diabetes, study claims
Slipping two servings of fresh fruit into your daily diet can lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes by over one-third, a new study suggests. But, in this study, not all fruit is created equal as the benefits of eating whole fruit were not seen for those who drank fruit juice.
The study, conducted by Edith Cowan University (ECU) and published in the Journal of Clinical and Endocrinology and Metabolism, found that people who ate at least two servings of fruit per day had higher measures of insulin sensitivity than those who ate less than half of a serving, according to a news release posted on EurekAlert.org.
In fact, among the data analyzed from 7,675 Australians who had partaken in the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute’s AusDiab Study which assessed fruit and fruit juice intake and the prevalence of diabetes after five years, those who ate at least two servings of fruit had a 36% less chance of developing the most common form of diabetes.
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Type 2 diabetes means that the body doesn’t use insulin properly, and while some can control their blood sugar levels with healthy eating and exercise, others may require medication or insulin to manage the condition, according to Diabetes.org. Some may be diagnosed with prediabetes before they develop type 2 diabetes, but early treatment and intervention could help return blood sugar levels to the normal range. Losing 7% of body weight and exercising moderately 30 minutes a day for five days a week has previously been shown to reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes by 58%, according to Diabetes.org.
Among the foods the American Diabetes Association recommends for keeping a healthy diet are fruits and vegetables, in addition to lean meats and plant-based sources of protein, less added sugar and less processed foods.
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The organization explained that while fruit counts as a carbohydrate food, they are “loaded with vitamins, minerals and fiber just like vegetables,” and they can “help you satisfy your sweet tooth without the added sugar.”
Dr. Nicola Bondonno, the study’s lead author, said an added benefit may impact insulin activity in the body.
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“As well as being high in vitamins and minerals, fruits are a great source of phytochemicals which may increase insulin sensitivity, and fibre which helps regulate the release of sugar into the blood and also helps people feel fuller longer,” Bondonno said. “Furthermore, most fruits have a low glycemic index, which means the fruit’s sugar is digested and absorbed into the body more slowly.”
90,000 What fruits are eaten with type 2 diabetes
The fact that diabetics should not eat fruit is complete nonsense! This myth has been destroyed by science. And new research shows that consuming them has extremely positive effects on health. To find out which fruits cannot be eaten with diabetes mellitus, and which ones you can, you need to take into account their index , which is called glycemic. So is it possible to eat fruits with diabetes?
Glycemic index of fruits: what does it show?
This indicator shows how the body will absorb
carbohydrates.For example, for strawberries it is 25, for a watermelon it is 72, and for a date in general it is
146. Each product has its own index. Their sort looks like this:
- Low – no more than
30 – allowed to all
- Medium – from 30 to
70 – allowed. It is worth calculating the dose of glucose and insulin.
- High – 70 to
90 – preferably avoided.
- Increased – from 90 and
above – not for diabetics.
Hence, we conclude that strawberries can be eaten, but it is better to refuse from
watermelon and dates.
In addition, you can give a small list of some
useful fruits for diabetes mellitus and harmful ones (the number indicates the Glycemic index of
of the product).
- Lemon – 20
- Apple – 30
- Strawberries – 25
- Cherry – 22
- Peach – 30
- Cherry – 25
- Raspberry – 30
- Garnet – 35
- Melon – 60
- Pineapple – 65
- Mandarin – 40
- Grapefruit – 22
- Black currant – 15
- Kiwi – 50
- Grapes – 40
- Orange – 35
- Sea buckthorn – 30
- Banana 60
- Cranberry – 45
- Watermelon – 72
- Blueberries – 42
- Prunes – 25
- Blueberry – 28
- Plum – 22
- Pear – 34
- Raisins – 65
Even healthy fruits can contain a lot of sugar.It is important for diabetics to find an alternative to them. This is not difficult.
But what kind of fruits and berries can be used for diabetes mellitus? More on this below.
As you know, a proper diet will help to tone the body, provide the necessary supply of vitamins. Below is a list of fruits for diabetes. About what fruits can be eaten with diabetes mellitus, further in the article.
- Grapefruit : Supports
to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.Helps to lose weight thanks to the special
naringenin substance. It is also recommended to use it in order to avoid complications with blood pressure
, this is due to the content of vitamin C in it, which dilates and strengthens blood vessels
. The “psychological” effect of grapefruit is also known: its 90,021 smell can prevent hunger, which is useful for losing weight. Also, it is
good prevention for flu or colds, as well as for gum health.
- Orange :
normalizes blood pressure and protects the immune system.Orange is rich in beta-carotene,
vitamins A, E, C. In addition to all of the above, orange also contains:
retinol, thiamine, vitamins B6 and B9, as well as fiber, which is directly involved in the balance of the digestive system.
Do not confuse Orange with Mandarin ! Mandarin contains a lot of carbohydrates.
- Strawberry : Stimulates the immune system due to its antioxidant content.It is indispensable in the fight against excess weight. Stimulates the balance of the intestines and prevents the absorption of excess fats, contributes to the correct functioning of the heart muscle. It is used in the cosmetic field, due to its medicinal properties that slow down the aging process and maintain the elasticity of the skin. This is one of the main foods allowed for diabetes.
- Cherry : contains antioxidants, beta-carotene, fiber and many other useful elements that regulate blood sugar, have a bactericidal effect, have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, and normalize blood clotting.It is widely used in folk medicine as a remedy for various diseases.
- Peach : High in fiber and antioxidants. From vitamins: C, A, E, B3, K; from minerals: magnesium, potassium, phosphorus. Vitamins strengthen the immune system, and minerals strengthen the musculoskeletal system. Recommended for daily use by diabetics, as it normalizes blood sugar levels, removes toxins and toxins.
- Pear : rich in fiber and vitamins such as A, B1, B2, E.Strengthens the immune system and the digestive system. It has a beneficial effect on the excretory system. Easily absorbed even by children, has a tonic effect, antipyretic, strengthening.
- Plum : contains anthocyanins, ellagic acid. Helps with intense thirst, controls the conversion of carbohydrates in the blood. The complex of nutrients strengthens the immune system, increases the level of hemoglobin in the blood, removes toxins, and has a beneficial effect on the nervous system.
- Apple : Contains antioxidants, fiber and pectin which may reduce insulin requirements. Used in cosmetology and folk medicine. Reduces the risk of cancer, normalizes digestion and metabolism, cleanses the body of toxins. And the availability of this fruit will only increase its beneficial qualities.
- Blueberry : contains tannins, ascorbic acid, manganese, retinol, dietary fiber, anthocyanins, pectin, succinic acid and glycosides.Helps to protect eyesight, slow down the aging process, slow down blood clotting, lower blood sugar.
- Kiwi : Contains beta-carotene, potassium, fiber and flavonoids, which are especially important for diabetics, which support healthy blood sugar levels, promote weight loss, improve kidney and cardiovascular function, and prevent cancer.
In terms of the glycemic index, fruit juices can be classified as “medium”
, if not “high”.For example, apple juice without sugar (!) Has an index
equal to 50.
Diabetics are not recommended to drink freshly squeezed juices. Since: they contain a lot of carbohydrates, and have also lost their beneficial qualities.
But there are some juices that have retained the beneficial properties of
- Lemon juice (no added water): retained the beneficial
properties of lemon as ascorbic acid. Take gently and in small sips.
P.S. If you have stomach problems, it is better to refuse such
- Pomegranate juice: retained the beneficial properties of blood clotting
. Don’t abuse it.
The main thing is to remember that it is better not to cook healthy fruits with diabetes mellitus
with sugar. It is better to use them fresh, both sick,
In addition, 2 clearly understandable videos on the topic are provided.
You are what you eat
Now, dear readers, you know which fruits cannot be eaten with diabetes mellitus, and which ones can be
You are what you eat.
Yana Lazareva. VK: https://vk.com/id167669820
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90,000 Principles of healthy eating in type 2 diabetes mellitus – Nutritional advice – Information – For patients – OKDC PJSC “Gazprom”
In non-insulin dependent diabetes (type 2 diabetes), in addition to problems with high blood sugar , patients often have overweight .
The basis for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in addition to drug therapy, is the diet , the main goal of which is to maintain optimal blood sugar levels, normalize fat metabolism, achieve and maintain the patient’s optimal weight. The diet should be consistent with the principles of good nutrition.
Basic principles of nutrition in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Decrease in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet
Carbohydrates increase blood sugar, but they must be consumed because the body needs them (this is the main source of energy).
Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates include glucose and fructose, which are quickly absorbed in the digestive tract, immediately and very strongly increase the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is from such carbohydrates that sugar, honey are composed, there are many of them in fruit juices, beer (it is rich in malt sugar and maltose). Complex carbohydrates (starch, fiber) are absorbed slowly without causing a rapid rise in blood sugar.
It is clear that in type 2 diabetes mellitus it is necessary to exclude or limit as much as possible the use of simple or easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar, honey, preserves and jams, sweets, pastries, sweet fruits and berries: grapes, bananas, raisins, dates).The diet should contain mainly foods containing complex carbohydrates (cereals, potatoes, bread, vegetables). To avoid a strong rise in blood sugar, it is advisable to distribute carbohydrate foods in small portions evenly throughout the day .
Carbohydrates are found in the following foods:
- Bread and all flour products (dryers, crispbreads, crackers, pasta, etc.)
- Potatoes.Less than potatoes, but still quite a lot of carbohydrates contain corn, beans, ripe (yellow) peas, lentils.
- Groats, including buckwheat.
- Fruit, even sour. However, the more ripe the fruit, the more sugar it contains. Dried fruits have a very high sugar concentration in a small volume, because they are deprived of water.
- Liquid dairy products (milk, kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk). There are no carbohydrates in cottage cheese and cheese, they consist of protein and fat.
- Sugar, honey and any confectionery made with sugar (not recommended to include in the diet!).
How can you reduce the sugar-increasing effect of carbohydrates?
For this, the products should be processed as little as possible, both mechanically and thermally.
- Fruit should preferably be eaten fresh and whole rather than juiced or pureed.
- Choose cereals minimally processed, with coarse grains (unpolished rice, buckwheat “unground”, not “done”), do not boil them until “smeared”.
- Bake (boil) potatoes whole in a peel to keep them firm. Mashed potatoes greatly increase blood sugar levels.
Calories: fructose, xylitol, sorbitol.
The calorie content of these substitutes is close to regular sugar, therefore they are not suitable for overweight persons. Most diabetic foods (biscuits, waffles, chocolate, marmalade, jams, etc.)are made precisely with their use. In addition, it is necessary to take into account other carbohydrates contained in such a product – flour, fruit mass.
Non-nutritive : aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame K.
Suitable for all people with diabetes. They are sold in pure form (tablets), as well as drinks are produced on them.
Natural non-nutritive sugar substitute – stevia. Stevia is a perennial plant, an extract is extracted from its leaves, which is 300 times sweeter than sucrose, but unlike it does not contain calories, does not affect blood glucose levels, has a number of beneficial properties for the body, is thermally stable (can be used in cooking food).The pharmacy sells stevioside – dry stevia extract in convenient packaging. It is used as a sweetener for tea, coffee, beverages, and other foods.
Restriction of fat intake
Not so long ago, as a result of a number of studies, it was found that an increased content of fats in the blood makes a large contribution to the progression of diabetes mellitus . Therefore, limiting the use of fatty foods in diabetes is no less important than limiting carbohydrates.
The total amount of fat consumed in free form and for cooking (butter and vegetable oil, lard, cooking fats) should not exceed 40 grams per day, it is also necessary to limit the consumption of foods containing a large amount of fat (fatty meat, sausages, sausages, sausages, cheeses, sour cream, mayonnaise).
Type 2 diabetes often occurs with obesity. The main reason for the rapid progression of obesity in modern society is inappropriate nutrition , that is, overeating against the background of a decrease in physical activity, an increase in the consumption of refined foods rich in easily digestible carbohydrates and fats.
People who are prone to obesity or who already have a pronounced manifestation of it should adhere to a diet, the most important principle of which is to reduce the energy value of the diet mainly by reducing the consumption of fat, which is the most nutritious food component: they contain more than twice as much energy (9 kcal per 1 g) compared to proteins and carbohydrates (4 kcal per 1 g).
It is also necessary to significantly limit, and it is better not to use fried, spicy, salty, spicy and smoked dishes, canned food, hot peppers, mustard, alcoholic beverages.
Foods containing a lot of fats and carbohydrates at the same time are completely unacceptable for those suffering from diabetes mellitus: chocolate, ice cream, cream pastries and cakes.
Foods that can be consumed without restriction
- cabbage (all types)
- Bulgarian pepper
- green beans
- radish, radish, turnip
- green peas (young)
- spinach, sorrel
- tea, coffee without sugar and cream
- mineral water
- drinks with sweeteners
- Vegetables can be eaten raw, boiled, baked.
- The use of fats (butter, mayonnaise, sour cream) in the preparation of vegetable dishes should be minimal.
Foods to be eaten in moderation
- lean meat
- lean fish
- Milk and fermented milk products (non-fat)
- cheese (less than 30% fat)
- cottage cheese (less than 5% fat)
- ripe legumes (peas, beans, lentils)
- bread and bakery products (not rich)
- Moderate amount equals half of your usual serving.
Products to be excluded or restricted as much as possible
- vegetable oil *
- sour cream, cream
- cheese (more than 30% fat)
- cottage cheese (more than 5% fat)
- fatty meat, smoked meat
- oily fish
- poultry skin
- canned meat, fish and vegetable preserves in oil
- nuts, seeds
- sugar, honey
- jam, jams
- candy, chocolate
- pastries, cakes, etc.confectionery
- biscuits, pastry products
- ice cream
- sweet drinks (Coca-Cola, Fanta)
- alcoholic beverages
* vegetable oil is a necessary part of the daily diet, but not more than 1-2 tbsp. spoons per day
- Frying should be avoided whenever possible.
- Try to use utensils that allow you to cook food without adding fat.
Compliance with power supply
It is necessary to eat with diabetes mellitus 5-6 times a day, at the same time. This distribution of food helps maintain a more even blood glucose level. Food should be rich in vitamins, micro and macro elements.
Increase in the amount of dietary fiber (fiber) in food
Foods containing fiber are low in calories.They create a feeling of fullness and slow down the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestines, that is, they help stabilize blood sugar levels. Whole grain breads, whole grain cereals, legumes, and vegetables are high in fiber. The daily rate of fiber in the diet should be at least 35 g. In the absence of contraindications from the gastrointestinal tract, bran or fiber (in granules or in powder form) can be included in the diet.
Correct diet and weight loss will help increase the effectiveness of drug treatment, improve the quality of life of patients with diabetes.
90,000 sample menu, permitted and prohibited foods
More than 400 million people worldwide have diabetes mellitus. With this pathology, the production of insulin by the pancreas or its absorption by cells is disrupted. As a result, blood glucose levels rise dramatically, leading to serious health consequences. The most common type of diabetes is type 2, in which insulin is produced in normal amounts, but not taken up by cells, so glucose is still not processed, but remains in the blood.The main cause of this condition is obesity and unhealthy diet with a lot of carbohydrates. Therefore, diet for type 2 diabetes is the main treatment. At the initial stages of the disease, only with its help, without the use of drugs, the amount of glucose can be normalized.
Features of the disease
One of the main functions of the pancreas is the production of insulin and glucagon. These hormones are essential for the normal course of carbohydrate metabolism and glucose uptake by cells.If its quantity is insufficient, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develops, which is treated only with insulin injections. But it often happens that this hormone is produced in normal amounts, but the level of glucose in the blood is still high. This happens when the cells are insensitive to it. At the same time, they talk about the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diet and treatment are inextricably linked, since the cause of cell resistance to insulin is most often a violation of carbohydrate metabolism due to malnutrition.
Therefore, this type of diabetes is most often found in middle-aged or elderly people suffering from obesity, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis. Hereditary predisposition also plays a leading role in its development. According to statistics, every 10 people over 50 have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diet and treatment prescribed by a specialist will help keep glucose levels normal and lead a normal life. But if you do not pay attention to this and do not follow the doctor’s recommendations, various complications will develop.
Objectives of the diet
Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are overweight, their metabolic processes are slowed down. Often it is because of this that insulin resistance is impaired and glucose is not absorbed by the tissues. Therefore, its increased level in the blood is observed. Disruption of metabolic processes also leads to the fact that it is very difficult for such patients to lose weight. But this is necessary in order to improve the sensitivity of tissues to insulin. This is what a type 2 diabetes diet is for.
At the initial stage of treatment, nutrition should promote weight loss. For this, foods with a low fat content are used and the amount of fast carbohydrates is greatly reduced. It is these requirements that the most common diet number 9 in this case obeys. Diabetes mellitus type 2 at the initial stage can be compensated for without medication. Eating the right diet will help prevent fluctuations in blood sugar levels. But for this, it is necessary to eat so constantly, without violating the basic rules of the diet.No medication can help keep your blood sugar levels normal without proper nutrition.
The objectives of the diet for type 2 diabetes should be:
- weight loss;
- reduction of body fat;
- Reducing cholesterol levels;
- maintaining normal blood pressure;
- prevention of complications of the disease;
- Maintaining normal glucose levels;
- improvement of the general condition.
Principles of nutrition
To keep glucose levels under control and prevent weight gain, patients need to follow certain rules:
- First of all, always follow all the recommendations of the attending physician, who selects a diet according to individual characteristics;
- the diet must be followed constantly, without indulgence;
- eat preferably in small portions, but more often, hunger should not be allowed;
- try to consume as little fat as possible, which impairs the absorption of carbohydrates;
- when choosing products for daily use, it is necessary to take into account their glycemic index;
- prohibited foods must be completely excluded from the diet;
- when compiling a menu, it is necessary to choose different products so that the diet is balanced and varied;
- Try to drink clean water as much as possible, not less than 1.5 liters.
The type 2 diabetic diet involves special cooking methods. Boiling, steaming, stewing or baking is acceptable. Frying food is not recommended, especially in a large amount of oil. This method of cooking puts a heavy load on the pancreas and further disrupts its functions. It is okay to occasionally grill or in a non-stick cookware with a minimal amount of oil. In addition, when preparing food, it is undesirable to add store-bought sauces, mayonnaise or spices.You need to use salt as little as possible. Greens, garlic, pepper, lemon juice are allowed to improve the taste.
Peculiarities of dietary nutrition
Several diet options have been developed for diabetics. But they all have the same principles and are not very different. The problem is that simply eliminating prohibited and harmful foods from the diet is not enough. It is necessary that the food is varied, tasty and nutritious.
The most common diet is type 2 diabetes number 9.Its main principle is to divide all products into three groups: prohibited, permitted and restricted. The purpose of such a diet is to normalize carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Moreover, this diet is low in calories. When compiling a daily menu, you need to include the various permitted foods. Meals should consist mainly of cereals and vegetable soups. Casseroles, salads are useful, to which you can add a spoonful of vegetable oil.
In addition, other low-carb diets are known for type 2 diabetes.For example, the Mayo Clinic diet involves the regular consumption of a special fat-burning soup. It is cooked with onions, tomatoes, cabbage, bell peppers and celery. You need to season it with hot pepper, due to which its use will help burn fat. You can eat this soup in unlimited quantities, in addition, fruits are allowed.
Any type 2 diabetes diet includes many foods that can be consumed without restriction.Although this does not imply that you need to overeat. It’s just that these foods do not increase glucose levels, but they contain beneficial micronutrients. The permitted foods are quite varied, making it easy to create a type 2 diabetes diet menu. Eating with this disease can also be tasty, which is very important for the patient. What is allowed to eat with diabetes mellitus:
- rye or wheat bread made from whole grain flour;
- lean meat;
- lean fish and seafood;
- mushroom soup;
- porridge – buckwheat, oatmeal, wheat, barley;
- fat-free fermented milk products; 90 029 90 025 vegetables;
- unsweetened berries and fruits;
- green tea, juices and compotes without sugar.
Sometimes, with good diabetes compensation, it is allowed to eat butter, cottage cheese, cheese, white rice, salted fish, fatty meat. But the use of these products should be strictly limited.
Diet 9a for type 2 diabetes requires certain restrictions. There are several foods that are strictly prohibited. After all, they contribute to an increase in blood glucose levels. Moreover, it is impossible to deviate from this rule even if the condition improves and the sugar level is normal.What kind of products are these:
- sugar, sweets, chocolate, jam;
- ice cream, condensed milk;
- sweet fruits – bananas, watermelons, figs, dried fruits;
- coffee, carbonated and alcoholic drinks;
- fatty meals;
- pork, lamb;
- smoked meats, sausages;
- semi-finished products;
- fast food;
- pickled foods;
- lard, margarine;
- ready-made sauces and mayonnaise;
- rich bakery products, cakes, biscuits.
How to compose a menu
A type 2 diabetes diet involves a varied and balanced diet with limited fat and fast carbohydrates. This type of diet does not contribute to weight gain and high sugar levels. Most of the diet should consist of vegetables, lean meat or fish, low fat dairy products. You can eat cereals, legumes, whole grain breads, pasta, and fruits in moderation.
An approximate type 2 diabetes diet should include the following dishes on the menu:
- vegetable or mushroom soups;
- Vegetable or cottage cheese casseroles;
- Tomato, cabbage, cucumber and greens salads without oil;
- stewed vegetables;
- cooked lean meat or fish, steamed cutlets;
- Buckwheat or oatmeal;
- vegetable and meat stew;
- rice pilaf; 90 029 90 025 cheese cakes; 90 029 90 025 lentil puree;
- unsweetened tea, compote or rosehip decoction.
The entire diet for the day should be divided into 6 meals: first and second breakfast, lunch, then afternoon tea, dinner, and 2 hours before bedtime it is recommended to drink kefir.
In order to make it easier for patients to make up a diet, a system of bread units – XE was developed. It helps to evaluate foods not by calorie content, but by carbohydrate content. One XE contains 12 g of carbohydrates. Diabetics need to consume from 8 to 14 XE per day. To calculate them, you need to use a calculator.For example, 1XE is contained in a tablespoon of flour, 2 tablespoons of boiled cereals, 1 beet, 3 carrots, a glass of skim milk.
You can independently calculate the amount of food you need per day, because there are many tables indicating the XE and the glycemic index. But you can use a ready-made menu for a diet for type 2 diabetes for several days. When compiling it, not only the need for a low amount of carbohydrates and fats is taken into account, but also the intake of necessary microelements.
- There are several breakfast options. It should be light, but satisfying, so that hunger does not quickly appear. It can be oatmeal, buckwheat or rice porridge, with them carrot, cabbage salad or beetroot stew. Alternatively, low-fat cottage cheese. Additionally, a slice of whole grain bread, possibly low-fat cheese. Unsweetened tea is chosen for drinking.
- Fruits such as grapefruit or apple are good for breakfast. You can also eat low-fat yogurt or unsweetened dried fruit compote.
- A combination of several dishes is suggested for lunch. First of all, this is soup. It can be vegetable, bean, mushroom, or fish. Vegetable borsch is useful, sometimes you can allow low-fat chicken broth. In addition, the lunch includes stewed vegetables with boiled meat, vegetable stew, pilaf with chicken. Additionally, you need to eat salad or squash caviar, a slice of bread is allowed. You can drink it with cranberry juice or dried fruit compote.
- For an afternoon snack, you can choose cheese pancakes with compote or fruit salad.Sometimes, for more hearty dishes, only an apple or an orange is allowed for lunch at an afternoon snack.
- Dinner can consist of stewed vegetables, steamed meatballs, cabbage patties or baked fish. You can also include porridge and vegetable salad. Sometimes it is permissible to eat a boiled egg or cottage cheese casserole. Drink unsweetened tea, rosehip broth or compote.
- Low-fat kefir, fermented baked milk or warm milk are recommended 2 hours before bedtime.
The distribution of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the process of drawing up a diet for type 2 diabetes is determined individually by a specialist.It depends on the age and weight of the patient, the characteristics of diabetes and the presence of other diseases. But meat is necessarily included in the diet. It contains essential amino acids, provides the patient’s body with protein. The main thing is to choose it correctly. A protein diet is often recommended for type 2 diabetes, but there are certain restrictions in the choice of food:
- meat must be fresh;
- you need to choose only its dietary types – veal, rabbit, turkey, chicken;
- Meat with streaks, films, skin should not be consumed, as these substances slow down digestion;
- it is forbidden to eat fatty meat – pork, goose, duck, lamb;
- you need to exclude from the diet lard, ham, smoked meats, sausages;
- Broths can only be cooked from lean meat without skin and bones.
The diet for type 2 diabetes necessarily includes fish. It ensures the intake of not only essential amino acids into the body, but also fatty acids. With diabetes, you need to eat lean fish, it is better to bake or steam it. The permitted fish for such patients is hake, cod, pollock. Periodically, you need to include red fish in the diet. To make such dishes tasty, fish, it is better to steam or bake in your own juice in the sleeve. A minimum amount of salt and fat should be added.
It is forbidden to eat fatty fish – catfish, herring or mackerel. Such foods put a lot of stress on the pancreas. Salted or smoked fish is also contraindicated. It can cause swelling, increased blood pressure, and malfunctioning of the pancreas.
This is the healthiest part of the diet for type 2 diabetics. The diet recommends eating vegetables every day. They are a source of essential vitamins, minerals, fiber and at the same time contain a minimum of sugar.Such nutrition allows you to increase immunity, improve digestion and make up for the lack of necessary micronutrients. It is advisable to eat vegetables raw, but this is not always possible, for example, in the presence of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is better to stew them or bake them with a little oil. In addition, it is advisable to stop eating potatoes, as they contain a lot of starch.
Many patients are interested in what can be eaten with type 2 diabetes from vegetables? Preference should be given to products of green or red color, and it is better to those that have grown above the ground, rather than root crops.You can eat the following vegetables:
- Cauliflower; 90,029 90,025 beets;
- Jerusalem artichoke;
Some people find that a low-carb diet in type 2 diabetes means eliminating almost all fruits. But more often than not, this is not necessary. Many fruits do not raise sugar, therefore they are allowed for this disease.But they provide the body with many useful substances. But since fruits are a source of carbohydrates, it is recommended to eat them in the morning. It is also better not to consume them on an empty stomach, as this puts a lot of stress on the pancreas. Prohibited fruits for diabetes are watermelons, melons, figs, dates and other dried fruits, as they contain a lot of sugar. It is also not recommended to eat peaches and bananas.
What can you eat from fruits for type 2 diabetes? It is better to give preference to apples, pears, plums and citrus fruits.But apricots, pomegranates, kiwi are also allowed. You can eat berries, especially black currants, cherries, raspberries, cranberries. Blueberries and blueberries are very beneficial, which help lower blood sugar. By consuming your favorite fruits, it is easier to overcome sugar cravings and diet.
A strict type 2 diabetes diet is only needed in the most severe cases, such as severe obesity. In other cases, the patient’s food should be tasty and varied.To provide the body with energy, carbohydrates in the diet are necessary. Therefore, the term “low carbohydrate diet” in type 2 diabetes means that fast carbohydrates and sugars are replaced by slow ones, which do not lead to an increase in sugar. Therefore, it is imperative to eat porridge. Buckwheat, wheat, millet, peas, unpolished rice and oats (but not flakes) are especially useful. Hard pasta is allowed. It is advisable to eat them in the first half of the day, and cook them without butter and sugar. It is forbidden for diabetes to eat white rice, semolina and oatmeal.Instant cereals, which are high in calories, are especially harmful.
Recipes for a diet for type 2 diabetes
In order for food in this disease to be not only healthy, but also tasty, you need to know the secrets of preparing dietary meals. It is best to bake, stew, or steam them. Even with a lot of prohibited foods, food can be varied. There are different type 2 diabetes diet recipes.
- It is useful to simmer green peas with green beans in a little butter.For taste, add garlic, onions, herbs, tomato sauce and lemon juice.
- To cook bean soup, add onions, some potatoes, green beans to the vegetable broth. Season with herbs.
- For a complete and hearty meal for lunch or dinner, you can stew vegetables. You need to put chopped cabbage, zucchini, bell peppers, tomatoes, eggplant, onions in a deep frying pan. Simmer everything in the oven with a little water.
- Squid salad is not only hearty, seafood is very useful for diabetics.You need to mix the chopped boiled squid meat, egg, onion, apple. Season with low-fat yogurt.
If you follow all the doctor’s recommendations, do not eat prohibited foods and follow the principles of dietary nutrition, you can normalize your sugar level. By following the diet, diabetes will not progress and complications will not appear. 90,013 90,000 Top fruits and vegetables useful for diabetes.
Statistically, black people are more prone to type 2 diabetes than whites.
We have advertisements on TV, they say, do not drink juices and soda, drink water, otherwise you’re kirdyk.
Interested in this topic. Is this why orange juice is bad for diabetes and orange is good? And because the juice does not contain plant fibers present in the fetus, which slow down the absorption of glucose into the blood.
So what is good for diabetes in Jamaica?
Breadfruit. Reduces blood sugar levels. More precisely, it reduces the amount of glucose that enters the human body along with food.
In many countries, it is recommended to replace potatoes with bradfruit – there is little difference in taste, but a lot of benefits.
In addition, delirium is good for the heart, as a prevention of heart attacks (lowers cholesterol levels). And due to its fibrous structure, it is said to prevent the development of colon cancer.
Funny, pumpkin has a pretty high glycemic index. However, due to the small amount of carbohydrates, the sugar level rises for a short time, but the beneficial properties are downright forced to eat pumpkin.
The fact is that pumpkin contains a substance that promotes the production of its own insulin.Add here the benefits for the intestines, participation in the regeneration of damaged cells, and opa – pumpkin, yes.
Not only is the amount of amino acids in this cabbage comparable to that of fish and meat, but also a bunch of vitamins in a small portion. And most importantly, it helps to strengthen blood vessels.
Research in this area is still ongoing, but it can already be said that the consumption of okra lowers blood sugar levels.High in fiber and low in calories – the perfect combination to feel full quickly without excess weight.
On the plus side, foods high in fiber are believed to increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin.
Okra is said to have a similar beneficial effect on the human brain.
5. Jamaican apple (Malay apple).
Again, lowers blood sugar. Contains a huge amount of vitamins and microelements that have a beneficial effect on the skin.Eating these apples strengthens bones and prevents the development of cataracts.
Contains a large amount of magnesium, which improves blood circulation and normalizes blood sugar levels. And also – a large amount of vitamin K, which prevents the development of diabetes. Plus there is iron and a bunch of vitamins.
Reduces the rate of absorption of glucose into the blood. It is important to consume it whole, not just juice, because all the benefits are in plant fibers.The same goes for lemon, orange and other citrus fruits.
Reduces cholesterol levels, has a beneficial effect on the pancreas. And, of course, it normalizes sugar levels. It also prevents the development of diabetes and increases physical and mental performance.
Due to the large amount of vitamins and microelements, the fruit is useful for diabetes. But in limited quantities, because has an average glycemic index.It helps to lower glucose levels, has a good effect on the functioning of the pancreas, lowers cholesterol levels and strengthens the immune system.
10. Passion fruit.
Restores hormones, improves blood circulation, strengthens bones and joints, and slows down the growth of cancer cells.
National Jamaican Fruit.
Helps regulate blood sugar levels, lowers blood pressure due to its high potassium content. Good for the heart and bones, and also contains a large amount of protein, which is so necessary for our body!
Not milk, but the water inside the coconut. Strengthens the immune system, helps regulate blood sugar levels, has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties.
But fruits such as bananas, grapes, watermelon and pineapple are not recommended.
At the same time, bananas, pineapples and watermelon are the favorite fruits of the Jamaicans. People prefer not to eat oranges, but to suck the juice out of them and throw them away, and passion fruit is considered sour and suitable only for juices.So is the lime.
But the Jamaicans love aki, kalala, okra and bradfruit, they use these products quite often. True, rice with chicken stewed in burnt sugar is still used more often.
According to statistics, more than 220 thousand Jamaicans suffer from diabetes. This is with a population of 3 million.
Drink water in general.
Which fruits reduce diabetes mellitus
Which fruits reduce diabetes mellitus
The effectiveness of treatment with the herbal drug Diafast, as well as the safety of use, has been proven in clinical trials involving patients with a confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, of different ages and stages of the disease.As a result, the drug received an international certificate, and was approved for academic or self-treatment, since it can be purchased without a prescription.
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What foods lower blood sugar, general recommendations, diabetic’s food basket.Vegetables and fruits, legumes and cereals, spices and drinks. Drinks useful for diabetes are juices and fruit drinks from fruits and berries, with a low glycemic index. However, you should be aware that when squeezing out of the liquid, fiber is lost, and the process of absorption of pure fructose into the blood is significantly reduced. The best option would be to prepare compote from permitted berries and fruits. In this case, sugar should not be added to the drink. It is recommended to include in the daily diet decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs that lower sugar levels.All of these are useful foods that lower blood sugar in diabetes mellitus. They are high in fiber, which slows down the absorption of substances that contribute to hyperglycemia. Their action leads to the fact that the smallest dose of glucose enters the bloodstream. In addition, vegetables, herbs and permitted nuts contain many valuable vitamins and minerals that normalize the work of all organs – from the heart to the pancreas. What fruits can you eat with diabetes. Unfortunately, sweet fruits (bananas, mangoes, peaches) will have to be discarded.Sour varieties of apples (1 fruit per day), oranges are allowed. For people suffering from diabetes mellitus, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits and proteins is recommended. Following the principles of nutrition, the exclusion of some and the predominance of other foods will help control blood sugar levels. For people suffering from diabetes mellitus, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits and proteins is recommended. Following the principles of healthy snacks, avoiding some and the predominance of other foods, will help control blood sugar levels, which will save you from complications.Zdravsiti will tell you about ten of the healthiest foods to include in your diet. Foods that lower blood sugar in diabetes are the basis of the diet and a real salvation for patients. We will not focus on the GI indicators of products, because they can always be found in a special table. Let us dwell only on which foods are considered useful for diabetes mellitus. Fruits and berries. This is a favorite delicacy of adults and children, the safest dessert you can think of (though not for allergies).Is it possible to provide nutritious food without fruit? The answer is of course not. It would seem that a large secretion of insulin should lower blood sugar levels. In fact, this is what happens if the pancreas of a pregnant woman works without interruption. Fructose reduces the sensitivity of cells to insulin, which is already reduced in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, fruits, dried fruits, honey should be limited in use (15 grams of fructose per day). For example, very sweet fruits (bananas, pears, grapes) should be excluded.It is better to give preference to berries. And use this group of products in the form of a dessert, do not use it as an independent dish. Many snack on fruit is wrong. Type 2 diabetes food table. Type of approved product. Products. Fruits. Sugar, which is naturally found in fruits and vegetables, is considered healthy. Sugar added to processed foods is dangerous. 8 foods that lower blood sugar levels It also helps maintain a healthy weight, which is critical in diabetes.Whole grain bread is high in fiber, which binds water. Oat bran lowers blood sugar significantly, provided it is cooked quickly or served without boiling in hot milk. Oats contain beta-glucans, which lower post-meal glucose and insulin levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower blood lipids. Today the topic will be the opposite: what fruits and vegetables that lower blood sugar can be consumed daily? The information will be especially relevant for people with diabetes, and simply for those who strive to lead a healthy lifestyle.Diabetes and fruits are compatible! This disease is severe enough for those who love sweets. Indeed, with diabetes, you will have to completely abandon the usual chocolate, baked goods and products containing refined sugar. The latter is addictive and addictive, the skin ages from it, and the feeling of satiety does not come. What sugar is not harmful? Many diabetics and people who follow a diet try to give up all sugars. And they make a mistake. Let’s take a closer look at the fruit topic for diabetics.Most fruits are good for type 2 diabetes because they contain a lot of minerals and vitamins that are essential for people with this diagnosis. After all, diabetics have reduced immunity, and even non-dangerous diseases often have complications. But it is important for diabetics to adhere to the recommendations on the choice of fruits and berries, their quantity and time of eating. The glycemic index of the fruit (GI) should not exceed 70 units. The amount of fruit consumed should be moderate. Diet with high sugar.If a patient has been diagnosed with type 1 or 2 diabetes (or a pre-diabetes condition), they should adjust their diet as soon as possible. The menu is made taking into account the nutritional value, calorie content, and the number of bread units. Dishes should be varied, tasty and healthy enough. Content. The importance of proper nutrition in diabetes. If you have diabetes of any type and stage of development, you need to monitor your diet every day. A properly selected diet not only prevents the disease from progressing, but also helps to cope with it.It is quite possible to control and even lower blood glucose levels through proper nutrition. About healthy fruits and berries for diabetics with an indication of the recommended daily. Blood glucose levels in diabetes are markedly exceeded due to poor production of insulin, or its complete absence. Therefore, one of the main rules in the diet of diabetics is to limit sugary foods. But along with confectionery and flour products, it is a mistake to cross out all fruits from the diabetic diet.Some of the juicy fruits and berries, on the contrary, are ready to provide a great service to the body in the fight against diabetes. Fruit nutrition in the treatment of diabetes. When treating diabetes, it is extremely important to keep blood sugar levels under control.
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The drug Diafast is taken 2 capsules twice a day.They must be washed down with clean water without gases. The course of treatment is 4 weeks, but you can repeat the therapy with an interval of 4-6 months. To get the result declared by the manufacturer, you need to order the original product on the manufacturer’s website, which fully protects against the risk of buying a fake. Read the instructions carefully before taking a diabetes medication. Where to buy the drug is important, since the success of the treatment depends on it. The divorce has taken on serious proportions, and many diabetics have suffered from fraudsters, not only paying the high price for Diafast, but also putting their health at greater risk.Diafast (Diafast) – a drug for diabetes based on herbal extracts that have the ability to normalize blood sugar levels, have a positive effect on the body. It is intended for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taking the drug for 1 course improves well-being, minimizes complications and risks of illness.
The production and consumption of soy products in Western countries has increased dramatically.in the past decade with postulated health benefits including improved bone health, relief of menopausal symptoms, and reduced risk of certain cancers due to soy phytoestrogens. In addition, routine consumption of soy phytoestrogens is also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially given the growing global prevalence of diabetes. This is a particular problem here in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where diabetes is considered a serious and growing health problem.According to the International Diabetes Federation: The prevalence of diabetes in the MENA region is over 23.3%; However, there is an epidemic rise in type 2 diabetes worldwide, according to a WHO report, approximately 415 million people worldwide have diabetes and that diabetes will disappear by 2030. 7th leading cause of death. Dried dates (Phoenix dactylifera) have the second highest phytoestrogen content of all fruits. only secondary to dried apricots with 329 μg of phytoestrogens per 100 g.The date palm is one of the oldest planted trees on earth, dating back about 2000 years. Dates are rich in nutrients and a good source of fiber and carbohydrates, as well as their medicinal and nutritional potential. effects have been suggested in a number of studies. Date sugar has also been found to be rich in phenol, a potent antioxidant, and a potent α-glycosidase inhibitor, which may also have benefits in diabetes. In addition, dates are rich in micronutrients that can provide benefits as well.with diabetes and insulin resistance. Dates have a glycemic index of 50, and studies have shown that consumption of different varieties of dates does not significantly affect acute glycemia in type 2 diabetics. No mid-term studies have been conducted on the effects of date fruit on diabetes; Therefore, this study will determine if Halas dates (3 dates = 30 g of undried dates) are consumed twice daily (phytoestrogen content 329 μg / 100 g) according to the recommendations of the Holy Quran, will improve glycemic control in men with type 2 diabetes compared to equivalent glycemic load of raisins (30 g twice a day, phytoestrogen content 9.6 μg / 100 g).Each intervention will be perceived as a mid-morning and mid-afternoon snack.
What vegetables, fruits and berries can you eat with type 2 diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus diet is one of the most important factors in maintaining the patient’s health. It is quite strict, however, even with sugar disease, vegetables, fruits and berries can and should be included in the diet.The main thing is to find out which ones will do no harm.
Permitted and prohibited products
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by low levels of insulin produced. The latter is necessary for the breakdown of sugars entering the body. And due to the lack of insulin after a meal with diabetes, sugar is released into the blood in large quantities, which increases the level of glucose in the blood.This leads to a deterioration in a person’s condition and can even provoke a glycemic coma.
Unlike type 1 diabetes, grade 2 does not require injection, but diet is important. Allowed foods include those that do not cause spikes in blood glucose.
All existing products are divided into 3 groups:
- with a low glycemic index (GI) – up to 55 units;
- with an average GI – up to 70 units;
- with high GI – about 70 units.
Products of the first group are approved for consumption in diabetes mellitus. Having a low GI, they are safe for diabetic health and form the basis of the diet. Products of the second group are not suitable for daily consumption, however, in moderation 2-3 times a week, they also do not entail dire consequences. High GI foods are a different matter. They provoke a sharp increase in blood glucose and harm the health of diabetics.
Fruits, vegetables and berries have different GIs, so some of them are allowed for diabetes (or at least acceptable), while others are strictly prohibited.Some vegetables and fruits, even with an average glycemic index, do not harm the body, since they contain fiber. Dietary fiber, entering the intestines, slows down the rate of absorption of glucose into the blood, which excludes glycemic surges.
Protein and healthy fats have a similar effect, which is why for diabetes, vegetable salads are recommended to be seasoned with vegetable oils.
For a better understanding of which fruits are allowed, refer to the table:
Special attention should be paid to dried fruits.Despite the benefits that they bring to the body, it is possible to eat dried fruits with diabetes mellitus in extremely small doses.
This is due to the fact that there is almost no liquid in dried fruits, therefore, the concentration of sugars increases, and the calorie content increases.
When calculating the number of permitted fruits, 20 g of dried fruit is equal to 1 XE. Dried apricots, prunes, figs are considered acceptable in the diet of a diabetic.On average, you can eat 3-5 berries, but first they are soaked in water for several hours, after which they are washed. Raisins and dates are prohibited in diabetes.
Berries from the first column of the table can be considered allowed for sugar sickness:
Consider a similar table for vegetables:
Despite the fact that rutabaga and pumpkin have a fairly high GI, they do not provoke sudden insulin spikes. Pumpkin, on the other hand, lowers sugar levels. These vegetables can be eaten a couple of times a week, the daily dose is 80-100 g.
Carrots, on the other hand, are in the first column of the table because they have a low GI. However, it should not be consumed in large quantities, as well as combined with other vegetables or fruits. Because of the starches it contains, carrots can cause spikes in sugar levels.
But the consumption of potatoes must be abandoned. Not only does it have a high GI, but it also contains almost no fiber (that is, all the sugars from the root vegetable instantly enter the bloodstream), and also contains a lot of starch, which can lead to excess weight. At the same time, it cannot be said that potatoes are strictly prohibited. Endocrinologists, even with diabetes, recommend, albeit rarely and in small quantities, to include young potatoes in food during the season.
Another important factor influencing the GI values is the way the vegetable is prepared.For example, fresh zucchini has a small GI index, 15 units. However, when fried, this figure rises to 75 GI. Fresh carrots – 35 units, boiled – 85 units.
How can they affect the body?
In addition to the glycemic index, it would be nice to look at the properties of fruits and vegetables.In general, rich in vitamins and minerals, they all help to strengthen the immune system, which is weakened by prolonged illness. The richest in ascorbic acid are citrus fruits, with diabetes, preference should be given to oranges, lemons, grapefruits.
However, they should be consumed with great care by people prone to bleeding. The fact is that in large quantities ascorbic acid thins the blood. This can be dangerous for people with poor blood clotting.
Almost all fruits, vegetables and berries contain fiber. Its positive effect on the body of a diabetic is not only to reduce the rate of absorption of sugars by the walls of the stomach from food, but also to improve intestinal motility.
Fiber acts like a broom, cleaning out toxins and waste from the intestines. It improves digestion, speeds up metabolism. Especially noteworthy is the pectin (soft fiber) found in apples.It has an antioxidant effect and removes heavy metal salts from the intestines. That is why apples are useful after poisoning, in violation of metabolic processes.
It’s fair to say that apples and pears are the healthiest fruits for diabetes.
They have low GI and calorie values, contain soluble and insoluble fiber, improve metabolic processes, which leads to a decrease in blood sugar levels.
The large amount of pectin in fruits and berries makes their laxative effect possible. Plums, apricots, nectarines are known as a mild natural laxative.
Vegetables are high in fiber, primarily cabbage. It is also a source of ascorbic acid. However, cabbage can cause abdominal cramps and gas. People prone to such troubles should eat stewed cabbage, or give preference to broccoli or cauliflower.
Some berries and fruits not only do not increase glucose, but also contribute to its lowering in the blood. First of all, they include juniper. By the way, these berries are also recommended for respiratory diseases and asthma. The use of wild plum, popularly known as blackthorn, also leads to a decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood. The berry has a low GI, but it cannot be eaten fresh due to its sour taste. The solution can be sweetening with stevia or Jerusalem artichoke, as well as cooking decoctions, sauces, compotes from wild plums.
Able to reduce sugar and bell peppers. And in addition, due to its antioxidant effect, it also reduces the levels of bad cholesterol, helps cleanse blood vessels, and increase the elasticity of the vascular walls.
Another very useful berry for sugar sickness type 2 is cherries. The fact is that this type of disease is often accompanied by impaired blood circulation and a tendency of patients to thrombus formation.Cherry also contains a special substance coumarin, which cleans blood vessels and relieves blood clots.
In addition to the GI, the calorie content of the fruit should also be assessed. It concerns fruits and berries in the first place – due to the high calorie content and fast carbohydrates in the composition, they can provoke obesity. Unfortunately, diabetics are prone to gaining excess weight, so you need to control your diet.
Apricots, pears, apples, oranges and grapefruits have a low energy value. In principle, they are included in the list of allowed in diabetes mellitus. That is, they are safe from different points of view. Persimmon is a high GI product, and the calorie content of the fruit is quite high. The same can be said for bananas. At first glance, mandarins have an acceptable GI, but due to the large amount of carbohydrates they are very high in calories.
Recommendations for use
Juices are prohibited in diabetes mellitus, as their sugar content significantly increases. An exception is lemon and pomegranate juice, but you can drink them only in the absence of stomach problems, diluted with water and in small quantities. In addition, they are devoid of fiber, so all sugar instantly enters the bloodstream, provoking glycemic surges.The same applies to mashed fruits and vegetables. Although, of course, they are less harmful to the body than juices.
Even permitted fruits and berries should not be cooked with sugar, this negates all their benefits for the patient’s body.
It is better to eat fruits and berries in the morning. Allowed vegetables can also be consumed for dinner. You can eat without restrictions cucumbers and peppers, greens.
Fats help to reduce the rate of absorption of sugars from food, therefore vegetable salads are best seasoned with oil. Proteins and fiber are distinguished by the same property. Sweet fruits can be combined with bran, bread, oatmeal.
Heat treatment also increases the GI of fruits, berries and vegetables. In addition, fiber is destroyed in them, most of the vitamins. That is why fruits and vegetables should be eaten, if possible, without subjecting them to heat treatment.
And also you should not peel fruits that can be eaten with it, for example, apples, pears. It is in the peel of these fruits that the bulk of the fiber is contained and the largest amount of nutrients is concentrated.
The exact dosage of fruits in type 2 diabetes mellitus is calculated individually, depending on what kind of fruit or berries are in question. On average, 100-150 g of fruit is considered the norm, but it is better to divide this portion into 2 doses.
For information on what fruits can be eaten with diabetes and in what quantity, see the next video.