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Bacterial Vaginosis Vs. Yeast Infections: Differences and Similarities

While they’re both different types of “vaginitis” (or vaginal inflammation), bacterial vaginosis (BV) and yeast infections have very different causes, symptoms and treatments. While both can be treated without severe long-term effects, it’s important to know which of the two you’re dealing with.

A vagina is full of both “good” and “bad” vaginal flora, or bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is the result of the bad, or anaerobic bacteria disrupting that balance and becoming overgrown. It could be caused by several types of bacteria, but the typical overgrowth is due to the Gardnerella vaginalis bacteria. With BV, a doctor may find that the pH of the area is higher than 4.5.

The main difference between a BV vs yeast infection is that yeast infections are fungal – typically the result of the Candida fungus in the vagina.

Both of these types of vaginitis are very common, with three out of every four women experiencing a yeast infection in their lifetime. Other types of diseases like trichomoniasis are sometimes confused for a yeast infection or BV, which is why it is not always advised to do self-diagnosis for these symptoms. We recommend a pelvic exam for anyone with an ongoing issue.

Bacterial Vaginosis vs Yeast Infection Symptoms

Both these forms of vaginitis are typically accompanied by vaginal itching, burning sensations and discomfort, with a few key differences in symptoms. There is one typical, major difference between symptoms of a yeast infection vs BV: discharge color. Beyond that, the other key difference is the odor.

Vaginal Bacterial Infection Symptoms

  • A fishy odor, which gets stronger during menstruation and after sex
  • Burning sensations while urinating
  • Discomfort
  • Itching
  • Thin yellow, white, gray or even greenish discharge

Difference #1: The bacterial vaginosis discharge color can be white, gray, yellow or greenish and is typically thin.

Difference #2: There is not typically redness or inflammation around the vaginal opening or on the vulva, as with a yeast infection.

Difference #3: BV tends to be uncomfortable rather than painful. Pain or burning during sex may be an indication that it’s a yeast infection.

Yeast Infection Symptoms

  • Burning sensations while urinating
  • Burning sensations during intercourse
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Itching
  • Redness/swelling around the vaginal opening and/or vulva
  • Thick, white, clumpy discharge

Difference #1: The typical yeast infection discharge color is white with a thick, clumpy texture like cottage cheese.

Difference #2: There is not typically a specific odor associated with yeast infections.

Causes and Risk Factors

As they’re very different issues, a BV or yeast infection are caused by very different things. But a sudden change in your vaginal flora may be caused by numerous factors, and should not be accompanied by shame. We’ve also covered some ways to prevent these issues from arising in the future.

BV Causes

  • Douching or rinsing out your vagina with water or a cleansing agent typically disrupts the normal vaginal environment. It may strip away the good bacteria or introduce new bad bacteria. This is one of the most common causes of bacterial vaginosis.
  • Sudden hormonal changes, like pregnancy, menopause and menstruation, may change your vaginal pH and trigger BV.
  • Intercourse with a new partner may introduce new bacteria to the area or change your vaginal pH, especially intercourse without a condom.
  • Smoking also can be a risk factor of BV.

Yeast Infection Causes

  • Taking regular antibiotics may lead to the decrease in the “good” (or lactobacillus) bacteria causing yeast to grow.
  • Taking birth control pills that contain estrogen can sometimes lead to yeast infections.
  • Major hormonal changes including pregnancy may lead to a yeast infection.
  • People with diabetes or high blood sugar are more likely to contract one.
  • People with weakened immune systems are more likely to contract one.

Preventative Steps for Both Types of Vaginitis

  • Swap tight-fitting clothing like jeans, leggings or underwear for loose, moisture-wicking cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes.
  • Avoid douching or rinsing the vagina.
  • Avoid scented feminine hygiene products, like tampons or scented soaps.
  • Avoid remaining in wet clothes or bathing suits after swimming.
  • Avoid remaining in hot tubs or hot baths for extended periods of time.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the restroom.
  • Wear condoms during intercourse and properly clean any toys.
  • Consider taking probiotics to encourage the “good” bacteria in your vaginal flora.

Treatment

BV is typically treated by antibiotics (like Metronidazole, Clindamycin and Tinidazole).

Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications (like Miconazole, which is an over-the-counter medication, and Fluconazole). Severe yeast infections may require a long course of antifungal meds or special treatments.

If the discomfort and itching persist, it’s important to get a pelvic exam from a gynecologist to rule out a BV or more serious issues. Your gynecologist may test the pH of your vagina or take a sample of secretions to be examined under a microscope in order to make a diagnosis of a BV or yeast infection. Schedule an appointment to speak with a doctor in the future.

Vaginitis, Yeast Infection & BV

What is vaginitis?  

Vaginitis is an irritation of your vagina or vulva. It’s super common and usually easy to treat. Almost everyone with a vulva gets vaginitis at some point.

What causes vaginitis?

Vaginitis is when your vulva or vagina becomes inflamed or irritated. This can happen when there’s a change in the normal chemical balance of your vagina, or if you have a reaction to irritating products.

Many things can cause vaginitis — and sometimes there’s more than 1 cause. Things that lead to vaginitis include:

  • Lack of Estrogen (atrophic vaginitis):
    Lack of estrogen can lead to a type of vaginitis called atrophic vaginitis (also known as vaginal atrophy). Atrophic vaginitis is when you have irritation but no abnormal discharge. Things that can cause low estrogen include:

  • Vaginal Sex
    Vaginitis isn’t a sexually transmitted infection. But sometimes sexual activity can lead to vaginitis. Your partner’s natural genital chemistry can change the balance of yeast and bacteria in your vagina. In rare cases, you can have an allergic reaction to your partner’s semen. Friction from sex, or certain types of lubricants, condoms, and sex toys may also cause irritation. Read more about vaginitis and sex.

  • Allergies and Irritants
    Allergic reactions or sensitivity to different products, materials, or activities can also cause vaginitis. Things that can lead to irritation include:

    • douching

    • vaginal deodorants, washes, and perfumed “feminine hygiene” products

    • scented panty liners, pads, or tampons

    • perfumed bath products

    • scented or colored toilet paper

    • some chemicals in laundry detergents and fabric softeners

    • certain types of lubricants (i.e. flavored or with sugars in them)

    • sex toys made out of certain materials

    • latex and rubber in sex toys and condoms (if you have a latex allergy)

    • spermicide

    • tight pants, or underwear/pantyhose that don’t have a cotton crotch

    • wearing wet bathing suits or damp clothing for long periods of time

    • hot tubs or swimming pools

Everyone’s body is different, so things that lead to irritation in some people don’t cause problems for others. Read more about keeping your vagina healthy.

  • Recurrent Vaginitis
    Some people get vaginitis a lot. If you have vaginitis 4 or more times in a year, it’s called recurrent vaginitis. You can get recurrent vaginitis if you have conditions like diabetes or HIV that make your immune system weak. You can also get recurrent vaginitis if you don’t finish your vaginitis treatment.

What are vaginitis symptoms?

The signs of vaginitis can vary depending on what’s causing it. But vaginitis symptoms usually include:

  • Your vagina and/or vulva is discolored, irritated, swollen, or uncomfortable.

  • Itching, burning, and pain in your vulva or vagina.

  • Pain or discomfort during sex.

  • Feeling like you have to pee more often than usual. Peeing may sting if your vulva is really irritated.

  • Vaginal discharge that isn’t normal for you:

    • With yeast infections, discharge is usually thick, white, and odorless. You may also have a white coating in and around your vagina.

    • With bacterial vaginosis, you may have vaginal discharge that’s grayish, foamy, and smells fishy. (But it’s also common for BV to have no symptoms.)

    • With trich, discharge is often frothy, yellow-green, smells bad, and may have spots of blood in it.  

Vaginitis symptoms can be super obvious, or barely noticeable. Sometimes there are no symptoms at all. It’s a good idea to pay attention to what your vulva and vaginal discharge normally looks, feels, and smells like, so it’s easier to notice any changes that could be signs of vaginitis or other infections.

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BV and yeast infections may have similar symptoms but require different treatments

DEAR MAYO CLINIC: What’s the difference between bacterial vaginosis and a yeast infection? I’ve had painful itching for two weeks but have not been to see a doctor yet. Are over-the-counter medications effective in treating both?

ANSWER: Bacterial vaginosis, or BV, and vaginal yeast infections may have some symptoms that seem similar, but they have different causes and require different treatment. Over-the-counter remedies are available for a yeast infection. BV typically requires prescription medication. See your doctor to get an accurate diagnosis. Then he or she can help you decide on the best treatment.

BV and yeast infections both fall under the broad category of vaginal infections, called vaginitis. These infections are quite common in women. They usually can be treated effectively without any long-term problems. You need to know which type of infection you have, however, to make sure you get the right treatment.

BV is the result of an overgrowth of one of several organisms normally present in your vagina. Usually, the “good” bacteria, called lactobacilli, outnumber the “bad” bacteria, called anaerobes. If anaerobic bacteria become too numerous, they upset the natural balance of microorganisms in your vagina, resulting in bacterial vaginosis.

One of the most common reasons for an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria is douching — rinsing out your vagina with water or a cleansing agent. In most cases, douching is not recommended because it disrupts the vaginal environment and can lead to BV, as well as other types of vaginitis, including a vaginal yeast infection.

In contrast to BV, a vaginal yeast infection is caused by a fungus called candida. Candida is a microorganism that’s normally present in your vagina. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of yeast and bacteria. Lactobacillus bacteria produce acid, which discourages overgrowth of yeast in the vagina. But disruption of the balance between the two can result in an overgrowth of yeast.

A number of factors can result in an overgrowth of vaginal yeast. You may be at higher risk for a yeast infection if you take antibiotics regularly. Antibiotic use can cause a decrease in the amount of lactobacillus bacteria in your vagina, allowing yeast to overgrow. Women who take birth control pills containing estrogen, who are pregnant, who have uncontrolled diabetes, or whose immune systems are weakened are also at an increased risk for yeast infections.

Symptoms of BV and a yeast infection both usually include vaginal discharge. BV typically causes discharge that’s thin and gray or yellow. A yeast infection causes discharge that is thick and white, with a cottage-cheese type appearance. BV is associated with a foul, “fishy” vaginal odor, while most women don’t notice an odor with a yeast infection. A yeast infection also typically causes itching, particularly in younger women, and may include a burning sensation, especially during urination. In general, BV doesn’t cause itching or burning.

You can treat a yeast infection with over-the-counter medication. But if you aren’t sure if that’s what is causing your symptoms, see your doctor first. To make a diagnosis, your doctor likely will perform a pelvic exam and take a sample of vaginal secretions to be examined under a microscope.

Prescriptions medications such as metronidazole, clindamycin and tinidazole often can effectively treat BV. For yeast infections, antifungal creams, ointments, tablets or suppositories usually are all that’s needed to restore the vaginal balance of bacteria and yeast and eliminate symptoms. If a yeast infection is causing severe symptoms, or if the infection comes back multiple times, additional treatment may be necessary to keep the yeast in check.

If your symptoms don’t improve with treatment, it’s important to contact your doctor. It’s possible that a yeast infection or BV may not be the problem, and further evaluation is needed. — Mary Marnach, M.D., Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.

(Mayo Clinic Q & A is an educational resource and doesn’t replace regular medical care. E-mail a question to MayoClinicQ&[email protected] For more information, visit www.mayoclinic.org.)

(c) 2015 MAYO FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH. DISTRIBUTED BY TRIBUNE CONTENT AGENCY, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

What If It’s Not a Yeast Infection?

Should you self-diagnose a yeast infection?

Vaginal itching, burning, irritation, and unusual or excessive discharge can be both uncomfortable and embarrassing. If you’re having these symptoms, you might be tempted to try and treat the problem yourself rather than face a visit to your doctor.

But did you know that although a yeast infection may be the first thing that comes to mind, your symptoms might actually be caused by a different condition altogether? In fact, more than half of all women who think they have a yeast infection actually have a different condition, such as bacterial infections, sexually transmitted infections, chemical irritation, or allergies. Some of these conditions can lead to serious problems, including infertility, if they are not recognized and treated.

That’s why it’s so important to see your doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment, even if you think you have a yeast infection. Your doctor can ask you some questions and do some simple tests to determine the cause of the problem and make sure that you get the right treatment.

It’s especially important to visit your doctor if you’re having these symptoms for the first time, if you’ve already tried to treat your symptoms but it didn’t work, or if you are having these symptoms frequently (at least 4 times in the last year). Plus, you should also see a doctor if:

  • you are pregnant or breast-feeding
  • you are younger than 12 years of age
  • you think you might have a sexually transmitted infection (STI, also known by the older term STD)
  • you also have fever, pelvic pain, or a coloured or unpleasant-smelling discharge
  • you have certain health conditions (such as diabetes or a condition that weakens the immune system)

It’s better to be safe than sorry! If you have vaginal itching, burning, or unusual or excessive discharge, see your doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/healthfeature/gethealthfeature/What-If-Its-Not-a-Yeast-Infection

Bacterial vaginosis

Many women who think they have a yeast infection may actually have another condition: bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV, which affects about 10% of women and up to 30% of pregnant women, is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women. It occurs when certain bacteria in the vagina overgrow, leading to vaginal itching, burning, a white or grey discharge, and an unpleasant fishy odour. Some women with BV do not have any symptoms.

We don’t know exactly how women get BV, but it’s believed that something happens to upset the normal environment of the vagina. Normally, there is a balance between good and harmful bacteria in the vagina, and when something happens to decrease the number of good bacteria, the harmful bacteria can overgrow, leading to BV.

What increases a woman’s chance of BV? Certain factors such as douching, and using an IUD (intrauterine device) for birth control, may increase the risk of BV. The role of sexual activity in transmitting BV is not clear, and it is not generally considered to be a sexually transmitted infection (STI, also known by the older term STD). However, having new sex partners or multiple sex partners can increase a woman’s risk of BV, although it’s not fully understood why.

BV can do more than just cause unpleasant symptoms. It can also increase a woman’s risk of:

  • becoming infected with HIV if she is exposed to the virus
  • giving HIV to a sex partner (for women already infected with HIV)
  • having a premature birth (for pregnant women with BV)
  • having a baby with a low birth weight
  • having an infection of the placenta during pregnancy
  • having an infection of the womb after pregnancy
  • getting a more serious infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, after having an IUD inserted, having a biopsy of your uterine lining, or having procedures to treat polyps, cancer, or unwanted bleeding
  • becoming infected with chlamydia or gonorrhea

Your doctor will give you a physical exam and perform some lab tests to diagnose you with BV. BV can be treated with antibiotics. Although male sex partners don’t need to be treated, the doctor may recommend treatment for female sex partners.

To reduce your risk of BV, avoid douching, and limit your number of sex partners. Since BV can increase your risk of other health problems, be sure to see your doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment if you notice symptoms of vaginal discharge, itching, burning, or discomfort.

BV can cause serious complications if it’s not properly treated. Therefore, it’s very important to visit your doctor for diagnosis and treatment when you have symptoms of vaginal discharge, itching, or irritation.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/healthfeature/gethealthfeature/What-If-Its-Not-a-Yeast-Infection

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, also known by the older term “sexutally transmitted disease,” or STD) that causes some symptoms that are similar to a yeast infection. Some women who think they have a yeast infection may actually have trichomoniasis.

Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite that you can catch through unprotected sexual contact, which also includes vulva-to-vulva contact. Symptoms include vaginal irritation, itching and burning, and a smelly discharge from the vagina. The discharge is frothy and may be off-white or yellow-green in colour. Women with trichomoniasis may also have abdominal pain, pain during urination, discomfort during sex, or bleeding after sex.

If you have any of these symptoms, see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment. Other conditions, such as yeast infections and bacterial infections, can cause some similar symptoms, and proper treatment depends on which condition you have. Your doctor can use a lab test and physical exam to diagnose trichomoniasis. You and your doctor may also consider testing for other STIs at this time.

If it is not properly treated, trichomoniasis can increase a woman’s chance of HIV infection if she is exposed to HIV. If a woman is already infected with HIV, having untreated trichomoniasis makes her more likely to pass the virus on to her sex partners. If a woman has trichomoniasis during pregnancy, she’s at a higher risk of having a premature baby or a baby with low birth weight.

The good news is that trichomoniasis can be successfully treated with antibiotics. It’s important for all of your sex partners to be treated as well. This will cure them of the disease and prevent them from reinfecting you or others.

Using a condom and limiting your number of sex partners can help reduce your risk of trichomoniasis.

Because of the complications that trichomoniasis can cause if it’s not properly treated, it’s very important to see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment when you have vaginal discharge, itching, or irritation.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/healthfeature/gethealthfeature/What-If-Its-Not-a-Yeast-Infection

Chemicals, allergies, and vaginal irritation

Vaginal itching and irritation may be caused by an infection, but sometimes a different culprit is to blame: chemical irritation or allergies.

Chemicals in products such as scented soap, bubble bath, coloured toilet paper, laundry detergents, douches, latex condoms, IUDs, diaphragms, spermicides, or feminine hygiene products (tampons and pads) can irritate the delicate tissues of the vagina, leading to itching and irritation.

Women may also become allergic to certain substances, such as sperm, dyes, soaps, birth control products (such as spermicides), and hygiene products. With allergies, the woman’s immune system overreacts to these substances, leading to vaginal irritation, itching, and burning.

Management of chemical irritation or allergies involves finding out which chemical or substance is causing your symptoms so that you can avoid it. Your doctor can help you narrow down the cause and give you tips on how to cope until the reaction goes away. Your doctor will also help rule out other possible causes for your symptoms, such as infections, decreased estrogen levels due to menopause, or skin conditions.

Vaginal irritation and itching can also be caused by other conditions, and some of these conditions can cause serious complications if they are not properly diagnosed and treated. That’s why it’s important to see your doctor to find out the cause of your symptoms and get appropriate treatment, rather than trying to treat the problem yourself.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/healthfeature/gethealthfeature/What-If-Its-Not-a-Yeast-Infection

Bacterial Vaginosis vs Yeast Infection: What is the Difference?

Bacterial Vaginosis vs Yeast Infection

Bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections have some of the same symptoms, but the causes and treatments for these infections are different. While a yeast infection can be treated with over the counter products or may go away on its own, bacterial vaginosis may need to be treated with prescription medication.

Yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis are both common vaginal infections that fall under the category of vaginitis. In fact, three out of every four women will get a yeast infection during their lifetime and bacterial vaginosis is the most common infection for women ages 15 to 44.

What Causes Bacterial Vaginosis?

Your vagina is a delicate ecosystem that contains a mix of different bacteria that include yeast and lactobacillus. They work together to keep a natural balance of acidity that is measured by a pH factor. Normally, the pH factor in your vagina should be between 3.8 and 4.2. If the pH factor gets thrown off course by certain risk factors and reaches a level of 4.5 or higher, then it may be likely that you have a vaginal infection like bacterial vaginosis.

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by the overgrowth of “bad” bacteria or microflora in your vagina. This overproduction of anaerobic bacteria upsets the natural balance of microorganisms and causes the uncomfortable symptoms associated with this condition.

Some of these risk factors may include:

  • Smoking
  • Having more than one sexual partner
  • Douching
  • Hormonal changes
  • Thong underwear or tight pants
  • Past history of STDs
  • Using sex toys
  • Lubricants that contain perfume
  • Taking antibiotics
  • Heavy or prolonged menstruation

What are Causes of a Yeast Infection?

A yeast infection, also known as candida vulvovaginitis, is usually brought on by an overgrowth of a fungus called Candida albicans. Candida is a microorganism that is common in your body and can be found in small amounts throughout the areas of your body such as your mouth, intestines, skin, and vagina.

Some causes of a yeast infection might include:

  • Douching
  • Birth control pills
  • Being sexually active
  • Tight clothing such as a thong
  • Stress
  • Long term antibiotics

Pre-existing conditions like diabetes may also cause a yeast infection in some women.

Both men and women with autoimmune issues like HIV are more prone to get a yeast infection because of their compromised immune system.

Hormonal changes in a woman’s cycle like menopause, pregnancy, or menstruation may be a factor in contracting a yeast infection.

Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis

If you are having some of these uncomfortable symptoms, you could have bacterial vaginosis:

  • A strong, pungent odor that smells like fish
  • Thin white, gray, or greenish discharge from your vagina
  • Burning during urination
  • Thick discharge after your menstruation cycle or just after sex
  • Itchiness in and around the vaginal area

Symptoms of a Yeast Infection

Although yeast infections and bacterial vaginitis are similar, there are some distinct differences in the symptoms of each condition.

Some yeast infection symptoms may include:

  • Yeast infection discharge that looks like cottage cheese or is thick, white, and lumpy
  • Itchiness that won’t go away
  • Anal itching
  • Pain when you urinate
  • Painful intercourse

How Long Does Bacterial Vaginosis Last?

For some women, a case of BV will go away on its own in a few days to a week. Other women may consider using a home remedy for a mild infection. If your symptoms last more than seven days, it might be time to think about seeing a medical professional for diagnosis and treatment of your BV.

If treated with a seven-day course of antibiotics, a BV infection will generally clear up within two to three days. It is important to continue taking the full dosage of antibiotics as your doctor prescribed.

If left untreated, bacterial vaginosis can lead to further risk of complications such as an ovarian infection, fallopian tube infection, uterine infection, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

How Long Does a Yeast Infection Last?

How long a yeast infection lasts will depend on how severe the infection is. A mild yeast infection may go away on its own within three or four days. A moderate infection with increasingly uncomfortable symptoms may require treatment and last for a longer period of time.

With prescription medication, such as Diflucan a yeast infection should go away in seven to fourteen days.

Home remedies and over the counter medications may be effective for a mild case of yeast infection.

However, more serious cases should be seen by a doctor.

In any case, every time you think you have a yeast infection or are suffering with similar symptoms, you may want to consider seeing a medical professional to ensure that you get a proper diagnosis and treatment, especially if you are pregnant.

Can Men Get Bacterial Vaginosis?

Men cannot get bacterial vaginosis. A man’s body does not have an equivalent place that provides a friendly ecosystem for organisms and microflora like anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli to grow.

If you think you have BV and you have a male sexual partner, there is no need for your partner to get tested or seek medical treatment. If your partner is a woman, however, she may want to consider getting tested for bacterial vaginosis especially if your own BV is recurring or chronic.

Can Men Get A Yeast Infection?

It’s not very common, but a man can get a yeast infection. It is generally caused by having unprotected sex with someone who has candidal vaginitis. There is an increased risk for a man who has not been circumcised however, with proper hygiene this risk is reduced. 

Symptoms of a man with a yeast infection may include:

  • A dry rash that peels
  • Redness
  • Small white spots on penis 

If left untreated, a yeast infection in a man may go away on its own. However, there can be complications such as the infection spreading to the buttocks, scrotum, and inner thighs.

Getting a prescription of oral or topical anti fungal cream is a simple and quick solution. Generally, the cream should be applied twice a day for one to three weeks.

Is Bacterial Vaginosis an STD?

Bacterial vaginosis is not an STD, but it can increase your risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease like herpes, chlamydia, or gonorrhea. If you are HIV positive or have other autoimmune issues, getting bacterial vaginosis may increase the chances of passing on the HIV virus to your partner.

You can’t get bacterial vaginosis from having intercourse if you have a male partner. However, you may be more likely to contract this infection if you have recently had sex with a new partner. Some researchers think it is possible that a change in sexual partners can upset the pH balance of vaginal bacteria.

If you think that you may have an STD and are having symptoms, it’s important to get safe and easy STD testing from a medical professional that you trust.

How to Get Rid of Bacterial Vaginosis

If you think that you may have BV and want to know how to get rid of bacterial vaginosis, you may want to consider seeing your gynecologist or another medical professional.

Your doctor will do a vaginal examination and take a swab sample of your vaginal discharge to test for pH factor levels. The sample of your vaginal discharge will also rule out any other potential infections like a yeast infection or an STD. If you are in an exclusive relationship, your doctor may prescribe an antibiotic based on the color of your vaginal discharge and its odor.

Home Remedies for Bacterial Vaginosis

Home remedies for bacterial vaginosis are available to treat this condition. Some home treatments may be more effective for you than others. One benefit to choosing a home remedy is that there may be fewer side effects than prescription treatment.

  • Plain Yogurt – Bacterial vaginosis natural treatment may be effective with the use of plain yogurt. Yogurt contains lots of healthy bacteria and is a natural probiotic. Use yogurt for bacterial vaginosis by applying a thin coat of plain yogurt to your vaginal area on a daily basis. Another option is to apply some plain yogurt to a tampon and insert it into your vagina before bedtime.

  • Tea Tree Oil – Tea tree oil contains strong antibacterial and antifungal properties that are beneficial for many conditions. Try diluting tea tree oil with a carrier oil like coconut, almond, or olive oil by mixing five to ten drops of tea tree oil with one ounce of the carrier oil. Tea tree oil can make some women’s skin sensitive. You may want to test a small amount of your diluted solution to your arm to make sure that your sensitive areas will not be irritated.

  • Hydrogen Peroxide – Use one ounce of hydrogen peroxide once a day for a week. Hydrogen peroxide has been known to help reduce the uncomfortable symptoms like itching with bacterial vaginosis.

  • Garlic – Garlic has long been a source of treatment for a number of ailments because of its antibiotic, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with garlic by making a paste or simply by eating a clove on a daily basis. Another option for home treatment is using garlic oil mixed with vitamin E or taking garlic tablets.

  • Probiotics – Taking a daily dose of probiotics in pill form or in fermented drinks like kombucha has been shown to have a favorable benefit in the promotion of healthy bacterial gut flora.

Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis

If you have bacterial vaginosis, you doctor will generally prescribe one of the following treatments:

  • Metronidazole – This medication may also be called Metrogel-Vaginal or Flagyl. This is a pill that is taken orally for five to seven days. Metronidazole also comes as a topical gel.

  • Clindamycin – Also known as Clindesse or Cleocin, this medication comes as a cream. The treatment consists of inserting the cream into your vagina for the prescribed amount of time, usually five to seven days. Clindamycin is known to weaken latex condoms for up to three days after you use the cream.

  • Tinidazole or Tindamax – This is an oral medication. Like Metronidazole, it has a tendency to cause an upset stomach.

It’s important to take all the medication as prescribed, even if your symptoms go away. Stopping your medication too early may cause a risk of recurrence of infection and antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Despite treatment, sometimes bacterial vaginosis comes back within three to twelve months. Researchers are investigating new medications for women who have recurring or chronic infections.

How to Get Rid of a Yeast Infection

Getting rid of a yeast infection can be done using home remedies for milder infections or by consulting your physician for a prescription. You might also want to purchase an at-home pH test to determine if your pH factor is over 4.5. This may indicate that you have some type of infection other than a yeast infection.

If your pH level is 4 or lower, it is likely that you have a yeast infection and may be able to treat it at home. However, if you are pregnant, have been exposed to an STD, or have recurring yeast infections, it is advisable to still see your doctor for a complete examination.

Home Remedies for a Yeast Infection

  • Coconut Oil – Coconut oil has strong antifungal properties that can be used as a carrier oil in combination with other essential oils like oil of oregano or tea tree oil.

  • Oil of Oregano – Generally, oregano oil is made from common oregano, or origanum marjoram, and it does not have curative properties. However, oil of oregano, or origanum vulgare, is made from wild oregano and contains two powerful antifungal properties called carvacrol and thymol.

Some research has shown that wild oregano oil can prevent the growth of Candida albicans. Insert a capsule of oil of oregano into the vagina at night before bedtime. Another option would be to apply the oil to a tampon.

  • Apple Cider Vinegar – Drinking one or two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar every day has been shown to fight the growth of candida. You can add it to a cup of tea or a glass of water sip it throughout the day or once in the morning. Use apple cider vinegar to replace white vinegar in different recipes like your salad dressing.

You can also apply apple cider vinegar externally as a compress or by adding it to your bath water. Soak a cloth with full strength apple cider vinegar and apply it to the affected area. Rinse with plain water after 30 minutes.

  • Plain Yogurt – As with bacterial vaginosis, the use of plain yogurt introduces good bacteria back into your vagina. Make sure that the yogurt contains lactobacillus acidophilus.

Over the Counter Treatment for a Yeast Infection

Over the counter medications for yeast infections are easily available and should quickly relieve the uncomfortable and itchy symptoms.

Vaginal creams are also an option and are available over the counter. The medication comes with an applicator to administer a pre-measured dose inside of your vagina. These creams are available in one-day, three-day, and seven-day applications.

Yeast Infection Prescriptions

A commonly prescribed medication is called Diflucan, also known as fluconazole. It comes in pill form and cures infections in a few days about 90 percent of the time.

You can also get a prescription from an online doctor . It’s easy, a little less embarrassing, and you don’t have to wait long for an appointment. It’s also affordable as your insurance will cover the cost of the appointment. If you don’t have insurance, you can pay a fee of $119. Book an appointment here to speak with an online doctor about bacterial vaginosis and yeast infection treatment.

Preventing a Yeast Infection and Bacterial Vaginosis

Even though these infections are very common in women, there are still ways to protect yourself by reducing your risk factors.

  • Healthy Hygiene – Practicing good hygiene will lower your risk of getting an infection. Do not use a douche, soap, or perfumed cleansers. Change your tampon or pad several times a day.

  • Healthy Eating Habits – There is some evidence that sugar helps promote the growth of yeast. Some experts advise eating a diet that is low in sugar and eliminating certain foods such as white flour, foods that contain gluten, alcoholic drinks fermented with yeast, and some types of dairy products. Consider choosing alternative foods that are high in fiber and green vegetables, eggs, beans, lean proteins, fish, nuts, and drinking herbal tea.

  • Keep Yourself Dry – Keeping your lady parts dry and free from moisture will help protect you from growing bad bacteria. Yeast thrives in moist and humid environments. Wear cotton underwear and avoid thongs or tight pants. Try to stick to natural fabrics such as silk or cotton.

  • Birth Control Options – Extra estrogen from your birth control pills may lead to more production of yeast in your body. Consider using birth control pills that don’t contain estrogen, such as progesterone-only pills or an IUD. This will reduce the risk of bacteria like candida from growing into an infection.

Think you may have a yeast infection or BV? Book an appointment with a PlushCare physician and get a prescription today!

Read more of our Sexual Health Series:

Vaginal Yeast Infection Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

An estimated 75% of women experience a vaginal yeast infection at some point in their lives. So while you may be uncomfortable, you’re not alone. The itching and burning that comes with a vaginal yeast infection can be embarrassing to talk about, but you can easily get treatment. Read on to learn about the symptoms and causes of these very common infections, how you can find relief, and when to see a doctor.

What Is a Vaginal Yeast Infection?

Let’s first talk about some female anatomy. The vagina is an elastic, muscular canal with a soft, flexible lining that connects the uterus or womb to the outside world. The vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse and is the birth canal through which a baby passes from the uterus at childbirth. At the inner end of the vagina is the cervix of the uterus. At the outer end of the vagina is the vulva. The vulva is made up of outer and inner ‘lips’ called the labia majora and the labia minor.

A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes itching and irritation of the vagina and vulva.

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Vaginal yeast infections are extremely common. In fact, in the United States, they are the second most common type of vaginal infection (after bacterial vaginal infections) and are the reason for an estimated 1.4 million outpatient healthcare visits every year. Vaginal yeast infections are rare before puberty and after menopause.

The good news is that they can be easily treated with medications, even if you suffer from them relatively frequently.

Causes of Vaginal Yeast Infections

Vaginal yeast infections are caused by a fungus, most commonly candida albicans, which is why these infections are also called ‘vaginal candidiasis’, ‘vulvovaginal candidiasis’ or ‘candidal vaginitis.’

Candida normally lives in your vagina and other places on your body without causing any problems. However, candida has the potential to cause an infection if candida is able to grow and multiply. This may be because ‘good’ bacteria called Lactobacillus are no longer able to effectively keep candida growth under control.

When there is candida overgrowth, or if the fungus penetrates into deeper cell layers of your vagina, you can get the symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection. This can occur due to:

  • Antibiotics
  • Pregnancy
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • An impaired immune system (immunocompromised)
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Stress
  • Lack of sleep
  • Drinking excessive alcohol
  • Wearing tight-fitting or wet clothing

Vaginal Yeast Infection Symptoms

The most common symptom of a vaginal yeast infection is intense itching in and around your vagina. You may also have a vaginal discharge which can be watery, or look like cottage cheese – thick, white and odorless.

Other symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection are:

  • Intense burning, especially when you urinate, or during sex
  • Swelling and redness around your vulva
  • Pain and soreness in your vagina

If your symptoms are so extreme that they cause tears or sores around your vagina, then you may have a complicated infection. Such infections can be caused by a fungus other than candida albicans or bacteria.

Risk Factors for Yeast Infections

Factors that can increase your risk of developing a yeast infection include:

Antibiotics

If you have a bacterial infection, your doctor may prescribe you an antibiotic. This medication acts to kill the bacteria causing your infection but it also can kill healthy bacteria, including the beneficial Lactobacillus in your vagina. This can result in an imbalance of the natural vaginal flora and lead to an overgrowth of candida and a vaginal yeast infection. Women who have recently been on antibiotics, or take antibiotics frequently are at a greater risk of developing a vaginal yeast infection.

Increased Estrogen Levels

Vaginal yeast infections are more common in women with increased estrogen levels. If you’re pregnant or taking high-dose estrogen birth control pills or estrogen hormone therapy, you’re at greater risk.

Uncontrolled Diabetes

You are at greater risk of a vaginal yeast infection if you are diabetic and are not sufficiently controlling your blood sugar levels. A spike in sugar in the membrane of the vagina.

An Impaired Immune System

Vaginal yeast infections may be a sign of a weakened immune system. This can be caused by various conditions, including an HIV infection, or by medicines that weaken the immune system, such as steroids and chemotherapy.

Tight-Fitting Clothing

If you wear clothing that is tight-fitting and made from synthetic materials, the vaginal area is kept moist and warm. This promotes the growth of candida yeast infections.If you are prone to yeast infections, stick to cotton underwear that is relatively loose-fitting.

How Are Vaginal Yeast Infections Diagnosed?

Your doctor will talk to you about your medical history. You may be asked if you have had previous vaginal infections, or if you’ve had any sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Be assured that a vaginal yeast infection is not considered to be an STI, because you can get a yeast infection without having sex.

Once you’ve discussed your medical history with your doctor, you will likely have a pelvic exam. This is where your doctor looks at your external genitals for any signs of infection. Your doctor may use a speculum to hold your vaginal walls open to examine your vagina and cervix. This may feel a little uncomfortable, but will not be painful.

Finally, in order to prescribe the most effective medication, your doctor may use a cotton swab to take a sample of the discharge from your vagina. This will be tested at a lab to determine the cause of your symptoms.

Vaginal Yeast Infection Prevention – What You Can Do at Home

Vaginal yeast infections are rarely serious, but the symptoms are uncomfortable. You can help prevent them with some simple precautions:

Practice Good Hygiene but Avoid Douching

Keeping the vagina clean can help prevent yeast infections. When washing, make sure to clean the inside folds of your vagina where candida yeast is most likely to grow. You can use a mild soap, but know that your vulva does not need soap to be clean. Warm water is enough.

Moreover, dry your entire vaginal area after taking a shower or bath. This is because candida yeast thrives in moist environments. This means you should avoid sitting around in a wet bathing suit or sweaty gym clothes. Wash and change into dry clothes as soon as you can.

Many people think douching is practicing good hygiene. However, when it comes to preventing vaginal yeast infections, douching actually has the opposite effect; it destroys not only harmful bacteria, but also the helpful Lactobacillus that keep candida yeast in check. Douche products also may introduce substances that can change the pH balance of the vagina and wash away the natural protective lining of the vagina. This may leave you more susceptible to yeast and other vaginal infections.

Wear the Right Clothes

Wear underwear made from natural materials, such as cotton, which absorb moisture and keep you dry. Try to avoid underwear made from synthetic fabrics which hold moisture close to your skin and so encourage the growth of yeast. What’s more, synthetic underwear can cause allergy and hypersensitivity reactions which may change the vagina environment and contribute to yeast infections.

Particularly when it’s hot or humid, stay away from tight-fitting clothing, which can cause heat and moisture to build up and provide ideal conditions for yeast growth.

If you have diabetes, it’s important to keep your blood sugar levels under control to discourage yeast growth.

Vaginal Yeast Infection Treatment Options

Vaginal yeast infections can be treated effectively with medications. The treatments depend on the severity and frequency of your infections. It’s important that you follow the directions and use all of the medication, even if you no longer experience symptoms before the end of your treatment course.

Medications for Mild to Moderate Infrequent Symptoms

Antifungal medications can be obtained either over-the-counter or with a prescription from your doctor. They come in many forms such as creams, ointments, tablets, and suppositories. You’ll normally need to take one for 3-7 days to clear up your yeast infection.

Alternatively, your doctor may prescribe a one-time, single oral dose of fluconazole (Diflucan).

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Medications for Frequent to Severe Symptoms

About 5% of women get four or more vaginal yeast infections in one year. This is called recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). RVVC is more common in women with diabetes or weak immune systems, but it can also happen in otherwise healthy women.

Doctors most often treat RVVC with a long course of antifungal medicine. Usually this is taken daily for up to two weeks, followed by once a week for up to six months. You may also receive two or three doses of oral fluconazole with a few days between each dose.

There may be other causes of you symptoms which mimic those of a vaginal yeast infection. Trying to treat a non-yeast-related condition with antifungals will be ineffective. What’s more, you can be under the illusion that you are treating it while another problem continues to develop.

Possible causes of symptoms which are not due to a vaginal yeast infection include:

  • STIs can cause an itchy discharge and a slight odor.
  • Bacterial vaginosis can have similar symptoms to vaginal yeast infections
  • Some sanitary products, soaps and laundry soaps can cause a skin reaction or allergy which can give symptoms of redness, soreness and irritation.
  • A lack of estrogen causes the skin to thin and this sometimes leads to discomfort, itching or discharge. This is common in post-menopausal women and vaginal lubricants or a small dose of estrogen can help.
  • Some skin conditions can cause itchiness in the vaginal area. These may be treated with a steroid ointment.
  • A small cut in the vaginal area can itch and feel irritated as it is healing.

When to See a Doctor

If you are not sure if you have a yeast infection or if you have never had these symptoms before, you should see a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment plan.

If you decide to treat your symptoms on your own with an over-the-counter antifungal vaginal cream or suppository and find no relief, it is time to see a doctor. This is especially important if you develop any other symptoms. Your doctor will be able to examine you and decide on the necessary tests to make a diagnosis.

How K Health Can Help

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Did you know you can get affordable primary care with the K Health app? Download K to check your symptoms, explore conditions and treatments, and if needed text with a doctor in minutes. K Health’s AI-powered app is HIPAA compliant and based on 20 years of clinical data.

K Health articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.

What’s the difference between a yeast infection and bacterial vaginosis?

Sometimes vaginitis—or vaginal inflammation—can be so mild you may not think anything out of the norm is happening. Other times, vaginitis is accompanied by pain and discomfort, which may point to a yeast infection or bacterial vaginosis.

The problem? Both issues share common symptoms, which can make it hard to distinguish which one you are experiencing.

Rachel Urrutia, MD, an OB-GYN at UNC Medical Center and assistant professor at the UNC School of Medicine, explains the difference between the two and when you should see a doctor.

What Is a Yeast Infection?

A yeast infection is when the yeast naturally present on your body, usually a type called candida, grows out of control and causes an infection in your vagina and/or vulva. It can happen for a variety of reasons, including a compromised immune system, more frequent sex or pregnancy. Some people, such as those with diabetes, are also more prone to yeast infections.

Yeast infections are not sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but sex can lead to a yeast infection, as intercourse can cause small breaks in the skin that allow more yeast to grow.

Symptoms of a yeast infection include a thick, white vaginal discharge, itching, burning and redness. Sex with a yeast infection can be painful, and it may hurt when you pee.

Three out of 4 women will have a yeast infection at some point in their life, and most are mild. However, they can develop into more serious infections in some cases.

What Is Bacterial Vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a bacterial infection in the vagina, which is home to a variety of bacteria.

BV is caused by an imbalance of that bacteria. When too much of a certain type of bacteria, including a strain called gardnerella vaginalis, is present, it can lead to an infection. BV is not an STI, but because it is caused by an imbalance, sex can lead to BV by changing the pH in the vagina or by transferring bacteria.

BV symptoms can be similar to those of a yeast infection. You may experience itching, burning when you pee and abnormal discharge. Unlike yeast infection discharge, BV discharge can be smelly and discolored.

BV is the most common form of bacterial vaginal infection in women ages 15 to 44. If left untreated, BV can cause other health complications.

Preventing Infection

Because these forms of vaginitis are caused by imbalances in the vagina, try to be conscious of anything you are doing that could disrupt the microbiome in that part of your body. For example, do not douche. Doctors recommend only using water and washing only the outside of the genital area, as soaps and deodorants can upset the balance of yeast and bacteria. If you think your infections might be related to sex, talk to your physician.

Dr. Urrutia says one of the best things you can do for vaginal health is pay attention to what’s happening “down there” on a regular basis. Throughout your menstrual cycle the body provides clues as to what’s happening inside. Certain stages of your cycle can cause dryness or discharge. Knowing what is normal for your body can help you determine if you have an infection or are just entering a different stage of your cycle.

Also, itchiness and abnormal discharge are symptoms of some STIs. If you think you could have contracted an STI, get tested. Dr. Urrutia says it is possible to have an STI and yeast infection or BV at the same time.

When to Go to the Doctor

Because yeast infections and BV have such similar symptoms, it can be hard to tell which you are experiencing, and self-diagnosing is often inaccurate, Dr. Urrutia says.

Dr. Urrutia recommends watching your symptoms for a few days before taking any action. This ensures that you aren’t just experiencing a normal part of your menstrual cycle.

If you believe you may have a yeast infection, Dr. Urrutia says it’s OK to try an over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal medication before making an appointment with your doctor—as long as the medication is longer than a one-day treatment.

“Do not use the one-day treatments because they are not as effective as the longer-course treatments,” she says. “You should at least be using the three-day treatment.”

It can take up to a week and a half for yeast infection symptoms to go away, but you should see some improvement within a week, Dr. Urrutia says. If your symptoms don’t improve, it’s time to go to the doctor.

Unlike yeast infections, you cannot take OTC medication for BV. If you think you might be experiencing BV, talk to your doctor, who can prescribe the appropriate medication.

Treatments for Yeast Infections and BV

Doctors usually diagnose vaginal infections by taking your history and checking a vaginal swab.

As mentioned, yeast infections can be treated with OTC antifungal medications, which come in many forms, including pills, creams and suppositories that are inserted into the vagina. Your doctor may also prescribe oral antifungal medication.

BV is treated with antibiotics that are only available with a prescription. You should see improvements in your symptoms within a day or two of starting treatment.

In either case, if your symptoms aren’t improving within a week of starting medication, follow up with your doctor, as he or she may need to reexamine the diagnosis or try a different treatment.


If you suspect a yeast infection that doesn’t get better quickly or BV, talk to your primary care doctor or OB-GYN. If you’d like to make an appointment with an OB-GYN, you can find one here.

90,000 Products for the intimate health of women

Publication date: 29-04-2021

Updated date: 26-06-2021

Many people know that libido affects physical and emotional health, not to mention, of course, hormonal levels, in addition, some foods can help normalize the vaginal microflora, and in this article we will talk about such a diet.

Proper nutrition and intake of the required amount of vitamins and minerals, of course, is beneficial for the whole body, but also a properly selected diet will help improve the intimate health of a woman; a properly selected diet improves not only the quality of sexual life, but also is useful in many other respects:

  1. The libido level increases.
  2. Improvement of blood supply to the heart.
  3. Increases the physical endurance of the body.
  4. Vaginal microflora is changing.
  5. Improving general well-being and increasing attractiveness in women.

Of course, if you have problems with hormones and you begin to notice a drop in libido, especially if you cannot get pregnant, be sure to contact a good gynecologist in Strogino to be examined at the NATALI-MED medical center and identify the causes of the imbalance …

A good doctor in Strogino will definitely recommend, first of all, proper nutrition, since the body must get everything it needs from food: food should be rich in both vegetables and protein, it is necessary to reduce the sugar content in foods and the amount of saturated fats, since they directly affect on female libido and can cause hormonal imbalances.A woman’s nutrition affects almost her entire body: from the regulation of the menstrual cycle to mood.

  • Probiotics and prebiotics. The female vagina must contain healthy bacteria in order to fight infections and maintain the correct PH level. Foods must be selected to promote gut health, such as onions, garlic, yogurt, kimchi, pickles, sauerkraut, tempeh, and kombucha, all of which contain beneficial prebiotics and probiotics.
  • Nuts and superfoods. Nuts and superfoods are recommended by all adherents of a healthy diet, since they contain healthy fats that normalize estrogen levels, improve skin and hair condition in women; healthy fats support the health of the vaginal mucosa, help prevent infection, not to mention the fact that nuts, olive oil, avocados and other superfoods contain B vitamins, calcium.
  • Cut back on processed foods.Highly processed foods suppress the immune system by lowering local immunity in the vagina and intestines, which can lead to bacterial vaginosis, yeast, dryness and pain during intercourse.
  • Eliminate sugar. Sugar is the opposite of probiotics, sugar can cause yeast infections, soreness, vaginal dryness and irritation, and reduces the beneficial bacteria needed to maintain a healthy vaginal flora.
  • Meat and dairy products containing hormones.It’s no secret that meat products are stuffed with hormones that mimic estrogen – such products are harmful to humans, since they can even cause cancer, not to mention that they affect the level of a woman’s hormones.
  • Be sure to use clean water. It is recommended to drink at least 2 liters of water, since water renews our entire body, and if we talk about a woman’s gynecological health, then water helps to eliminate vaginal dehydration.
  • Products containing zinc.Foods such as chicken, shellfish, lobster or crabs are extremely nutritious and provide 673% of the daily value of zinc. Zinc is also found in beef, sardines, baked beans, pumpkin seeds, and cereals.
  • Fatty fish salmon, sardine, tuna, halibut. This fish is very rich in omega-3 fatty acids, they improve blood circulation, sexual function, reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease.
  • Apples. Apples contain the antioxidant quercetin, a type of flavonoid that improves the intimate health of women.Quercetin lowers blood pressure, thereby preventing sexual dysfunction, as damage to blood vessels can impair blood flow to the genitals.
  • Beetroot. It contains antioxidants, vitamins and nitrates to improve your sex life. Nitrates dilate blood vessels, improve blood flow, and have a beneficial effect on muscle contraction. Dietary nitrates are also found in spinach, arugula, watercress, and celery.
  • Red wine. Like me in apples, red wine contains quercetin, an antioxidant that improves blood flow.Research suggests that regularly drinking small amounts of red wine increases sexual desire, lubrication, and improves a woman’s sexual performance. At the same time, do not consume a lot of red wine and limit yourself to two glasses a day. Remember that excessive consumption of any alcohol can have the opposite effect.

Of course, food and diet alone will not help if there are serious dysfunctions and hormonal imbalances, and before you go on a diet and try to heal yourself, be sure to check with a good gynecologist in Strogino to find out the cause of the disease.

METROMICON-NEO: discomfort – no, life in paints – yes

Vaginal infections occupy one of the leading places among gynecological problems. At the same time, experts note that there is a tendency for an increase in the number of women facing similar problems. The cause of their occurrence is both a violation of the normal microflora of the vagina and the penetration of pathogenic flora or sexually transmitted diseases into it.

Violation of the balance of the vaginal microflora and the predominance of pathogenic flora as a result of this can occur for various reasons. This leads to the intake of drugs such as antibiotics, cytostatics, hormonal drugs, corticosteroids.

Vaginal infections can be the result of both non-observance of hygiene rules and excessive douching, especially alkaline solutions.

During such a procedure, normal microflora is washed out of the vagina, the pH environment is disturbed.As a result, dysbiosis develops, which is the trigger mechanism for the spread of opportunistic microflora – the main cause of vaginal infection.

Thus, the concept of vaginal infection combines vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis, since they have similar manifestations – inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, itching and burning sensation in the area of ​​the external female genital organs, and are also accompanied by pathological vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor.

METROMIKON-NEO is an effective treatment for vaginal infections: trichomaniac vaginitis, vaginal and vulvovaginal candidiasis, anaerobic infections

Vaginal candidiasis (thrush), related to a fungal infection, is one of the consequences of dysbiosis and the cause of the symptoms described above.Normally, yeast fungi of the genus Candida inhabit the vaginal mucosa without harming the woman. However, under the influence of various factors listed above, the body’s resistance decreases, and the fungi begin to actively multiply, provoking the development of thrush.

Another cause of vaginitis can be bacteria, for example, such as Trichomonas, which are the cause of the development of trichomoniasis, which is one of the first most common diseases of the genitourinary tract and sexually transmitted diseases.Among the main symptoms of the disease in women, in combination with itching, redness, and pain during urination, abundant foamy discharge, which is distinguished by an unpleasant (fishy) odor, is most often noted.

These symptoms, which significantly reduce the quality of life of a woman, her self-esteem and affect her sexual activity, force her to seek help from doctors, and they, in turn, to engage in the selection of effective drugs that can restore health to the fair sex.

When choosing a method for treating patients with vaginal infections, not only the properties of the drug are important, but also the route of its administration. In this case, topical application has several advantages. So, drugs used topically and administered vaginally act directly in the focus of infection, but they do not have a systemic effect, and, therefore, have a lower risk of developing adverse reactions (for example, irritation of the digestive tract). Moreover, such drugs can be used in cases where systemic drugs for the treatment of vaginal infections are contraindicated.

All these requirements are met by the drug METROMICON-NEO of the company “FARMAPRIM” SRL (Republic of Moldova), presented in the form of vaginal suppositories, which are effectively used in gynecological practice for the treatment of vaginal infections such as trichomaniac vaginitis, vaginal and vulvovaginal candidiasis, anaerobic infections, mixed vaginal infections. METROMIKON-NEO is a combined preparation with antiprotozoal, antifungal and antibacterial action. The main active ingredients of this drug are metronidazole and miconazole.

The first of the components is active against a wide range of bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis , protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica) , anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (Bacteroides spp. (Bacteroides, fragatiso distis, Bacteroides Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides vulgatus), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp. (Prevotella bivia, Prevotella buccae, Prevotella disiens)) , anaerobic gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium spp., Eubacterium spp.) , anaerobic gram-positive cocci (Peptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp.) .

Dermatomycetes and yeasts are the most sensitive to the second component of the preparation. Miconazole is active against the causative agent of varicoloured lichen (Malassezia furfur) , causative agents of some dermatomycosis (Candida albicans, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum) . It is also active against Dimorphons fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp., Pityrosporum, Torulopsis glabrata, Pseudallescheria boydii , some gram-positive microorganisms, including staphylococci and streptococci. Miconazole helps to stop the growth of fungi and has a detrimental effect at all stages of the development of fungal infections.

Thanks to such a well-chosen combination, the specialists of “FARMAPRIM” SRL have obtained an effective, convenient and affordable combination drug for most patients, providing its complex effect on various causative agents of vaginal infections.

A successful combination, developed by the specialists of “FARMAPRIM” SRL, provides a complex effect of the drug on various causative agents of vaginal infections

Therefore, the drug can be used for a number of common gynecological diseases: bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, as well as vaginitis caused by mixed infection (Trichomonas, anaerobic pathogens, gardnerella, yeast-like fungi).

Modern principles of organization of production processes, the use of high-quality raw materials and packaging material (meeting all the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia and the US Pharmacopoeia), advanced production equipment, the implementation of quality management allow FARMAPRIM SRL to guarantee a consistently high quality of drugs.

Thanks to all this – the effectiveness of the drug, its quality, favorable safety profile and availability to most patients – women can enjoy life and forget about discomfort today!

Based on materials provided by Ametrin LLC

Illustration
© Smartfoto \ Dreamstime.com \ Dreamstock.ru

Tsikava information for you:

Fungal lesions of the eyes (diagnosis, treatment)

UDC 617.7 + 616.9: 053.2

V.M. DELYAGIN, M.B. MELNIKOVA, B.S. PERSHIN, G. I. SERIK, D.T. DZHANDAROVA

Federal Scientific and Clinical Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology named after Dmitry Rogachev, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 117997, Moscow, st. Zamory Machela, 1

Fungal eye disease (diagnosis, treatment)

Vasily Mikhailovich Delyagin – Doctor of Medical Sciences, Head of the Department of Clinical Physiology, Head of the Department of Functional Diagnostics, Professor of the Department of Polyclinic Pediatrics, Russian National Research Medical University, tel.(495) 287-65-70 (ext. 48-09), e-mail: [email protected]

Melnikova Marina Borisovna – Candidate of Medical Sciences, ophthalmologist, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 12-13), e-mail: [email protected]

Pershin Boris Sergeevich – candidate of medical sciences, ophthalmologist, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 12-13), e-mail: [email protected]

Serik Galina Ivanovna – post-graduate student of the Department of Clinical Physiology, tel.(495) 287-65-70 (ext. 48-09), e-mail: [email protected] Dzhandarova Jamilya Temirlanovna – candidate of biological sciences, head of the bacteriological laboratory, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 13-30), e-mail: [email protected]

Based on our own observations and literature data, the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of fungal lesions of the eyes are presented. Hybrid eye infection more often affects patients with acquired and congenital immunodeficiency, is likely with cancer, neutropenia <500 / ml, antibiotic-resistant fever of unknown origin, severe surgical interventions, intravenous nutrition, blood concentration of fi-d-glucan> 20 pg.The outcome of fungal endophthalmitis depends on the virulence of the microorganism, the extent of the involvement of the intraocular media, the time and type of intervention. Mold infections are worse than yeast infections. In aspergillosis, the macula is predominantly affected. The clinical and instrumental picture is discussed. The importance of ultrasound studies is emphasized. Recommendations are given for the management and follow-up of patients.

Keywords: eye, fungal infection, children.

V.M. DELYAGIN, M.B. MELNIKOVA, B.S. PERSHIN, G.I. SERIK, D.T. DZHANDAROVA

Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology named after Dmitry Rogachev, 1 Samori Maschel St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 117997

Fungal damage of eyes (diagnosis and treatment)

Delyagin V.M. – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Functional Diagnostics, Head of the Department of Clinical Physiology, Professor

of the Department Polyclinic Pediatrics of RNRMU, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 48-09), e-mail: [email protected]

Melnikova M.B. – MD, PhD, ophthalmologist, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 12-13), e-mail: [email protected]

Pershin B.S. – MD, PhD, ophthalmologist, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 12-13), e-mail: [email protected]

Serik G.I. – postgraduate student of the Department of Clinical Physiology, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 12-13), e-mail: [email protected]

Dzhandarova D.T. – Cand. Biol. Sc., Head of Bacteriology Laboratory, tel. (495) 287-65-70 (ext. 13-30),

e-mail: [email protected]

Basing on own observations and literature data, we present pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of eye fungal infections. Eye fungal infection is typical in cases of congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, it is likely with cancer, neutropenia <500 / ml, with antibiotic-resistant fever of unknown origin, heavy surgery, intravenous nutrition, blood concentrations of fi-d-glucan> 20 pg.The outcome of fungal endophthalmitis depends on the virulence of the organism, involving intraocular media latitude, time and type of intervention. Infection associated with mold fungi is worse than the one associated with yeast. Aspergillosis predominantly affects the yellow spot. We discuss the clinical and instrumental pattern, emphasizing the importance of ultrasound examination. Recommendations are given on the treatment and follow-up of patients. Key words: eye, fungal infection, children

Fungal lesions of the eyes can be the result of endogenous dissemination of infection (usually candidal) with congenital or acquired immunosuppression, tumor diseases, administration of intravenous drugs, bacterial-

sepsis, systemic antibiotic and corticosteroid therapy, long-term malnutrition, recent surgery on the abdominal organs, alcoholism, diabetes, trauma and hemodialysis [1-3].Exogenous

Fungal infections of the eye caused by representatives of molds (most often Paecilomyces, Acremonium and Sporothrix spp.) Usually develop after trauma, surgical treatment, or instillation of contaminated solutions [4]. In modern conditions of intensive care and surgical interventions, active treatment of oncohematological patients, HIV-infected, organ transplantation, fungal infection, including ophthalmic, can be a problem in multidisciplinary hospitals.

Etiology and pathophysiology

Fungi are more often eukaryotes, which are normally found in nature. For ophthalmopathology, the most significant are mold and yeast [5]. Molds, known as filamentous, are multicellular organisms that are formed from a tangled mass known as mycelium. From this mass, projections of filaments (hyphae) bud. Hyphae may or may not have septa.Hyphae with septa (true division) consist of several cells, hyphae without septa do not have such a division. The main filamentous fungi with septa belong to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cephalosporium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. Mushrooms without septa belong to Mucor spp. Yeast fungi are single-celled organisms that can develop pseudohyphae.

Fungal eye infection can manifest itself in different forms: as an external infection (keratitis) or endogenous (for example, endophthalmitis) and can be conditionally defined as fungal ophthalmopathy (GO).Frequent risk factors [6] of GO are candidemia (previous surgery on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), malnutrition, immunosuppression, diabetic retinopathy). Under certain conditions, Candida is able to multiply excessively in the gastrointestinal tract with subsequent transfer into the bloodstream, from there through the hemophthalmic barrier – into the eye. Intravitreal glucose concentration is higher in diabetic patients as compared to healthy ones, which may explain the predominant lesion of the vitreous body by Candida fungi [7].C. albicans is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. These fungi are commensals that inhabit the human body and are normally found in the female genital tract, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory organs [8].

In a healthy body, fungi are under immune control. When the immune system is compromised, fungi can spread throughout the body. Many organs are affected through the bloodstream, including the eye. In this case, the infection begins in the choroid and spreads to the retina and vitreous humor [Edwards].

The risk group includes patients with long-standing central venous catheters receiving intravenous drugs, postmenopausal women, newborns and premature infants, patients with dystrophy, after surgery on the gastrointestinal tract, patients with diabetes, after organ transplantation, with cancer [9] …

Prevalence of GO

Modern intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the need for immunosuppression when widely

transplants of organs and hematopoietic stem cells, cases of uncontrolled HIV infection, long-term intravenous catheters, massive antibiotic therapy led to an increase in the number of cases of HO.In developed countries, GO is rare and mainly in lymphoproliferative diseases [10]. In countries with a tropical climate and low socio-economic living conditions of the majority of the population, up to 22% of proven cases of infectious endophthalmitis are associated with fungi [11]. The frequency of various forms of HO depends on the patient’s previous status and the route of introduction of the infection. For example, the frequency of all forms of exogenous endophthalmitis after a penetrating eye injury is 5%, of which 10% is fungal infection.But in cases of intraocular surgery, the frequency of endophthalmitis does not exceed 0.05-0.2%, of which no more than 5% is fungal endophthalmitis. That is, an eye injury with exogenous material contaminated with microbes and fungi should be considered as a threat to the development of HO. In contrast to exogenous endophthalmitis, endogenous endophthalmitis in 50% of cases is fungal. All patients predisposed to opportunistic infection should automatically be considered as threatened by HR. HO is highly probable in cancer, neu-tropenia <500 / ml, antibiotic-resistant fever of unknown origin, severe surgical interventions, intravenous nutrition, blood concentration of β-glucan> 20 rd [11-15].

Clinical picture. Diagnostics and differential diagnostics (DD)

The first complaints may be pain (with kera-tomycosis), “flies before the eyes”, scotomas, loss of vision. If the focus is on the periphery of the retina or if the patient is in critical condition, the course of HO may be asymptomatic. On ophthalmologic examination, candidal chorioretinitis appears as small, creamy-white dots with adjacent vitreous inflammation.Sometimes the lesions are surrounded by a hemorrhagic corolla. At the site of origin of the lesion, the retinal vessels may be obscured. In the vitreous body, opaque formations are determined, resembling fluffy balls, which can be interconnected by threads (“pearl threads”). With an unfavorable course of HO, epiretinal membranes can form, which lead to vitreoretinal traction and retinal detachment. If the disease is treatable and the lesions shrink, chorioretinal scars form.In place of these scars, vascular neovascular membranes can form. More than 2/3 of patients suffer from a bilateral process and in more than one-third of the inflammation spreads to the vitreous body. Iridocyclitis and accumulation of pus in the anterior chamber of the eye often develop. Infections of the iris and ciliary body are very rare. With Aspergillus endophthalmitis, iridocyclitis with or without accumulation of pus in the anterior chamber of the eye, yellow subretinal or retinal infiltration with macular lesions can be detected.The progression of the disease is manifested by damage to the vitreous body, hiding all the details of the fundus. Over time, the lesions on the retina are scarred.

Figure 1. Echogram of the eye with fungal endfothalmitis. An avascular, insufficiently homogeneous mass (arrows) with a maximum diameter of 7 mm extends from the posterior pole of the eye into the vitreous body

Aspergillus is tropic to the vessels, leading to thrombosis and subsequent necrosis.If fungi invade the choroid, exudative retinal detachment or necrosis may develop. Cryptococcal endophthalmitis usually presents as multifocal chorioretinitis in the form of discrete white-yellow lesions of various sizes. Retinal vessels can be obscured, and inflammation of the vitreous body of varying intensity can also develop. Retinal necrosis is associated with hemorrhagic changes and its exudative detachment. An inflammatory reaction is noted in the anterior segment of the eye.With an unfavorable course, neovascularization of the iris and the development of cataracts occurs. Cocci-diomycosis of the eye is very rare. Severe granulomatous iridocyclitis usually occurs with typical lamb-like corneal precipitates. Multifocal choroiditis is characterized by the presence of scattered, isolated white-yellow foci less than the diameter of the disc. Sometimes occultation of blood vessels, loss of transparency of the vitreous body, serous retinal detachment and its hemorrhage are also found [16-18].

DD is performed with bacterial or postoperative endophthalmitis, extramedullary leukemic foci, acute retinal necrosis, sarcoidosis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, syphilis.

Imaging studies

Clinical alertness plays an important role in identifying patients who may have fungal endophthalmitis.Fungal endophthalmitis should be ruled out in patients with vitreous inflammation associated with a chorioretinal focus, with previous or current severe debilitating disease. Diagnosis of HO is based on an ophthalmological examination. On examination, the vitreous humor is usually opaque. The optic discs are blurred, there is slight venous congestion, the arteries are slightly narrowed. A rounded grayish formation with different-sized, mainly small hemorrhages is visualized, protruding into the vitreous body.Ultra-

Figure 2. Culture of the fungus Fusarium, which caused endogenous ophthalmitis

sound examination provides a lot of additional information, especially in cases of vitreous opacity. Fungal growths are visualized as dense rounded formations without vessels, without fluid content. Retinal edema, its partial detachment due to the accumulation of inflammatory fluid, the spread of fungal growths into the vitreous body can be detected.With fluorescent angiography in the early phase of the study, chorioretinal foci are defined as hypofluorescent accumulations, in later phases dispersion occurs.

Here is a clinical observation [19]

Girl R. fell ill during a summer vacation in Turkey in June 2013. There were complaints of severe weakness, febrile fever, pallor of the skin, hospitalized in the children’s hospital in g.Marmaris. On examination – hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, petechiae, ecchymosis. Diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), pre-T-variant, 1 acute period. On July 3, 2013, she started polychemotherapy (PCT), and after stabilization of her condition, the girl was delivered to the FNKTS DPOI. PCT was continued. Against the background of a stable condition since July 27, transient bone pains, subfebrile condition appeared. On July 29, 2013, an infiltrate appeared on the outer surface of the right thigh, from which the inoculation was performed and the growth of the filamentous fungus Fusarium solani was obtained.Antifungal systemic therapy was started. On August 1, 2013, the girl complained of decreased vision in the right eye, and was consulted by an ophthalmologist. Visual acuity was 0.1. Biomicroscopy of the eyeball was performed using a slit lamp and fundus lens. Revealed a white rounded epiretinal mass of irregular shape. According to the results of ultrasound examination, a foreign formation was found spreading into the vitreous body from the posterior pole of the eye (Fig. 1).

Taking into account the absence of remission of ALL, a long period of agranulocytosis, which was complicated by systemic bacterial and fungal infection, differential diagnosis was made between fungal endophthalmitis and blast infiltration.

Table.Antifungal drugs used in ophthalmology

Class of drugs Drugs Remarks

Polyene antibiotics Amphotericin Binds to sterol in the cell membrane of the fungus and changes the permeability of this membrane, which leads to the death of the microorganism. Has fungistatic and fungicidal action. When administered systemically, it poorly penetrates the vitreous body of the eye. Subconjunctival administration is not very effective [Brod].Active against fungi of the genus Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus

Imidazoles Bind to the cell wall of fungi and change the intracellular concentration of electrolytes. Have fungistatic effect

Fluconazole (Diflucan) Bistriazole of a broad spectrum of action, selectively inhibits the fungal cytochrome P-450 and sterol C-14 a-demyl, blocks the conversion of lanosterol into ergosterol, which disrupts the cell wall.Effective against fungi of the genus Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus. Good intravitreal penetration is noted after systemic administration of

Ketoconazole (Nizoral) Fungistatic action. It is active against Blastomyces dermatitidis, C immitis, Candida, Fusarium, in some cases – Aspergillus.

Itraconazole (Sporanox) Synthetic triazole

Miconazole (Absorbin, Femizol) It is prescribed intravenously due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.It is used as a second-line drug in the treatment of fungi of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and coccidioidomycosis. Used in case of refractoriness to Amphotericin B

Voriconazole (Vfend) Triazole. Used for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis and salvage therapy for infections with fungi of the genus Fusarium or Scedosporium apiospermum

Chemotherapeutic agents Fluorinated pyrimidines.Used in combination with other agents due to the frequent occurrence of resistance when used as monoagent

Flucytosine (Ankobon) Becomes active after penetration into the cell and conversion to fluorocyl, inhibits the synthesis of thymidine. Suppresses RNA replication and protein synthesis. Active against Candida, Cryptococcus fungi. It is used mainly in combination with Amphotericin B. Mammalian cells are not able to convert flucytosine to fluoracil, therefore flucytosine has low toxicity to humans

Echinocandins Inhibit cell wall synthesis

Caspofungin (Canidas) Used in the treatment of refractory aspergillosis.Inhibits the synthesis of β- (1,3) -D-glucan, a key component of the cell wall

tract of the vitreous cavity. On August 12, 2013, negative dynamics was noted due to a decrease in visual acuity to the correct light projection, after which, according to ophthalmoscopy, a diagnosis of “fungal endophthalmitis of the right eye” was made. A decision was made on intravitreal administration of antifungal drugs (Am-photericin B and Voriconazole). During therapy, there was a moderate positive trend in the form of partial restoration of vision.A decision was made on surgical treatment to achieve the first clinical and hematological remission, which was achieved on September 5, 2013. The goal of surgical treatment is to rehabilitate the focus of infection (fungal endophthalmitis). Taking into account the preservation of visual functions (correct light projection), an organ-preserving tactic of surgical intervention was chosen. Surgical treatment was performed against the background of hemostatic replacement therapy. Operation – total vitrectomy, partial removal of macular fibrosis and fungal masses (Fig.2) with a reduction of the retina, removal of the lens with implantation of an intraocular lens.

During the removal of the altered hyaloid membrane and residual fungal masses in the macular zone, multiple necrotic changes in the retina were diagnosed. In order to minimize the possible activity of the focus of infection in the postoperative period against the background of the planned PCT, after reposition of the retina, tamponade of the vitreous cavity with a perfluoroorganic compound was performed.After surgical treatment, positive dynamics and regression of the inflammatory process were noted.

Thus, GO (endophthalmitis) developed against the background of somatic fungal infection, depression of immunity as a hematogenous drift. At the time of achieving remission and surgical treatment, the visual functions of the retina disappeared, and it was not possible to preserve the vision of the right eye. Nevertheless, despite the severity of the ophthalmological manifestation of bacterial-fungal sepsis, it was possible to avoid enucleation of the eyeball, sanitizing the focus of infection, which made it possible to continue the treatment of the underlying disease and achieve its remission.

Laboratory research at GO

For any suspicion of HO, cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and urine should be examined. A culture study confirms the diagnosis, but false-negative in 30-56% of cases [19, 20]. Specimens obtained with vitreoectomy are more informative in the diagnosis of fungal cultures in comparison with a needle biopsy of the vitreous body.Highly informative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The main advantage of PCR over crops is sensitivity and speed of obtaining the result. However, PCR does not replace traditional mycological tests, but makes it possible to formulate an early differential diagnosis between bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis. The most informative method is the microarray DNA analysis [21].

Treatment

Therapeutic treatment – the use of antifungal drugs, incl.hours intravitreal (see table).

Systemic antifungal agents with a broad spectrum of action are recommended as the first line: Amphotericin B or Fluconazole [22, 23]. Vitrectomy improves treatment outcomes for fungal endophthalmitis. The advantages of vitrectomy are obtaining material for inoculation, removing living organisms and products of inflammation from the infected vitreous cavity, and providing intravitreal access for antifungal drugs.Vitrectomy and intravitreal administration of Amphotericin B should be performed in those cases of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis when progression is noted despite initial therapy with the necessary systemic antifungal drug.

Outcomes

The outcome of HO depends on the virulence of the organism, the extent of the involvement of the intraocular media, the time and type of intervention. Mold infections are worse than yeast infections.In case of HO associated with Aspergillus fungi, the outcome is worse, because the macula is very often affected [24]. Timely therapy after early diagnosis can significantly reduce vision loss in all forms of fungal endophthalmitis.

Conclusion

Due to the modern possibilities of diagnostics and treatment of primary and secondary immune deficiencies, oncological diseases, the frequency of fungal eye lesions has increased.Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis flows most unfavorably. Fungal endophthalmitis is a local manifestation of a systemic disease that requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment.

REFERENCES

1. Klotz S., Penn C., Negvesky G., Butrus S. Fungal and parasitic infections of the eye // Clin Microbiol Rev. – 2000. – Vol. 13 (4). – R. 662-685.

2.Mikosz C., Smith R., Kim M., Tyson C., Lee E., Adams E. Fungal endophthalmitis associated with compounded products // Emerg Infect Dis. – 2014. – Vol. 20 (2). – R. 248-256.

3. Schiedler V., Scott I., Flynn H., Davis J., Benz M., Miller D. Culture-proven endogenous endophthalmitis: clinical features and visual acuity outcomes // Am J Ophthalmol. – 2004. – Vol. 137 (4). – R. 725-731.

4.Shah C., McKey J., Spirn M., Maguire J. Ocular candidiasis: a review // Br J Ophthalmol. – 2008. – Vol. 92 (4). R. 466-468.

5. Essman T., Flynn H., Smiddy W., Brod, Murray T., Davis J. Treatment outcomes in a 10-year study of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis // Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. – 1997. – Vol. 28 (3). – R. 185-194.

6. Lundquist O., Osterlin S. Glucose concentration in the vitreous of nondiabetic and diabetic human eyes // Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.- 1994. – Vol. 232 (2). – R. 71-74.

7. Lalwani G., Flynn H., Scott I., Quinn C., Berrocal A., Davis J., Murrey T., Smiddy W., Miller D. Acute-onset endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery (1996- 2005). Clinical features, causative organisms, and visual acuity outcomes // Ophthalmology. – 2008. – Vol. 115 (3). – R. 473-476.

8. Griffin J., Pettit T., Fishman L., Foos R.Blood-borne Candida endophthalmitis. A clinical and pathologic study of 21 cases // Arch Ophthalmol. – 1973. – Vol. 89 (6). – R. 450-456.

9. Donahue S., Greven C., Zuravleff J., Eller A., ​​Nguyen M., Peacock J., Wagener N., Yu V. Intraocular candidiasis in patients with candidemia. Clinical implications derived from a prospective multicenter study // Ophthalmology. – 1994. – Vol. 101 (7). – R. 1302-1309.

10.Behlan J. Fungal Infections and Eye. In: Albert D, Miller I, Azar D, Blodi B, Cohan I, PerkinsT. (Eds.) Albert & Jakobiec’s Principles & Practice of Ophthalmology, Third Edition. W.B Saunders Company, 2008, Chapter 342. -P. 4717-4749.

11. Anand A., Madhavan H., Neelam V., Lily T. Use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis // Ophthalmology. – 2001. – Vol. 108 (2). – P. 326-330.

12.Kloess P., Stulting R., Waring G., Wilson L. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty // Am J Ophthalmol. – 1993. – Vol. 115 (4). – R. 309.

13. Norregaard J., Thoning H., Bernth-Petersen P., Andresen T., Javit J., Anderson G. Risk of endophthalmitis after cataract extraction: results from the International Cataract Surgery Outcome Study // Br J Ophthalmol. – 1997. – Vol. 81 (12). – R. 102-106.

14.D’Amico D., Noorily S. Postoperative endophthalmitis. In: Albert D., Jakobiec F. (Eds): Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. – Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994 .– P. 1159.

15. Tanaka M., Kobayashi Y., Takebyashi H., Kiyokawa M., Qui H. Analysis of predisposing clinical and laboratory findings for the development of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. A retrospective 12 year study of 79 eyes of 46 patients. Retina 2001 .– 21 (3). – R.203-209.

16. Zakka K., Foos R., Brown W. Intraocular coccidioidomycosis // Surv Ophthalmol. – 1978. – Vol. 22 (5). – R. 313-321.

17. Wykoff C., Flynn W., Miller D., Scott J., Akfonso E. Exogenous fungal endophthalmitis: microbiology and clinical outcomes // Ophthalmology. – 2008. – Vol. 115 (9). – R. 1501-1507

18. McMillan B., Miller G., Nguyen J. Rare case of exogenous Candida dublieniensis endophthalmitis: a case report and brief review of the literature // J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. – 2014. – Vol. 2 (4). – P. 11.doi: 10.1186 / 1869-5760-4-11. eCollection 2014.

19. Persin B., Mahmutov W., Boginskaya O., Panina M. Clinical case of fungal endophthalmitis in a patient with primary refractory during T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia // Russian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology.- 2014. – 2. – P. 85-86.

20. Okhravi N., Adamson P., Mant R., Matheson M., Midgley G., Towler H., Lightman S. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism mediated detection and speciation of Candida spp causing intraocular infection // Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. – 1998. – Vol. 39 (6). – R. 859-866.

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22. Brod R., Flynn H., Clarkson J., Pflugfelder S., Culbertson W., Miller D. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis. Management without intravenous amphotericin B // Ophthalmology. – 1990. – Vol. 97 (5). – R. 666-672; disc: 672-674.

23. Nayak N. Fungal infections of the eye – laboratory diagnosis and treatment // Nepal Med Coll J.- 2008. – Vol. 10 (1). – R. 48-63.

24. Sridhar J., Flynn H., Kuriyan A., Miller D., Albini T. Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis: risk factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes in mold and yeast infections // J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. – 2013. – Vol. 3 (1). – P. 60. Published online 2013 Sep 20. doi: 10.1186 / 1869-5760-3-60

TOM 1

90,000 Can a diet improve a woman’s intimate health?

Having a healthy sex drive is linked to a feeling of physical and emotional health, so it should come as no surprise that what you eat plays a role in improving your sex life.In addition, certain foods can improve the condition of the vagina, normalize and maintain its microflora. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to such foods, adding them to the diet and reducing the amount of potentially dangerous dishes.

Diet for intimate health

A nutritious, well-chosen diet will benefit your sex life in many ways, as it causes:

  • an increase in your libido;
  • Improving blood flow and heart health;
  • increase in physical endurance;
  • positive effect on the vaginal microflora;
  • improvement of general well-being and visual attractiveness.

Eating a diet rich in vegetables and lean protein, with a minimum of sugar and saturated fat, also helps prevent disorders that affect female libido, such as metabolic syndrome and hormonal imbalances. Choose foods that can increase your libido as well as improve your overall health, because what you eat nourishes all cells in your body, including your reproductive organs. Your diet affects almost everything from your menstrual cycle to your mood, so eating the best intimate health foods will help keep your sex life active.

What foods to include in the diet (and what to exclude from it) to get the most beneficial diet for intimate health? Let’s discuss in more detail.

Yes: sources of prebiotics and probiotics

The female vagina, like the intestines, requires healthy bacteria to fight infections and maintain a normal pH (acidity). Any foods that promote gut health can also promote a healthy balance of vaginal bacteria.According to nutritionists, consuming probiotics helps women with vaginitis, a chronic vaginal discomfort that can lead to pain during sex.

To improve gut and vaginal health, nutritionists advise eating prebiotic foods such as garlic, onions, especially uncooked leeks, along with probiotic foods such as yogurt, kimchi, pickles, sauerkraut, tempeh, and kombucha. But keep an important note: prebiotic and probiotic supplements are not as good as real foods with these biologically active ingredients.Laboratory formulations cannot surpass Mother Nature.

Yes: Nuts and other superfoods with healthy fats

The healthy fats found in nuts, olive oil, avocados are often touted as superfoods for their active role in regulating cholesterol levels. But this, in turn, also helps to normalize the balance of estrogen levels, which maintains healthy vaginal lining, which helps prevent infections. Almonds and other nuts are especially good because they contain B vitamins and calcium, which are essential for preventing vaginitis.

No: Processed foods

While prebiotic and probiotic foods add beneficial bacteria to the intestines and vagina, highly processed foods suppress the immune system, allowing harmful bacteria to activate and provoke inflammation. This can lead to all sorts of intimate problems, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, dryness, pain during sex, and urinary tract infections.

No: sugar

Too much sugar is also bad for the vagina.In particular, it can reduce the number of beneficial vaginal bacteria (called “lactobacilli”) necessary for the health of microflora, or completely suppress them. Basically, sugar is the opposite of probiotics. A bacterial imbalance can lead to yeast infections, soreness, and irritation – three things that no woman would want to face.

None: Meat and dairy products containing artificial hormones

Some meat and dairy products contain xenoestrogens, artificial hormones that mimic estrogen.According to nutritionists, these substances can block estrogen from the vagina, preventing the lining from renewing itself, which, again, can leave you vulnerable to intimate infections.

Yes: clean drinking water

Maintain fluid balance as the vagina is like an oral cavity. When a woman is thirsty and her throat is dry, her vagina is probably also dehydrated. Hydration can also help prevent unusual odors in the intimate area.This is another reason to drink the recommended eight glasses of water a day.

Yes: oysters and other zinc products

You’ve probably heard of aphrodisiacs. Oysters are one of the most powerful aphrodisiacs. The reason is that they are rich in zinc. This compound increases blood flow, which promotes blood flow to the genitals. Zinc is especially important for male fertility as it helps regulate testosterone levels.

Oysters contain more zinc than any other food source: one serving provides 673% of the RDI (!).If you are not a fan of shellfish , try the lobster or crab instead. Both shellfish contain zinc. Non-seafood sources of zinc: beef, pork, baked beans, pumpkin seeds, cereals .

Yes: Salmon and other fatty fish

Salmon contains heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Pink flesh fish and sardines, tuna and halibut can play a role in maintaining the health of your body and your sex life.Studies have shown that omega-3s help prevent plaque build-up in arteries, which promotes healthy blood flow throughout the body.

Maintaining the smooth functioning of the circulatory system reduces the likelihood of certain disorders that impair sexual function. Omega-3 fatty acids slightly lower the risk of coronary heart disease and death from cardiovascular disease, and also lower blood triglyceride (fat) levels. Fish is also an excellent source of protein, vitamin B12, vitamin D and iron, and contains zinc.To maintain heart and whole body health, it is recommended that you consume at least two servings of fish per week.

Yes: apples

Apples are rich in a compound called quercetin. This antioxidant is a type of intimate health-promoting flavonoid. Quercetin can successfully lower blood pressure at doses greater than 500 mg per day. High blood pressure can lead to sexual dysfunction as damage to the blood vessels impairs blood flow to the genitals.

In women, high blood pressure leads to decreased libido and decreased interest in sex, especially if hypertension causes fatigue. Reduced blood flow to the vagina can affect the body’s response to sexual activity. In general, a diet rich in flavonoids improves overall health and supports a healthy sex life. Healthy foods rich in flavonoids include apples, strawberries, blueberries, dark grapes, red wine, cherries, citrus .

Yes: beets

This root vegetable is rich in antioxidants and vitamins, making it a useful addition to any diet. The vegetable is also rich in nitrates, which means it can help improve your sex life. Dietary nitrates dilate blood vessels, a process known as vasodilation that improves blood flow. It has a beneficial effect on muscle contraction (some athletes use nitrates to increase workout performance). Research suggests that just one dose of beet juice or taking it over several days can improve performance in people with intermittent, high-intensity exercise with short rest periods.

Dietary nitrates from beet juice are also thought to help control blood pressure. The researchers say it may benefit people with healthy blood pressure and hypertension. In theory, these same mechanisms could help improve blood flow and stamina during sex, while improving overall heart health. Other foods high in healthy nitrates: spinach, rucola, watercress, celery, radish .

Yes (with reservation): red wine

Like apples , red wine contains quercetin, an antioxidant that increases blood flow.Research has shown that regular, moderate consumption of red wine is associated with higher sexual desire, increased lubrication levels, and overall sexual function. It was noted that drinking more than two glasses of red wine a day or taking other alcoholic beverages does not give the same results. Excessive drinking of wine (and any alcohol) has the opposite effect, leading to sexual dysfunction.

Glossary – sterilAir AG | Highest competence in UV disinfection.

  • absorption

    Absorption and confinement of electromagnetic waves by conversion to heat, in this case: radiation in the wavelength range of about 254 nm.

  • adenine

    Adenine (C 5 H 5 N 5 ) is one of the four organic complementary bases in DNA and RNA. It forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine in the double helix of DNA.

  • aerobes

    Organisms that need oxygen for metabolism (O 2 ) are called aerobes.Most of the causative agents of skin diseases and respiratory tract infections belong to the group of aerobic bacteria. From a chemical point of view, the aerobic process is oxidation.

  • amino acids

    Amino acids are a class of organic compounds that, among other things, serve as the building blocks of proteins. There are 22 proteinogenic amino acids and a large number of non-proteinogenic amino acids. Amino acids are an integral part of the metabolism and thus the foundation of all life.

  • amorphous

    Amorphous in physics and chemistry are those substances whose atoms do not form an ordered structure, but have only an irregular structure without long-range order bonds. The amorphous state is achieved by rapid heating or cooling. The opposite of an amorphous structure is a crystalline structure.

  • anaerobes

    Organisms that do not need oxygen for metabolism are called anaerobes. At the same time, organisms living exclusively in the absence of oxygen access (obligate anaerobes) are distinguished from facultative anaerobes, which can also use oxygen respiration.For example, enterobacteria (intestinal microbes) are facultative anaerobes.

  • antibiotics

    Antibiotics are medicines intended for the treatment of bacterial or parasitic infectious diseases. Antibiotics for treating fungal infections are called antibiotics. The first natural antibiotic was discovered in 1928, penicillin, obtained from a mold. Today antibiotics are also synthesized in an artificial way. They can interfere with the formation of intercellular walls, the formation of protein, disrupt the transfer of genetic material and combine these effects.

  • Aspergillus (Aspergillus)

    Microorganisms of the genus Aspergillus are temperature-tolerant molds. Notable representatives are Aspergillus niger (black mold), Aspergillus amstelodami or Aspergillus fumigatus. These organisms grow best at elevated temperatures. Some types of aspergillus form metabolic products that are toxic to humans (mycotoxins), which are the cause of food poisoning. In addition, airborne spores can cause allergies and even organ damage.Aspergillus spores are extremely resistant to ultraviolet radiation and high doses are required. See also: UV exposure – dose-effect relationship

  • atom

    An atom is the smallest, chemically indivisible particle, consisting of a nucleus and one or more electrons. Atoms form molecules such as oxygen (O 2 ) or water (H 2 O). An unperturbed atom is electrically neutral.

  • B. anthracis

    Bacillus anthracis is an obligate aerobic, gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium known to cause anthrax.The spores of this microorganism are extremely hardy, and due to their very high lethality, anthrax bacteria are of great importance as a biological weapon.

  • B. cereus

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic and widespread soil bacterium that is often found in various foods. This includes rice in particular, since spores do not die even when boiling.

  • bacilli

    Rod-shaped bacteria – about 200 species. In colloquial speech, bacilli are generally called small pathogens.

  • bactericidal

    killing bacteria and other microorganisms

  • bacteria

    Bacteria are classified as prokaryotes. They are unicellular microorganisms whose DNA in the cytoplasm is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane, unlike eukaryotes. Due to the absence of a complex cell structure, the dose of ultraviolet radiation required for disinfection is usually low.Most types of bacteria multiply by cell division, some also form spores.

  • biocide

    in general pest control agent

  • biofilm

    Biofilms are thin layers of microorganisms (for example, bacteria or algae) located on any surface. Microorganisms settle on surfaces, primarily in aqueous media, and form an extracellular mucous layer (film) as a retention mechanism.New organisms are constantly being formed in the biofilm and reintroduced into the water, which, for example, leads to contamination of cooling systems and water reservoirs. Fungi and yeast can also form on dying biofilms.

  • noble gases

    Noble gases are monatomic gases, the orbitals (electron shells) of which are completely occupied by electrons. Therefore, they have low chemical reactivity towards other gases or substances.

  • borrelia

    Borrelia is a spiral-shaped bacteria from the spirochete group. We are talking about relatively large, gram-negative bacteria that actively move forward by rotating movement around their axis.

  • Cerealia

    The word that penetrates into the Russian language from English (in English “cereals”) is associated with Ceres, the goddess of agriculture and fertility in Roman mythology, and means nothing more than ordinary breakfast cereals, i.e.e. muesli or cornflakes.

  • sensitivity

    in this case: UV sensitivity

  • cytoplasm

    a gelatinous liquid organic substance surrounded by a cell membrane that makes up the microorganism

  • cytosine

    Cytosine (C 4 H 5 N 3 O) is one of the four coding complementary bases in DNA.Cytosine forms a base compound through three hydrogen bonds with guanine.

  • decontamination

    Decontamination refers to the reduction of pathogens to a level that does not cause concern for human consumption. Technically, this implies a reduction of at least a 1 log step, i.e. by 90%.

  • disinfection

    Disinfection is not technically clearly defined. In general, disinfection is understood to mean the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms with a minimum value of 3 and a maximum value of 5 log.Ultraviolet disinfection refers to the destruction of at least 99.9% of the existing population of microorganisms using ultraviolet devices.

  • disinfectants (chemical)

    Disinfectants contain active substances that prevent the growth of microorganisms or destroy them. Disinfectants require sufficient concentration and exposure time (> 10 sec.). Known disinfectants are, for example, alcohols (isopropyl alcohol), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) or iodine-containing solutions (in everyday speech: iodine).

  • dimerization

    connection of two monomers

  • EU Directive 2006/25

    EU Directive on minimum requirements for the safety and health of workers against possible risks associated with the action of physical factors (artificial radiation)

  • wavelength (physical)

    Wavelength is the spatial interval between two adjacent peaks or troughs of an electromagnetic wave.In contrast, frequency refers to the time interval between two consecutive highs and lows of a wave. In a vacuum, the following rule applies: frequency * wavelength = speed of light. This means that the longer the radiation wavelength, the lower its frequency, and vice versa.

  • DNA

    [abbreviation for “Desoxyribonucleic acid”] – English name for DNA

  • DNA

    [abbreviation for “deoxyribonucleic acid”] – hereditary information carrier

  • authenticity

    We are talking about sufficient reliability if, in accordance with scientific or statistical scales, they want to indicate the probability of error.Thus, high confidence means a clear measurement result with a low probability of error.

  • dose

    Dose refers to a certain amount of radiated energy to which the body is exposed at a certain period of time. For UV sterilization, the dose is usually indicated in µW * s / cm² or J / m².

  • radiation dose

    in this case: exposure dose to ultraviolet radiation (UVC)

  • yeast

    The division into yeast and fungi in the subject matter is not correct, since yeasts are unicellular fungi.Most types of yeast are ascomycetes. The most famous representative of the yeast genus is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a baker’s yeast.

  • double helix

    Helix is ​​the name given to the shape of a coil or spiral. Accordingly, a double helix is ​​a double helix.

  • joule

    Unit J is an international unit for measuring energy, amount of heat, work. Conversion: 1 J = 1 W * s

  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)

    [short for Escherichia coli] – E.coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic and acid-forming bacteria that is found in the intestines of humans and animals. It got its Latin name from the name of its discoverer, bacteriologist and professor of pediatrics Theodor Escherich. E. coli acts as an indicator of faecal contamination. It is found primarily in raw milk, cottage cheese, and raw meat. E. coli is highly lethal when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. There is probably no other microorganism that has been better researched and described.

  • exposure

    impact, exposure

  • exotoxins

    Exotoxins are toxic substances constantly released by bacteria into the environment.

  • elastomer

    Elastomers are resilient artificial materials that are mechanically reshaped and return to their original shape when the load is removed.

  • electromagnetic wave

    An electromagnetic wave consists of an electrical and a magnetic component.Unlike shock waves, electromagnetic waves do not require a medium for propagation, and the propagation speed depends on the medium. In a vacuum, electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light. The most famous electromagnetic waves are, perhaps, those that are commonly called “light”.

  • electromagnetic spectrum

    The electromagnetic spectrum is a collection of electromagnetic waves.

  • electron

    An electron is an electrically charged elementary particle.The electron (e-) has a negative charge. A positively charged elementary particle (e + ) is called a positron.

  • electrostatics

    Electrostatics – the theory of stationary charges and their changing over time electric fields.

  • issue (physical)

    emission of electromagnetic waves

  • emitter (emitter)

    comes from the Latin “emittere” (to send). In physics, an emitter is a radiation source, hence the term “emission” also originated.

  • EMC

    [abbreviation for electromagnetic compatibility] is a test criterion for electrical or electronic devices to indicate their immunity to interference in a given environment.

  • endotoxins

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides that are found in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. They are released when microorganisms are destroyed and have toxic effects.

  • Enterobacteriaceae

    Enterobacteriaceae (Latin scientific name “Enterobacteriaceae”) are bacteria that are found in the intestinal microflora of humans and animals (from the Greek “enteron” – intestines).They do not need oxygen for metabolism (O 2 ), and therefore they belong to the group of facultative anaerobic bacteria. The typical representative of this species is E. coli (Escherichia coli).

  • enterococci

    Enterococci (Latin scientific name “Enterococcus”) are gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria, presented in pairs or short chains. They also refer to microorganisms that live in the intestines of humans and animals. Enterococci perform an important function in digestion and are added in food production for fermentation and maturation processes, as well as in probiotic foods in order to maintain microflora.

  • EPDM

    [abbr. from ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer] EPDM is a synthetic rubber that, due to its good elasticity, high resistance to ozone, acids and alkalis, is used primarily as a sealing material and a material for the manufacture of hoses and pipes.

  • epidemic

    An epidemic is a geographically limited spread of an infectious disease with a significant excess of the usual incidence rate.See also pandemic.

  • erythema

    medical term for redness of the skin or inflammation of the skin with its redness

  • eukaryotic cells

    (also “eukaryotes”) – cells with a membrane-surrounded nucleus, in which DNA is located in the form of chromosomes

  • optional

    optional, discretionary, voluntary

  • FDA

    (abbr.from the Food and Drug Administration) The FDA is the United States Food and Drug Administration. It reports to the Ministry of Health.

  • fecal microbes

    Fecal microbes (eg Escherichia coli) are understood to be all microorganisms that inhabit the intestines of humans or animals and the presence of which indicates contamination with faeces, fermentation products or putrefactive decay.

  • FEP

    (abbr.from Perfluorethylenpropylen-Copolymer) FEP is a water-repellent fluoroelastomer with a high degree of resistance to high temperatures and chemicals.

  • photolysis

    Photolysis is the destruction or separation of chemical compounds caused by light.

  • Photometer

    see “radiometer”

  • photons

    Photon – the smallest unit of perturbation of the electromagnetic field.It is also called the quantum of the electromagnetic field. At rest, a photon has zero mass and travels in a vacuum at the speed of light. Photons can interact with material particles and, accordingly, also be absorbed.

  • photochemistry

    see “photolysis”

  • FPM

    FPM (English abbreviation for fluoropropylene monomer) is a fluoroelastomer with very high ozone, weather and UV resistance.

  • fluoroplastic

    Fluoroplastics are polymers made from fluorine (F) and carbon (C). Typical fluoroplastics are FEP and PTFE, known under the trade name Teflon. Fluoroplastics are very resistant to chemicals and intense UV radiation. In addition, their thin layers are good at transmitting ultraviolet light in the short wavelength range.

  • fungicide

    chemical or biological substance for the destruction of fungal spores and molds

  • hepatitis

    Hepatitis in medicine is called inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by both hepatitis viruses and other pathogens, for example, bacteria and parasites.Of the classic viral hepatitis, the most common is infectious hepatitis B. Transmission occurs, as in the case of HIV, through direct contact of biological fluids. Direct exposure low to medium UV resistance.

  • herbicide

    weed control agent

  • GIFs

    Hyphae are microscopically small, long, very thin and branched filamentous formations in fungi that grow in all directions from a mold spore in a nutrient medium.Hyphae are used for feeding or reproduction (see “conidiophores”). The collection of hyphae is called mycelium.

  • gram-negative bacteria

    Gram-negative bacteria have only a thin cell wall with a single-layer structure of murein. Therefore, when stained according to Gram, they do not stain and appear reddish upon examination. Gram-negative bacteria are endotoxic, and in this case we are mainly talking about rod-shaped bacteria. Known representatives of this species are Legionella, Pseudomonas and Borrelia.

  • gram-positive bacteria

    Gram-positive bacteria turn dark blue when stained according to Gram. The reason for this is the thick cell wall, which can account for up to 50% of the dry weight of the membrane. Gram-positive bacteria are predominantly cocci and are exotoxic. Examples: Listeria, Clostridium, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus.

  • fungal spores

    see “disputes”

  • Guanine

    Guanine (C 5 H 5 N 5 O) is one of the four coding nucleobases of DNA and RNA.Guanine combines with the formation of three hydrogen bonds, always with complementary cytosine.

  • HACCP

    (abbreviated from the English “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points” – “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points”) A preventive system that must ensure food safety along the entire chain from production to consumer.

  • HDPE

    HDPE (abbreviated from English “High Density Polyethylen”) is a high density polyethylene.Thermoplastic plastic is highly resistant to acids, alkalis and chemicals.

  • Hg

    chemical sign of mercury

  • IFS

    (abbreviated from “International Food Standard” – “International standard for the production and sale of food”) Was defined in 2003 by representatives of food retailers in Europe and serves to verify and certify food safety systems, as well as quality and conformity standards in food production.

  • infection

    The term “infection” means the penetration and multiplication of pathogens in the body of the body. Depending on the method of transmission, contact and airborne infections are distinguished.

  • infrared radiation

    (abbreviated as “IR radiation”) Radiation with a spectral range from 780 nm to 1000 µm, i.e. the range of wavelengths between the spectral region of visible light and the so-called terahertz radiation. Thermal infrared radiation ranges from 3 µm to 50 µm.

  • inhibit

    suppress, delay the flow of processes

  • Intensity (physical)

    Intensity refers to the density of energy per area. The value is indicated, for example, in µW / cm 2 . For disinfection with ultraviolet light, this value is necessary to calculate the lethal dose.

  • ionizing radiation

    Any radiation that is able to remove electrons from atoms or molecules for a long time and therefore change their charge is called ionizing.Radioactive radiation and X-rays are typical representatives of ionizing energies. Ultraviolet radiation in the short wavelength range (UVC) has no ionizing power and therefore does not belong to ionizing types of radiation! (see also: technique – obtaining ultraviolet rays).

  • ions

    Ions are generally understood to mean electrically charged atoms.

  • radiation Dorno

    Dorno radiation is another and now rarely used name for UV B radiation.Karl Dorno was a Prussian naturalist who was deeply involved in the study of this biologically active radiation.

  • kB

    (abbreviation for “Kilobyte” – “kilobyte”) a unit of measurement of the amount of data in computer science

  • oxygen

    Oxygen (O 2 ) is the most abundant element on earth. As molecular oxygen, it is a colorless and odorless gas. Oxygen occurs primarily in combination with other elements, for example, in the form of water; its volume fraction in air is about 20%.

  • Clostridium

    Clostridia are anaerobic spore-forming gram-positive bacteria. Clostridial spores are very resistant to thermal disinfection methods and can be exposed to temperatures of 100 ° C for several hours without any damage. The LD90 value (UVC 254nm ) for chlorisidium lies in the range between 4.9 and 23 mJ / cm², depending on different test methods.

  • CFU

    (abbr.from “colony-forming unit) in biology, a value for determining the number of organisms that are able to form a colony by cell division

  • cohesion

    bond strength between molecules of a substance

  • cocci

    spherical bacteria

  • conidiophores

    Hyphae are called hyphae, which the mycelium forms vertically to the surface and on which conidia are formed, see also “mold”.

  • conidia

    Conidia is a special name for mold spores, see “spores”

  • conjunctivitis

    Conjunctivitis is a specialized medical term for painful inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye. It is associated with redness and swelling of the mucous membrane of the eye, as well as increased lacrimation. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye can be caused by infection, allergy or mechanical irritation of the eyes (contact lenses).

  • contagiousness

    a measure of the ability of an infectious agent to be transmitted by various routes

  • contamination

    in this case: contamination of biological samples

  • convection

    Convection is understood as a heat flux, in which heated matter moves to a region of lower temperatures.

  • xerophilic

    dry-loving

  • lactobacillus

    (also “lactic acid bacteria”, scientific Latin name “Lactobacillales”) Lactobacilli are anaerobic, gram-positive microorganisms that are found in the intestines or mucous membranes of mammals.They are mainly used in the manufacture of dairy products (cottage cheese, yoghurt, yogurt, etc.).

  • LD (LD)

    eng. abbr. Lethal dose, see lethal dose

  • LD90

    The LD value can be more precisely determined using an index. LD90 means the dose that kills 90% of the population on average.

  • legionella

    The Legionella family (scientific Latin name “Legionellaceae”) includes more than 48 known species and many subgroups.These are water-living, gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans. Since they require standing or circulating water in the temperature range of 25 – 50 ° C for optimal growth, they are primarily found in air washers, cooling towers, stagnant pipelines, water tanks and shower heads. Legionella is very well neutralized even with small doses of ultraviolet radiation in the short wavelength range (UVC).

  • lethal dose

    Lethal dose (LD) is a dose of a toxic substance or radiation that is lethal for the body.

  • lethality (med.)

    Mortality refers to the ratio of deaths to survivors following a dose of radiation, infection or disease, i.e. is an indicator of mortality. Thus, it is an indicator of danger.

  • log

    (abbreviated from the Latin spelling “logarithm”) Although “log” is usually used to abbreviate logarithms to base 10, their mathematically correct notation is “lg”. In this case, they speak of the decimal logarithm.

  • log reduction

    In biology, the reduction in the number of microorganisms is indicated in log-degrees. Thus, by the log-reduction X, we mean the reduction by X log-degrees with respect to the original population. Example: A 1 log-power reduction means a 90% reduction, because out of the original population of 100 (= 10 x 10) only 10 survived.

  • log-power

    (see also log reduction) Each log power describes in biology the reduction of a population by (one more) decimal order, i.e.i.e. 1 log-degree = 90%, 2 log-degrees = 99%, 3 log-degrees = 99.9%, etc.

  • logarithm for

    The logarithm is an important mathematical function. With its help, it is possible to represent well significantly growing number sequences. Taking logarithm is the inverse of raising to a power: ax = b, so x = logb (a) (in words: the logarithm of a to base b). This means: if a = 10x, then x = lg a.

  • macromolecule

    Macromolecules are very large molecules with a relatively large mass, from which the removal of individual atoms or groups of atoms does not affect their properties.Typical natural macromolecules are DNA and proteins, typical representatives of synthetic macromolecules are any polymers.

  • melanin

    Melanin is a pigment that, in humans, is responsible for, among other things, the pigmentation of the skin and protects it from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

  • melanoma

    (also “black skin cancer”) Melanoma is a malignant tumor that manifests itself as an asymmetrically growing skin change with a change in its color.

  • metabolism

    see “metabolism”

  • mycelium

    (also “mycelium”) Mycelium is understood as the totality of all hyphae that form a mold.

  • mycotoxins

    see “Aspergillus”

  • microbe

    medical term for the causative agent of diseases

  • micron

    unit of measure µm, conversion: 1 µm = 0.001 mm

  • microorganism

    (also “microbe”) Microorganisms are organic structures that are so small that they can usually only be seen with a microscope. In most cases, we are talking about unicellular, but sometimes about multicellular organisms.

  • microwatts

    unit of measure µW, conversion: 1 µW = 0.001 mW = 0.000001 W

  • molecule

    A molecule is a particle formed from two or more atoms, at least temporarily stable.Molecules can be composed of atoms of one element, for example, oxygen (O 2 ), ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen (N 2 ), or from atoms of different elements, for example, water (H 2 O) …

  • monomer

    Monomers are reactive molecules that can be combined into chains or units in a base unit.

  • Monochromatic radiation

    Radiation with a precisely defined wavelength, such as the one emitted by a laser.

  • MRSA

    (short for the English “methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus” – “methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus”) MRSA in the narrow sense means strains of Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus-aureus) resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics available on the market so far for example, penicillin).

  • murein

    (also “peptidoglycan”) Murein is a biopolymer with a three-dimensional spatial structure, which acts as a supporting skeleton of the cell wall in bacteria.A macromolecule is made up of amino acids and sugar molecules.

  • mutation

    If a highly stable genetic algorithm of the hereditary substance (DNA) of an organism acquires a permanent change over a long period of time, then they speak of a mutation. In contrast to modification, a mutation is characterized by continuous replication.

  • nanometer

    units nm, conversion: 1 nm = 0.000000001 m or 0.001 µm. For comparison: the diameter of a human hair is about 100.

  • NBR (NBR)

    (abbreviated for Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) NBR is a high temperature resistant synthetic rubber. It is particularly resistant to petroleum products such as liquid fuels and lubricants, gasoline and kerosene.

  • neutralization

    In technical terms, when lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation, microorganisms do not kill, but make them inactive and incapable of division.In addition, viruses, by definition, are not considered living organisms, and therefore they cannot be “killed”.

  • norovirus

    Noroviruses (actually “Norwalk viruses”) are non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded RNA. They are very contagious and the infection leads to acute gastroenteritis (gastrointestinal flu). Outbreaks of norovirus infections occur primarily in hospitals, as well as boarding schools and nursing homes (see information from the Robert Koch Institute).

  • nosocomial infection

    Nosocomial infections are infections that occur in a hospital or nursing facility.

  • obligatory

    mandatory, required, and indispensable

  • metabolism

    Metabolism in the body is understood as the intake, transportation and chemical transformation of substances, as well as the withdrawal of metabolic products into the environment.

  • oxidation

    (also “oxidation”) Oxidation generally refers to a chemical process in which an element reacts with oxygen or gives off electrons.

  • Gram stain

    Gram stain is a method developed by the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram to make bacteria more distinguishable for microscopic examination using a special dye. Based on the different structure of the cell wall, bacteria can be divided into two groups: they are called gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  • optical beams

    Optical radiation is understood as the range of electromagnetic waves from 100 nm to 1 mm. It includes, by definition, ultraviolet radiation (UV), visible light (VIS) and infrared radiation (IR).

  • organic compound

    Substances that primarily consist of hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) are understood as organic compounds. Organic chemistry deals with the properties, structure and creation of carbon compounds.

  • organism

    An organism is an individual form of life, see “living organism”.

  • reflection (physical)

    By “reflection” is meant a (partial) change in the direction of electromagnetic waves at the boundary of the media with their return to the original medium. The opposite of reflection is absorption. Since ultraviolet rays have a different wavelength from light, they behave differently at the media interface with respect to absorption and reflection, and therefore surfaces reflecting light should not be equated with surfaces reflecting ultraviolet rays!

  • ozone

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a gas with strong oxidizing properties and is toxic in high concentrations.The molecule consists of three oxygen atoms and is therefore unstable. Ozone naturally occurs as a result of exposure to sunlight on the stratosphere.

  • pandemic

    A pandemic is a temporary and more common outbreak of an infectious disease that spreads outside the state. see also “epidemic”.

  • parasite

    Parasites are organisms that need substances created by another organism (called the “host”) for their metabolism.At the same time, they harm the owner and can even kill him (parasitoids).

  • pathogenic

    This is the medical term for potentially disease-causing. The opposite of pathogenicity is apathogenicity. It means that the pathogen is not able to cause disease in a particular host organism. The causative agents of diseases affecting only humans are called pathogenic for humans.

  • pathogenic for humans

    is the medical term for human disease, cf.”Pathogenic”

  • PE (polyethylene)

    (abbreviated for “Polyethylen” – “polyethylene”) Polyethylene, along with polyvinyl chloride, is the most commonly manufactured thermoplastic artificial material. Depending on their density, various types of polyethylene are distinguished. Ultraviolet (UVC) resistance is low for all types of polyethylene, but may vary depending on color, see also: HDPE

  • hydrogen peroxide

    (chem.designation H 2 O 2 ) Hydrogen peroxide, like ozone, is a strong oxidant and is therefore used for both bleaching and disinfection. Insbesondere in Dampfform hat Wasserstoffperoxid eine stark ätzende Wirkung.

  • cross contamination

    direct or indirect transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from already infected to uninfected

  • pesticide

    pest control agent, mainly for plant protection

  • PET (polyethylene terephthalate)

    (abbr.from Polyethylentherephtalat) PET is a thermoplastic synthetic material that is produced with either an amorphous or partially crystalline structure. The amorphous type is transparent. PET is not or only marginally resistant to UV radiation.

  • PGN

    (abbreviated from “Peptidoglykan” – “peptidoglycan”) see “murein”

  • pyrimidine

    Pyrimidine, like purine, forms the basis of organic bases.The pyrimidine derivatives are cytosine, thymine and uracil bases.

  • plafond-sanitary equipment

    ultraviolet radiation with a bactericidal effect in the upper zone above the head

  • plasma

    (in this case: non-isothermal plasma) Plasma is a mixture of freely moving electrons, ions and neutral atoms that are in different states of excitation and interact closely with each other. Stars are typical high-temperature plasmas.One speaks of “non-isothermal plasma” when – as in the case of gas-discharge lamps – only electrons are in thermodynamic equilibrium.

  • mold fungus (mold)

    The concept of “mold” is not unambiguously defined and in everyday life is a general name for a number of microorganisms that have the ability to settle on the surface of food and feed products, as well as other products of human activity and spoil them (Kreizel, 1988). Most of this group belongs to ascomycetes (marsupials) and zygomycetes.All organisms understood as “mold” are equally characterized by the formation of three stages, which are called mycelium, conidiophores and spores.

  • PLC

    Abbreviation for “programmable logic controller”

  • pm

    (abbreviated from “picometer” – “picometer”) conversion: 1 pm = 0.001 nm = 0.000001 µm = 0.000000001 mm … in words: one billionth of a millimeter

  • polymer

    Polymers are chemical compounds made up of a large number of monomers linked to each other and following each other.Hence the name polymer (“poly” = “many”). Protein is a natural polymer. Typical synthetic polymers are artificial materials.

  • multi-resistance (med.)

    A class of pathogens that are resistant to several classes of antibiotics (or viruses resistant to antiviral agents) is called multidrug-resistant in medicine.

  • POM (polyoxymethylene)

    (abbreviated for “Polyoxymethylen” – “polyoxymethylene”) POM is a thermoplastic synthetic material with high strength, excellent dimensional stability and very good chip formation during processing, therefore it is often used for technical purposes.Like all synthetic materials, POM is not resistant to ultraviolet light (UVC). The black surface turns gray and matt. At very high UVC exposure, the material becomes brittle.

  • PP (polypropylene)

    (abbreviated for “Polypropen” – “polypropylene”) PP is a thermoplastic material with high stability and resistance to chemicals. It is harder and more resistant to heat than PE, but becomes brittle at low temperatures.PP does not withstand exposure to high ultraviolet radiation (UVC). With prolonged exposure, damage and destruction of the material surface occurs.

  • preventive measures

    preventive measures to protect against unwanted events

  • prevention

    Medical term for preventive health protection.

  • prokaryotic cells

    (also “prokaryotes”) – cells that do not have a formed cell nucleus, see.also “eukaryotes”

  • permeability

    By the light transmittance of the material, no conclusions can be drawn about its transmittance to ultraviolet rays! Ultraviolet (UVC) rays have a significantly shorter wavelength and higher energy flux than electromagnetic waves of “light”. For our customers, we offer a free service of analyzing the transmittance of third-party liquids using our spectral photometer.

  • transmission

    transmission of electromagnetic waves by the medium, in this case 254 nm

  • skip

    send, forward

  • protozoa

    Protozoa is a rather heterogeneous group of unicellular, eukaritic organisms.Among the many protozoa, about 40 parasitic species pathogenic for humans are known that cause diseases, for example, malaria and dysentery. The data on the resistance of these organisms to the effects of ultraviolet radiation in the short wavelength range (UVC) are in a very large range, so it is impossible to make a general conclusion about the lethal dose.

  • herpes simplex

    Herpes as a disease is caused by the herpes simplex virus. This is the most common skin infection.It usually manifests itself in the form of herpes of the lips, but it can also affect other areas of the skin. Treatment options are still lacking, and the body does not develop immunity to herpes. Herpes simplex viruses in laboratory studies demonstrate, at an average lethal dose (LD90) of 5 mJ / cm2, a relatively high sensitivity to short-wavelength ultraviolet (UVC).

  • protein

    Proteins (or “proteins”) are macromolecules (polymers) composed of amino acids.They are essential for the growth, repair, function and structure of all living cells. The peak absorption of ultraviolet radiation for proteins is 280 nm.

  • provitamin D

    Provitamin D3 is a precursor of vitamin D3, which is produced in the skin during photolysis under the influence of heat and waves in the range from 290 to 315 nm (UVB).

  • PS (polystyrene)

    (abbreviated from “Polystyrol” – “polystyrene”) Polystyrene is a permeable thermoplastic polymer.In the form of foam, it is known as styrofoam. Polystyrene is not resistant to ultraviolet light (UVC).

  • PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)

    (abbreviated for “Polytetrafluorethylen” – “polytetrafluoroethylene”) PTFE is a thermoplastic fluoroplastic, which is primarily known under the trade name Teflon from DuPont. PTFE has excellent UVC resistance.

  • PUR (polyurethane)

    (abbr.from “Polyurethan” – “polyurethane”) PUR is one of the most versatile synthetic materials. Although it is primarily used in the form of foam, it is also used as a thermoplastic plastics material, elastomer, adhesive, varnish, or as fibers.

  • purine

    Purines are nitrogen-containing compounds that, along with pyrimidines, form the most important components of nucleic acid. Purine derivatives are the bases adenine and guanine. They are produced by the human body independently and are excreted in the form of uric acid.

  • PVC

    (short for “Polyvinylchlorid” – “polyvinyl chloride”) PVC is an amorphous, thermoplastic synthetic material that, by the addition of plasticizers and stabilizers, can be made soft, elastic and pliable. As a result, depending on the composition and proportion of plasticizers, it is only marginally resistant to ultraviolet radiation in the short wavelength range (UVC).

  • PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride)

    (abbr.from “Polyvinylchlorid” – “polyvinylidene fluoride”) PVDF is a flame retardant, crystalline, thermoplastic synthetic material with excellent UV resistance. Like PTFE, it is a good electrical insulator and is additionally highly resistant to acids and alkalis.

  • radiometer

    The radiometer is used to measure electromagnetic waves. The operation of these devices is generally based on photodiodes, which proportionally convert incoming radiation into an electrical signal.Typical radiometers are a luxmeter or a photometer.

  • radiometry

    Radiometry is the science of measuring radiation. It is used in astronomy and physics, among other things.

  • rickets

    Bone disease in children, usually caused by a metabolic disorder associated with vitamin D.

  • recipient

    in this case: recipient

  • X-rays

    X-rays are those electromagnetic waves that are between gamma rays and ultraviolet rays.X-ray wavelengths range from <100 nm to <1 pm. The boundary region between ultraviolet radiation and X-ray radiation is not clearly defined, therefore, at wavelengths less than 100 nm, one speaks of either extreme ultraviolet rays or soft X-rays. X-rays are classified as ionizing rays and therefore fall under the Radioactive Radiation Protection Regulation.

  • reoviruses

    Reoviruses (scientific Latin name: “Reoviridae”) are non-enveloped viruses with double stranded RNA.This group includes, for example, rotavirus (the causative agent of diarrhea).

  • replication

    Reproduction of hereditary information (DNA)

  • resistance (biol.)

    Resistance refers to the resistance of a microorganism to control measures. Increasing the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics is an increasingly relevant topic in medicine.

  • resonance line

    Resonance line refers to those measured signals that excited atoms transmit during the transition from the excited state to the initial state.

  • RNA

    [short for “Ribonucleic acid”] – English name for RNA

  • RNA

    [short for “deoxyribonucleic acid”] – resulting from transcription of the DNA template

  • mercury

    (chemical sign: Hg) Mercury is a shiny silver liquid heavy metal with high cohesion. Therefore, it easily forms droplets. One of the properties of mercury is its very strong expansion when heated.In the temperature range from 0 to 100 ° C, this expansion is directly proportional to temperature. Mercury evaporates even at room temperatures! In gaseous form, mercury is highly toxic! Therefore, NEVER DISPOSE mercury lamps (fluorescent lamps, energy saving lamps, ultraviolet lamps) IN THE HOUSEHOLD WASTE!

  • anthrax

    see B. anthracis

  • silicone

    It is correct from a chemical point of view to call the material silicone “polyorganosiloxane”.A group of synthetic polymers is called silicones. They are distinguished by their very high water-repellent properties. Silicone O-rings are highly resistant to high temperatures, but not highly resistant to oils, alkalis, acids or fats.

  • synthetic material

    Synthetic materials (also plastic or plastic) are all macromolecular organic polymers artificially obtained by chemical reactions.They are classified into thermoplastics, duroplastics and elastomers. Even if no general conclusions can be drawn due to differences in color, manufacturing process and radiation dose, it can be said that synthetic materials tend to have poor UVC resistance. Transparent plastics become milky or cracked, dark materials turn gray and light ones turn yellow. In most cases, transparent synthetic materials do not transmit ultraviolet rays or do not transmit for a long time.Therefore, in practical use, synthetic materials must be tested for resistance to ultraviolet radiation (UVC), as well as the transmission of these rays. We offer this service to our clients free of charge.

  • air conditioning

    Air conditioning devices are all components of air conditioning and ventilation equipment that serve to condition air streams. This equipment is different from technological ventilation equipment.

  • solarization

    In this case: Due to the high energy of ultraviolet radiation, as well as due to the adhesion caused by the technology inside the quartz tube, the material of the reaction chamber increasingly loses its ability to transmit ultraviolet radiation. This effect is called solarization.

  • Spectral Photometer

    radiometer for determining the permeability of media by optical beams with different wavelengths

  • spores (biol.)

    Protozoa, algae, mosses, some bacteria and, above all, (mold) fungi form spores for asexual reproduction and spread. They have practically no metabolism, and therefore they endure even very unfavorable conditions for a long time. When they enter a favorable environment, they become active again and multiply

  • staphylococcus

    These are grape-positive bacteria from the cocci family, immobile and grape-like.Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular, has gained notoriety due to the rise in antibiotic resistance. Staphylococci have only slight resistance to ultraviolet radiation (UVC). According to studies, depending on the type of staphylococcus, the lethal dose LD90 for airborne organisms is partially significantly lower than 1.0 mJ / cm 2 .

  • degree of protection IP

    (abbreviated English “International Protection”) Degrees of protection are determined according to DIN 40050.The abbreviation IP is followed by two numbers: the first number means protection against the ingress of foreign objects, the second number means protection against water ingress.

  • sterilization

    Sterilization means the elimination of all viable microorganisms (including spores). In technical terms, this is a reduction of at least 6 log-degrees (i.e. 99.9999%) – based on the most resistant organism – which should be achieved after half the sterilization cycle. Taking into account the economic aspects and feasibility, at present, such a decrease in the number of microorganisms using ultraviolet radiation is not reliably realizable, therefore, the concept of “ultraviolet sterilization” should be avoided!

  • streptococci

    Streptococci (scientific Latin name: “Streptococceae”) belong, like lactobacilli and enterococci, to the family of lactic acid bacteria that live in the intestine.These are gram-positive, anaerobic and aerotolerant pathogens that form chains. Potentially pathogenic microorganisms are also used for enzymatic processes and for the medical regeneration of intestinal flora. Like staphylococci, they have only limited resistance to short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVC), and the average LD90 with a few exceptions (in this case: Streptococcus faecalis) is 3.3 mJ / cm 2 .

  • light

    In everyday speech, light is called that part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is located in the spectral range from 380 to 780 nm.This is the range visible to the human eye, and limits may vary depending on the source. Unfortunately, the increasingly common designation “ultraviolet light” is thus self-contradictory and objectively incorrect!

  • Teflon

    Teflon is a DuPont trademark for PTFE, which is a fluoroplastic.

  • thermoplastic

    (also “plastomer”) Thermoplastics are synthetic materials that can be reshaped when exposed to temperatures.

  • thymine

    (also “5-methyluracil”) Thymine (C 5 H 6 N 2 O 2 ) is one of the four coding bases in DNA. It forms a complementary base to adenine through two hydrogen bonds.

  • toxicity

    degree of toxic properties of the toxin

  • toxic

    The effect of the toxin is called toxic. Toxic can also be translated as poisonous.

  • toxin

    Toxin is a biogenic substance that can harm the body by disrupting its physiological metabolic processes. The scientific discipline that studies toxins is called toxicology. Bacterial toxins are divided into exotoxins and endotoxins.

  • Torr

    Torr is a static pressure unit of 1 mm Hg. It is not a unit of the International System of Units.Conversion: 1 Torr ≈ 133.322 Pa ≈ 0.001333 bar

  • transcription

    transfer of the genetic code of the DNS to the RNS

  • UV radiation

    (abbreviated for “ultraviolet radiation”) UV radiation generally refers to the range with a wavelength of about 400 to 100 nm. UV radiation is located between electromagnetic waves of light and X-rays. The boundaries are blurred, and there is no single definition in the literature either. Depending on the source, the transition to light is indicated at 380 nm or 400 nm.As for the transition region to X-rays (100 … 1 nm), in the terminology there are both soft X-rays and extreme UV radiation (XUV).

  • uracil

    While in DNA thymine forms the opposite of adenine, in single-stranded RNA, uracil replaces thymine (C 4 H 4 N 2 O 2 ).

  • UV resistance

    Industry data on UV resistance of a material often refers to exposure to long and medium wavelengths (UVA and UVB).Therefore, according to them, it is possible to draw only a conditional conclusion about the resistance of the material to ultraviolet rays of the short wavelength range (UVC). Therefore, we offer our customers a free service of testing synthetic materials for resistance to ultraviolet rays of short wavelength range (UVC) or transmission of ultraviolet rays of short wavelength range (UVC).

  • UVA

    (abbreviated from “Ultraviolett A-Band” – “ultraviolet A-band”) UVA rays are called UV rays in the long wavelength range from about 400 (380) to 315 nm.The difficulty of accurately determining the boundaries is clearly seen in the example of the emission of ultraviolet and infrared lamps.

  • UVB

    (abbreviated for “Ultraviolett B-Band” – “ultraviolet B-band”) UVB refers to UV rays in the medium wavelength range from about 315 to 280 nm. Previously, they were also called by the name of the Prussian naturalist Karl Dorno “Dorno radiation”. Dorno was engaged in in-depth research on UVB radiation and related biological processes.

  • UVC

    (abbreviated from “Ultraviolett C-Band” – “ultraviolet C-band”) UVC rays are called UV rays of the short wavelength range from 280 … 100 nm. UVC rays are also subdivided into far UV (280 – 200 nm) and vacuum UV (200 – 100 nm) sub-ranges.

  • VA (VA)

    (short for “Voltampere” – “volt-ampere”) Volt-ampere is a unit of measure for electrical power. The value is defined as the product of the device voltage (V) and the current consumed by it (A).See also “Watt”.

  • vacuum

    A vacuum in classical physics is called space without any matter. In a vacuum, electromagnetic waves can propagate unhindered.

  • vegetative propagation

    Vegetative reproduction is the opposite of sexual reproduction. Vegetative reproduction in biology is called asexual reproduction.

  • HIV

    (short for “human immunodeficiency virus”) HIV is a virus that belongs to the group of retroviruses and is the cause of the well-known immunodeficiency disease AIDS.The virus has a size of about 100 – 120 nm, it is surrounded by an envelope. Statistically, HIV infection occurs in 90% of cases through blood transfusion, and, in principle, transmission through biological fluids is possible. Studies by Henderson et al. Have shown that the virus is extremely resistant to ultraviolet radiation (UVC).

  • virulence

    the degree of ability of the pathogen after transmission to actually cause infection in the host

  • viruses

    Viruses are particles or carriers of information that need a host cell for their existence, because they do not have cytoplasm and their own metabolism.De facto viruses are not living things.

  • vitamin D3

    This is a secosteroid produced in human skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol under the influence of ultraviolet light in the medium wavelength range (UVB).

  • visual spectrum

    Visible electromagnetic waves are called radiation of the visual spectrum, i.e. light in the classical sense of the word.

  • hydrogen bond

    Hydrogen bonds have an electrostatic character and are poorly expressed in comparison with other bonds.Due to the force of attraction of atoms with different charges in molecules, for example, in proteins or DNA, completely specific 3d structures are formed.

  • pathogen (biol.)

    Pathogens are microorganisms that can cause illness in living beings. Their harmful effects are based in most cases on the toxins they release.

  • exposure time

    in this case: time during which the body is exposed to ultraviolet radiation

  • VUV (vacuum ultraviolet)

    Vacuum UV (VUV) refers to the very short wavelengths of the UVC range with a wavelength of 200 – 100 nm and below.The name is due to the fact that these rays propagate only in a vacuum.

  • Watt (W)

    W (W) – unit of the international system of units for measuring power, conversion: 1 W = 1 VA

  • X-radiation

    X-radiation Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen himself called the radiation discovered by him, therefore in English the name “x-rays” is used, while in German and Russian the name “X-ray radiation” is used.

  • chromosome

    Chromosomes are proteins packed into eukaryotic cells in the form of DNA helices.For the process of replication and transcription during the division phase, the chromosome must be relaxed.

  • XUV (Extreme UV)

    Extreme UV radiation refers to the range from 100 to 1 nm. This radiation, depending on the source, is also called soft X-ray radiation.

  • living organism

    A living organism in biology is called an organism that has the ability to metabolism, replication and evolutionary development.All criteria must be met.

  • 16 Facts Every Woman Should Know – “Family and School”

    Interesting Facts About Vagina and Vulva

    19. The vagina after childbirth is likely to get a little bigger, but the difference is small

    In the early days after a vaginal birth, vaginally, the vagina and vulva are likely to feel bad. But don’t worry, the swelling, bruising and “openness” will go away in a few days.

    But dryness can persist longer, since after childbirth (and during breastfeeding) the body produces less estrogen, which is responsible for vaginal lubrication.

    Whatever the vagina becomes after childbirth, tone and health can be maintained with regular pelvic floor exercises.

    20. You cannot lose a tampon (or something else) in your vagina

    Even if you forgot about a tampon and had sex, do not worry, it will not “run away” far.

    The cervix opens only for childbirth, the rest of the time it is tightly compressed.

    You can really forget about a tampon, but after a while it will remind you of itself with an unpleasant odor.If you cannot get it yourself, seek help from a doctor – she has more practice in this.

    21. Clitoris size and location matter for orgasm

    According to a 2014 study, if a woman’s clitoris is relatively small and located far from the vaginal opening, then peniso-vaginal sex is unlikely to bring orgasm.

    In this case, additional stimulation of the clitoral head is needed – with fingers or special toys.

    22. Vaginal discharge during pregnancy is normal

    To protect the woman and the unborn baby from infections, the vagina may “clean” more often – and this leads to a greater volume of discharge. Moreover, the intensity of the process will increase as the gestation period increases.

    Rate: liquid transparent discharge. Possible pink tint in the last week of pregnancy

    Not the norm: pungent or “fishy” odor of discharge, dense thick texture.See your gynecologist to find out the reason.

    23. Menstrual cramps are relieved by orgasm

    Orgasm stimulates the release of dopamine and serotonin, which are natural pain relievers. Relaxing after pleasure can also relieve uterine spasm.

    Interesting facts about the vagina with gifs

    Zefirka> Interesting> Interesting facts about the vagina with gifs

    We bring to your attention a selection of very interesting and quite informative facts about the vagina.We want to say that these facts are for adults only. We read and educate ourselves.

    1.

    Everyone has it

    Until about the 5th week of development, all embryos are girls in structure, that is, they have a vagina. Only later do the sex glands begin to form – male or female. Sex is determined at conception and the sperm is responsible for it.

    2.

    Her average length is 10 cm

    So the average woman does not need an alpha male with a giant phallus at all – this is at least unpleasant, but at most can cause pain or even injury.

    3.

    It is capable of self-cleaning

    Under the influence of estrogens in the cells lining the surface of the vagina, the substance glycogen is synthesized, from which lactic acid is then formed. The acidic environment of a healthy vagina does not allow other microorganisms to multiply, even the causative agents of gonorrhea and trichomoniasis can be present in small quantities in the vaginal microflora, without leading to the development of infection.

    4.

    She is insensitive

    Practically along the entire length – you still feel something at the entrance.The degree of sensitivity inside the vagina is so low that less than 14% of women are generally able to feel that the walls of the vagina have been touched. The use of hygienic tampons is based on this principle – women usually do not feel them inside themselves. Yes, and all these ribbed and pimpled condoms on the side, and the actual friction during sex is not the main thing.

    5.

    It is tender

    The walls of the vagina are extremely delicate, they have a very large number of blood vessels, glands and muscle fibers.That is why foreplay is important for women: if there is not enough lubrication, then there is a high probability of mechanical damage to the vagina – the appearance of scratches, rubbing and, in general, unpleasant sensations.

    6.

    Operates through it

    And it happens. It is called “transvaginal operation”. For example, when a kidney or appendicitis is removed. Sometimes it is actually more convenient to do this through the vagina.

    7.

    It is ribbed

    Contrary to popular belief, the surface of the vagina is not smooth at all.The mucous membrane of the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium, which forms numerous transverse folds. These folds, if necessary, allow the vagina to change its size. The folds are most pronounced during childbearing age – they help the sperm to move to the right place.

    8.

    It has a point G

    More precisely, there is definitely some point on the front wall 2-4 cm from the entrance. But scientists and doctors cannot agree on it in any way. Whether it’s G or not.Either it increases pleasure during sex, or it doesn’t.

    9.

    It gets old

    As we age, the walls of the vagina become thinner, drier and less elastic. By the way, recently, vagina rejuvenation operations have become extremely popular.

    10.

    It shrinks

    During childbirth, the vagina stretches a lot (some lucky women even cut it to a heap), but in a few years everything narrows, and if you feel like giving birth again, it will be as hard as in first time.And, by the way, studies show that there is practically no difference in size between women who have given birth and who have not given birth.

    11.

    A completely random fact

    You can smoke and drink alcoholic beverages with a vagina, if it is enough to pump up the walls – Kegel exercise will help you. Moreover, nicotine with alcohol will even be slightly absorbed through the mucous membrane. But, to be honest, it is not clear why such difficulties, if possible in the old fashioned way.

    Interestingness
    May 17, 2016
    3,616 views

    10 Things You May Not Know About Vaginas | Health Tips

    10 Things You May Not Know About Vaginas 1.Orgasm is a wonderful anesthetic
    Does the girl have a headache? Have sex! The number of endorphins acquired from high-quality intercourse is more than enough to win a slight headache. Yes, and remove the continuous malaise. Naturally, in the case of serious illnesses, you should not plan for this anesthesia, but to improve the joint state and raise the mood, this is actually what you need.

    2. The vagina is self-cleaning
    Not that we recommend girls to disdain the rules of hygiene, but nature has done so, in fact, that the vagina is really capable of self-cleaning.The cleansing mechanisms work harder after menstruation, but even during the cycle, the process does not stop. The microflora of the female genital organ rejects a large number of forms of microbes and fungi, in fact, which presupposes their invasion into the body. Unfortunately, this does not apply to STDs, for example, in fact, that contraception follows in the footsteps of remembering every time.

    3. Point G does not exist
    Or does it exist? Apparently, this is still a myth, because the lesson, for example, did not find practically any evidence of its existence.Do not be discouraged by this – if the scenario is correct, you will not need a bast G for you: the female vagina is quite sensitive both from the outside, for example, from the inside, and all that actually needs to be arranged for you to receive ultimate pleasure is to work on this together.

    4. You are what you actually eat
    This applies to both sexes. It is widely popular that the precedent, in fact, that the aroma and taste of sperm is directly related to what actually gets into the man’s stomach.This is even more evident when consuming a large number of goods with a pronounced taste and aroma: pineapples, oranges, coffee and the like.

    The news is, in fact, the same applies to the vagina. In a healthy and well-groomed girl, the vagina does not emit strong odors. Faster, she does not smell of anything, well, really that just a little. And this little thing also has the ability to own shades of aromas: fruits will give a delicious incense, cabbage or asparagus – bitter, etc.p.

    5. The vagina has the ability to fall out
    Naturally, it is impossible to lose it on the go. The release of the genitals is associated with operations on them, for example, with the removal of the uterus. Another whole “sexual set” a certain amount is shifted downward with aging. But there are pathologies in which the prolapse of the vagina is not associated with external causes. But this is a gigantic uniqueness, as a consequence of this, we will not focus on this concern and continue.

    6. Female ejaculation is
    The lesson established, in fact, that the female ejaculant has the ability to possess a different composition and tension.But this is literally not urine – the ejaculant does not come from the bladder, but from the paraurethral ducts. For girls: no ejaculation? Option 1 – you are simply not disposed to this. Option 2 – do you have any doubts, in fact, that your orgasm is real? Option 3 – the ejaculant differs not enough, as a result of which you do not notice it. Option 3 is the most common.

    7. The vagina has the ability to double in length when a lady is excited
    Most young women have a fairly short road to the uterus – 3-4 cm.But the vagina has the ability to grow during arousal for this, in order to make the process more comfortable and avoid injury. Nature has thought over everything.

    8. Systematic sex can help keep the vagina in good shape
    Don’t forget the fact that the muscles of the vagina are muscles. Like all sorts of others, they need training for this in order to be resilient and awake. During long periods of abstinence, the tender tissues of these muscles become thinner and may begin to crumble.But starting to worry about this seriously is hardly worth it before 35 years.

    9. Vaginal secretions contain compounds found in shark liver
    Do young women and sharks have anything in common? .. Yes, and this is something called “squalene” – a naturally occurring unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is also found in vegetable oil. And in a moisturizer. Have you guessed? Naturally, squalene is part of the lubricant. In addition to this, in fact, that the lubricant simplifies the invasion and the process itself, it also protects young women from injuries and infections.

    10. The vaginal muscles are quite massive
    The world record holder in lifting weights with the vagina Elizaveta Kozhevnikova lifted a load weighing 14 kg. The vaginal muscles are really quite strong. These are the muscles that girls use during sex. Use them more actively – in addition to training and tone, this will undoubtedly help you get more vivid feelings, especially at the end.

    10 interesting facts about the vagina Cosmo.ru

    7. HIM HAS A SPECIFIC ODOR

    Before the onset of menstruation – sour, and after its end – sharp.The smell may become more pronounced after exercise (due to sweat impurities) and during sex (due to the release of natural lubricant). What to do if a man doesn’t like your smell.

    8. VAGINAS OF DIFFERENT WOMEN ARE VERY LIKE

    … from the inside. But the vulva of every woman is truly unique. The labia majora can be barely noticeable, and can reach a length of several centimeters, the small lips, slightly similar in shape to the wings of a butterfly, can be completely hidden, or can hang significantly below the large lips.In addition, for most women, the labia are asymmetrical: one is larger than the other – this is normal and should not bother you. The size of the clitoris is usually 2.5-3 cm.

    9. THE STRUCTURE OF DISCHARGE CHANGES

    During ovulation, the discharge is abundant (up to 2 teaspoons per day), it is thin and transparent, and before the onset of menstruation it thickens and becomes creamy. If you experience itching or the discharge has become cheesy – go to the doctor!

    10. TAMPON CANNOT FALL THERE

    Because the cervix blocks access to the uterus.But the tampon can disappear from the reach. If this happens, remove it by crouching down and pushing up. If it doesn’t work, go to the gynecologist, he will pull out the tampon quickly and painlessly.

    A big difference

    Girls often confuse two diseases that are extremely similar in name, but completely different in meaning.

    • VAGINITIS ( aka colpitis ) is an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa caused by pathogenic microbes. It is accompanied by itching and burning in the vagina, profuse discharge.
    • VAGINISM – painful contraction of the muscles surrounding the vagina. It usually occurs in response to touching the vagina or vulva, making it impossible not only to have sex, but also to have a pelvic examination. Often the reasons for this phenomenon are psychological: the experience of violence, for example, or orthodox upbringing, which has formed an aversion to sex and a disdain for the genitals. But there may be physiological: trauma or ulceration of the vagina, dryness of the mucous membrane.

    Were you surprised by these facts about the vagina? We hope it was helpful!

    We are grateful to the gynecologist, doctor of the highest category Eleonora Kirichenko for her help in preparing the material.

    Read also:

    Photo: HMI, Shutterstock

    Interesting facts about the vagina (11 gifs) »Trinixi

    We bring to your attention a selection of very interesting and quite informative facts about the vagina. We want to say that these facts are for adults only. We read and educate ourselves.

    All embryos have it

    Until about the 5th week of development, all embryos are girls in structure, that is, they have a vagina. Only later do the sex glands begin to form – male or female.Sex is determined at conception and the sperm is responsible for it.

    Her average length is 10 cm

    So the average woman does not need an alpha male with a giant phallus at all – this is at least unpleasant, but at most can cause pain or even injury.

    It is capable of self-cleaning

    Under the influence of estrogens, the substance glycogen is synthesized in the cells lining the surface of the vagina, from which lactic acid is then formed.The acidic environment of a healthy vagina does not allow other microorganisms to multiply, even the causative agents of gonorrhea and trichomoniasis can be present in small quantities in the vaginal microflora, without leading to the development of infection.

    She is insensitive

    Almost the entire length – you still feel something at the entrance. The degree of sensitivity inside the vagina is so low that less than 14% of women are generally able to feel that the walls of the vagina have been touched.The use of hygienic tampons is based on this principle – women usually do not feel them inside themselves. Yes, and all these ribbed and pimpled condoms on the side, and the actual friction during sex is not the main thing.

    She is delicate

    The walls of the vagina are extremely delicate, with a very large number of blood vessels, glands and muscle fibers. That is why foreplay is important for women: if there is not enough lubrication, then there is a high probability of mechanical damage to the vagina – the appearance of scratches, rubbing and, in general, unpleasant sensations.

    Operates through it

    And it happens. It is called “transvaginal surgery”. For example, when a kidney or appendicitis is removed. Sometimes it is actually more convenient to do this through the vagina.

    It is ribbed

    Contrary to popular belief, the surface of the vagina is not smooth at all. The mucous membrane of the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium, which forms numerous transverse folds. These folds, if necessary, allow the vagina to change its size.The folds are most pronounced during childbearing age – they help the sperm to move to the right place.

    It has a point G

    More precisely, there is definitely a point on the front wall 2-4 cm from the entrance. But scientists and doctors cannot agree on it in any way. Whether it’s G or not. Either it increases pleasure during sex, or it doesn’t.

    It gets old

    As we age, the walls of the vagina become thinner, drier and less elastic. By the way, recently, vagina rejuvenation operations have become extremely popular.

    It shrinks

    During childbirth, the vagina is very stretched (for some lucky women it is even cut to a heap), but in a few years everything narrows, and if you feel like giving birth again, it will be as hard as the first time. And, by the way, studies show that there is practically no difference in size between women who have given birth and who have not given birth.

    A completely random fact

    You can smoke and drink alcoholic beverages with a vagina, if it is enough to pump up the walls – Kegel exercise will help you.Moreover, nicotine with alcohol will even be slightly absorbed through the mucous membrane. But, to be honest, it is not clear why such difficulties, if possible in the old fashioned way.

    From here

    Five things to know about the vagina

    • Paula McGrath
    • Air Force Health Correspondent

    Social media is full of myths and misconceptions about the vagina, but there was a woman, which has set itself the task of fixing it.

    Physician Jennifer Hunter has been a practicing obstetrician-gynecologist in the United States and Canada for 25 years. She is an ardent defender of women’s health, and now she is actively teaching them on social networks, so she is also called the “in-house gynecologist” of Twitter.

    Jennifer recently denied claims that inserting jade eggs into the vagina normalizes “hormonal balance, menstrual cycle and bladder function.” She explained that the idea was not part of the ancient Chinese tradition, as her adepts claim, and has no scientific backing.

    Hunter’s latest book, The Vagina Bible, has become a bestseller in several countries. It contains many practical tips to empower women and help them take care of their health. Here are some facts she thinks every woman should know.

    Photo author, Emma Russell

    1. Do not confuse the vagina with the vulva

    The vagina is located inside the body – it is a muscular canal that connects the uterus with the outside world. What you can see from the outside, the part that touches your clothes is the vulva.

    Hunter says it is important to know and use the correct terminology.

    “If you can’t pronounce the words” vagina “or” vulva “, then it seems that there is something dirty or shameful in it,” says the gynecologist.

    She notes that the medical term pudenda, which describes the outside of the vulva, comes from the Latin pudet, which means shame.

    The doctor believes that the use of such labels is harmful to the woman not only on the emotional, but also on the medical level, because patients cannot accurately describe what is happening to them and do not receive the correct treatment.

    2. Capable of self-cleaning

    The gynecologist noticed that over the past 10 years the attitude of women to intimate hygiene has changed a lot.

    Many people want to get rid of vaginal odor. For example, last year alone in North America, about 57% of women went through the procedure for “cleansing” the vagina, and most of them say that they are encouraged to do so by their sexual partners.

    “However, a woman’s vagina does not require additional cleaning,” explains Jennifer Hunter.”It can cleanse itself on its own.”

    Vaginal cells are renewed every 96 hours – much faster than other parts of the skin – because the vagina is a naturally regenerative organ.

    Hunter especially warns against using perfumed sprays. They are supposed to add a scent to the vagina, in fact, the effect will be the opposite.

    “This is a vagina, not a pina colada,” she explains, “and douching works like cigarettes on her.”

    Even water can disrupt the sensitive “intimate” ecosystem, increasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections.

    Another trendy procedure is steaming. It is not only superfluous, but can also lead to burns.

    Wash only the outside. If necessary, you can use a mild cleanser.

    But even soap can upset the pH balance or destroy the natural bacterial flora of the vagina.

    Menopause is a separate topic.

    Hormonal changes can be accompanied by dryness and discomfort in the vagina. In such cases, the doctor advises using, for example, coconut or olive oil.

    Photo author, Emma Russell

    3. “Intimate Garden”

    A whole army of “good” bacteria lives in a woman’s vagina, which help to maintain its health.

    “The vaginal microbiome is like a garden, where different types of bacteria coexist to maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem,” says Hunter.

    Beneficial bacteria create a slightly acidic environment, stop the action of any harmful bacteria, and also contribute to the formation of mucus that lubricates the vagina and cervix.

    Many are convinced that using antibacterial wipes helps maintain natural pH balance and reduces menstrual odor. However, this is not quite true. Antibacterial wipes can lead to imbalances and vaginal infections.

    Jen Hunter also advises not to use a hair dryer to dry the vulva: the skin should be moist there.

    Photo author, Emma Russell

    4. Hair grows “there” for a reason

    The gynecologist also noticed that recently the fashion to remove pubic hair is gaining momentum.The consequences of epilation – wax or sugar – are numerous microtraumas, as well as damage to the genitals.

    “Cuts, scrapes, infections are what we encounter after pubic hair removal,” says Hunter.

    If you decide to remove hair, make sure that the master adheres to the rules of hygiene.

    Prepare your skin and move in the direction of hair growth while shaving to avoid the risk of ingrown hairs and related infections.

    But the main rule is a clean razor.

    People should understand all the consequences and make informed choices, says the gynecologist.

    “Pubic hair is a kind of protective barrier that shouldn’t be removed,” she says. – They also affect sexual function. Each pubic hair is connected to a nerve ending – that’s why it is so painful to remove them. ”

    5. Time is merciless

    With age, female reproductive function deteriorates – the ovaries are depleted and stop producing eggs.

    The level of hormones that affect fertility also decreases.Menopause begins, and this cannot but affect the vagina and vulva.

    Tissues that previously retained their natural moisture atrophy, therefore, during sex, unpleasant sensations, dryness and pain may occur.

    In such a situation, Jennifer Hunter advises to see a doctor. However, some women solve this problem with an over-the-counter lubricant (lubricant gel).

    “I think women should know about this,” she says. “They don’t have to suffer.”

    There is another myth that sex heals everything. But this is certainly not the case.

    Even sex is powerless against microtrauma of vaginal tissues, which can make them vulnerable to infections.

    10 facts about vaginas – Koko.by

    Ten interesting facts about the female genital organ.

    Orgasm is a great pain reliever

    Orgasm is actually a great cure for headaches. Making love, the body produces so many endorphins that can replace any pain reliever.Of course, one cannot expect that an orgasm will alleviate serious illnesses, but the general condition will significantly improve.

    Self-cleaning of the vagina

    Nature has arranged the female body so that the vagina is capable of self-cleaning. This is especially true after menstruation. The microflora of a woman’s vagina rejects many bacteria and fungi. Unfortunately, this does not apply to STDs, so it is always worth thinking about contraception.

    The existence of the G-spot is a myth

    From the point of view of science, the existence of this point is a myth.No scientist has yet found confirmation of its existence.

    We are what we eat

    This statement is true for both men and women. It is known that the smell and taste of semen directly depends on what was eaten by a man. This applies most of all to products with a pronounced taste and smell: coffee, pineapples, oranges, etc. However, few people know that the same applies to the vagina. A healthy woman does not have a vaginal odor, but there may be shades of odors: sweet from fruits, bitter from vegetables.So, if you know what smell your partner likes, you can take this into account when drawing up your diet.

    Vaginal prolapse

    This fact should not be taken literally. The drooping of the genitals is associated with surgery and aging. However, it happens that in the case of pathologies, the vagina sinks.

    The existence of female ejaculation

    According to the conclusions of scientists, female ejaculate can have a different composition and intensity. The reason that few people know about this fact is simple: the ejaculate is released so little that it is not noticed.

    The vagina can change its size

    Most women have a fairly short path to the uterus – 3-4 centimeters. However, during arousal, the vagina may enlarge to make the process more comfortable and to avoid injury.

    Regular sex is a guarantee of vaginal tone

    We must not forget that the muscles of the vagina are muscles that need training, like any other. If a period of prolonged abstinence ensues, muscle tissue becomes thinner and may begin to deteriorate.

    Vaginal discharge contains components found in shark liver

    Vegetable oil, shark liver, moisturizers contain squalene, a lubricating component found in female secretions.

    Powerful vaginal muscles

    Tatyana Kozhevnikova – the world record holder for lifting weights with the vagina. Her record is 14 kg. Indeed, the muscles of the vagina are very strong.

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    What 10 Things You Should Know?

    Although half of the world’s population has a vagina, you probably don’t know a lot about this important element of the reproductive mechanism.Well, get ready to learn as we tell you 10 amazing facts about your feminine parts.

    Share on Pinterest Half of the population has a vagina, but there’s a lot we don’t know about it.

    If just hearing the word “vagina” cringes in embarrassment, then you are not alone.

    In fact, a 2016 survey found that 65 percent of young women have problems with the word “vagina,” with many preferring to use other terms, such as “female pieces”.

    Whatever you call it, there is one thing we can all agree on: the vagina is vital to human reproduction and plays an important role in sexual satisfaction.

    But the vagina is much more than many of us think. For example, did you know that the word “vagina” comes from the Latin word for “scabbard” or “scabbard”?

    Here we look at 10 more things you probably didn’t know about your wajayjay (yes, I hate that word too).

    This is the fact that we need to be out of the way. When you talk about the vagina, you might think you mean a woman’s common private parts, but you are wrong.

    Instead, the word “vagina” refers to a specific part of the female reproductive system. It is a muscular tube that runs from the vulva, which belongs to the external female genitals, including the labia and clitoris, to the cervix.

    If you are interested in size, studies have shown that vaginal depth can range from 2.7 to 3.1 inches.During sexual arousal, its depth can vary from 4 to 4, from 3 to 4.7 inches.

    You may have heard some horror stories, but you will feel relieved to know that the tampon cannot be lost in the vagina; the opening at the top of the vagina is too small to exit through.

    However, the swab may become stuck. If so, you should see your doctor to have it removed. Leaving it there for too long can increase your risk of toxic shock syndrome.

    We do not mean “exercise” in the sexual sense, although research has shown that regular sexual activity can help maintain vaginal health.

    No, we are talking about pelvic floor exercises, which are also known as Kegel exercises. They are usually done to help manage urinary incontinence, but research has shown that they can also help improve sexual satisfaction.

    How? Well, Kegel exercises help tighten the vagina, making sex more enjoyable and more likely to lead to orgasm.

    Correct. The normal vaginal pH is less than 4.5, which is similar to the pH of wine.

    Lactobacilli are the “good” bacteria that dominate the vagina; they help maintain a normal pH in the female parts of the body and prevent the growth of bacteria that cause infection.

    When the level of Lactobacillus drops, the vaginal pH can rise above 4.5, which is an ideal environment for the development of vaginal infections such as yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.

    This is why we must avoid using scented soaps and other perfumed products to cleanse the vagina.

    The use of such products disrupts the natural balance of vaginal bacteria that can cause the aforementioned infections. In fact, we don’t need to worry about vaginal cleanliness at all; he will take care of himself.

    There are glands in the vagina that secrete fluid or “secretions” that help keep it clean.

    “I see women of all ages with irritation, soreness and itching,” said gynecologist and obstetrician Dr. Sangeeta Agnihotri in an interview with The Telegraph , “because women tend to be overly jealous of their cleanliness. It causes discomfort. ”

    “Our vaginas are sensitive areas. I would recommend washing with water once a day, ”she added.

    But if you are worried that throwing away soap will smell different from fresh, you may be interested to know that any unwanted odors may be related to your diet.

    Share on Pinterest Strong-smelling foods such as onions and garlic can leave a scent less fresh.

    Regarding the smell of female body parts, there is some anecdotal evidence that we are what we eat.

    For example, it is widely believed that eating pineapple can give the vagina a sweeter flavor. Other foods thought to alter vaginal odor include garlic, onions, and fish, as well as cheese and chili peppers.

    One caveat, though: if you notice that your feminine parts smell particularly pungent or their odor changes dramatically, this could be a sign of infection, so it’s worth checking this out.

    While the clitoris is not part of the vagina, we just couldn’t pass up the chance to talk about this amazing piece of female genitalia.

    The clitoris is viewed by many women as the basis of sexual pleasure, and this is not surprising; At the tip of the clitoris alone, there are 8,000 nerve endings, more than double the number of nerve endings in the penis, making it the most sensitive part of a woman’s erogenous zone.

    And if that wasn’t enough, research has shown that the clitoris can expand up to 300 percent during sexual arousal.

    All women have experienced this at one time or another: this embarrassing but uncontrolled release of air from the vagina known as “queefing.”

    Yes, quacking is very similar to farting, but the sounds can be misleading. Those small gusts of air that come from parts of our woman’s body are simply trapped air that comes out of the vaginal canal.

    They do not “farts” in the traditional sense of the word, because they are not waste gases and do not give off an unpleasant odor.

    However, in some rare cases, vaginal flatulence can be caused by a vaginal fistula, which is an abnormal opening leading from the vagina to the bladder, colon, or rectum.

    While you usually don’t compare your vagina to your jaws (and before you ask, no, a dentate vagina is not a real medical condition), your female parts have more in common with sharks than you might think.

    The lubricant produced by the vagina contains a compound called squalene, the same compound found in shark liver.

    Controversially, squalene is also used in many cosmetic products such as moisturizing lotions, sunscreens and hair care products.

    We’ve all heard about the G-spot – the erogenous zone of the vagina, which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal and orgasm.

    But have you heard of point A? Point A, also known as the erogenous zone of the anterior fornix, is thought to be located deep within the vagina, between the cervix and the bladder.

    Point A is a relatively new discovery by Malaysian researcher Dr.Chua Chi Ann. In his study, he reported that 10-15 minutes of A-point stimulation resulted in instant orgasms and vaginal lubrication in 15 percent of women who reported pain and dryness during intercourse.

    And since we’re talking about sex, you might want to take a look at an article that debunks five of the most common myths about sex.

    What 10 Things You Should Know?

    Although half of the world’s population has a vagina, you probably don’t know a lot about this important element of the reproductive mechanism.Well, get ready to learn as we tell you 10 amazing facts about your feminine parts.

    Share on Pinterest Half of the population has a vagina, but there’s a lot we don’t know about it.

    If just hearing the word “vagina” cringes in embarrassment, then you are not alone.

    In fact, a 2016 survey found that 65 percent of young women have problems with the word “vagina”, with many preferring to use other terms, such as “female pieces”.

    Whatever you call it, there is one thing we can all agree on: the vagina is vital to human reproduction and plays an important role in sexual satisfaction.

    But the vagina is much more than many of us think. For example, did you know that the word “vagina” comes from the Latin word for “scabbard” or “scabbard”?

    Here we look at 10 more things you probably didn’t know about your wajayjay (yes, I hate that word too).

    This is the fact that we need in order not to get in the way. When you talk about the vagina, you might think that you mean the common intimate parts of a woman, but you are wrong.

    Instead, the word “vagina” refers to a specific part of the female reproductive system. It is a muscular tube that runs from the vulva, which belongs to the external female genitals, including the labia and clitoris, to the cervix.

    If you are interested in size, studies have shown that vaginal depth can range from 2.7 to 3.1 inches.Its depth during sexual arousal is estimated to be 4.3 to 4.7 inches.

    You may have heard some horror stories, but you will feel relieved to know that the tampon cannot be lost in the vagina; the opening at the top of the vagina is too small to exit through.

    However, the swab may become stuck. If so, you should see your doctor to have it removed. Leaving it there for too long can increase your risk of toxic shock syndrome.

    We do not mean “exercise” in the sexual sense, although research has shown that regular sexual activity can help maintain vaginal health.

    No, we are talking about pelvic floor exercises, which are also known as Kegel exercises. They are usually done to help manage urinary incontinence, but research has shown that they can also help improve sexual satisfaction.

    How? Well, Kegel exercises help tighten the vagina, making sex more enjoyable and more likely to lead to orgasm.

    Correct. The normal vaginal pH is less than 4.5, which is similar to the pH of wine.

    Lactobacilli are the “good” bacteria that dominate the vagina; they help maintain a normal pH in the female parts of the body and prevent the growth of bacteria that cause infection.

    When the level of Lactobacillus drops, the vaginal pH can rise above 4.5, which is an ideal breeding ground for vaginal infections such as yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.

    This is why we must avoid using scented soaps and other perfumed products to cleanse the vagina.

    The use of such products disrupts the natural balance of vaginal bacteria that can cause the aforementioned infections. In fact, we don’t need to worry about vaginal cleanliness at all; he will take care of himself.

    There are glands in the vagina that secrete fluid or “secretions” that help keep it clean.

    “I see women of all ages with irritation, soreness and itching,” said gynecologist and obstetrician Dr. Sangeeta Agnihotri in an interview with The Telegraph , “because women tend to be overly jealous of their cleanliness. It causes discomfort. ”

    “Our vaginas are sensitive areas. I would recommend washing with water once a day, ”she added.

    But if you are worried that throwing away soap will smell different from fresh, you may be interested to know that any unwanted odors may be related to your diet.

    Share on Pinterest Strong-smelling foods such as onions and garlic can leave a scent less fresh.

    Regarding the smell of female body parts, there is some anecdotal evidence that we are what we eat.

    For example, it is widely believed that eating pineapple can give the vagina a sweeter flavor. Other foods thought to alter vaginal odor include garlic, onions, and fish, as well as cheese and chili peppers.

    One caveat, though: if you notice that your feminine parts smell particularly pungent or their odor changes dramatically, this could be a sign of infection, so it’s worth checking this out.

    While the clitoris is not part of the vagina, we just couldn’t pass up the chance to talk about this amazing piece of female genitalia.

    The clitoris is viewed by many women as the basis of sexual pleasure, and this is not surprising; At the tip of the clitoris alone, there are 8,000 nerve endings, more than double the number of nerve endings in the penis, making it the most sensitive part of a woman’s erogenous zone.

    And if that wasn’t enough, research has shown that the clitoris can expand up to 300 percent during sexual arousal.

    All women have experienced this at one time or another: this embarrassing but uncontrolled release of air from the vagina known as “queefing.”

    Yes, quacking is very similar to farting, but the sounds can be misleading. Those small gusts of air that come from parts of our woman’s body are simply trapped air that comes out of the vaginal canal.

    They do not “farts” in the traditional sense of the word, because they are not waste gases and do not give off an unpleasant odor.

    However, in some rare cases, vaginal flatulence can be caused by a vaginal fistula, which is an abnormal opening leading from the vagina to the bladder, colon, or rectum.

    While you usually don’t compare your vagina to your jaws (and before you ask, no, a dentate vagina is not a real medical condition), your female parts have more in common with sharks than you might think.

    The lubricant produced by the vagina contains a compound called squalene, the same compound found in shark liver.

    Controversially, squalene is also used in many cosmetic products such as moisturizing lotions, sunscreens and hair care products.

    We’ve all heard about the G-spot – the erogenous zone of the vagina, which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal and orgasm.

    But have you heard of point A? Point A, also known as the erogenous zone of the anterior fornix, is thought to be located deep within the vagina, between the cervix and the bladder.

    Point A is a relatively new discovery by Malaysian researcher Dr.Chua Chi Ann. In his study, he reported that 10-15 minutes of A-point stimulation resulted in instant orgasms and vaginal lubrication in 15 percent of women who reported pain and dryness during intercourse.

    And since we’re talking about sex, you might want to take a look at an article that debunks five of the most common myths about sex.

    What 10 Things You Should Know?

    Although half of the world’s population has a vagina, you probably don’t know a lot about this important element of the reproductive mechanism.Well, get ready to learn as we tell you 10 amazing facts about your feminine parts.

    Share on Pinterest Half of the population has a vagina, but there’s a lot we don’t know about it.

    If just hearing the word “vagina” cringes in embarrassment, then you are not alone.

    In fact, a 2016 survey found that 65 percent of young women have problems with the word “vagina”, with many preferring to use other terms, such as “female pieces”.

    Whatever you call it, there is one thing we can all agree on: the vagina is vital to human reproduction and plays an important role in sexual satisfaction.

    But the vagina is much more than many of us think. For example, did you know that the word “vagina” comes from the Latin word for “scabbard” or “scabbard”?

    Here we look at 10 more things you probably didn’t know about your wajayjay (yes, I hate that word too).

    This is the fact that we need in order not to get in the way. When you talk about the vagina, you might think that you mean the common intimate parts of a woman, but you are wrong.

    Instead, the word “vagina” refers to a specific part of the female reproductive system. It is a muscular tube that runs from the vulva, which belongs to the external female genitals, including the labia and clitoris, to the cervix.

    If you are interested in size, studies have shown that vaginal depth can range from 2.7 to 3.1 inches.Its depth during sexual arousal is estimated to be 4.3 to 4.7 inches.

    You may have heard some horror stories, but you will feel relieved to know that the tampon cannot be lost in the vagina; the opening at the top of the vagina is too small to exit through.

    However, the swab may become stuck. If so, you should see your doctor to have it removed. Leaving it there for too long can increase your risk of toxic shock syndrome.

    We do not mean “exercise” in the sexual sense, although research has shown that regular sexual activity can help maintain vaginal health.

    No, we are talking about pelvic floor exercises, which are also known as Kegel exercises. They are usually done to help manage urinary incontinence, but research has shown that they can also help improve sexual satisfaction.

    How? Well, Kegel exercises help tighten the vagina, making sex more enjoyable and more likely to lead to orgasm.

    Correct. The normal vaginal pH is less than 4.5, which is similar to the pH of wine.

    Lactobacilli are the “good” bacteria that dominate the vagina; they help maintain a normal pH in the female parts of the body and prevent the growth of bacteria that cause infection.

    When the level of Lactobacillus drops, the vaginal pH can rise above 4.5, which is an ideal breeding ground for vaginal infections such as yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.

    This is why we must avoid using scented soaps and other perfumed products to cleanse the vagina.

    The use of such products disrupts the natural balance of vaginal bacteria that can cause the aforementioned infections. In fact, we don’t need to worry about vaginal cleanliness at all; he will take care of himself.

    There are glands in the vagina that secrete fluid or “secretions” that help keep it clean.

    “I see women of all ages with irritation, soreness and itching,” said gynecologist and obstetrician Dr. Sangeeta Agnihotri in an interview with The Telegraph , “because women tend to be overly jealous of their cleanliness. It causes discomfort. ”

    “Our vaginas are sensitive areas. I would recommend washing with water once a day, ”she added.

    But if you are worried that throwing away soap will smell different from fresh, you may be interested to know that any unwanted odors may be related to your diet.

    Share on Pinterest Strong-smelling foods such as onions and garlic can leave a scent less fresh.

    Regarding the smell of female body parts, there is some anecdotal evidence that we are what we eat.

    For example, it is widely believed that eating pineapple can give the vagina a sweeter flavor. Other foods thought to alter vaginal odor include garlic, onions, and fish, as well as cheese and chili peppers.

    One caveat, though: if you notice that your feminine parts smell particularly pungent or their odor changes dramatically, this could be a sign of infection, so it’s worth checking this out.

    While the clitoris is not part of the vagina, we just couldn’t pass up the chance to talk about this amazing piece of female genitalia.

    The clitoris is viewed by many women as the basis of sexual pleasure, and this is not surprising; At the tip of the clitoris alone, there are 8,000 nerve endings, more than double the number of nerve endings in the penis, making it the most sensitive part of a woman’s erogenous zone.

    And if that wasn’t enough, research has shown that the clitoris can expand up to 300 percent during sexual arousal.

    All women have experienced this at one time or another: this embarrassing but uncontrolled release of air from the vagina known as “queefing.”

    Yes, quacking is very similar to farting, but the sounds can be misleading. Those small gusts of air that come from parts of our woman’s body are simply trapped air that comes out of the vaginal canal.

    They do not “farts” in the traditional sense of the word, because they are not waste gases and do not give off an unpleasant odor.

    However, in some rare cases, vaginal flatulence can be caused by a vaginal fistula, which is an abnormal opening leading from the vagina to the bladder, colon, or rectum.

    While you usually don’t compare your vagina to your jaws (and before you ask, no, a dentate vagina is not a real medical condition), your female parts have more in common with sharks than you might think.

    The lubricant produced by the vagina contains a compound called squalene, the same compound found in shark liver.

    Controversially, squalene is also used in many cosmetic products such as moisturizing lotions, sunscreens and hair care products.

    We’ve all heard about the G-spot – the erogenous zone of the vagina, which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal and orgasm.

    But have you heard of point A? Point A, also known as the erogenous zone of the anterior fornix, is thought to be located deep within the vagina, between the cervix and the bladder.

    Point A is a relatively new discovery by Malaysian researcher Dr.Chua Chi Ann. In his study, he reported that 10-15 minutes of A-point stimulation resulted in instant orgasms and vaginal lubrication in 15 percent of women who reported pain and dryness during intercourse.

    And since we’re talking about sex, you might want to take a look at an article that debunks five of the most common myths about sex.

    What 10 Things You Should Know?

    Although half of the world’s population has a vagina, you probably don’t know a lot about this important element of the reproductive mechanism.Well, get ready to learn as we tell you 10 amazing facts about your feminine parts.

    Share on Pinterest Half of the population has a vagina, but there’s a lot we don’t know about it.

    If just hearing the word “vagina” cringes in embarrassment, then you are not alone.

    In fact, a 2016 survey found that 65 percent of young women have problems with the word “vagina”, with many preferring to use other terms, such as “female pieces”.

    Whatever you call it, there is one thing we can all agree on: the vagina is vital to human reproduction and plays an important role in sexual satisfaction.

    But the vagina is much more than many of us think. For example, did you know that the word “vagina” comes from the Latin word for “scabbard” or “scabbard”?

    Here we look at 10 more things you probably didn’t know about your wajayjay (yes, I hate that word too).

    This is the fact that we need in order not to get in the way. When you talk about the vagina, you might think that you mean the common intimate parts of a woman, but you are wrong.

    Instead, the word “vagina” refers to a specific part of the female reproductive system. It is a muscular tube that runs from the vulva, which belongs to the external female genitals, including the labia and clitoris, to the cervix.

    If you are interested in size, studies have shown that vaginal depth can range from 2.7 to 3.1 inches.Its depth during sexual arousal is estimated to be 4.3 to 4.7 inches.

    You may have heard some horror stories, but you will feel relieved to know that the tampon cannot be lost in the vagina; the opening at the top of the vagina is too small to exit through.

    However, the swab may become stuck. If so, you should see your doctor to have it removed. Leaving it there for too long can increase your risk of toxic shock syndrome.

    We do not mean “exercise” in the sexual sense, although research has shown that regular sexual activity can help maintain vaginal health.

    No, we are talking about pelvic floor exercises, which are also known as Kegel exercises. They are usually done to help manage urinary incontinence, but research has shown that they can also help improve sexual satisfaction.

    How? Well, Kegel exercises help tighten the vagina, making sex more enjoyable and more likely to lead to orgasm.

    Correct. The normal vaginal pH is less than 4.5, which is similar to the pH of wine.

    Lactobacilli are the “good” bacteria that dominate the vagina; they help maintain a normal pH in the female parts of the body and prevent the growth of bacteria that cause infection.

    When the level of Lactobacillus drops, the vaginal pH can rise above 4.5, which is an ideal breeding ground for vaginal infections such as yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.

    This is why we must avoid using scented soaps and other perfumed products to cleanse the vagina.

    The use of such products disrupts the natural balance of vaginal bacteria that can cause the aforementioned infections. In fact, we don’t need to worry about vaginal cleanliness at all; he will take care of himself.

    There are glands in the vagina that secrete fluid or “secretions” that help keep it clean.

    “I see women of all ages with irritation, soreness and itching,” said gynecologist and obstetrician Dr. Sangeeta Agnihotri in an interview with The Telegraph , “because women tend to be overly jealous of their cleanliness. It causes discomfort. ”

    “Our vaginas are sensitive areas. I would recommend washing with water once a day, ”she added.

    But if you are worried that throwing away soap will smell different from fresh, you may be interested to know that any unwanted odors may be related to your diet.

    Share on Pinterest Strong-smelling foods such as onions and garlic can leave a scent less fresh.

    Regarding the smell of female body parts, there is some anecdotal evidence that we are what we eat.

    For example, it is widely believed that eating pineapple can give the vagina a sweeter flavor. Other foods thought to alter vaginal odor include garlic, onions, and fish, as well as cheese and chili peppers.

    One caveat, though: if you notice that your feminine parts smell particularly pungent or their odor changes dramatically, this could be a sign of infection, so it’s worth checking this out.

    While the clitoris is not part of the vagina, we just couldn’t pass up the chance to talk about this amazing piece of female genitalia.

    The clitoris is viewed by many women as the basis of sexual pleasure, and this is not surprising; At the tip of the clitoris alone, there are 8,000 nerve endings, more than double the number of nerve endings in the penis, making it the most sensitive part of a woman’s erogenous zone.

    And if that wasn’t enough, research has shown that the clitoris can expand up to 300 percent during sexual arousal.

    All women have experienced this at one time or another: this embarrassing but uncontrolled release of air from the vagina known as “queefing.”

    Yes, quacking is very similar to farting, but the sounds can be misleading. Those small gusts of air that come from parts of our woman’s body are simply trapped air that comes out of the vaginal canal.

    They do not “farts” in the traditional sense of the word, because they are not waste gases and do not give off an unpleasant odor.

    However, in some rare cases, vaginal flatulence can be caused by a vaginal fistula, which is an abnormal opening leading from the vagina to the bladder, colon, or rectum.

    While you usually don’t compare your vagina to your jaws (and before you ask, no, a dentate vagina is not a real medical condition), your female parts have more in common with sharks than you might think.

    The lubricant produced by the vagina contains a compound called squalene, the same compound found in shark liver.

    Controversially, squalene is also used in many cosmetic products such as moisturizing lotions, sunscreens and hair care products.

    We’ve all heard about the G-spot – the erogenous zone of the vagina, which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal and orgasm.

    But have you heard of point A? Point A, also known as the erogenous zone of the anterior fornix, is thought to be located deep within the vagina, between the cervix and the bladder.

    Point A is a relatively new discovery by Malaysian researcher Dr.Chua Chi Ann. In his study, he reported that 10-15 minutes of A-point stimulation resulted in instant orgasms and vaginal lubrication in 15 percent of women who reported pain and dryness during intercourse.

    And since we’re talking about sex, you might want to take a look at an article that debunks five of the most common myths about sex.

    What 10 Things You Should Know?

    Although half of the world’s population has a vagina, you probably don’t know a lot about this important element of the reproductive mechanism.Well, get ready to learn as we tell you 10 amazing facts about your feminine parts.

    Share on Pinterest Half of the population has a vagina, but there’s a lot we don’t know about it.

    If just hearing the word “vagina” cringes in embarrassment, then you are not alone.

    In fact, a 2016 survey found that 65 percent of young women have problems with the word “vagina”, with many preferring to use other terms, such as “female pieces”.

    Whatever you call it, there is one thing we can all agree on: the vagina is vital to human reproduction and plays an important role in sexual satisfaction.

    But the vagina is much more than many of us think. For example, did you know that the word “vagina” comes from the Latin word for “scabbard” or “scabbard”?

    Here we look at 10 more things you probably didn’t know about your wajayjay (yes, I hate that word too).

    This is the fact that we need in order not to get in the way. When you talk about the vagina, you might think that you mean the common intimate parts of a woman, but you are wrong.

    Instead, the word “vagina” refers to a specific part of the female reproductive system. It is a muscular tube that runs from the vulva, which belongs to the external female genitals, including the labia and clitoris, to the cervix.

    If you are interested in size, studies have shown that vaginal depth can range from 2.7 to 3.1 inches.Its depth during sexual arousal is estimated to be 4.3 to 4.7 inches.

    You may have heard some horror stories, but you will feel relieved to know that the tampon cannot be lost in the vagina; the opening at the top of the vagina is too small to exit through.

    However, the swab may become stuck. If so, you should see your doctor to have it removed. Leaving it there for too long can increase your risk of toxic shock syndrome.

    We do not mean “exercise” in the sexual sense, although research has shown that regular sexual activity can help maintain vaginal health.

    No, we are talking about pelvic floor exercises, which are also known as Kegel exercises. They are usually done to help manage urinary incontinence, but research has shown that they can also help improve sexual satisfaction.

    How? Well, Kegel exercises help tighten the vagina, making sex more enjoyable and more likely to lead to orgasm.

    Correct. The normal vaginal pH is less than 4.5, which is similar to the pH of wine.

    Lactobacilli are the “good” bacteria that dominate the vagina; they help maintain a normal pH in the female parts of the body and prevent the growth of bacteria that cause infection.

    When the level of Lactobacillus drops, the vaginal pH can rise above 4.5, which is an ideal breeding ground for vaginal infections such as yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.

    This is why we must avoid using scented soaps and other perfumed products to cleanse the vagina.

    The use of such products disrupts the natural balance of vaginal bacteria that can cause the aforementioned infections. In fact, we don’t need to worry about vaginal cleanliness at all; he will take care of himself.

    There are glands in the vagina that secrete fluid or “secretions” that help keep it clean.

    “I see women of all ages with irritation, soreness and itching,” said gynecologist and obstetrician Dr. Sangeeta Agnihotri in an interview with The Telegraph , “because women tend to be overly jealous of their cleanliness. It causes discomfort. ”

    “Our vaginas are sensitive areas. I would recommend washing with water once a day, ”she added.

    But if you are worried that throwing away soap will smell different from fresh, you may be interested to know that any unwanted odors may be related to your diet.

    Share on Pinterest Strong-smelling foods such as onions and garlic can leave a scent less fresh.

    Regarding the smell of female body parts, there is some anecdotal evidence that we are what we eat.

    For example, it is widely believed that eating pineapple can give the vagina a sweeter flavor. Other foods thought to alter vaginal odor include garlic, onions, and fish, as well as cheese and chili peppers.

    One caveat, though: if you notice that your feminine parts smell particularly pungent or their odor changes dramatically, this could be a sign of infection, so it’s worth checking this out.

    While the clitoris is not part of the vagina, we just couldn’t pass up the chance to talk about this amazing piece of female genitalia.

    The clitoris is viewed by many women as the basis of sexual pleasure, and this is not surprising; At the tip of the clitoris alone, there are 8,000 nerve endings, more than double the number of nerve endings in the penis, making it the most sensitive part of a woman’s erogenous zone.

    And if that wasn’t enough, research has shown that the clitoris can expand up to 300 percent during sexual arousal.

    All women have experienced this at one time or another: this embarrassing but uncontrolled release of air from the vagina known as “queefing.”

    Yes, quacking is very similar to farting, but the sounds can be misleading. Those small gusts of air that come from parts of our woman’s body are simply trapped air that comes out of the vaginal canal.

    They do not “farts” in the traditional sense of the word, because they are not waste gases and do not give off an unpleasant odor.

    However, in some rare cases, vaginal flatulence can be caused by a vaginal fistula, which is an abnormal opening leading from the vagina to the bladder, colon, or rectum.

    While you usually don’t compare your vagina to your jaws (and before you ask, no, a dentate vagina is not a real medical condition), your female parts have more in common with sharks than you might think.

    The lubricant produced by the vagina contains a compound called squalene, the same compound found in shark liver.

    Controversially, squalene is also used in many cosmetic products such as moisturizing lotions, sunscreens and hair care products.

    We’ve all heard about the G-spot – the erogenous zone of the vagina, which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal and orgasm.

    But have you heard of point A? Point A, also known as the erogenous zone of the anterior fornix, is thought to be located deep within the vagina, between the cervix and the bladder.

    Point A is a relatively new discovery by Malaysian researcher Dr.Chua Chi Ann. In his study, he reported that 10-15 minutes of A-point stimulation resulted in instant orgasms and vaginal lubrication in 15 percent of women who reported pain and dryness during intercourse.

    And since we’re talking about sex, you might want to take a look at an article that debunks five of the most common myths about sex.

    23 Vagina Facts – Vagina and Vulva Facts

    Fun Fact: Even if you use the term “vagina” to describe of all of your pants anatomy, this is just a small part of the magic going on between your legs.Technically, the vagina is simply a canal that runs from the vulva (the visible area that includes the inner and outer labia, clitoris, and perineum) to the cervix (the lower part of the uterus).

    If you’re like, “Vulva, who?” After that human biology lesson, we have SO much to discuss, my friend. Here you will find facts about all of these very important but often overlooked body parts, how to care for them and when to see your gynecologist. Forward!

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    1. Point G – False GD!

    According to a recent study by the Cosmo , a group of researchers formally coined the term “G-spot” in the early 1980s. They named the thing, which they called “sensitive,” “little beans,” after German explorer Ernst Grefenberg (yes, man). And that’s how your most unpleasant fake body part was born.

    Dozens of trials have used interviews, pathological specimens, images, and biochemical markers to locate the elusive G-spot once and for all.

    “I don’t think we have evidence that the G-spot is a point or structure,” says Nicole Prause, Ph.D., a neuroscientist who studies orgasms and sexual arousal. “I never understood why it was interpreted as some kind of new genital organ. You cannot standardize the vagina – women have no consensus about where we experience pleasure.

    Some women have sexual sensitivity where the G-spot should be, but others do not.Or left. Or in several places. And that’s the whole point. It’s , all are fine. It can all feel good.

    And really: unless sex researchers make a surprisingly big breakthrough, Cosmo will no longer publish G-spot sex positions or how-to-find guides. The more you know.

    2. Not everyone with a vagina is a woman.

    The genitals of a person are not an indicator of his sex, and it is so harmful to assume.A person born with a vagina may also identify as trans male, male, non-binary, gender, gender fluid, or gender non-conforming.

    3. Not all women are born with hymen.

    According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, a thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening is not guaranteed. And even if you were born with it, playing sports as a child, using tampons, or accidental medical procedures can break it.So not having a hymen doesn’t really mean you’ve never had sex before.

    4. The labia come in all shapes and sizes.

    The labia majora or spongy tissue around the vaginal opening can be from a quarter to two inches wide according to ACOG. So, every girl is a unique and special unicorn.

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    5. There is always some yeast in your vagina.

    Even if you don’t have a full-blown yeast infection, your hu-ha usually contains some of the fungi. According to ACOG, yeast can only grow and cause symptoms such as itching and burning when your microbiome or the healthy set of bacteria in your vagina is disrupted by lubricants or even antibiotics.

    6. Surroundings can often be of different colors.

    The shade of the labia or vaginal tissue does not necessarily depend on the tone of the rest of the skin.Many fair-skinned women have brown or purple labia, while dark-skinned women may have a lighter vulva. You can also have different colors in different areas – for example, your labia may be on the darker side, and your crotch may be pale pink. Whatever your color scheme, there is no “normal”. She is perfect the way she is.

    7. Pleated walls.

    Usually the walls of the vagina are pressed against each other. But the sides can split and expand, like opening an umbrella.The vagina usually expands up to two inches wide during sex and may become even larger for the baby to pass through.

    8. A lot of sex will not stretch.

    As explained above, the vagina is incredibly elastic, so it always returns to its normal tightness after sex. So can we all agree to permanently kill the sexist hot dog in the hallway metaphor? Thanks.

    9. It does not shrink if you go through a dry spell.

    Your vaginal muscles may be tight at first after weeks or months without sex or foreplay, but penetration should not be painful.Talk to your document if it is ongoing.

    10. You can strengthen it like any other muscle.

    According to ACOG, the pelvic floor muscles hold the vagina, uterus, rectum, and urethra in place. When you have a weak pelvic floor, you know, for example, right after you pushed the person out of you, it can be harder to hold on to urine. But Kegel exercises can strengthen the muscles surrounding the openings of the urethra and vagina . Simply push as if you were stopping the flow of urine, hold for three seconds, then relax for three seconds.Do 10 reps a day, increasing to 10 second delays.

    11. It is teeming with bacteria.

    The most important microbe that has taken up residence in you: lactobacilli, a strain that produces lactic acid, which controls harmful microorganisms so that you do not get infected. However, please never put yogurt that contains lactic acid (or any other food, tbh) in it. This will not cure the yeast infection and can lead to even more problems.

    12. Self-cleaning.

    The discharge washes out the cells of the vaginal wall, excess water and bacteria. When you shower, all you need is a simple application of mild soap and unscented water between the lip folds and along the crotch.

    13. There are two main causes of vaginal pain.

    Vaginismus, in which the muscles in the vagina contract involuntarily, can make it difficult or impossible to have sex, use a tampon, or even have a pelvic exam.This can be treated with physical therapy or counseling. Another characterized by vulvar pain, tingling, or sensitivity so severe that direct contact is difficult to tolerate is vulvodynia. They are often diagnosed after the gynecologist has ruled out other conditions, such as a severe yeast infection. Antidepressants often help relieve pain.

    14. Its aroma can change during the month.

    It tends to be sour before menses and pungent after.Your scent may be more noticeable after exercise due to sweat glands and during sex due to the natural lubrication you produce. “A slight vaginal odor is normal,” says Dr. Boyle. “But when the smell gets strong, unpleasant, or accompanied by unusual discharge, it’s time to see a doctor.”

    15. Orgasms are good.

    Regular sex (even with yourself) and orgasm can actually help reduce stress and anxiety, says Dr. Boyle.“Orgasms increase the production of estrogen, which increases the production of oxytocin and decreases the production of cortisol [the main stress hormone].“

    16. But too much sex can disable him.

    Too many actions in a short period of time may cause irritation or infection of the urinary tract. Fortunately, drinking extra fluids and urine after sex can contain UTIs.

    17. Allocations change throughout the cycle.

    Although up to two teaspoons of liquid, clear secretions per day are secreted from the vagina during ovulation, it becomes creamier and thicker just before discharge. “Changes in secretions during ovulation create a favorable environment for sperm to travel up to the egg,” says Dr. Boyle. If it ever itches, burns, has a foul odor, or looks like curd, see your gynecologist.

    18. Your vagina is not a black hole.

    It is impossible to get lost there for anything (for example, a tampon), as the cervix blocks the access. But if the tampon has slipped out of reach, fish it out by squatting and bending down. If that doesn’t work, your gynecologist can remove it quickly.

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    19. Clitoris act like a boner when you are aroused.

    When aroused, the clitoris fills with blood and gets bigger, ”says Dr. Lawrence Orbuch, obstetrician-gynecologist and director of Gyn Laparoscopic Associates at Beth Israel Mount Sinai Hospital in New York.

    20. Your vagina can actually double in size.

    Women’s vaginas can vary in size and shape when they are aroused, says Dr. Orbukh. But thanks to a phenomenon called the awning, your carriage could well double in size.This means that the upper two-thirds of the vagina dilates, allowing sperm to move more easily up into the cervix.

    21. Your clitoris is more sensitive than your penis.

    It may seem obvious, but there are 8,000 sensory nerve endings in the clitoris and only 4,000 in the penis, says Dr. Orbukh. This may explain why clitoral orgasms are usually much more intense than clitoral orgasms.

    22. Your vagina is acidic like wine.

    No, really: the normal vaginal pH is between 3.8 and 4.5, and the pH of most wines drops to about 3.0 or 4.0, says Dr. Orbuch.

    23. Vaginal surgery is insanely expensive and you probably won’t need it.

    Vaginal procedures range from G-shot (collagen or filler injections designed to increase the size of the much-discussed G-spot area) costing about $ 1,500 to vaginal rejuvenation costing about $ 7,000.These surgeries are almost never covered by insurance and in most cases are unnecessary unless you have a real health condition causing you real health problems.

    Lane Moore
    Sex and Relationship Editor
    I’m Lane Moore, editor of Sex and Relationships at Cosmopolitan.com.

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    15 facts about the vagina that make penises jealous

    1. First, whole human babies can grow out of the vagina.

    Obviously, we all know this, but it has to be repeated over and over again. Seriously: respect. What can you do, penis? #birthcanal

    2. The vagina can be stretched THREE TIMES from its original size – in girth – to achieve this unrivaled feat.

    And we all know that measurement is important. The typical initial diameter of the vagina is about 3 cm, according to Mary Jane Minkin, MD, clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Yale Medical School.The baby’s head is about 10 cm in diameter. You are doing the math. (Actually, we’ve already done that. And wow.)

    3. It can also grow almost 50 percent in length.

    Farmer? Shower? The vagina itself does not slouch. Minkin tells SELF that it lengthens during arousal from an average length (ie depth) of 7 or 8 cm to 10 or 11 cm.

    4. However, we do not need to feel that we are judged by the size of our organ.

    Still, you can’t see him in the dressing room.

    5. The vagina is self-cleaning.

    While uncircumcised men must clean the foreskin under the foreskin to prevent smegma build-up that can lead to fungal and bacterial infections, the vagina is basically a self-cleaning oven. It produces natural fluids to flush out harmful bacteria and maintain a healthy pH, which is why you shouldn’t and shouldn’t douche.

    6. Self-lubricating.

    Lube is beautiful.But most women don’t need it, Minkin says, because they have their own way of getting ready for work. “It’s called arousal,” she says. “Most people get wet enough” just from excitement. Kleenex hand lotion and wipes? As if.

    7. When women get turned on in public, no one should know.

    A raging blunder cannot be hidden. It must be tough on you guys, but the ladies don’t have to worry about someone spying on their stealthy cloners (you know, clitoral boner).

    8. The vaginas have their own training equipment.

    This is because they are surrounded by muscles that can be flexed and strengthened. Kegel machines, Ben Wa balls, and yoni eggs help work out the pelvic floor muscles that surround the vaginal canal. Stronger Kegels cause more intense contractions during orgasm. And you can work with them yourself, anytime, anywhere. (Here you will learn exactly how to do the Kegel exercises.)

    9.There may be two of them (sort of).

    Embryologically, the vagina is formed from two tubular structures that merge in the middle. The midline divider disappears during development. But sometimes this is not the case, which is why some women are born with a septum that divides the vagina in two. While some may prefer to remove it, others may not even know that it is there.

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    Thrush is a type of yeast infection caused by the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans.Candidiasis in men is rare, usually associated with serious health problems, decreased immunity, long-term treatment of severe infections. It can develop in the mouth and throat, on the skin, or particularly on the genitals. Genital yeast infections are more common in women, but they also happen to men. In these cases, yeast infections can affect the glans penis and urethral opening. Genital fungal infections are more common in uncircumcised men. This is due to the fact that the presence of the foreskin is conducive to fungal colonization.The complex treatment of thrush in men includes traditional drug therapy, which may include various agents, including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating agents. These drugs are generally recommended to take 1 tablet (500 mg) once for three days. It is important to take the full course as bacteria may not be completely killed. How to quickly cure thrush in men? Thrush is easiest to cure by applying complex treatment. First of all, it is necessary to use antifungal agents, since thrush is caused by the development of a fungal infection (fungus of the genus Candida).How to cure thrush in men, an overview of the remedies for thrush in the material. With thrush in men, it is very important to start timely treatment. After all, if the patient does not go to the doctor for a long time if he suspects candidiasis or decides to ignore the recommendations of a specialist, then there is a risk of complications of candidiasis. The structure of the mucous membrane of the urogenital canal may be disrupted, in this regard, it will be difficult to urinate. Thrush or candidiasis is a common fungal disease.Despite the rarity of the complications associated with it, it is better not to postpone the treatment of thrush, since it is much easier to eliminate the acute form of pathology and fight its possible causes than to carry out therapy for recurrent and complicated forms. Treatment of thrush in men should have two directions: Treatment of candidiasis itself and its symptoms. This treatment includes modern antifungal drugs that inhibit the pathological growth and reproduction of bacteria. It is enough to take such drugs once a day, and after 3-5 days you will see clear improvements.Treatment aimed at increasing the body’s resistance, normalizing hormonal levels or eliminating factors that caused thrush. The role of external agents. At the initial stage of the course of the disease, it is possible to use drugs for external use. When treating children, drugs are selected taking into account the age category. Figure 9 – Candida fungi are able to live even in the mouth. Thrush in the mouth is especially dangerous for babies. Video 2: How to cure thrush in women and men.Simple tips. Effective remedies. Video 3: Treatment of thrush in the mouth in infants. Video 4: On self-medication for thrush: why not. Medicines. Effective thrush pills for women. Oral preparations are prescribed for men and women with thrush in both long and short courses. The tablets most often contain clotrimazole, natamycin, or fluconazole. Fluconazole is a part of Flucostat, Diflucan, Mikomax, Mikoflucan and Fluconazole. Treatment is prescribed for 14 days.These tablets are used in the treatment of thrush in men, women and children from the age of three. Affordable, but not suitable for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Pimafucin. Candidiasis is an infectious disease caused by yeast-like fungi belonging to the genus Candida. Candida enters the normal microbial flora of the body even in perfectly healthy people and multiplies without causing any harm. When favorable conditions appear, the fungus begins to multiply and provokes the development of various disorders.Candidiasis includes various types of infections, ranging from the most superficial to the systemic level. Superficial infections with Candida are responsible for local inflammation, which is often associated with severe discomfort. Treatment of skin fungus – broad spectrum preparations. Are broad-spectrum antifungals prescribed for pregnant and lactating women? What are broad spectrum antifungals for? Antifungal agents for systemic candidiasis. A common and unpleasant infection found on internal organs, this type of lesion comes from candida – the yeast-like fungus Candida.Diseases belong to systemic (visceral, generalized) candidiasis, fungi spread in the gastrointestinal tract, on the respiratory organs, in the urinary system. Less commonly – in the nervous and cardiovascular system, in the brain tissue. Treatment of thrush in men. For the treatment of thrush on any part of the body (except for the penis), first of all, imidazole preparations for topical use are recommended. The principle of action of such drugs lies in the destruction of the membranes (cell walls) of the fungus.Examples of topical imidazoles: clotrimazole; econazole; ketoconazole; miconazole. Most of these drugs are available over the counter without a prescription.

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