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Necrotic symptoms: Necrotic Tissue: Symptoms, Causes, Risks, Types & Treatment in India


Necrotic Tissue: Symptoms, Causes, Risks, Types & Treatment in India

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Avascular necrosis – Symptoms and causes


Avascular necrosis is the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply. Also called osteonecrosis, it can lead to tiny breaks in the bone and the bone’s eventual collapse.

A broken bone or dislocated joint can interrupt the blood flow to a section of bone. Avascular necrosis is also associated with long-term use of high-dose steroid medications and excessive alcohol intake.

Anyone can be affected, but the condition is most common in people between the ages of 30 and 50.

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Many people have no symptoms in the early stages of avascular necrosis. As the condition worsens, your affected joint might hurt only when you put weight on it. Eventually, you might feel the pain even when you’re lying down.

Pain can be mild or severe and usually develops gradually. Pain associated with avascular necrosis of the hip might center on the groin, thigh or buttock. Besides the hip, the areas likely to be affected are the shoulder, knee, hand and foot.

Some people develop avascular necrosis on both sides (bilaterally) — such as in both hips or in both knees.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have persistent pain in any joint. Seek immediate medical attention if you believe you have a broken bone or a dislocated joint.


Avascular necrosis occurs when blood flow to a bone is interrupted or reduced. Reduced blood supply can be caused by:

  • Joint or bone trauma. An injury, such as a dislocated joint, might damage nearby blood vessels. Cancer treatments involving radiation also can weaken bone and harm blood vessels.
  • Fatty deposits in blood vessels. The fat (lipids) can block small blood vessels, reducing the blood flow that feeds bones.
  • Certain diseases. Medical conditions, such as sickle cell anemia and Gaucher’s disease, also can cause diminished blood flow to bone.

For about 25 percent of people with avascular necrosis, the cause of interrupted blood flow is unknown.

Risk factors

Risk factors for developing avascular necrosis include:

  • Trauma. Injuries, such as hip dislocation or fracture, can damage nearby blood vessels and reduce blood flow to bones.
  • Steroid use. Use of high-dose corticosteroids, such as prednisone, is a common cause of avascular necrosis. The reason is unknown, but one hypothesis is that corticosteroids can increase lipid levels in your blood, reducing blood flow.
  • Excessive alcohol use. Consuming several alcoholic drinks a day for several years also can cause fatty deposits to form in your blood vessels.
  • Bisphosphonate use. Long-term use of medications to increase bone density might contribute to developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. This rare complication has occurred in some people treated with high doses of these medications for cancers, such as multiple myeloma and metastatic breast cancer.
  • Certain medical treatments. Radiation therapy for cancer can weaken bone. Organ transplantation, especially kidney transplant, also is associated with avascular necrosis.

Medical conditions associated with avascular necrosis include:

  • Pancreatitis
  • Diabetes
  • Gaucher’s disease
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Sickle cell anemia


Untreated, avascular necrosis worsens with time. Eventually, the bone can collapse. Avascular necrosis also causes bone to lose its smooth shape, potentially leading to severe arthritis.


To reduce your risk of avascular necrosis and improve your general health:

  • Limit alcohol. Heavy drinking is one of the top risk factors for developing avascular necrosis.
  • Keep cholesterol levels low. Tiny bits of fat are the most common substance blocking blood supply to bones.
  • Monitor steroid use. Make sure your doctor knows about your past or present use of high-dose steroids. Steroid-related bone damage appears to worsen with repeated courses of high-dose steroids.
  • Don’t smoke. Smoking increases the risk.

Avascular Necrosis | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is avascular necrosis?

Avascular necrosis is a disease that results from the temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to the bone. When blood supply is cut off, the bone tissue dies and the bone collapses. If avascular necrosis happens near a joint, the joint surface may collapse.

This condition may happen in any bone. It most commonly happens in the ends of a long bone. It may affect one bone, several bones at one time, or different bones at different times.

What causes avascular necrosis?

Avascular necrosis may be the result of the following:

  • Injury

  • Fracture

  • Damage to blood vessels

  • Long-term use of medicines, such as corticosteroids

  • Excessive, long-term use of alcohol

  • Specific chronic medical conditions

What are the risk factors for avascular necrosis?

Risk factors include:

What are the symptoms of avascular necrosis?

The following are the most common symptoms of avascular necrosis. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

The symptoms of avascular necrosis may look like other medical conditions or bone problems. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is avascular necrosis diagnosed?

Along with a complete medical history and physical exam, you may have one or more of the following tests:

  • X-ray. This test uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.

  • Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). This is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  This test uses large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

  • Radionuclide bone scan. This nuclear imaging technique uses a very small amount of radioactive material, which is injected into the blood to be detected by a scanner. This test shows blood flow to the bone and cell activity within the bone.

  • Biopsy. A procedure in which tissue samples are removed (with a needle or during surgery) from the body for exam under a microscope. It’s done to find cancer or other abnormal cells or remove tissue from the affected bone.

  • Functional evaluation of bone. Tests that usually involve surgery to measure the pressure inside the bone.

How is avascular necrosis treated?

Specific treatment for avascular necrosis will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Location and amount of bone affected

  • Underlying cause of the disease

  • Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

The goal of treatment is to improve functionality and stop further damage to the bone or joint. Treatments are needed to keep joints from breaking down, and may include:

  • Medicines. These are used to control pain.

  • Assistive devices. These are used to reduce weight on the bone or joint.

  • Core decompression. For this surgical procedure, the inner layer of bone is removed to reduce pressure, increase blood flow, and slow or stop bone and/or joint destruction.

  • Osteotomy. This procedure reshapes the bone and reduces stress on the affected area.

  • Bone graft. In this procedure, healthy bone is transplanted from another part of the body into the affected area.

  • Joint replacement. This surgical procedure removes and replaces an arthritic or damaged joint with an artificial joint. This may be considered only after other treatment options have failed to relieve from pain and/or disability.

Other treatments may include electrical stimulation and combination therapies to promote bone growth.

Key Points about Avascular Necrosis

  • Avascular necrosis is a disease that results from the temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to the bone. It happens most commonly in the ends of a long bone.

  • Avascular necrosis may be the result of injury, use of medicines, or alcohol.  

  • Symptoms may include joint pain and limited range of motion.

  • Medicines, assistive devices or surgery may be used to improve functionality or to stop further damage to the affected bone or joint.

Necrotizing Fasciitis: Acting Fast Is Key

Diagnosis Can Be Difficult and Acting Fast Is Key

There are many infections that look similar to necrotizing fasciitis in the early stages, which can make diagnosis difficult. In addition to looking at the injury or infection, doctors can diagnose necrotizing fasciitis by:

  • Taking a tissue sample (biopsy)
  • Looking at bloodwork for signs of infection and muscle damage
  • Imaging (CT scan, MRI, ultrasound) of the damaged area

However, it is important to start treatment as soon as possible. Therefore, doctors may not wait for test results if they think a patient might have necrotizing fasciitis.

Up to 1 in 3 people with necrotizing fasciitis die from the infection.

Serious Complications Are Common

Necrotizing fasciitis can lead to sepsis, shock, and organ failure. It can also result in life-long complications from loss of limbs or severe scarring due to surgically removing infected tissue. Even with treatment, up to 1 in 3 people with necrotizing fasciitis die from the infection. Six out of every 10 people who get both necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome at the same time die from their infections. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is another very serious illness caused by group A strep. It causes the body to go into shock and involves low blood pressure and multiple organ failure.

While Rare, Some People Are More Likely to Get Necrotizing Fasciitis

While anyone can get necrotizing fasciitis, it is rare. Most people who get this illness have other health problems that may lower their body’s ability to fight infections. Some conditions that weaken the body’s immune system include:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney disease
  • Scarring (cirrhosis) of the liver
  • Cancer

Necrotizing fasciitis can also be a rare complication of chickenpox in young children.

Necrotizing Fasciitis Is Rarely Contagious

Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis occur randomly. It is very rare for someone with necrotizing fasciitis to spread the infection to other people. For this reason, doctors usually do not give preventive antibiotics to close contacts of someone with necrotizing fasciitis.

Good Wound Care Helps Prevent Skin Infections

Use soap and water to clean all minor cuts and injuries.

Common sense and good wound care are the best ways to prevent a bacterial skin infection.

  • Clean all minor cuts and injuries that break the skin (like blisters and scrapes) with soap and water.
  • Clean and cover draining or open wounds with clean, dry bandages until they heal.
  • See a doctor for puncture and other deep or serious wounds.
  • Wash hands often with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rub if washing is not possible.
  • Care for fungal infections like athlete’s foot.

If you have an open wound or skin infection, avoid spending time in:

  • Hot tubs
  • Swimming pools
  • Natural bodies of water (e.g., lakes, rivers, oceans)

There are no vaccines to prevent group A strep infections, including necrotizing fasciitis.

CDC Tracks Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Group A Strep

CDC tracks necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A strep with a special system called Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs). Since 2010, approximately 700 to 1200 cases occur each year in the United States. This is likely an underestimate. According to ABCs data, the number of annual group A strep necrotizing fasciitis infections reported to ABCs does not appear to be rising.

Avascular Necrosis (AVN or Osteonecrosis): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What Is Avascular Necrosis?


Avascular necrosis (AVN) is the death of bone tissue due to a loss of blood supply.  You might also hear it called osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, or ischemic bone necrosis.

If it isn’t treated, AVN can cause the bone to collapse. AVN most often affects your hip. Other possible sites are the shoulder, knees, and ankles.

Symptoms of Avascular Necrosis

In its early stages, AVN usually doesn’t have symptoms. As the disease gets worse, it becomes painful. At first, it might only hurt when you put pressure on the affected bone. Then, pain may become constant. If the bone and surrounding joint collapse, you may have severe pain that makes you unable to use your joint. The time between the first symptoms and bone collapse can range from several months to more than a year.

Causes and Risk Factors for Avascular Necrosis

Things that can make avascular necrosis more likely include:

  • Alcohol. Several drinks a day can cause fat deposits to form in your blood, which lower the blood supply to your bones.
  • Bisphosphonates. These medications that boost bone density could lead to osteonecrosis of the jaw. This could be more likely if you’re taking them for multiple myeloma or metastatic breast cancer.
  • Medical treatments. Radiation therapy for cancer can weaken bones. Other conditions linked to AVN include organ transplants, like kidney transplants.
  • Steroid drugs. Long-term use of these inflammation-fighting drugs, either by mouth or in a vein, leads to 35% of all cases of nontraumatic AVN. Doctors don’t know why, but longtime use of medications like prednisone can lead to AVN. They think the meds can raise fat levels in your blood, which lowers blood flow.
  • Trauma. Breaking or dislocating a hip can damage nearby blood vessels and cut the blood supply to your bones. AVN may affect 20% or more of people who dislocate a hip.
  • Blood clotsinflammation, and damage to your arteriesAll of these can block blood flow to your bones.

Other conditions associated with nontraumatic AVN include:

Who Gets Avascular Necrosis?

As many as 20,000 people develop AVN each year. Most are between ages 20 and 50. For healthy people, the risk of AVN is small. Most cases are the result of an underlying health problem or injury.

Avascular Necrosis Diagnosis

Your doctor will start with a physical exam. They’ll press on your joints to check for tender spots. They’ll move your joints through a series of positions to check your range of motion. You might get one of these imaging tests to look for what’s causing your pain:

  • Bone scan. The doctor injects radioactive material into your vein. It travels to spots where bones are injured or healing and shows up on the image.
  • MRI and CT scan. These give your doctor detailed images showing early changes in bone that might be a sign of AVN.
  • X-rays. They’ll be normal for early stages of AVN but can show bone changes that appear later on.

Avascular Necrosis Treatment

Treatment goals for AVN are to improve the joint, stop the bone damage, and ease pain. The best treatment will depend on a number of things, like:

  • Your age
  • Stage of the disease
  • Location and amount of bone damage
  • Cause of AVN

If you catch avascular necrosis early, treatment may involve taking medications to relieve pain or limiting the use of the affected area. If your hip, knee, or ankle is affected, you may need crutches to take weight off the damaged joint. Your doctor may also recommend range-of-motion exercises to help keep the joint mobile.

  • Medications. If the doctor knows what’s causing your avascular necrosis, treatment will include efforts to manage it. This can include:
    • Blood thinners. You’ll get these if your AVN is caused by blood clots.
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These will help with pain.
    • Cholesterol drugs. They cut the amount of cholesterol and fat in your blood, which can help prevent the blockages that lead to AVN.
  • Surgery. While these nonsurgical treatments may slow down the avascular necrosis, most people with the condition eventually need surgery. Surgical options include:
    • Bone grafts. Removing healthy bone from one part of the body and using it to replace the damaged bone
    • Osteotomy. Cutting the bone and changing its alignment to relieve stress on the bone or joint
    • Total joint replacement. Removing the damaged joint and replacing it with a synthetic joint
    • Core decompression. Removing part of the inside of the bone to relieve pressure and allow new blood vessels to form
    • Vascularized bone graft. Using your own tissue to rebuild diseased or damaged hip joints. The surgeon first removes the bone with the poor blood supply from the hip, then replaces it with the blood-vessel-rich bone from another site, such as the fibula, the smaller bone in your lower leg.
    • Electrical stimulation. An electrical current could jump-start new bone growth. Your doctor might use it during surgery or give you a special gadget for it.

Caring for Avascular Necrosis at Home

You can do these things to help:

  • Rest. Stay off the joint. This can help slow damage. You might need to hold back on physical activity or use crutches for several months.
  • Exercise. A physical therapist can show you the right moves to get range of motion back in your joint.


To lower your risk of AVN:

  • Cut back on alcohol. Heavy drinking is a leading risk factor for AVN.
  • Keep your cholesterol in check. Small bits of fat are the most common thing blocking blood supply to you bones.
  • Use steroids carefully. Your doctor should keep tabs on you while you’re taking these medications. Let them know if you’ve used them in the past. Taking them over and over again can worsen bone damage.
  • Don’t smoke. It boosts your AVN risk.

Prognosis for Avascular Necrosis

More than half the people with this condition need surgery within 3 years of diagnosis. If a bone collapse in one of your joints, you’re more likely to have it happen in another.

Your outlook depends on several things:

  • Disease stage at the time you were diagnosed
  • If you have an underlying condition

You’re less likely to do well if:

  • You’re over 50.
  • You’re at stage III or higher when you’re diagnosed.
  • More than a third of the bone’s weight-bearing area is dead.
  • The damage goes past the end of the bone.
  • You have a long history of cortisone treatments.

Necrosis Plant Diseases | Home Guides

Necrosis (death of cells or tissues) is not a disease, but rather a symptom of disease or other distress the plant is experiencing. This symptom appears in many forms, from dark watery spots on leaves or fruit to dry papery spots that may be tan or black. Portions of the plant may appear yellow or wilted, indicating a systemic disease that leads to cell death. Disease may be a common cause of necrosis, but weather-related problems, water quality and availability, insect activity and nutrient deficiency also may be factors.

Viral Diseases

Viruses use the plant’s cells for reproduction, which often results in necrosis. Viral necrosis diseases may be common to certain plants, for example impatiens necrotic spot virus affects impatiens and tobacco necrosis virus affects tobacco. These diseases aren’t limited to these particular plants, however. Viruses may affect only isolated parts of the plant, or it may affect the entire plant system. Soybean vein necrosis affects the vascular system, and cymbidium mosaic virus affects orchid flowers, for example. Unfortunately, a plant with a viral infection should be destroyed, as it cannot be treated effectively and will infect other plants susceptible to the virus it carries.

Bacterial Diseases

Not all bacteria are harmful, but some bacteria cause cell wall degeneration, leading to necrosis. For instance, tomato pith necrosis causes necrosis of the stem’s core, and Saguaro cactus necrosis disease causes large areas of necrosis on the cactus’ trunks. Bacteria normally enter the plant system through an injury caused by insects or cuts, and there is some research suggesting bacteria mimic substances the plant naturally allows into itself. Depending on the plant, sometimes the infected tissue can be removed and the wound sterilized with a mild bleach solution, but some softer-bodied plants may need to be destroyed.

Fungal Diseases

Fungi feed off other organisms, since they can’t produce food for themselves and don’t have vascular tissue for uptake of nutrients. Necrosis-causing fungi attach themselves to plants and grow into or between the plant’s cells, which either poisons or diverts nutrition away from the plant. Necrotic ring spot, for example, attaches itself to grass roots and diverts nutrition, causing necrotic ring-shaped patterns in lawns. Common fungal diseases, like fusarium wilt and anthracnose, cause necrosis on tomatoes, potatoes and other garden vegetables. A number of fungicides exist on the market for fungal disease control.

Other Factors

Necrosis can be caused by environmental conditions and may be mistaken for disease. Blossom end rot on tomatoes looks like a disease but actually is caused by lack of calcium. Sunburn or frost damage also produces disease-like necrosis. Other environmental factors, such as the availability of water and nutrients, soil conditions or air movement around the plant, can make the plant susceptible to necrotic diseases. Insects can serve as vectors of disease, introducing disease to a plant after feeding on an infected plant.



Writer Bio

Lori Norris has been writing professionally since 1998, specializing in horticulture. She has written articles for the Oregon Landscape Contractors Association, chapters of the certification manual for the Oregon Association of Nurseries and translated master gardener materials into Spanish. Norris holds a Bachelor of Arts from Linfield College.

6 Major Symptoms of Plant Diseases – Explained!

Some of the major symptoms of plant diseases are as follows:

A disease manifests itself in the form of some typical external and internal changes in the host plant.

Such visible changes, abnormalities or signs which serve to recognize the disease in the lost plant are called symptoms of the disease.

A diseased plant can easily be distinguished from a normal healthy one on the basis of a symptom. The symptoms provide clues to find out the nature of the disease and the casual agent operating on the host. All the visible symptoms are collectively called syndrome.

The symptoms of plant diseases are of following 4 types:

(i) Necrosis,

(ii) Hyperplasia,

(iii) Hypoplasia,

(iv) Gummosis and exudations.

(I) Necrotic symptoms:

Death of the host cells, tissues and organs induced by a pathogen is called necrosis. The necrotic areas are called lesions.

The various necrotic symptoms are:

(a) Streaks or strips:

These are elongated narrow lesions.

(b) Spots:

These are minute circular or sub-circular lesions of various colours such as brown, white, dark, orange or red e.g. leaf spot in the blight of tea due to Glomerella cingulata and Fungal members of Phacidiales or Doihideales cause raised black spots called tar-spots, Cystopus candidus cause white spots in the cabbage. In some cases, the dead tissue of leaf snots shed, leaving circular perforations called shot-holes.

(c) Blight:

It involves rapid discoloration followed by death of a plant organ which gives a burnt appearance, e.g. Blight ‘of Wheat, maize.

(d) Canker:

These are spreading sunken lesions in the stems, surrounded by raised margin. When canker encircles the entire branch, cause the death of distal part. This happens in Pink disease of rubber caused by Pellicularia salmoni color or in apple trees attacked by Physalospora mutila.

(e) Rot:

The affected tissues die and decompose to a great extent. For example, on the basis of organization involved, they are root rot, stem rot, leaf rot, bud rot, fruit rot etc. On the basis of type of decomposition they are soft rot, dry rot, wet rot and black rot.

(f) Damping off:

The stem of seedling attacked near the ground level so that the seedlings collapse. Pythium and Rhizoctonia are important fungi causing damping-off of seedlings in chili, tobacco, mustard, tomato, castor, cucurbits etc.

(g) Burn, Scald or Scorch:

Brownish lesions in succulent organs due to high temperature.

(h) Die-Back:

Progressive death of the affected part from the tip downwards.

(i) Anthracnoses:

The sunken lesions with raised margins on fruits, pods, chilies etc.

(II) Hypoplasia (Atrophy):

This is a symptom of many diseases where the growth of plants arrest causing stunting or dwarfing e.g. Suppressed floral buds in mustard is due to Peronospora brassicae. In some cases internodes fail to elongate causing the growing of foliage which gives a rosette forms. This is called Resetting, e.g., groundnut rosettes (a viral disease).

(III) Hyperplasia and Hypertrophy:

Excessive growth of host tissues caused due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In hyperplasia the overgrowth is due to increased cell division and cell number e.g. corn, smut. But in hypertrophy the overgrowth of organ is due to increase in size of individual cells, e.g. corn galls, witches brooms of Cherry etc. In mustard plants Cystopus candidus causes hypertrophy of floral parts.

Some symptoms of abnormal growth are:

(a) Galls:

These are abnormal fleshy or woody outgrowths, when small called warts or tubercles, when large called knots, e.g. Potato wart caused by Synchytrium endobioticum, mustard root- galls by Urocystis brassicae.

(b) Intumescences:

Those are wart, like swellings of epidermal cells of leaves due to environmental factors,

(c) Curl:

Leaves become puckered or crinkled, e.g. peach leaf-curl due to Taphrina defeormans.

(d) Hairy root:

These are cluster of fibrous roots that appear like root hairs.

(e) Blotch:

Superficial growth on fruit.

(IV) Discolouration Symptoms:

The yellowing of green parts due to lack of light is called etiolation. But, when it happens due to mineral deficiency, low temperature or infection of pathogens is called chlorosis. When leaves appear transparent due to lack of any pigment is called albinism. Colour conversion to red, purple or orange is called chromosis. Sometimes due to viral or fungal infection yellow and green patches found irregularly called mosaic. The discolouration surrounding leaf veins is called vein banding and the discolouration along leaf veins is called vein clearing.

(V) Gummosis and Exudations:

The production of a clear, amber-colour exudates on the surface of the affected parts to a plant, which later sets into a solid mass insoluble in water, is known as gummosis. Gummosis is common in cherry, peach and citrus trees. Reddish exudate is a common feature of me stems bleeding disease of coconuts caused by Ceratostomella paradoxa.

(VI) Other Symptoms:

i. Phyliody or Virecence:

Transformation of floral organs to vegetative organs, e.g. in peal millet flowers convert into leave, due to downy mildew.

ii. Rusts:

Coloured pustules on host surface due to fungal spores.

iii. Smuts:

These are the affected areas releasing charcual-like dusty mass of spores.

iv. Mildews:

These are the coloured superficial patches on the host surface due to fungal infection. When the superficial patches appear cottony or downy called downy mudews and when dusty or powdery called powdery mudew appears.

v. Wilting:

It is withering or drooping of whole plant due to loss of turgidity. It generally caused due to excessive transpiration, injuring to root system, toxins of pathogens etc.

vi. Witches brooms:

The woody branches of infected tree become swollen from which upward turned shoots and small leaves arise which give broom – like appearance e.g. witches brooms of deodar plant caused by Peridermium cedri.

90,000 Treatment of soft tissue necrosis. Types of necrosis, forms of pathology

Types, causes, symptoms and treatment of soft tissue necrosis

Necrosis is a pathological condition characterized by the cessation of the vital activity of cells in soft tissues under the influence of pathogens. Such a pathology is often considered critical, requiring full treatment in a hospital setting. But before starting the treatment of soft tissue necrosis, doctors examine the patient and identify the specific type of disease and the cause of its development.

Classification of necrosis

There are two forms of necrosis:

  1. Dry, or coagulation. It will be characterized by the coagulation of protein and its transformation into a mass identical to cottage cheese. The skin at the site of dry necrosis will have a gray-yellow tint and a clear border of the pathological process. With coagulation necrosis, in the place where the dead tissue is rejected, an ulcer is formed, which turns into an abscess. After opening a purulent abscess, a fistula is formed. The initial stage of pathology is characterized by high body temperature and disruption of the affected organ.For example, signs of acute kidney necrosis include impaired urine flow, and in some cases, complete cessation of this process.
  2. Wet, or colliquation. Its main symptoms are active “swelling” of soft tissues, their liquefaction in places of complete necrosis, the formation of a putrefactive substrate. All this is accompanied by a pronounced smell of rotten meat, and it is impossible to get rid of it, even if all medical measures are taken. Most often, this form of pathology develops in tissues rich in fluids (skin, brain, and so on).The rapid development of pathology can lead to complications – the consequences of brain necrosis often consist in the loss of memory and basic skills.

Separately, doctors consider sequestration – a form of necrosis inherent in bone tissue. This can happen with progressive osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone tissue). In this case, any symptoms of cell death will be absent until a purulent abscess appears. After its breakthrough, a fistula with purulent discharge is formed.

When diagnosing, in addition to forms, types of necrosis are also distinguished:

  1. A heart attack is diagnosed if the blood supply to a specific area of ​​an internal organ suddenly stops. For example, myocardial necrosis in cardiac infarction or a similar lesion of the soft tissues of the brain can be detected.
  2. Gangrene is a condition that develops after rapid necrosis and is characterized by necrosis of the skin, muscle tissue and mucous membranes.The causes of necrosis of the skin area around the wound can be very different (from improper treatment of the wound surface to its infection), but gangrene of a particular area begins precisely as a consequence of the condition in question.
  3. Pressure ulcers – only occur in bedridden patients who are not being cared for properly.
  4. Avascular, or aseptic. This classification applies only to femoral head necrosis. Most often, it is diagnosed when this part of the musculoskeletal system is injured or against the background of blockage of small arteries by a thrombus.Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is characterized by rapid development – its first signs (severe pain in the problem area, inability to move independently) are intensely expressed already on the third day of the pathology.
  5. Fibrinoid. For necrotic changes, the impregnation of pathologically altered tissues with fibrin will be characteristic. Often, this type of disease is diagnosed in the walls of blood vessels, and long-term atherosclerosis can become its precursor.

Treatment of necrosis

The disease in question can be successfully treated, but only if it is carried out in a medical institution and under constant supervision by doctors. General principles of therapy:

  1. Necrosis of the teeth, jaw or gums is diagnosed quite quickly, because it is accompanied by severe pain and an extremely unpleasant odor from the oral cavity. Patients, as a rule, immediately seek medical help and therefore treatment consists in prescribing medicines – antibacterial drugs, disinfectants.In some cases, dentists have to surgically remove already necrotic areas of soft tissue.
  2. The necrosis of the tissues of internal organs is often diagnosed at the extreme stages. For example, the symptoms of pancreatic necrosis are often blurred. Even when contacting a doctor, the patient is often misdiagnosed, which is fraught with the death of a large number of cells of the internal organ. Usually, pancreatic necrosis is treated surgically, but the prognosis in this case can be very different – from favorable (complete recovery) to a quick death.
  3. Bone death almost always requires surgery. Surgery for necrosis of the hip joint, for example, involves removing the problem area and using an endoprosthesis. With timely diagnosis, such treatment always has favorable prognosis.
  4. Stages of liver necrosis – the main factor in the choice of the method of its treatment. If at the initial stage, drug therapy is quite acceptable, then in the middle and severe stages, only the operation is considered.

Consultation on how to treat intestinal necrosis and what are the first symptoms of pathology can only be obtained from a qualified doctor. And you can make an appointment on our website Dobrobut.com.

Treatment of necrotizing fasciitis – all symptoms, diagnostics, doctors

Moscow therapists – latest reviews

The doctor is a professional, patient-friendly.I liked it all very much. I was with my daughter. Her nail grew, it was a bad situation. At the reception, Georgy Levanovich told everything how what, what are the reasons for this condition. Did the operation. Three days have already passed, everything is healing well. I am very pleased. Would apply again. There will also be removal of stitches, the doctor will see how everything heals. So far, no complaints.


September 30, 2021

I liked the doctor.The treatment was correct and absolutely consistent with the situation. I have a positive impression of the reception. The only negative I would like to point out. In conclusion, the anamnesis was not prescribed and the prescription turned out to be paid, which was not expected for me. As for everything else, I’m more than happy!


September 29, 2021

The reception went well.Turan Zohrab oglu answered all the questions, consulted, told everything. As a result, I received answers to questions, examination, consultation. I spent enough time, I did not feel any restrictions. I turned to this doctor because he was the first on the list in the appendix. I do not have some very difficult case that I have to go to an extra specialist. It just needed a knowledgeable person.


September 23, 2021

The doctor is good.Knowing, knowing. The reception was quick and to the point. Elena Vladimirovna listened to my complaints, conducted an examination, made a preliminary diagnosis, and issued a referral for the necessary tests. I was convinced of my suspicions and received a plan of further action. I will contact this specialist for a second appointment.


07 September 2021

At the appointment, the doctor consulted me and immediately operated on.She solved my problem. The only thing that I didn’t like was that the operation was immediately offered, without asking if I could pay for it or not. The doctor is attentive, energetic, explains everything clearly and easily, a professional in his field. I can recommend this specialist to my friends, if necessary. I was pleased with the quality of the reception.


August 30, 2021

The reception went well.At the reception there was an examination, then the doctor surgically removed the corns and viral warts on the legs. Re-appointment is scheduled. He treated the child well. The doctor is professional, calm. I liked Anatoly Yurievich.


August 27, 2021

I signed up through Sberzdrovie and described my problem.I said I had an ankle and knee problem. The doctor looked at the ankle, but did not look at the knee, referring to my young age. I didn’t really understand why. My joint is fresh, and my knee hurts from time to time. She generally began to say that she was not a joint surgeon, but a vein surgeon. I was not very happy with the reception. The doctor was 10 minutes late for the appointment.


August 25, 2021

An attentive doctor.The doctor looked at the tests, prescribed treatment, explained everything clearly. Everything was fine. A rather warm attitude towards patients. Would recommend this specialist.


July 30, 2021

A good, experienced doctor and professional in his field.He gave me recommendations. I chose it based on reviews.


10 February 2021

The specialist is very good, attentive, polite, sincere and versed in his business.I received a complete conclusion, information on my health and recommendations for treatment.


03 October 2021

Show 10 reviews of 12,750 90,000 Methods for the treatment of people with necrotizing pancreatitis (destruction of the pancreas due to its inflammation)

Review Question

How should people with necrotizing pancreatitis be treated?


The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen (abdomen) that secretes several digestive enzymes (substances that enable and accelerate chemical reactions in the body) into the pancreatic duct system, which are secreted into the small intestine.It also contains islets of Langerhans that secrete several hormones, including insulin (which helps regulate blood sugar). Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas, which leads to its destruction (pancreatic necrosis.) Pancreatic necrosis can be infected or uninfected (sterile). Pancreatic necrosis can lead to failure of other organs, such as the lungs and kidneys, and is a life-threatening disease. The main treatments for pancreatic necrosis include removal of dead tissue (removal of necrotic tissue or necrectomy), peritoneal lavage (flushing of dead tissue from the abdomen), drainage (placing a tube or “drain” to remove fluid accumulating around the pancreas), or primary drainage followed by necrectomy, if necessary (the so-called minimally invasive “step-up” approach).The minimally invasive incremental approach can be performed in a variety of ways. For example, in a minimally invasive video-assisted step-by-step approach, necrectomy is performed after a drainage period with minimal access surgery, necrectomy is performed using an endoscope (an instrument used to look inside the abdominal cavity).

The best way to treat people with necrotizing pancreatitis is unclear. We aimed to solve this problem by searching for existing research on this topic.We included all randomized controlled trials (clinical trials where people are randomly assigned to one of two or more treatment groups) that were published before April 7, 2015.

Research characteristics

Eight trials with 311 participants met the inclusion criteria for the review, of which 306 participants were included in various comparisons. Treatment, compared across five trials, included necrectomy, peritoneal lavage, and a step-by-step approach.Three other trials compared variations in necrectomy timing and incremental approach techniques. Participants in the trials had infected or sterile necrosis of the pancreas from a variety of causes.

90,095 Key Outcomes 90,096

Overall, the rate of short-term mortality (mortality within a short time) was 30% and the rate of serious adverse events (side effects or complications) was 139 per 100 participants. Differences in short-term mortality or in the percentage of people with serious adverse events were imprecise in all comparisons.The number of serious adverse events and adverse events was less with the minimally invasive incremental approach compared with open necrectomy. Complications from illness and treatment included heart failure (the heart does not pump enough blood around the body at the appropriate pressure), pulmonary failure (the lungs do not remove waste products from the blood), and blood poisoning (microorganisms and their toxic substances in the blood). The percentage of people with organ failure and the average cost were lower with the minimally invasive incremental approach compared with open necrectomy.The number of adverse events was higher with the minimally invasive incremental video-assisted incremental approach versus the minimally invasive incremental incremental approach with endoscopic assistance, but the total number of procedures performed was lower with the minimally invasive incremental video-assisted incremental approach versus the endoscopic incremental minimally invasive approach … Differences in any other comparisons for the number of serious adverse events, the percentage of people with organ failure, the number of adverse events, length of hospital stay, and ICU stay were either imprecise or inconsistent (inconsistent).None of the trials reported long-term mortality, infected pancreatic necrosis (in trials that included participants with sterile necrosis), health-related quality of life (which measures physical, mental, emotional, and social functioning), percentage of people with adverse events, the need for additional invasive interventions, the time to return to normal activity and the time to return to work.

Quality of evidence

The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low for all measurements because the trials were at high risk of bias (eg, bias in people who conducted the trial and participants in trials who preferred one treatment over another) and the trials were small.As a result, further research is needed on this topic.

Necrotic enteritis in poultry – symptoms, treatment regimens and prevention from NITA-FARM

Etiology . The causative agent of NE is mainly Clostridium Perfringens type C, less often types A, B or E. Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus is a normal inhabitant of the distal intestine (cecum and ileum), found in soil, decomposing plant substrates.Typical lesions of the mucous membrane of the intestinal wall are due to the effect of exotoxins: α (alpha) – in Cl. Perfringens type A and C, and β (beta) in Cl. Perfringens type C.

Epizootology. Chickens, turkeys, mainly young animals, are ill. The reason is the creation of anaerobic conditions in the small intestine due to inflammation of the mucous membrane. The imbalance of microflora is facilitated by such factors as: damage to the mucous membrane during coccidiosis; maladsorption syndrome; change of raw material and granulometric composition of compound feed – excessively fine grinding of grain raw materials; high content in diets of wheat, barley, rye with a high content of NPS, low-quality fish meal; antibiotic therapy.

Clinical signs. There are two forms: acute clinical and subclinical. The acute form is recorded more often in broilers at the age of 2-5 weeks, in turkeys at the age of 7-12 weeks, mainly with floor keeping. There is a sudden burst of mortality, the bird is in a state of depression, with ruffled plumage, diarrhea. High heterogeneity of livestock in terms of live weight. Light-colored litter with particles of undigested feed. Deterioration of litter quality due to wetting.Reduced feed intake with consistent water intake. The disease usually persists in the herd for 5-10 days.

The subclinical form does not cause noticeable symptoms, but it has a significant effect on productivity (weight loss, decreased egg production).

Pathomorphology . Necrosis of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, more often the lesions are localized in the duodenum. In the clinical form, necrosis can progress to fibrinous enteritis with the formation of a yellow-brown diphtheria film.The contents of the intestines are offensive. In severe cases – undigested food in the rectum.

Diagnostics. Based on characteristic clinical signs, pathological changes, bacteriological isolation of the pathogen from the pathological material, followed by microscopy, isolation of the pathogen (PCR, ELISA).

Prevention. Maintaining the balance of microflora by tracking all influencing factors: measures to combat coccidiosis and feed factors.The use of feed antibiotics for the prevention of NE allows maintaining the normal intestinal microflora of poultry.

Scheme for the prevention of clostridiosis. Feed antibiotics are used in broiler poultry farming to increase growth rate and reduce feed conversion. Their use is the easiest way to exclude intestinal infections. Nosiheptide is one of the most effective feed antibiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enteritis, as it has the lowest MIC in relation to Cl.Perfringens, therefore, its content in drugs for DV is only 1%.

Feed antibiotics are used in small dosages, therefore a number of mandatory requirements are imposed on them:

  • Compliance with the declared concentration of DV

  • Uniform distribution of DV in the product

  • Uniform mixing with feed

  • Stability during pelletizing and storage

  • Low dust potential for minimal product loss

  • Low traffic segregation

Fulfillment of these conditions is fully ensured by commercial preparations produced by the technology of thermostabilizing microgranulation and having a uniform particle size distribution, like the preparation “Nozifor”.

Scheme of application of the drug “Nozifor” on broilers

Myoma node necrosis

A myomatous node is a benign tumor that forms in the muscular layer of the uterus. This pathology is most common in women over 35 years old, although it is now noted in younger women and girls who have not given birth.

The main reason is considered to be a violation of the neurohumoral regulation of reproductive function.An insidious feature of the forming myomatous nodes is their asymptomatic course, as a result of which they are recognized when they reach significant sizes. This is why an annual examination by a gynecologist is important.
Why are myomatous nodes dangerous, and multinodular myoma is a frequent phenomenon, when they grow.
A formidable complication is necrosis, that is, necrosis of tumor tissue as a result of impaired local blood circulation. This happens, most often, due to the twisting of the leg of the knot.In the dying tissues, a focus of inflammation, edema, hemorrhage is formed, which is accompanied by a corresponding clinical picture of an “acute” abdomen with severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, urinary disorders, and intestinal disorders.
When a necrotic node is infected, peritonitis, inflammation of the peritoneum and, most sadly, sepsis, blood poisoning, leading in most cases to death, can develop.

The diagnosis of myoma node necrosis is based on:

  • gynecological examination,
  • Pelvic ultrasound,
  • MRI of the pelvic organs,
  • endoscopic examinations,
  • laboratory data.

Great help in making the correct diagnosis can be provided by the patient herself by clearly setting out the history of her disease, anamnesis to the gynecologist.

Treatment of myoma node necrosis

⟩⟩ If myoma node necrosis is suspected, emergency hospitalization and surgery are required.

  • In case of necrosis caused by torsion of the myomatous node leg, the choice of the amount of intervention depends on the woman’s age, the degree of necrotic changes, and the presence of peritonitis.
  • In women of the reproductive phase and in pregnant women in the absence of symptoms of peritonitis, if possible, they are limited to conservative myomectomy.
  • For patients in the pre- and postmenopausal period, radical interventions are indicated: supravaginal amputation of the uterus, hysterectomy without appendages or panhysterectomy.
  • In case of ischemia of the myomatous node, surgical intervention can be delayed by 24-48 hours. At this time, infusion therapy is carried out, aimed at reducing intoxication, and normalizing the water-electrolyte balance.The volume of the transaction is further determined by the same criteria.

What is the prognosis for this disease

With timely recognition and provision of surgical aid, the prognosis is satisfactory. The ability to maintain reproductive capacity depends on the surgical situation. With the progression of necrosis of the myomatous node with the development of diffuse peritonitis and sepsis, the disease may end unfavorably.

⟩The main preventive measure, very effective is the annual preventive examination of the gynecologist and ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

90,000 Gingivitis. Dental treatment in Khimki

In dentistry in Khimki “NIKA-MED” professional periodontists work. They told me a little about the treatment of a condition such as gingivitis. Among the most unpleasant dental diseases are gum diseases. Of these, the most common are 90,095 gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease. In general, gingivitis is an inflammation of the lining of the gums.

There are three main types of gingivitis:

  • catarrhal gingivitis,
  • ulcerative necrotizing gingivitis,
  • hypertrophic gingivitis.

Of these, ulcerative necrotizing and hypertrophic gingivitis, as a rule, are advanced stages of catarrhal. That is why I will talk about it first.

Gingivitis symptoms

With catarrhal gingivitis , the gum bleeds and hurts, redness and swelling are observed. When you touch the gums, there is pain and discomfort. This is why we start to take care of them and stop brushing our teeth as thoroughly as before.As a result, plaque builds up.

The symptoms of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis are gum ulcers, gum whitening, bad breath, fever.

If your gums are swollen and start to cover your teeth, it is very likely that you are experiencing hypertrophic gingivitis . The dentists of the clinic in Khimki “NIKA-MED” are familiar with all cases firsthand, and are always ready to help you.

Causes of gingivitis

It is worth noting here that Poor oral hygiene is often also the root cause of gingivitis.Also, gingivitis can be caused by hormonal changes. This is why gingivitis occurs in pregnant women and adolescents.

Finally, the last reason for the occurrence is , a decrease in immunity . Viral infections, diseases of the stomach or intestines can all be the cause of gingivitis. Often, immunity is reduced due to stress . Rejoice and rest more often – this is the advice from the dentists of the NIKA-MED clinic in Khimki.

Treatment of gingivitis

  1. Of course, a dental examination and diagnosis.Each case of gingivitis needs to be treated differently – your doctor will tell you how you will be treated.
  2. Removal of overgrown gums or dead tissue, in the case of ulcerative necrotic and hypertrophic gingivitis. Also, in these cases, pain relief is often necessary.
  3. Professional teeth cleaning: removal of plaque and tartar. In this case, our specialist will also tell you about proper oral hygiene. Together, we will try to make sure that gingivitis does not come back to you.
  4. Gum rinsing, healing.
  5. Taking anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and other drugs. This is necessary for the gums to return to their normal immunological balance.
  6. Sometimes, our dentists also advise to eat right, try to reduce stress – in general, try to reduce the impact of negative factors that indirectly caused gingivitis.

Advice from the side

Often, patients come to us with advanced forms of gingivitis.They put it off to the last, thinking that they will cope with the unpleasant sensations in the mouth. Nevertheless, diseases of the teeth and gums, 90,095 diseases of the oral cavity are a severe blow to your entire body. All of its parts are interconnected, as are their functions. Therefore, instead of being treated for the many consequences years later, it is better to see your dentist. Even if you are not sure that you have a serious dental disease, consult a dentist at the NIKA-MED clinic in Khimki. In the worst case, you will lose some of your time and money.At best, you will be able to stop the disease at the initial stage of development.

We really care about you! Our dentists will be able to calm you down, if there is nothing to worry about, and to cure in a timely manner and with high quality, if your fears are not groundless. Come to us and give yourself a piece of health!


90,000 Crown in the head: SARS-CoV-2 can cause brain necrosis | Articles

Russian scientists warn that the pathogen that causes Wuhan pneumonia can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and directly destroy brain tissue.Descriptions of clinical cases have already appeared when COVID-19 caused necrotizing encephalopathy in those infected – a critical lesion of the main organ of the central nervous system. In this case, the coronavirus can cause neurological complications without damaging the lungs at all. Disorders of the brain are evidenced, in particular, by such a symptom as loss of smell. Also, the pathogen can have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system.

Attack on the brain

Some patients with COVID-19 develop serious brain damage, doctors warn.In addition to the high fever, fever, cough and shortness of breath that traditionally accompany coronavirus pneumonia, some infected people experience mental changes due to neurological disorders. Professor of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, head of research in the field of molecular virology and oncology Andrei Kozlov told Izvestia that influenza and herpes viruses can lead to the death of entire brain regions.A similar picture is observed with the new coronavirus.

– Several articles noted that some of the patients had no pulmonary impairment, but there was confusion or epileptic symptoms. Together with the previously noted loss of taste and smell, such symptoms may indicate infection with coronavirus brain tissue , the expert said.

Photos: de

At the end of March, doctors from Detroit described a case of necrotizing encephalopathy in an employee of an American airline.A woman in her 50s was hospitalized with a fever and cough. In addition, she was confused.

Doctors conducted a series of tests for influenza, chickenpox and West Nile fever, but all of them were negative. A swab taken from the nasopharynx confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, due to symptoms atypical for coronavirus, the woman was decided to have CT and MRI. The images obtained showed focal lesions in various areas of the brain, in particular, the temporal lobes were damaged, the functions of which are associated with the perception, analysis and synthesis of speech, as well as with the ability to sense tastes and smells.Doctors diagnosed the patient with acute necrotizing encephalopathy, a rare disease that develops against the background of viral infections, most often influenza.

Cytokine storm

Encephalopathy (degenerative damage to brain tissue) can develop against the background of the fact that the cells of the immune system of a person infected with coronavirus begin to actively release cytokines into the bloodstream. This class of substances includes about a hundred complex proteins involved in many immune and inflammatory processes of the human body , Nikolai Karpov, an employee of the Institute of Biology of Tyumen State University, told Izvestia.The increase in the concentration of such proteins is called the “cytokine storm”.

– In excess, these substances can damage the walls of blood vessels and cause hemorrhages in the brain, which leads to the development of certain neurological symptoms (depending on the affected area), the expert said. – It is also possible that the virus can penetrate the blood-brain barrier directly into the brain tissue.

Electron microscopic image of the reproduction of coronavirus


According to the scientist, not only coronavirus, but also influenza, as well as other acute respiratory viral infections can cause encephalopathy, but this complication is rare. In general, science knows dozens of viral diseases, which in a certain percentage of cases give neurological complications. For example, tick-borne encephalitis, measles, herpes types 1 and 2 viruses and West Nile fever, almost all alphaviruses, including the Karelian fever virus (an acute infection, which are believed to be carried by mosquitoes of the genus Culex.- “Izvestia”) and many others.

Double Impact

Scientists note that COVID-19 is indeed capable of attacking the entire body, not just the lungs. Especially often this pathogen negatively affects the cardiovascular system , Mehman Mammadov, an expert of the National Health League, told Izvestia. According to him, coronavirus infection can cause acute complications in relation to various organs and systems, including the brain, as well as affect the course of chronic diseases, causing unfavorable outcomes.

So far, cases of direct influence on the brain are rarely recorded and this cannot be called a common cause of death. But respiratory failure is recorded in every second patient. In every third, the situation is aggravated by a combination of respiratory and heart failure, and in 10% of cases, death is caused by heart failure , the expert said. – Thus, complications of cardiovascular diseases rank second among the causes of mortality of those infected with coronavirus infection.

Photo: REUTERS / Flavio Lo Scalzo

As for the effect on the brain, this is still a rather rare symptom that still needs to be studied.

Perhaps the virus really affects the brain , – said Sergei Netesov, head of the laboratory of biotechnology and virology at Novosibirsk State University, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in a conversation with Izvestia.