Nutrients of balanced diet: The request could not be satisfied
Healthy Eating Plate vs. USDA’s MyPlate | The Nutrition Source
The Healthy Eating Plate, created by experts at Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard Medical School, points consumers to the healthiest choices in the major food groups. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate, though it has been revised to reflect some key findings, still doesn’t offer the most complete picture when it comes to basic nutrition advice.
The Healthy Eating Plate is based exclusively on the best available science and was not subjected to political or commercial pressures from food industry lobbyists. Here’s a table showing how the Healthy Eating Plate compares to the USDA’s MyPlate, section by section.
|The Healthy Eating Plate encourages consumers to choose whole grains and limit refined grains, since whole grains are much better for health. In the body, refined grains like white bread and white rice act just like sugar. Over time, eating too much of these refined-grain foods can make it harder to control weight and can raise the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Read more about the health benefits of whole grains.||Although initially MyPlate did not tell consumers that whole grains are better for health, it has since been revised to suggest that consumers make at least half of their grains whole grains – an important update!|
|The Healthy Eating Plate encourages consumers to choose fish, poultry, beans or nuts, protein sources that contain other healthful nutrients. It encourages them to limit red meat and avoid processed meat, since eating even small quantities of these foods on a regular basis raises the risk of heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, and weight gain. Read more about the benefits of choosing healthy protein.||MyPlate’s protein section could be filled by a variety of sources, including a hamburger or hot dog. Though the plate has been revised to suggest that adult consumers eat at least 8 ounces of cooked seafood per week, it still offers no indication that red and processed meat are especially harmful to health.|
|The Healthy Eating Plate encourages an abundant variety of vegetables, since Americans are particularly deficient in their vegetable consumption—except for potatoes and French fries. Potatoes are chock full of rapidly digested starch, and they have the same effect on blood sugar as refined grains and sweets, so limited consumption is recommended. Read more about the benefits of vegetables.||MyPlate does not distinguish between potatoes and other vegetables.|
|The Healthy Eating Plate recommends eating a colorful variety of fruits. Read more about the benefits of fruits.||MyPlate also recommends eating fruits.|
|(Not included in MyPlate)|
|The Healthy Eating Plate depicts a bottle of healthy oil, and it encourages consumers to use olive, canola, and other plant oils in cooking, on salads, and at the table. These healthy fats reduce harmful cholesterol and are good for the heart, and Americans don’t consume enough of them each day. It also recommends limiting butter and avoiding trans fat. Read more about the benefits of healthy fats and oils.||MyPlate is silent on fat, which could steer consumers toward the type of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet that makes it harder to control weight and worsens blood cholesterol profiles.|
|The Healthy Eating Plate encourages consumers to drink water, since it’s naturally calorie free, or to try coffee and tea (with little or no sugar), which are also great calorie-free alternatives. It advises consumers to avoid sugary drinks, since these are major contributors to the obesity and diabetes epidemics. It recommends limiting milk and dairy to one to two servings per day, since high intakes are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer and possibly ovarian cancer; it recommends limiting juice, even 100% fruit juice, to just a small glass a day, because juice contains as much sugar and as many calories as sugary soda. Read more about water and other healthy drinks, and learn about calcium, milk and health.||MyPlate recommends dairy at every meal, even though there is little if any evidence that high dairy intakes protect against osteoporosis, and there is considerable evidence that too-high intakes can be harmful. As for sugary drinks, MyPlate says 100% fruit juice counts as part of the Fruit Group.|
|(Not included in MyPlate)|
|The figure scampering across the bottom of the Healthy Eating Plate’s placemat is a reminder that staying active is half of the secret to weight control. The other half is eating a healthy diet with modest portions that meet your calorie needs. Read more about the benefits of staying active.||There is no activity message on MyPlate.|
Read more about the Healthy Eating Plate and the Healthy Eating Pyramid.
Read the press release about the Healthy Eating Plate from September 14, 2011.
The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.
Healthy Drinks | The Nutrition Source
In the beginning, there was water—abundant, refreshing, providing everything the body needs to replenish the fluids it loses. Humans relied on it as the only beverage for millions of years. Milk was introduced with the advent of agriculture and the domestication of animals. Then came beer and wine and coffee and tea, all consumed for taste and pleasure as much as for the fluids they provide. The newcomers—sugary beverages including soda, sports drinks, and energy drinks—offer hydration but with a hefty dose of unnecessary calories that the body may have a hard time regulating. Alternatively, “diet” drinks offer sweetness without the calories, but does that make them a healthy choice?
With so many options, it’s easy to be confused about which beverages are best for our health. Follow the links below for an in-depth look at each, but if you’re short on time, here’s the takeaway:
- Water is the best choice for quenching your thirst. Coffee and tea, without added sweeteners, are healthy choices, too.
- Some beverages should be limited or consumed in moderation, including fruit juice, milk, and those made with low-calorie sweeteners, like diet drinks. Alcohol in moderation can be healthy for some people, but not everyone.
- It’s generally best to avoid sugary drinks like soda, sports beverages, and energy drinks.
The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.
How to Achieve a Balanced Diet with Protein, Carbs, Fats, and Micronutrients
Often times it’s easy to turn to fast food because it’s convenient. However, in order to look and feel your best, your body needs a complex blend of nutrients. Not only do you need the right proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, but you also need adequate fluids to stay hydrated, and a good dose of fiber, too. Even the most careful eater can be hard-pressed to meet each nutrient target every day.
Balanced nutrition is based on a combination of healthy foods and supplements that help you meet your daily needs, coupled with the right calorie balance to help you lose, gain or maintain your body weight.
7 Essential Nutrients for a Balanced Nutrition Plan
We believe that good health lies in eating the right foods, combined with regular exercise and rest. A proper, balanced nutrition will help fuel your daily activities and promote a lifetime of wellness.
Here are seven elements of a balanced diet:
Protein is a macronutrient vital to virtually every cell in the body. You use protein to manufacture important molecules, such as hormones and enzymes, and to build and maintain muscle tissue. Protein is also great at satisfying hunger.
Your body is constantly assembling, breaking down and using protein, so it’s important to include enough protein in your diet every day to replace what you’ve used. We suggest that up to 30% of your daily calorie intake come from lean plant or animal protein, such as soybeans, poultry, fish, and eggs.
Your body prefers another macronutrient, carbohydrates, for its fuel, so it’s important to get enough every day. We recommend that you get about 40% of your calories from whole grain, bean, vegetable, and fruit carbs—not the sugary, starchy kinds you find in baked goods, soda, and candy.
Your body also requires small amounts of beneficial fats—but don’t go hog wild just yet; you’re probably getting enough. The typical American diet supplies more total fat and saturated fat than we need, and not enough healthy fats, such as fats from fish, nuts, olive oil, and avocados. Fats are a very concentrated source of calories, which is why the Herbalife Nutrition Philosophy recommends that you limit your fats to 30% or less of your daily calorie intake.
4. Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are involved in many of the chemical reactions your body performs every day, and many minerals —calcium and magnesium, for example— have structural roles in the body. A well-balanced diet helps to supply the vitamins and minerals you need and taking a daily multiple vitamin and mineral supplement helps you get the proper amounts.
Plant foods produce a wide range of natural compounds called phytonutrients. They contain a number of benefits, such as preventing disease, enhancing immunity, and repairing DNA damage. Their pigments give fruits and vegetables their beautiful colors. That’s why it’s important to eat colorful, plant-filled meals.
Fiber supports the digestive process, helps to fill you up, and promotes the growth of friendly bacteria in the digestive tract. Whole fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans are the best sources of dietary fiber, but if you can’t get the recommended 25 grams every day, you can work in fiber supplements.
The human body is 70% water, so it’s no surprise that we need to stay hydrated in order to remain healthy. Your body needs water to transport nutrients to cells and to get rid of waste products. Water also helps control body temperature and lubricate joints, organs, and tissues. The general recommendation for fluids is about eight 8-oz (240mL) glasses a day. Water should be the first choice, but plain tea or coffee can also count towards meeting your daily fluid needs.
When it comes to balancing calories, you have control over both sides of the calorie equation. You can regulate how much goes in by counting the calories in the foods that you eat, and you can control – at least in part – how many calories you burn every day by staying active. So whether your goal is to lose, gain or maintain your weight, the power to tip the balance is in your hands.
Susan BowermanM.S., R.D., CSSD, CSOWM, FAND – Sr. Director, Worldwide Nutrition Education and Training
Susan Bowerman earned a B.S. in biology with distinction from the University of Colorado, and received her M.S. in food science and nutrition from Colorado State University. She is a registered dietitian, holds two board certifications from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as a certified specialist in sports dietetics, and a certified specialist in obesity and weight management, and is a Fellow of the Academy.
Eat well – NHS
Eating a balanced diet
Eating a healthy, balanced diet is an important part of maintaining good health, and can help you feel your best.
This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions, and consuming the right amount of food and drink to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
This page covers healthy eating advice for the general population.
People with special dietary needs or a medical condition should ask their doctor or a registered dietitian for advice.
Food groups in your diet
The Eatwell Guide shows that to have a healthy, balanced diet, people should try to:
- eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables every day (see 5 A Day)
- base meals on higher fibre starchy foods like potatoes, bread, rice or pasta
- have some dairy or dairy alternatives (such as soya drinks)
- eat some beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other protein
- choose unsaturated oils and spreads, and eat them in small amounts
- drink plenty of fluids (at least 6 to 8 glasses a day)
If you’re having foods and drinks that are high in fat, salt and sugar, have these less often and in small amounts.
Try to choose a variety of different foods from the 5 main food groups to get a wide range of nutrients.
Most people in the UK eat and drink too many calories, too much saturated fat, sugar and salt, and not enough fruit, vegetables, oily fish or fibre.
The Eatwell Guide does not apply to children under the age of 2 because they have different nutritional needs.
Between the ages of 2 and 5 years, children should gradually move to eating the same foods as the rest of the family in the proportions shown in the Eatwell Guide.
Fruit and vegetables: are you getting your 5 A Day?
Fruit and vegetables are a good source of vitamins and minerals and fibre, and should make up just over a third of the food you eat each day.
It’s recommended that you eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables every day. They can be fresh, frozen, canned, dried or juiced.
There’s evidence that people who eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day have a lower risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers.
Eating 5 portions is not as hard as it sounds.
A portion is:
- 80g of fresh, canned or frozen fruit and vegetables
- 30g of dried fruit – which should be kept to mealtimes
- 150ml glass of fruit juice or smoothie – but do not have more than 1 portion a day as these drinks are sugary and can damage teeth
Just 1 apple, banana, pear or similar-sized fruit is 1 portion each.
A slice of pineapple or melon is also 1 portion, and 3 heaped tablespoons of vegetables is another portion.
Adding a tablespoon of dried fruit, such as raisins, to your morning cereal is an easy way to get 1 portion.
You could also swap your mid-morning biscuit for a banana, and add a side salad to your lunch.
In the evening, have a portion of vegetables with dinner and fresh fruit with plain, lower fat yoghurt for dessert to reach your 5 A Day.
Find out more about what counts towards your 5 A Day
Starchy foods in your diet
Starchy foods should make up just over a third of everything you eat. This means your meals should be based on these foods.
Choose wholegrain or wholemeal varieties of starchy foods, such as brown rice, wholewheat pasta, and brown, wholemeal or higher fibre white bread.
They contain more fibre, and usually more vitamins and minerals, than white varieties.
Potatoes with the skins on are a great source of fibre and vitamins. For example, when having boiled potatoes or a jacket potato, eat the skin too.
Find out more about starchy foods
Milk and dairy foods (and alternatives)
Milk and dairy foods, such as cheese and yoghurt, are good sources of protein. They also contain calcium, which helps keep your bones healthy.
Go for lower fat and lower sugar products where possible.
Choose semi-skimmed, 1% fat or skimmed milk, as well as lower fat hard cheeses or cottage cheese, and lower fat, lower sugar yoghurt.
Dairy alternatives, such as soya drinks, are also included in this food group.
When buying alternatives, choose unsweetened, calcium-fortified versions.
Find out more about milk and dairy foods
Beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins
These foods are all good sources of protein, which is essential for the body to grow and repair itself.
They’re also good sources of a range of vitamins and minerals.
Meat is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals, including iron, zinc and B vitamins. It’s also one of the main sources of vitamin B12.
Choose lean cuts of meat and skinless poultry whenever possible to cut down on fat. Always cook meat thoroughly.
Try to eat less red and processed meat like bacon, ham and sausages.
Find out more about meat
Eggs and fish are also good sources of protein, and contain many vitamins and minerals. Oily fish is particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Aim to eat at least 2 portions of fish a week, including 1 portion of oily fish.
You can choose from fresh, frozen or canned, but remember that canned and smoked fish can often be high in salt.
Pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, are naturally very low in fat and high in fibre, protein, vitamins and minerals.
Nuts are high in fibre, and unsalted nuts make a good snack. But they do still contain high levels of fat, so eat them in moderation.
Read more about eggs and pulses and beans.
Oils and spreads
Some fat in the diet is essential, but on average people in the UK eat too much saturated fat.
It’s important to get most of your fat from unsaturated oils and spreads.
Swapping to unsaturated fats can help lower cholesterol.
Remember that all types of fat are high in energy and should be eaten in small amounts.
Find out more about the different types of fats
Eat less saturated fat, sugar and salt
Too much saturated fat can increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood, which increases your risk of developing heart disease.
Regularly consuming foods and drinks high in sugar increases your risk of obesity and tooth decay.
Eating too much salt can raise your blood pressure, which increases your risk of getting heart disease or having a stroke.
See 8 tips for healthy eating to find out more about why you need to cut down on saturated fat, sugar and salt, which foods they’re found in, and how to make healthier choices.
Find out more about how to eat less saturated fat
Need to lose weight?
Most adults in England are overweight or obese. Check whether you’re a healthy weight using the BMI calculator.
If you need to lose weight, you can use the NHS weight loss plan. It’s a free 12-week diet and exercise plan to help you lose weight and develop healthier habits.
The plan, which has been downloaded more than 2 million times, is designed to help you lose weight safely, and keep it off.
Page last reviewed: 27 March 2019
Next review due: 27 March 2022
What exactly is a balanced meal?
A very common piece of nutrition advice around the world is to ‘eat a balanced diet. ’ This seems like quite an easy idea today, where words like ‘carbohydrates’, ‘fibre’, ‘fructose’ and ‘omega-3 fatty acids’ are now making their way into everyday conversation. In recent decades, scientific research has rapidly expanded the understanding of human nutrition, but this may make a healthy diet seem much more complicated than it used to be. How do we make sure we get enough – but not too much – of the seemingly endless numbers of nutrients out there?
The good news is it’s actually pretty simple. A balanced meal is a snapshot of a diet that covers the three core food groups. As seen on this portion plate, the balance is a quarter proteins, a quarter carbohydrates and half vegetables1.
Quick refresher: nutrient basics
There are six types of nutrients essential for survival: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids (fats), vitamins, minerals and water. Proteins, carbohydrates and fats are macronutrients, ‘macro-’ meaning we require them in large amounts. These provide the body with energy, measured in kilojoules or kilocalories2. Vitamins and minerals are classed as micronutrients because they are only required in small amounts. Water is also an essential macronutrient, as the volume produced by the body through metabolic processes falls far short of the amount we lose every day through perspiration, urine, faeces and respiration.
Three core food groups
Despite cultural variations, food is always grouped according to the main functions of its key nutrients. Keeping it simple, most foodstuffs are put to one of three uses: energy, growth and repair, or maintaining healthy metabolic function. Depending how specific we want to be, foodstuffs can be further categorised in up to eight groups, which is why national dietary guidelines around the world may vary regarding the foodstuffs used, but remain very similar regarding overall nutrient needs3.
One quarter carbohydrate food for energy
Carbohydrate-rich food includes rice, pasta, quinoa, couscous, potatoes, bread, barley, oats and other cereals. These provide energy for the brain, muscles and other organs. Wholegrain carbohydrates are the preferred choice since they also provide fibre and vitamin B. Fibre is essential to keep your bowels working smoothly, and vitamin B allows the body to utilize the energy it received from carbohydrates. The more active we are, the more carbohydrates we require.
One quarter protein food for growth and repair
Protein-rich food includes eggs, seafood, poultry, red meat, pulses, milk, yoghurt, cheese, tofu, nuts and insects. This group is vital for maintaining muscle tissue, red blood cells, and hormone and enzyme production. We need more of these kinds of food in periods of growth (i.e. childhood and adolescence) or physical illness. A lot of high-protein foodstuffs also contain fats and fat-soluble vitamins; fish and eggs are two good examples.
One half vegetables for a healthy metabolism
Vegetables (and other plants, such as pulses, fruit, nuts, seeds and herbs) are rich in vitamins, minerals, fibre and phytonutrients4, such as antioxidants. Vitamins and minerals keep our metabolism and organs running efficiently, which is essential for staying healthy. A number of vitamins act as antioxidants. These repair tissue damage caused by metabolic processes or some environmental pollutants. Vegetables, herbs and fresh fruit are also satiating while relatively low in energy, meaning they help maintain a healthy weight. There can never be too many vegetables on the plate provided there is a variety.
Mixed meals and processed food
A balanced meal definitely does not need to be split up like the plate shown here. This is a guide to give an idea of the proportions of each food group that make up an ideal meal. It also does not mean every meal needs to look like this! If some days we eat more or less of a food group, it can still be balanced out over the week.
Processed food, such as chocolate, cake, chips, biscuits, etc., can be part of a healthy and balanced diet too, in moderation of course. The key is to remember they all are part of the same food group, whatever we call it: treats, junk food, sometimes food, unhealthy food, snacks, etc. Eating lots of different kinds of ‘treats’ still adds up to lots of treats. The more of this kind of food we eat, the more likely we are to either neglect more nutritious food or consume unnecessary kilocalories.
A few other important considerations
Food containing fibre and/or protein increases satiety, keeping us feeling fuller for longer. This means we are less likely to be tempted by readily accessible and conveniently packaged food, such as sweets, chocolates, crackers and cheese, crisps or an ice cream an hour after your meal. Including protein and fibre at main meals promotes better eating patterns, which would support long-term weight maintenance. High-fibre food includes wholegrain cereals, fruit and vegetables, particularly the skins.
Herbs and spices make wonderful additions to any dish. They provide lots of micronutrients, almost no kilocalories, and a delicious flavour lift to even the most basic meals.
Protein is the main nutrient for growth and repair, but calcium is essential to bone and muscle health too – and is the reason dairy products are often given their own food group. Milk, yoghurt and cheese are well-known sources, but plenty of other types of food boast a boost of calcium too: tofu and soya-bean products, calcium-fortified non-dairy milk, pak choi, kale, collard, almonds, broccoli and the soft bones of cooked fish such as sardines.
Healthy eating does not need to be complicated. In fact, it shouldn’t be! Using the principles of ¼ + ¼ + ½, any meal can nourish your wellbeing. It’s much easier and healthier than restrictive diets and unbalanced fads – I’m sure you know the ones I’m talking about.
Healthy Eating for a Healthy Weight | Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical Activity
An eating plan that helps manage your weight includes a variety of healthy foods. Add an array of colors to your plate and think of it as eating the rainbow. Dark, leafy greens, oranges, and tomatoes—even fresh herbs—are loaded with vitamins, fiber, and minerals. Adding frozen peppers, broccoli, or onions to stews and omelets gives them a quick and convenient boost of color and nutrients.
According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020–2025pdf icon[PDF-30.6MB]external icon, a healthy eating plan:
- Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
- Includes a variety of protein foods such as seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), soy products, nuts, and seeds.
- Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars
- Stays within your daily calorie needs
USDA’s MyPlate Planexternal icon can help you identify what and how much to eat from the different food groups while staying within your recommended calorie allowance. You can also download My Food Diary pdf icon[PDF-106KB] to help track your meals.
Fresh, frozen, or canned fruits are great choices. Try fruits beyond apples and bananas such as mango, pineapple or kiwi fruit. When fresh fruit is not in season, try a frozen, canned, or dried variety. Be aware that dried and canned fruit may contain added sugars or syrups. Choose canned varieties of fruit packed in water or in its own juice.
Add variety to grilled or steamed vegetables with an herb such as rosemary. You can also sauté (panfry) vegetables in a non-stick pan with a small amount of cooking spray. Or try frozen or canned vegetables for a quick side dish—just microwave and serve. Look for canned vegetables without added salt, butter, or cream sauces. For variety, try a new vegetable each week.
In addition to fat-free and low-fat milk, consider low-fat and fat-free yogurts without added sugars. These come in a variety of flavors and can be a great dessert substitute.
If your favorite recipe calls for frying fish or breaded chicken, try healthier variations by baking or grilling. Maybe even try dry beans in place of meats. Ask friends and search the internet and magazines for recipes with fewer calories ― you might be surprised to find you have a new favorite dish!
Healthy eating is all about balance. You can enjoy your favorite foods, even if they are high in calories, fat or added sugars. The key is eating them only once in a while and balancing them with healthier foods and more physical activity.
Some general tips for comfort foods:
- Eat them less often. If you normally eat these foods every day, cut back to once a week or once a month.
- Eat smaller amounts. If your favorite higher-calorie food is a chocolate bar, have a smaller size or only half a bar.
- Try a lower-calorie version. Use lower-calorie ingredients or prepare food differently. For example, if your macaroni and cheese recipe includes whole milk, butter, and full-fat cheese, try remaking it with non-fat milk, less butter, low-fat cheese, fresh spinach and tomatoes. Just remember to not increase your portion size.
Nutrition for Older Adults: MedlinePlus
What is nutrition and why is it important for older adults?
Nutrition is about eating a healthy and balanced diet so your body gets the nutrients that it needs. Nutrients are substances in foods that our bodies need so they can function and grow. They include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Good nutrition is important, no matter what your age. It gives you energy and can help you control your weight. It may also help prevent some diseases, such as osteoporosis, high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers.
But as you age, your body and life change, and so does what you need to stay healthy. For example, you may need fewer calories, but you still need to get enough nutrients. Some older adults need more protein.
What can make it harder for me to eat healthy as I age?
Some changes that can happen as you age can make it harder for you to eat healthy. These include changes in your
- Home life, such as suddenly living alone or having trouble getting around
- Health, which can make it harder for you to cook or feed yourself
- Medicines, which can change how food tastes, make your mouth dry, or take away your appetite
- Income, which means that you may not have as much money for food
- Sense of smell and taste
- Problems chewing or swallowing your food
How can I eat healthy as I age?
To stay healthy as you age, you should
- Eat foods that give you lots of nutrients without a lot of extra calories, such as
- Fruits and vegetables (choose different types with bright colors)
- Whole grains, like oatmeal, whole-wheat bread, and brown rice
- Fat-free or low-fat milk and cheese, or soy or rice milk that has added vitamin D and calcium
- Seafood, lean meats, poultry, and eggs
- Beans, nuts, and seeds
- Avoid empty calories. These are foods with lots of calories but few nutrients, such as chips, candy, baked goods, soda, and alcohol.
- Pick foods that are low in cholesterol and fat. You especially want to try to avoid saturated and trans fats. Saturated fats are usually fats that come from animals. Trans fats are processed fats in stick margarine and vegetable shortening. You may find them in some store-bought baked goods and fried foods at some fast-food restaurants.
- Drink enough liquids, so you don’t get dehydrated. Some people lose their sense of thirst as they age. And certain medicines might make it even more important to have plenty of fluids.
- Be physically active. If you have started losing your appetite, exercising may help you to feel hungrier.
What can I do if I am having trouble eating healthy?
Sometimes health issues or other problems can make it hard to eat healthy. Here are some tips that might help:
- If you are tired of eating alone, try organizing some potluck meals or cooking with a friend. You can also look into having some meals at a nearby senior center, community center, or religious facility.
- If you are having trouble chewing, see your dentist to check for problems
- If you are having trouble swallowing, try drinking plenty of liquids with your meal. If that does not help, check with your health care provider. A health condition or medicine could be causing the problem.
- If you’re having trouble smelling and tasting your food, try adding color and texture to make your food more interesting
- If you aren’t eating enough, add some healthy snacks throughout the day to help you get more nutrients and calories
- If an illness is making it harder for you to cook or feed yourself, check with your health care provider. He or she may recommend an occupational therapist, who can help you find ways to make it easier.
NIH: National Institute on Aging
Power Balance – Fazer
We are always told how important it is to eat a healthy and balanced diet, but what exactly does that mean? We get different nutrients and other important constituents from different foods. Let’s find out when bread fits into your diet and separate fact from fiction.
We are always told how important it is to eat a healthy and balanced diet, but what exactly does that mean? We get different nutrients from different foods.Let’s find out when bread fits into your diet and separate fact from fiction.
There is no single food product that can provide you with all the nutrients and vitamins your body needs to function. The term “balanced diet” refers to the process of choosing healthy and varied foods that should be included in daily consumption.
In our diet, bread is an important source of carbohydrates, and also provides us with valuable proteins, fiber, vitamins and minerals such as magnesium, zinc and iron.Nutritionists strongly recommend including so-called “good carbohydrates” in your daily diet as they form the basis of a balanced diet. These carbohydrates are found in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and berries.
When we talk about whole grain bread, we mean the preservation of whole grains in the product, as well as bran and germ. In this type of bread, whole grains are contained either in the form of individual grains or in the form of flour.
Whole grains provide much needed vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants.Nutritionists advise everyone to eat more whole grains, as many of us do not consume enough of them.
Including oats in your diet can help you maintain healthy cholesterol levels. Oats are an excellent source of beta-glucan, a type of soluble fiber that has been shown to help control cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels can increase your risk of heart disease.
For information on nutrients and energy requirements for a balanced diet, see Nutrition Principles.
Rational is a diet that ensures the normal functioning of a person, improves his health and prevents diseases.
Principles of rational nutrition
Compliance with food intake
· balanced nutrition.
The first principle of rational nutrition – energy balance – assumes that the energy value of the daily diet corresponds to the energy consumption of the body, no more and no less.
The second principle of a balanced diet is a balanced diet. This means that the body must receive those substances that it needs, and in the amount or proportions in which it is needed.
Proteins – a building material for cells, a source of synthesis of hormones and enzymes, as well as antibodies to viruses. Fats are a storehouse of energy, nutrients and water. Carbohydrates and fiber are fuel. The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the daily diet should be strictly defined.
Briefly, the norms of rational nutrition can be represented as follows:
animal fats – 10%;
vegetable fats – 12%;
animal proteins – 6%;
vegetable proteins – 7%;
· complex carbohydrates – 60%;
sugar – 5%.
The third principle of rational nutrition is diet. The balanced diet is characterized as follows:
· fractional meals 3-4 times a day;
· regular meals – always at the same time;
· uniform nutrition;
· last meal no later than 3 hours before bedtime.
The basics of a balanced diet are the following rules:
1. In order for the diet to be complete and balanced, it is necessary to consume a variety of foods containing many different nutrients, trace elements, vitamins. So you can satisfy the needs of the body in full.
2. Be sure to eat bread, cereals, pasta at every meal. These products contain a lot of carbohydrates, as well as fiber, minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium), vitamins (ascorbic acid, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin B6), while in pure form these products have a low calorie content.
3. Vegetables and fruits (as well as legumes) – an essential component of the daily diet. You need to eat at least 500 grams of vegetables and fruits per day. Vegetables contain the dietary fiber, vitamins, organic acids and antioxidants that the body needs. Green and leafy vegetables are especially useful – spinach, broccoli, arugula, lettuce, herbs, cucumbers, Brussels sprouts.
4. Every day you need to consume dairy products that are low in salt and fat – this is a valuable source of calcium.
5. Replace fatty meat with fish, poultry, eggs, legumes or lean meat. They contain the same amount of protein, but there is no need to eat unnecessary animal fat – you will receive the amount of animal fat required in accordance with the norms of rational nutrition from low-fat varieties of meat, fish and poultry.
6. Choose low-fat foods, give up the habit of eating bread and butter, prefer boiled or baked food instead of fried food in butter – fats are everywhere, and you probably will not be left without a portion of fat established by the rational nutritional norms, but you should not exceed it. Use olive oil instead of butter and sunflower oil – it contains more nutrients and antioxidants. Avoid margarines and refined oils – they contain more harmful substances than useful ones.
7. Limit consumption of fast carbohydrates and sugars – they have no nutritional value: all they give to the body is fast energy, cavities and metabolic imbalances. Remember that the share of fast carbohydrates according to the norms of a balanced diet is only 5% of the total daily calorie content (this is only 150-200 kcal per day).
8. Drink water. For an adult (not an athlete) the daily water intake is 2 liters, for an athlete – 3-3.5 liters. Water is essential for all chemical reactions in the body, you simply cannot live without it.
9. The norm of consumption of table salt for an adult is up to 5 g per day. A modern person consumes about 18 g of table salt per day. Give up eating salty, smoked and canned foods, learn to eat lightly salted foods.
10.The body mass index (BMI) value is calculated by the formula: (weight in kg) divided by height in meters squared. If your BMI is less than 18.5, you are underweight, if your BMI is more than 25, you are overweight. Monitor your weight.
11. The basis of a balanced diet is healthy natural food. Strive to replace everything unnatural in your diet with natural.
Organization of rational nutrition
If at home you can organize your diet in accordance with the principles and foundations of rational nutrition, then outside the home the organization of rational nutrition may encounter certain difficulties.This is due to the fact that most catering establishments use mayonnaise, preservatives, substandard products, flavoring additives – such food can satisfy your hunger, but most likely will not benefit you. If you can take home-cooked food with you to work or school, use it.
Rational nutrition menu
The rational nutrition menu, as mentioned above, consists of natural, fresh products. Mayonnaise, sausage, French fries, chips, cola – all this should be excluded from the rational diet menu. Consume fresh and processed vegetables and fruits (especially local ones), home-cooked poultry, fish and meat (low-fat varieties), cereals and legumes, and dairy and fermented milk products. Canned food (with the exception of homemade preparations for the winter) and smoked meats also have no place in the rational nutrition menu. Do not get carried away with natural coffee, but exclude instant coffee from the diet; drink more pure non-carbonated water, green tea, herbal teas.
The semantic content of “Rational nutrition” is unambiguous to the concept of “Proper nutrition”.
Rational or proper nutrition is the kind of nutrition that provides the human body with everything it needs in the process of growth and development, labor activity, prevents early senility, maintains health, prolongs an active lifestyle and ensures painless old age.
Proper nutrition is based on three basic principles: adequacy, balance and diet.
The adequacy of is understood as a complete reimbursement of energy due to food, which is spent during the day.
Nutritional balance refers to a nutrition in which nutrients and biologically active substances enter the body with food in optimal proportions. The diet of an adult is considered balanced if the main nutrients – proteins, fats and carbohydrates entering the body are in optimal ratios: 1: 1.2: 4.6, that is, 1.2 g of fat should fall on 1 g of protein and 4.6 g of carbohydrates. With such a ratio, proteins, fats and carbohydrates are better absorbed, more efficiently involved in the construction of cells of organs and tissues, as well as in the production of heat energy necessary for a person.
Diet is a prerequisite for ensuring a balanced diet. The main principle of the diet is eating at a strictly defined time, in moderation and the exclusion of long periods of time between meals. Failure to comply with the diet negatively affects the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, and eventually the entire body. For example, scientists have found that a rare meal (1-2 times a day) affects the level of cholesterol in the blood, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
The most rational diet is four meals a day. This allows for the best functioning of the digestive glands of the stomach and intestines, gallbladder and pancreas, promotes better digestion of food and the most efficient absorption of nutrients. This mode allows food to enter the stomach at intervals not exceeding 5 hours. The distribution of the daily ration in this case is recommended as follows: for the first breakfast 25% of the calorie content of the daily diet, for the second breakfast – 15%, for lunch – 35% and dinner – 25%.
For people who are not engaged in active work and retirees, the most optimal diet during the day is five meals a day in small portions.
Proteins . Protein is an essential component of a healthy and healthy diet. Proteins are the basis of the structural elements of cells and tissues. The main manifestations of life are associated with proteins: metabolism, muscle contractions, irritability of nerves, the ability to grow and reproduce, and even the highest form of movement of matter – thinking.By binding significant amounts of water, proteins form dense colloidal structures that determine the configuration of the body.
In addition to structural proteins, protein substances include hemoglobin – the oxygen carrier in the blood, enzymes – the most important accelerators of biochemical reactions, some hormones – fine regulators of metabolic processes. Despite the fact that proteins make up ¼ of the human body, the body has only negligible protein reserves. The only source of protein formation in the body is the amino acids of food proteins.This is why protein is so important in your diet. The value of the body’s supply of protein is judged by the indicators of nitrogen balance. Proteins are the only source of nitrogen that the body can absorb. Considering the amount of nitrogen supplied with food and released from the body, one can judge the well-being or violation of protein metabolism. In the body of an adult, nitrogen equilibrium is observed.
Daily protein intake: The human need is such to maintain the nitrogen balance in equilibrium.If a person’s work is not associated with physical labor, then the body needs to receive 1-1.2 g of protein per 1 kg of weight with food. So a person weighing 70-75 kg needs 70-90 g of protein per day. With an increase in the intensity of physical labor, the body’s needs for protein also increase. Consequences of a lack of proteins: Lack of protein in the diet causes in children a slowdown in growth and development, and in adults – profound changes in the liver, impaired activity of the endocrine glands, changes in hormonal levels, impaired absorption of nutrients, problems with the heart muscle, impairment of memory and performance.All this is due to the fact that proteins are involved in almost all processes in the body. Protein deficiency reduces the body’s resistance to infections, as the level of antibody production decreases. A deficiency of complete protein in the body can have detrimental effects on almost the entire body. The production of enzymes is impaired and, accordingly, the assimilation of the most important nutrients. With a lack of protein, the absorption of some vitamins, healthy fats, and many microelements worsens. Because hormones are protein structures, a lack of protein can lead to serious hormonal disorders.
Fats. Edible fats are a storehouse of energy. When oxidized in the human body, 1 g of fat is released 9.3 kcal, i.e. 2 ¼ times more than in the oxidation of carbohydrates and proteins. However, fats are used by the body not only for energy, but also for plastic purposes. The fatty acids contained in them are utilized during the formation of cell membranes that regulate all aspects of the body’s life. Some of these acids are irreplaceable, i.e. cannot be formed in the body.
Daily fat intake: A reasonable daily fat intake for a middle-aged person is close to 100 g, and vegetable oils – by 20-30 g. The consequences of a lack of fats: Vitamin deficiency, dry skin, brittle hair, eczema, psoriasis, baldness and non-healing wounds.
Starch. Starch is valuable due to its easy digestibility and high energy value. Undergoing hydrolysis during digestion, starch is converted into glucose. Thus, in terms of the speed of passage through the gastrointestinal tract, starches are in second place after simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides), and 3-4 hours pass between the intake of starch in food, its transformation into glucose and its absorption by the body.It is a “first line” food product that is needed by both the brain and muscles.
Daily intake of starch: The daily intake of carbohydrates for the working-age population is only 190-445g, depending on age, sex and nature of work. Consequences of starches deficiency: Vitamin deficiency, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Fiber. Fiber (dietary fiber) cleanses the gastrointestinal tract and enhances its activity, which as a result has a beneficial effect on digestion. Studies have shown that fiber is an integral part of a healthy diet. Daily fiber intake: 25 – 30 g. Effects of lack of fiber: Lack of coarse fiber contributes to chronic constipation, in which harmful substances are not excreted from the body, but continue to accumulate in the intestines and adversely affect for a long time on its mucous membrane.
Mineral salts. The amount of proteins, fats and vitamins in cells can vary within fairly wide limits.This is not the case with mineral salts. The composition of mineral salts in cells is maintained with great precision; even small deviations here pose a threat to life. Moreover, the ratio between the various elements exactly repeats their content in sea water (except for magnesium).
Sodium. Sodium – mineral substance that normalizes the water balance. Helps prevent heat or sunstroke. Helps nerves and muscles function properly.Daily Sodium Allowance: For children, 600 to 1700 milligrams; for adults, 1200 to 2300 milligrams. Consequences of Sodium Deficiency: Sodium deficiency manifests itself in dehydration, low blood pressure and disruption of the central nervous system.
Potassium. Potassium is a mineral that makes bones and teeth strong, helps maintain normal blood pressure, acid-base balance, promotes early wound healing, and is also necessary for full muscle function, normalizes water balance.Daily potassium intake: The recommended daily potassium content for children is from 600 to 1700 milligrams, for adults from 1800 to 5000 milligrams. Consequences of potassium deficiency: Potassium deficiency appears in edema, and cardiovascular diseases.
Calcium. Calcium is involved in blood clotting processes, regulates a variety of intracellular processes, such as muscle contractions. Calcium is involved in digestion and kidney function. It plays an important role in the reception of visual, auditory, and gustatory stimuli, in neuromuscular conduction, and in skeletal muscle contractility.Calcium and phosphorus together keep bones and teeth healthy. Calcium and magnesium work together to promote cardiovascular health. Almost all of the body’s calcium (from 1 to 1.5 kg) is found in bones and teeth. Daily Calcium Allowance: For adults, the required daily allowance is 800 to 1000 milligrams (mg), and for children, 600 to 900 mg. Consequences of calcium deficiency: Frequent “spontaneous” bone fractures (osteoporosis), abrasion and decay of teeth, caries occurs. With a lack of calcium in the body, strontium is replaced – this is manifested in fragility of bones and the formation of bumps and growths on the bones.
Magnesium. Magnesium activates intracellular reactions, and also plays an auxiliary role in the assimilation of other mineral salts. Protects against malignant tumors. Daily allowance for magnesium: 300 mg. The consequences of a lack of magnesium: twitching of the eyelids, cramps, numbness, tingling in the legs, flies before the eyes, imbalance, fatigue, inattention. Headaches, increased responsiveness to weather changes, pain and stomach cramps, feelings of melancholy, insomnia, and auditory hallucinations are also possible.
Phosphorus. Phosphorus is involved in the formation and restoration of nerves, soft tissues, bones, teeth. The daily rate of phosphorus: For an adult is 1600-2000 mg, for pregnant and lactating women – 3000-3800 mg. Children should receive 1500-2500 mg per day. Consequences of lack of phosphorus: teeth decay, caries, enamel abrasion.
Iron. Iron is an important trace element that catalyzes oxygen exchange processes. Iron is part of hemoglobin, a specific blood pigment found in red blood cells.Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow and are responsible for the transfer of oxygen from the respiratory system to the tissues of the entire body. Daily iron intake: Children – from 4 to 18 mg, adult men – 10 mg, adult women – 18 mg, pregnant women in the second half of pregnancy – 33 mg. Consequences of iron deficiency: Leads to the development of a serious disease – anemia. The main symptoms of anemia are splitting and brittle nails, hair loss, appetite perversion, observed in the need to eat inedible substances, more often chalk and soap, drowsiness, weakness, fatigue.
Vitamins. Vitamins are necessary for humans not because of their energy value, but because of their ability to regulate the course of chemical reactions in the body. They help release the energy found in the food we consume. Without vitamins, we could starve to death. Without or lacking essential vitamins, our body’s ability to excrete and utilize nutrients is diminished. Many people unintentionally destroy the vitamins they get from food.Sugar and alcohol can neutralize vitamins B1, B6, and folic acid. Smoking interferes with the body’s absorption of vitamin C. Excess protein or fluid in food can cause a large amount of other vitamins to be flushed out of the body, and antibiotics, laxatives, aspirin, many other medications, and stress can destroy them even more.
Vitamin β-carotene – reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, helps prevent cancer, is a source of vitamin A, has antioxidant properties, improves immunity.Beta-carotene daily rate. The physiological requirement for adults is 5 mg / day. The daily rate of beta-carotene is contained in 0.5 kg of tomatoes, 1.2 kg of green peas, 1.5 kg of butter. Consequences of a lack of beta-carotene. The sensitivity of the skin to the sun’s rays increases, the skin becomes dry, susceptible to infections, and wounds heal more slowly.
Vitamin B1 . Vitamin B1 (thiamine) – plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. The substance is essential for the normal course of growth and development processes and helps to maintain the proper functioning of the heart, nervous and digestive systems.Thiamine, being a water-soluble compound, is not stored in the body and has no toxic properties. Daily intake of vitamin B1: An adult needs at least 1.4-2.4 mg of thiamine per day. The consequences of a lack of vitamin B1: General weakness, decreased blood pressure, irritability, depression, insomnia, tendency to constipation, decreased immunity.
Vitamin B2. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) participates in protein synthesis, in the construction of body cells, red cut cells, is responsible for the growth and restoration of tissues, increases skin elasticity.Thanks to him, the skin is smooth, elastic, without cracks, ulcers and wrinkles, strong and healthy hair and nails. Daily intake of vitamin B2: 2-3 mg for an adult. The consequences of a lack of vitamin B2: cracks or “seizures” in the corners of the mouth, dull hair prone to falling out, dandruff, photophobia and eye diseases. Wrinkles appear above the upper lip. Wounds heal slowly, hemoglobin levels drop. Anemia develops and immunity falls.
Nicotinic acid . Nicotinic acid or vitamin PP (vitamin B3) – participates in the metabolism of fats, proteins, amino acids, purines, tissue respiration, and biosynthesis processes.Reduces the concentration of total cholesterol, reduces the cholesterol index. Expands small vessels (including the brain), improves microcirculation. Improves memory, coordination of movements. The daily norm of vitamin PP: For prophylaxis, adults are prescribed 15-25 mg, for children – 5-20 mg / day. Consequences of a lack of vitamin PP: Nervous exhaustion, change in taste, the skin is rough and flaky.
Vitamin E. Vitamin E (tocopherol ) is a fat-soluble vitamin that is the main antioxidant nutrient.Vitamin E prevents the formation of blood clots and promotes their resorption. Vitamin E is also used in cosmetology to keep skin youthful, it promotes skin healing and reduces the risk of scar tissue formation. In addition, tocopherol helps in the treatment of eczema, skin ulcers, herpes. Vitamin E is very important for red blood cells, it improves cell respiration and strengthens endurance. It slows down the aging process of cells due to oxidation, improves cell nutrition, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, protects erythrocytes from damage by toxins, prevents the formation of blood clots and promotes their resorption, strengthens the myocardium.Vitamin E Daily Value: 10 mg. Consequences of vitamin E deficiency: Dry skin, skeletal muscle dystrophy, fatty liver, impaired reproductive function, decreased immunity.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid) – a water-soluble vitamin necessary for the growth and development of the circulatory and immune systems. It is necessary for the creation and maintenance of new cells in a healthy state, therefore, its presence is especially important during periods of rapid development of the body – at the stage of early intrauterine development and in early childhood.The process of DNA replication requires the participation of folic acid, and disruption of this process increases the risk of developing cancerous tumors. First of all, the bone marrow suffers from a lack of folic acid, in which active cell division occurs. Daily intake of vitamin B9: 1.5 mg for an adult. The consequences of a lack of vitamin B9: Weakness, irritability, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, anemia, deterioration of the stomach. It leads to a delay in the intrauterine development of the fetus, especially with regard to damage to the nervous system.
According to the World Health Organization, 60% of a person’s life expectancy and his health condition determine his lifestyle and nutritional system, 15% – heredity, another 15% – environmental conditions, and only 10% – health services.
Doctor for hygienic training: Demidova O.A.
Relevance of the problem of balanced nutrition
In the last decade there has been a significant increase in alimentary-dependent conditions in childhood and adolescence: rickets and malnutrition – 2 times, anemia – 1.5 times, endocrine pathology among adolescents – 1.5 times, diseases of the digestive system among schoolchildren – 3.3 times.Since 1992, the number of children with low body weight and height has sharply increased – at present, short stature is detected in 6% of children. This is a clear sign of malnutrition. On the other hand, it is known that unbalanced diet leads to energy imbalance – currently 20% of children and adolescents are overweight, and 10% are obese. Alimentary dystrophy is diagnosed in 8-10% of children. There is an insufficient intake of essential nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 and omega-6), minerals, dietary fiber, vitamins.This was the reason that 70% of Russians have a deficiency in the diet of vitamin C, 40% – vitamin A and beta-carotene, almost 1/3 – a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. The problem of iodine deficiency, as well as the lack of Mg, Zn, Ca, Fe, Cu, remains relevant. The current situation is due to both a decrease in the quality of life, an increasing impact of environmental factors, and a significant decrease in the content of vitamins and microelements in food. The most significant decrease in the content of minerals and vitamins was noted in plant products.Modern technologies for the processing and production of food, for example, the refining of vegetable oils, lead to a complete loss of such important essential nutrients as phospholipids, lecithin, vitamins (beta-carotene and vitamin E), minerals (calcium, magnesium, copper, iron).
A practical solution to the problem of balanced nutrition lies in the creation of diets, the food composition of which contains a sufficient or even increased amount of essential nutrients, since parents are unlikely to consider how much and what foods a child needs in order for the diet to have all the essential nutrients.Another way to solve this problem is to manufacture industrial products enriched with ingredients (proteins, vitamins, phosphatides, microelements, etc.). A recipe and technology for the preparation of a number of biologically balanced combinations of food substances (enpits) have been developed. New food products make it possible to enrich the diet with a number of essential nutrients in an easily digestible form and in the required quantities. In a small amount of low-calorie food, the child will receive all the essential nutrients.Satisfaction of the same need for them at the expense of food of the usual composition will lead to overeating and ultimately to obesity. Nutritional complexes are dry instant mixtures or ready-made drinks containing complete, easily digestible proteins, polyunsaturated fats, 13 vitamins, including biotin and folic acid, calcium pantothenate, beta-carotene, and a complex of trace elements. An important advantage of these products is ease of preparation and pleasant taste.
Vitamins – a group of low molecular weight biologically active organic compounds of various structure and composition, which are necessary for the proper development and vital activity of organisms, they are indispensable nutritional factors
Vitamins are vital substances that our body needs to maintain many of its functions.Therefore, a sufficient and constant intake of vitamins into the body with food is extremely important.
The biological effect of vitamins in the human body consists in the active participation of these substances in metabolic processes. In the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, vitamins take part either directly or as part of complex enzyme systems. Vitamins are involved in oxidative processes, as a result of which numerous substances are formed from carbohydrates and fats, which are used by the body as an energy and plastic material.Vitamins contribute to the normal growth of cells and the development of the whole organism. Vitamins play an important role in maintaining the body’s immune responses, ensuring its resistance to adverse environmental factors. This is essential in the prevention of infectious diseases.
Vitamins soften or eliminate the adverse effect of many drugs on the human body.
Lack of vitamins affects the state of individual organs and tissues, as well as the most important functions: growth, procreation, intellectual and physical capabilities, protective functions of the body.A long-term lack of vitamins leads first to a decrease in working capacity, then to a deterioration in health, and in the most extreme, severe cases, this can result in death.
Only in some cases, our body can synthesize individual vitamins in small amounts. For example, the amino acid tryptophan can be converted in the body to niacin.
Vitamins are necessary for the synthesis of hormones – special biologically active substances that regulate a variety of body functions.
This means that vitamins are substances that are indispensable factors in human nutrition, and are of great importance for the life of the body. They are essential for the hormonal system and the enzyme system in our body. They also regulate our metabolism, making the human body healthy, vigorous and beautiful.
Their main amount enters the body with food, and only some are synthesized in the intestine by the beneficial microorganisms living in it, but in this case they are not always enough.Many vitamins are quickly destroyed and do not accumulate in the body in the required quantities, so a person needs a constant intake of them with food.
The use of vitamins for therapeutic purposes (vitamin therapy) was originally entirely associated with the impact on various forms of their deficiency. Since the middle of the 20th century, vitamins have been widely used for fortification of food, as well as feed in animal husbandry.
A number of vitamins are represented not by one, but by several related compounds.Knowledge of the chemical structure of vitamins made it possible to obtain them by chemical synthesis; along with microbiological synthesis, it is the main method for the production of vitamins on an industrial scale. There are also substances similar in structure to vitamins, the so-called provitamins, which, entering the human body, are converted into vitamins. There are chemicals that are similar in structure to vitamins, but they have the exact opposite effect on the body, therefore they are called antivitamins.This group also includes substances that bind or destroy vitamins. Some medicines (antibiotics, sulfonamides, etc.) are also anti-vitamins, which serves as further evidence of the danger of self-medication and uncontrolled use of drugs.
The primary source of vitamins are plants, in which vitamins are accumulated. Vitamins come to the body mainly with food. Some of them are synthesized in the intestine under the influence of the vital activity of microorganisms, but the amounts of vitamins formed do not always fully satisfy the needs of the body.Vitamins are involved in the regulation of metabolism; they are biological catalysts or reagents of photochemical processes in the body, they also actively participate in the formation of enzymes.
Vitamins affect the absorption of nutrients, contribute to the normal growth of cells and the development of the whole organism. As an integral part of enzymes, vitamins determine their normal function and activity. Lack, and even more so the absence of any vitamin in the body leads to metabolic disorders.With a lack of them in food, a person’s working capacity decreases, the body’s resistance to diseases, to the action of unfavorable environmental factors. As a result of a deficiency or absence of vitamins, vitamin deficiency develops.
AMK – Nutritional culture
Nutrition is the basic biological requirement of man and the oldest essential connection of a living organism with the environment. The quality of food has a major impact on health and quality of life.
A rational, healthy diet is nutrition that satisfies the body’s needs for essential nutrients – proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
The concept of a balanced diet has become widespread throughout the world, which includes the following provisions:
1. Nutrition should be chemically balanced with respect to essential nutrients.
2. Correct ratio of essential nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, water).
3. Rational diet.
4. Products must be available for digestibility or digestibility
5. The energy value of the diet must correspond to the energy expenditure of the human body, which depends on the profession, nature of work, housework, lifestyle, age, body weight, gender, physical conditions, the impact of all kinds of environmental factors.
Diet is the observance of the intervals between meals, the frequency of meals depending on age, the nature of work and health, in particular, the functional state of the gastrointestinal tract, the state of its enzymatic system.It is recommended that food intake occurs after 4-5 hours. It is desirable to eat at certain hours, it is best to set 4 meals a day. It is not recommended to eat less than 3 times a day.
Physiological nutritional norms are average indicative values reflecting the optimal needs of certain groups of the population in basic nutrients and energy. It is based on differentiated approaches depending on professional activity, that is, energy expenditure, age, gender, physical condition and climatic living conditions.
In terms of energy expenditures, the entire working-age population is divided into 5 groups. Students belong to group 1 (mental work of people 18-29 years old), their daily need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates and energy in the table:
Because students are mentally work, they can be recommended the mandatory use of the following products containing trace elements and biologically active substances that stimulate the brain, the so-called “menu for intellectuals”:
northern berries : cloudberries, lingonberries, cranberries, blueberries – improve microcirculation, supply the brain and peripheral tissues with oxygen and glucose, strengthen the immune and nervous systems
walnuts – especially good for a long mental marathon; they not only stimulate mental activity, but also strengthen the nervous system
cabbage – helps to reduce the activity of the thyroid gland, the level of adrenaline in the blood, reduce increased emotionality
carrots – carotene in carrots not only improves vision, but stimulates metabolic rate in the brain
lemon – facilitates the perception of information due to vitamin C
onion – stimulates the processes of hematopoiesis and improves the supply of oxygen to the brain
seaweed (kelp) – surpasses potatoes in calories and porcini mushrooms, contains a set of essential amino acids, vitamins A, C, D, PP, K, B vitamins, is the richest source of iodine.
Food Processing Methods: People can eat both raw and cooked foods. Under the influence of high temperatures, bacteria, viruses and other potentially harmful organisms are destroyed or inactive. Results vary with temperature, time and cooking method. Heating food also helps to eliminate toxins. Choosing the wrong cooking method can create toxic chemicals. Some raw foods are inedible to humans (vegetable cellulose) and must be cooked to become digestible.
An ideal cooking method is to preserve and enhance the flavor of the food and to preserve the maximum nutrients without adding excessive amounts of seasonings (fat, salt, spices). The best ways to prepare food to preserve its value are to bake in the oven and steam. Regular cooking and frying without adding any fat are not excluded. Frying in oil should be avoided, or used very rarely. The cooking time itself should be limited, do not overcook the food.All foods that can be consumed raw, try to use it in this form and use. Natural juices are very useful, in which mineral salts are well preserved.
Nutrition is one of the environmental factors that significantly affects the health, performance and life expectancy of a person. Rational nutrition helps to preserve health, increase the body’s resistance to harmful environmental factors, high physical and mental performance, active longevity.
Rational nutrition – GBUZ “City polyclinic №1” Nalchik
Probably many have repeated more than once: “I eat so little, but still get fat!” It would seem that she stopped eating, and that’s all. But where, then, to get energy for daily worries, because a deficiency in food Calories means a breakdown and – almost zero effectiveness of training (!).
No starvation! The ideal figure requires something completely different – the improvement of our nutrition.All you need is knowledge of the principles of a properly balanced diet and the desire to make small but fundamental changes in your diet.
What is a balanced diet?
“ Ratio ” translated from Latin means “ mind ” . Eating rationally means approaching this issue rationally and choosing food not only from the position of “I love it – I don’t like it” and “tasty – not tasty”, but also from the point of view of the needs of your body.This approach eliminates both overeating and excessive fasting for the sake of a thin waist, it helps to choose the optimal diet for well-being and a good figure. So what is a balanced diet based on?
Basic principles of good nutrition
Energy conservation law
Or the principle of energy adequacy. Everyone has known for a long time that in order to perform any action, we need energy, which comes through food.Therefore, the amount of energy entering our body with food must correspond to the amount of energy that the body expends.
It’s very simple, if a person consumes less energy than consumes, then he should lose weight. After all, fat is energy accumulated and stored by the body for later. Naturally, with a calorie deficit in food, the accumulated fat must be consumed. That is why it is very important to reduce the number of calories in food in such a way that the expenditure of energy exceeds its intake.So, how much energy we spend – so much should be consumed .
A drastic lack of calories will also not lead to anything good. Otherwise, you can easily disrupt the immune system and weaken – if the body does not receive energy, it is not able to give it away.
1300 kcal – this is the minimum for a woman who wants to lose weight, in no case should it be less. 1700 kcal – satisfies the average needs of the body to maintain the existing weight. A woman aged 23-50 years usually spends from 1600 to 2400 kcal per day, depending on activity and physical activity, at the age of 51-75 years – 1400-2200 kcal.Accordingly, the less we move, the less energy we burn, which means that the unused surplus will go to the “pantry”.
For good health, high working capacity and even for a positive mood, it is important that all groups of nutrients enter the body with food. The human body is simply not able to synthesize many of them on its own, therefore it is especially important to select foods for food that can restore the reserves of these substances.All food groups should be present in the daily diet – fruits and vegetables, cereals, meat or fish, dairy products.
A constant ratio between the main components of food in the proportion – 50:20:30, that is, distribute calories daily so that 50% are carbohydrates, 20 – proteins and 30% – fats.
50% of the daily calories consumed are carbohydrates. It is they that charge us with energy to the greatest extent, in addition, they contain most of the minerals and vitamins important for the body, fibers that contribute to quick satiety and good digestion.Most carbohydrates are high in water. Water is one of the main components of metabolism.
The combination of water and fiber (fiber) creates a volume of food that gives a feeling of fullness without overeating. At the same time, the number of calories is relatively small. For example, a small apple has only 50 calories, and a small piece of coarse bread has 70 calories, but a lot of fiber. No wonder they say: “More fiber – thinner waist”;
Increasing your fiber intake is easy – switch to whole grains and add bran to your meals.The benefit is very large – you will feel full if the food you consume is low in calories. Replace refined carbohydrates (white bread, rice, soft wheat pasta) with fiber-rich carbohydrates (cereals and whole grain breads, brown rice). Coarsely ground foods should always be preferred to white flour as they contain significantly more fiber and nutrients.
Protein food provides our body with energy resources that will be used if carbohydrates are “burned”.
But protein foods should make up about 20% of daily calories consumed, especially for those who want to adjust their weight. Fish, veal and poultry are the preferred sources of protein as they contain less fat than beef and pork. We recommend reducing the consumption of the latter, giving preference to fish and poultry (this applies to meat without skin, even better breast) and increasing their consumption up to 5-7 times a week.And of course, one should not forget about cottage cheese, yogurt, kefir, fermented baked milk and other dairy products.
The fat content of the daily diet is about 30%.
Fats load us with extra calories that we don’t need. Fat contains 9 calories per gram – two and a half times more than carbohydrates and proteins, which have 4 calories per gram. Therefore, the optimal amount of fat per day is considered to be 30-35 g – up to 60 g. in a day. But the complete rejection of fats is a fatal mistake.Fats are not only an essential part of the diet, they also help you lose weight. In fat deposits, not only the excess of fat in the diet is to blame, but also hormones, in particular – insulin. Fat inhibits insulin secretion, and the less insulin, the less fat you have on your waist and belly. But that is not all. The less fat you eat, the worse your fat metabolism is. Simply put, fat burning slows down as the body no longer considers it a serious source of energy.
“Bad” fats are fats that should be limited or avoided altogether.
Bad fats include:
Saturated fat is typically found in animal products such as meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products such as cheese, cream and whole milk. Palm, coconut, and other tropical oils, as well as cocoa butter, also contain saturated fats. Many foods, snacks, desserts such as chips and fries are also high in saturated fat. A diet high in saturated fat can increase bad cholesterol levels and can put you at risk of heart disease.
Trans fat is a type of unsaturated fat, it is a type of hydrogenated man-made fat and is commonly found in processed foods such as cookies, cakes, donuts, crackers, snacks and frozen foods, and trans fats are also found in fried foods. such as fries and others. Trans fats are abundant in margarine.
Trans fats have been found to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
So, what nutrients do our bodies need on a daily basis? These are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fiber, water.
Potential problems associated with insufficient protein intake:
- Decrease in muscle mass, decrease in basal metabolism.
- Formation of “plaques” in the vessels. Blood pressure problems.
- Decreased immunity.
- Brittle and splitting nails and hair loss.
- Early skin aging.
- Chronic fatigue.
Possible problems with excessive consumption of animal protein:
- Additional stress on the digestive tract, liver and kidneys.
- Contamination of the body with the remnants of undigested protein (protein waste).
- Slagging of the intestines, constipation.
Possible problems with excess fat intake:
- Atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes.
- Diseases of the liver and gallbladder.
- Skin problems (acne, wen, etc.).
Possible problems with insufficient fat intake:
- Decreased immunity.
- Dry skin.
- Depletion of the body.
- Hormonal disorders.
Possible problems with a lack of fat OMEGA-3
(contained in seafood, as well as in flax seeds, etc.):
- Development of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
- Dysfunctions of the nervous system. Sleep disturbance.
- Decreased immunity, including increased formation of cancer cells.
- Increased risk of blood clots in blood vessels.
- Deterioration of the skin condition.
- Allergic diseases.
- Inflammation of the joints.
- Slowdown in growth.
- Oppression of sexual and reproductive functions.
- Aggressiveness, irritability, mood swings, memory problems.
- Slower reaction, memory problems, depression.
associated with excessive consumption of “harmful” carbohydrates:
- Low energy level, chronic fatigue.
- Mood swings, uncontrollable cravings for starchy foods, sweets and coffee.
- Obesity, diabetes.
- Weakening of immunity.
- Allergic reactions.
- Susceptibility to blood clots, especially in atherosclerosis.
- Bone demineralization, loss of strength, high risk of fractures.
Possible problems associated with insufficient carbohydrate intake:
- Heaviness in the stomach after eating, poor digestion and absorption of food.
- Excessive appetite.
Potential fiber problems:
- Flatulence (gas formation).
- “Weak” digestion.
- Slagging of the gastrointestinal tract.
Possible problems associated with insufficient water consumption:
- Dehydration of the body. Premature aging.
- Inflammatory processes, sand, kidney stones.
- Bowel contamination, constipation.
- Slowdown of metabolism, edema, cravings for sweets.
Possible problems with excess calorie intake:
- Excessive, overweight.
Vitamins and minerals
Possible problems associated with insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals:
- Decreased immunity.
- Slowdown of metabolism.
- Diseases of “deficiencies” of vitamins and minerals.
- Aging of the body.
If you eat every day at the same time – the body adapts, and will prepare in advance to take the maximum possible from the meal, the food will be digested better, and you will feel more comfortable. It is important not to consume a large amount of food at once – it is better to divide its daily volume into 5-6 meals. It is recommended to finish the last appointment no later than two hours before bedtime.
There is a 25-50-25 rule.It must be observed for those who wish to lose weight, as it allows you to regulate body weight by controlling the amount of food consumed for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Let’s decipher: 25% of calories should come from breakfast; 50% of calories for lunch, 25% for dinner. In other words, eat regularly and distribute calories throughout the day, while limiting yourself at the same time at the evening meal. Even for those who do not need a weight limit, it is very useful to be guided by this formula or its modification.Here’s one of the options: 25-30-45. Where 25% – breakfast, 30% – second breakfast, 45% – late lunch.
What unites groups of people who have successfully lost weight? Of course – breakfasts. If you have a good, and most importantly, right breakfast, then you will not have time to get hungry for dinner and will not eat too much. But the main thing is different. If you regularly skip breakfast, your metabolic processes slowly slow down. The need for energy drops and the calories eaten are unnecessary.
If you are fighting excess weight,
let water become your number 1 fat burner.
Research has shown that water plays a key role in regulating metabolic rate. It turned out that dehydration slows down the metabolism, and hence the “burning” of fat. In addition, the less you drink, the higher the concentration of sodium ions in the body, and sodium, as you know, retains water in the tissues. As a result, you “swell” and become even thicker. For example, half a teaspoon of salt causes a liter and a half of water to be retained in the intestines. Your waist becomes 2.5-4 cm wider.
First, calculate how much water you need per day. To do this, multiply your weight in kilograms by 30 ml.
So, the above three principles constitute a rational diet. Remember, a balanced diet is the key to a healthy, fulfilling life. An imbalance in nutrition, a prolonged excess or deficiency in the diet of basic nutrients inevitably leads to disruptions in the work and vital functions of the main building blocks of our body – cells.As you know, a person is what he eats, so it is quite understandable that if the cells of our body do not receive enough “building material”, this affects their health, and, consequently, the general well-being of a person.
The deficiency of one single substance, in one way or another, affects all the processes occurring in cells, and, consequently, the state of the organism as a whole. When we talk about inadequate nutrition, we mean not so much that the diet is inadequate and the absorption of food is poor, but that the cells receive less than the optimal amount of nutrients.Thus, in order to be and remain physically and spiritually young, we must take care of more than 70 trillion cells.
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