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Pain in the muscles of the chest medical term: Chest pain: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Chest pain: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Chest pain is discomfort or pain that you feel anywhere along the front of your body between your neck and upper abdomen.

Many people with chest pain fear a heart attack. However, there are many possible causes of chest pain. Some causes are not dangerous to your health, while other causes are serious and, in some cases, life threatening.

Any organ or tissue in your chest can be the source of pain, including your heart, lungs, esophagus, muscles, ribs, tendons, or nerves. Pain may also spread to the chest from the neck, abdomen, and back.

Heart or blood vessel problems that can cause chest pain:

  • Angina or a heart attack. The most common symptom is chest pain that may feel like tightness, heavy pressure, squeezing, or crushing pain. The pain may spread to the arm, shoulder, jaw, or back.
  • A tear in the wall of the aorta, the large blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic dissection) causes sudden, severe pain in the chest and upper back.
  • Swelling (inflammation) in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis) causes pain in the center part of the chest.

Lung problems that can cause chest pain:

  • A blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism).
  • Collapse of the lung (pneumothorax).
  • Pneumonia causes a sharp chest pain that often gets worse when you take a deep breath or cough.
  • Swelling of the lining around the lung (pleurisy) can cause chest pain that usually feels sharp, and often gets worse when you take a deep breath or cough.

Other causes of chest pain:

  • Panic attack, which often occurs with fast breathing.
  • Inflammation where the ribs join the breast bone or sternum (costochondritis).
  • Shingles, which causes sharp, tingling pain on one side that stretches from the chest to the back, and may cause a rash.
  • Strain of the muscles and tendons between the ribs.

Chest pain can also be due to the following digestive system problems:

  • Spasms or narrowing of the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach)
  • Gallstones cause pain that gets worse after a meal (most often a fatty meal).
  • Heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
  • Stomach ulcer or gastritis: Burning pain occurs if your stomach is empty and feels better when you eat food

In children, most chest pain is not caused by the heart.

For most causes of chest pain, it is best to check with your health care provider before treating yourself at home.

Call 911 or the local emergency number if:

  • You have sudden crushing, squeezing, tightening, or pressure in your chest.
  • Pain spreads (radiates) to your jaw, left arm, or between your shoulder blades.
  • You have nausea, dizziness, sweating, a racing heart, or shortness of breath.
  • You know you have angina and your chest discomfort is suddenly more intense, brought on by lighter activity, or lasts longer than usual.
  • Your angina symptoms occur while you are at rest.
  • You have sudden, sharp chest pain with shortness of breath, especially after a long trip, a stretch of bedrest (for example, following an operation), or other lack of movement, especially if one leg is swollen or more swollen than the other (this could be a blood clot, part of which has moved to the lungs).
  • You have been diagnosed with a serious condition, such as heart attack or pulmonary embolism.

Your risk of having a heart attack is greater if:

  • You have a family history of heart disease.
  • You smoke, use cocaine, or are overweight.
  • You have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes.
  • You already have heart disease.

Call your provider if:

  • You have a fever or a cough that produces yellow-green phlegm.
  • You have chest pain that is severe and does not go away.
  • You are having problems swallowing.
  • Chest pain lasts longer than 3 to 5 days.

Your provider may ask questions such as:

  • Is the pain between the shoulder blades? Under the breast bone? Does the pain change location? Is it on one side only?
  • How would you describe the pain? (severe, tearing or ripping, sharp, stabbing, burning, squeezing, tight, pressure-like, crushing, aching, dull, heavy)
  • Does it begin suddenly? Does the pain occur at the same time each day?
  • Does the pain get better or worse when you walk or change positions?
  • Can you make the pain happen by pressing on a part of your chest?
  • Is the pain getting worse? How long does the pain last?
  • Does the pain go from your chest into your shoulder, arm, neck, jaw, or back?
  • Is the pain worse when you are breathing deeply, coughing, eating, or bending?
  • Is the pain worse when you are exercising? Is it better after you rest? Does it go away completely, or is there just less pain?
  • Is the pain better after you take nitroglycerin medicine? After you eat or take antacids? After you belch?
  • What other symptoms do you have?

The types of tests that are done depend on the cause of the pain, and what other medical problems or risk factors you have.

Chest tightness; Chest pressure; Chest discomfort

  • Angina – discharge
  • Angina – what to ask your doctor
  • Angina – when you have chest pain
  • Being active after your heart attack
  • Heart attack symptoms
  • Jaw pain and heart attacks

Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(24):e139-e228. PMID: 25260718 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25260718/.

Bonaca MP, Sabatine MS. Approach to the patient with chest pain. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Bhatt DL, Solomon SD, eds. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 35.

Brown JE. Chest pain. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 22.

Goldman L. Approach to the patient with possible cardiovascular disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 45.

Gulati M, Levy PD, Mukherjee D, et al. 2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021;78(22):e187-e285. PMID: 34756653 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34756653/.

O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(4):e78-e140. PMID: 23256914 pubmed. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23256914/.

Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Angina (Chest Pain) | American Heart Association

Angina is chest pain or discomfort caused when your heart muscle doesn’t get enough oxygen-rich blood. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The discomfort also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, abdomen or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion. In addition, some people don’t feel any pain but have other symptoms like shortness of breath or fatigue. If these symptoms are due to a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle, it’s called an “anginal equivalent.”

But angina is not a disease. It’s a symptom of an underlying heart problem, usually coronary heart disease (CHD), also known as coronary artery disease (CAD). There are many types of angina, including stable, unstable, microvascular, and angina caused by a spasm in the coronary arteries (vasospastic or variant). View an animation of angina(link opens in new window)(link opens in new window).

Angina usually happens because one or more of the coronary arteries is narrowed or blocked, also called ischemia.

Angina can also be a symptom of coronary microvascular disease (MVD). This is heart disease that affects the heart’s smallest coronary arteries and is more likely to affect women than men. Learn more about angina in women.

Depending on the type of angina you have, there are many factors that can trigger angina pain. The symptoms also vary based on the type of angina you have.

Types of Angina

Knowing the types of angina and how they differ is important.

  • Stable angina
  • Unstable angina
  • Microvascular Angina
  • Vasospastic or variant angina

Understand Your Risk for Angina

If you’re at risk for heart disease or coronary artery disease, you’re also at risk for angina. The major risk factors for heart disease and coronary artery disease include:

  • Unhealthy cholesterol levels
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Physical inactivity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Older age (The risk increases for men after 45 years of age and for women after 55 years of age.)
  • Family history of early heart disease


All chest pain should be checked out by a health care professional. He or she will want to find out if it’s angina and if it is, whether the angina is stable or unstable. If it’s unstable, you may need emergency medical treatment to try to prevent a heart attack.

Your health care professional will most likely perform a physical exam, ask about your symptoms, and ask about your risk factors for and your family history of heart disease and other cardiovascular conditions. 

Your health care professional will also ask you a series of questions to rule out the most critical or life-threatening possibilities. Think ahead so you can provide as much information as possible. Here are some questions you might be asked:

  • How long have you had this condition?
  • On a scale of 1 (mild) to 10 (critical), what is your level of discomfort?
  • What behavior(s) provoke the pain? Physical activity? Eating?
  • What relieves the discomfort?

Print our Angina Log to keep track of your angina symptoms.

Angina Treatment

If your health care professional thinks that you have unstable angina or that your angina is related to a serious heart condition, they may recommend the following tests and procedures:

  • EKG (Electrocardiogram)
  • Stress Test
  • Blood Tests
  • Chest X-rays
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Computed Tomography Angiography

Treatment of angina includes:

  • Determining the cause
  • Cardiac procedures to open blocked arteries
  • Medicines to help keep the arteries open
  • Medicines to treat other medical conditions and risk factors like high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes
  • Lifestyle changes including healthy diet and physical activity
  • Cardiac rehabilitation (if you qualify)

These treatments will help reduce pain and discomfort and how often the angina pain occurs. They will also prevent or lower your risk for heart attack and death by treating the underlying cardiovascular condition you may have.

Not all chest pain is a sign of heart disease.

Other conditions also can cause chest pain, such as:

  • Pulmonary embolism (a blockage in a lung artery)
  • Aortic dissection (tearing of a major artery)
  • A lung infection
  • Aortic stenosis (narrowing of the heart’s aortic valve)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease)
  • Pericarditis (inflammation in the tissues that surround the heart)
  • A panic attack

Learn more:

  • Print our downloadable sheet: What is Angina? (PDF)

Written by American Heart Association editorial staff and reviewed by science and medicine advisors. See our editorial policies and staff.

Last Reviewed: Nov 8, 2021

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Muscle pain – treatment, symptoms, causes, diagnosis

Muscle pain (myalgia) is a pulling, sometimes painful or spastic muscle pain : the term myalgia consists of the Greek words Myos muscle and Algos pain. Muscle pains can be localized both in a certain area of ​​the body, and radiate or be diffuse. In principle, pain can occur in any of the more than 600 muscles in the body.

Muscle pain (myalgia) occurs most often in the area of ​​the shoulders and neck in the back. Approximately 75 percent of adults in Europe suffer from back pain, one way or another having a muscular origin. Muscles are divided into skeletal and smooth. Skeletal muscles include muscles that provide human movement and connect bone structures. Quite often, the pain is caused not by skeletal muscle, but by smooth muscles (for example, problems in the smooth muscle of the heart can be a source of pain in the chest). Smooth muscles are located in the walls of the hollow organs of the body, such as the stomach, bladder, and blood vessels, and play a large role in the normal function of organs. The cardiac muscle, which forms the heart, is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.

Muscles respond to commands from the brain and nervous system or other stimuli, for example reflexively when performing a neurological examination with a hammer. Muscles contract when stimulated and relax after contraction. Muscles can become a source of pain due to various diseases and conditions, including infections, injuries, autoimmune diseases, neurological and muscle diseases, malignant tumors (cancer), and even after taking certain medications. Muscle pain can also involve ligaments, tendons, and fascia, which are soft tissues that connect muscles, bones, and organs.

The person may feel muscle pain in certain muscles of the body, such as the muscles of the back or muscles of the legs, or the pain may be diffuse in all muscles, such as with the flu. In a patient during an angina attack, retrosternal pain is due to problems in the myocardium. Menstrual pain is pain caused by the smooth muscle of the uterus. Temporary skeletal muscle pain often occurs due to muscle tension due to awkward movement or excessive exercise. This type of pain often affects one or more muscles and is usually sharp and intense. Abstinence from the activity that caused the pain, rest, topical cold, and anti-inflammatory drugs usually help to reduce pain associated with overuse of the muscles. Muscle pain can be caused by serious conditions such as fibromyalgia, infections, or dermatomyositis.

Muscle pain may be a symptom of a serious condition such as a muscle tear or infection. Therefore, you should immediately seek medical help if muscle pain is persistent or worsens.

Not only muscle pain , but any pain is an important signal for the body. Various stimuli can cause pain, such as heat or cold, pressure or shock, as well as electrical stimulation and chemicals. So-called pain receptors are responsible for transmitting these stimulating sensations. Pain receptors are free nerve endings that are located both on the surface in the skin and in depth – in muscles, tendons and ligaments, as well as in various organs. When pain receptors are stimulated, the signal from them goes to the central nervous system, where the signal is analyzed, and a protective response occurs, which is aimed at preventing further damage.


Muscle pain may occur along with other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease. For example, muscle pain that is caused by an injury may be accompanied by bruising and swelling around the injury. Additional symptoms that may accompany muscle pain include:

  • Depression
  • Diarrhea
  • Acute respiratory symptoms (fever, chills, sore throat, fatigue, headache, cough)
  • Attention disorder
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle cramps
  • Numbness, tingling or burning (so-called paresthesias)
  • Trouble walking
  • Sleep disorders
  • Swelling at the site of injury
  • Abrupt weight loss
  • Vomiting

Serious symptoms that may indicate a life-threatening condition

In some cases, muscle pain may occur in association with other symptoms that may indicate a serious or life-threatening condition, such as a heart attack (heart attack) or meningitis. Seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms:

  • Changes in consciousness or attention, such as loss of consciousness or severe impairment of memory
  • Changes in mental status, such as impaired perception of the environment
  • Chest pain radiating to the arm, shoulder, neck or jaw
  • Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath
  • Inability to move in any part of the body
  • Violation (loss) of vision
  • Lack of urine
  • Progressive weakness and numbness
  • Seizure
  • Stiff neck with high temperature

Cause of pain

Skeletal muscle pain is most often caused by direct trauma or injury resulting from muscle strain or muscle strain. Muscle tension occurs when several muscle fibers are damaged, while when a muscle is torn, a large number of muscle fibers are torn. A tear (tear) in the tendon can also lead to muscle pain. Muscles and tendons have the ability to regenerate, but with a severe rupture of a muscle or tendon, prompt restoration of the integrity of the damaged structures is required. Muscle pain can be caused by cramps that occur due to overload or abnormal nerve impulses that lead to excessive muscle contraction. In some cases, muscle pain can be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition such as a heart attack, meningitis, or cancer.

Traumatic causes of muscle pain

Muscle pain can be associated with any injury, including:

  • Blunt force
  • Muscle strain or tear
  • Excessive or repetitive movements
  • Nerve compression (due to disc herniation, spinal stenosis)

Neuromuscular diseases and conditions

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Charcot’s disease) is a severe neuromuscular disease that causes muscle weakness and disability
  • Injury to the brain or spinal cord
  • Dermatomyositis (a condition characterized by muscle inflammation and skin rash)
  • Lyme disease (inflammatory bacterial disease transmitted by ticks)
  • Multiple sclerosis (a disease that affects the brain and spinal cord and causes weakness, incoordination, balance and other problems)
  • Muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis)
  • Muscle infections such as abscess
  • Parkinson’s disease (disease of the brain leading to impaired movement and coordination)
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica (disease characterized by muscle pain and stiffness)
  • Polymyositis (inflammation and muscle weakness)
  • Stroke

Other possible causes of muscle pain

Many other diseases and conditions can cause muscle pain, including:

  • Cancer
  • Depression
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Angina pectoris or myocardial infarction
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Influenza or other respiratory diseases
  • Renal failure
  • Electrolyte disorders (impaired levels of potassium or calcium in the blood).
  • Pregnancy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Vitamin B12 or vitamin D deficiency

Medicines and substances that can cause muscle pain, include:

  • ACE inhibitors (used to lower blood pressure)
  • Cocaine
  • Statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs)

Questions to help find the cause of muscle pain include:

  • Are there other symptoms such as a sore throat or fever?
  • Do you feel pain in one specific area or throughout your body?
  • How long does this condition last?
  • In what parts of the body are the pains localized?
  • What reduces pain or increases pain?
  • What medications are currently taken or have been taken recently

Potential complications of muscle pain

Complications associated with muscle pain depend on the underlying disease or condition. For example, muscle pain associated with fibromyalgia or degenerative disease can lead to reduced motor activity and related complications. Many skeletal muscle pains, however, respond well to treatment. However, if muscle pain prolonged and associated with a systemic disease, this may lead to the following complications, including:

  • Chronic pain
  • Immobility and associated complications (such as bedsores and thrombosis)
  • Persistent pain refractory to treatment
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Muscle contracture
  • Permanent muscle or nerve injury (most commonly due to nerve compression), including paralysis.
  • Decreased quality of life


Diagnosis of muscle pain (myalgia) is primarily based on the history of the disease and symptoms. Most muscle pain is associated with muscle tension (eg, due to poor posture or a sedentary lifestyle) or injury (eg, sprains, bruises, or muscle soreness from sports). Instrumental research methods, such as ultrasound or X-ray, CT, MRI, help confirm or differentiate cause of muscle pain .

Medical history (anamnesis).

The physician will be interested in the type of pain, the location of the pain, and the intensity of the muscle pain. This information can be key to finding out what causes leg pain. Information about the presence of muscle injuries, the presence of bruises, factors that lead to an increase or decrease in muscle pain, or the pain is persistent, for example, with a herniated disc, the time of occurrence of pain (day or night), is very important.

Inspection. A doctor’s examination can look for areas of pain, changes in skin color, range of motion in muscles or joints, muscle strength, local tenderness in the tendon area, or identification of trigger points (for example, fibromyalgia). In addition, reflex activity, sensitivity and other neurological tests are important, which can detect the presence of neurological disorders. The time of occurrence of pain in the muscles is also relevant, as, for example, with osteoporosis or Bechterew’s disease. Alcohol or drug abuse can be a possible cause of muscle pain and information about this is important in understanding the causes of muscle pain. Some medications can also have the side effect of muscle pain.

Laboratory research methods.

Blood tests can determine the presence of an inflammatory process or infections, autoimmune processes; biochemical analyzes allow to determine violations of the functions of internal organs (for example, the liver or kidneys).

Ultrasound examination (ultrasound). This research method allows you to visualize the presence of inflammation of the muscles (myositis), ruptures of muscles, tendons.

Investigations such as CT or MRI are needed to visualize problems in deep muscles where ultrasonography is not helpful or where neurological conditions or traumatic injuries need to be visualized. Electrophysiological research methods (EMG or ENMG) allow you to determine the presence of inflammatory or degenerative muscle diseases or impaired conduction along the nerves due to compression of the nerve roots or other neurological diseases.

Muscle biopsy is usually used as the last step in the diagnosis of muscle diseases, and only if there are clear signs of such diseases.


Treatment of muscle pain depends on the cause of the symptom. Therefore, the most important factor in determining treatment tactics is an accurate diagnosis. For example, if muscle pain is caused by taking certain drugs, then in such cases it may be enough to stop taking these drugs or replace them with other medicines. Medical treatment for muscle pain can include both NSAIDs or analgesics, and even opiates.

Acute muscle pain

Acute muscle pain after injury requires rest and unloading, in some cases immobilization. In addition, a good effect in such cases is given by local cooling with ice wrapped in a towel, which reduces swelling, inflammation, and pain. In addition, it is necessary to stop the load that led to muscle pain. It takes a lot of time to treat muscle injuries, since early restoration of normal loads can lead to chronic pain and excessive scarring of muscle tissue, and in severe cases, to the development of ossifying myositis.

Chronic muscle pain

Treatment of chronic pain may include thermal treatments as well as other therapies such as:

  • Acupuncture and acupressure
  • Electrotherapy (therapy through electricity)
  • Electromyostimulation
  • Physiotherapy
  • LFK
  • Manual therapy

Systematic exercises (exercise therapy) are especially relevant when chronic pain is caused by degenerative diseases of the spine, such as osteochondrosis, spondylosis, disc herniation.

Surgical treatments are used for severe traumatic muscle injuries or nerve root compression.

Prevention of muscle pain consists in the following rules: maintaining a healthy lifestyle, sufficient physical activity, balanced nutrition, proper ergonomics of the workplace, avoiding alcohol abuse, smoking.

Pain and tightness in the chest: causes and solutions


  • 1 Pain and tightness in the chest, enlarged breasts
    • 1. 1 Breast anomalies
    • 1.2 Mastics and deodorants
    • 1.3 Hormonal changes
    • 1.4 Mechanical effects
    • 1.5 Cardiovascular problems
    • 1 .6 Menstrual cycle
    • 1.7 Breastfeeding
    • 1.8 Breast
    • 1.9 Mammography
    • 1.10 Breast implants
    • 1.11 Mastitis and abscess
    • 1.12 Chest injuries
    • 1.13 Thoracic intercostal neuralgia
    • 1.14 Osteochondrosis
    • 1.15 Nervous disorders
    • 1.16 Malignant tumors of the breast
    • 1.17 Diseases of the respiratory system
    • 1.18 Related videos:
    • 1.1 9 Q&A:
        • What causes pain and tightness in the chest ?
        • How can you tell if chest pain and tightness is related to breast cancer?
        • What should I do if I have pain and tightness in my chest?
        • Can chest pain and tightness be related to heart problems?
        • Can chest pain and tightness be related to breathing problems?

This article discusses the cause of breast pain and tightness, as well as factors that can lead to breast enlargement. Description of the symptoms and possible solutions to the problem.

Pain and tightness in the chest can be caused by a variety of factors, from normal muscular exertion to serious medical conditions. Distinguishing harmless symptoms from potentially dangerous ones can be difficult, so it’s important to pay attention to how you feel and consult your doctor if unusual symptoms appear.

Stress and emotional tension can be one of the causes of chest pain. During periods of nervous tension, the muscles in the chest area can tighten, causing discomfort and pain. Regular practice of relaxation techniques, such as meditation or yoga, can help reduce tension and eliminate these symptoms.

However, chest pain may also be associated with cardiovascular disease such as angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. If the pain is accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath or nausea, you should immediately consult a doctor or call an ambulance.

It is important to remember that only a professional medical examination and examination can accurately determine the cause of pain and tightness in the chest. Self-diagnosis and self-treatment can be hazardous to health.

Regardless of the cause of chest pain and tightness, it is important to lead a healthy lifestyle and monitor how you feel. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and minimizing stress will help boost your immune system and prevent disease. In the event of any unusual symptoms, it is important to consult a doctor for advice and undergo the necessary examinations.

Anomalies of breast development

The breast is one of the main parts of the female body and plays an important role in shaping appearance and self-esteem. However, some women may develop abnormalities in breast development that can cause discomfort and negatively affect their emotional state.

One of the common anomalies of breast development is asymmetry, when the size of the breasts is not symmetrical to each other. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including heredity, hormonal changes, trauma, or surgery. Breast asymmetry can lead to dissatisfaction with their appearance and difficulties in choosing clothes.

Another anomaly of breast development is the breast polyneuroma, which is when the skin and breast tissue is not divided into two parts, and looks like one large mass. This can cause physical and emotional discomfort, as well as make it difficult to examine the breast and diagnose diseases such as breast cancer.

Other breast abnormalities may include sternum, when the breast is rough and flattening the sternum, and checkered breast, when the breast is baggy or lost. Various deformities are also possible, such as synequanon and polythoricotonia.

Mastication and deodorants

Mastication is the process of chewing food. It plays an important role in digestion and our overall health. Chewing food helps us break it down before it enters the stomach, and it also stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes and mucus, making it easier to digest.

Therefore, if you want to avoid such problems, it is recommended to pay attention to natural deodorants that do not contain aluminum. It should also be remembered that regular and thorough chewing of food contributes to the normalization of the work of all body systems, including the endocrine system.

In summary, while the relationship between mastic and deodorant choice seems unusual, they do have one thing in common: they both affect our health and comfort. Therefore, one should pay attention not only to what we eat, but also how we chew this food, and also to choose deodorants that are not only effective, but also safe for our body.

Hormonal changes

Hormonal changes may be one of the causes of breast pain and tightness in women. During the menstrual cycle, the levels of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone can fluctuate. This can stretch and irritate the milk ducts, causing discomfort and soreness in the breasts.

Breast tenderness associated with hormonal changes usually begins a week or two before the onset of menstruation and disappears after it ends. The level of pain can range from mild discomfort to severe pain. Some women may also experience breast lumps or cysts associated with hormonal fluctuations.

If hormonal changes are causing significant chest pain and discomfort, several steps can be taken to relieve symptoms. Cold compresses or warm showers can help relieve soreness. Regular use of a sports bra can also reduce discomfort by keeping your breasts in the right position. It is important to see a doctor to rule out other possible causes of chest pain and get appropriate treatment if necessary.

Stabilizing hormones can also help reduce breast tenderness. You can try changing your lifestyle, including eating healthier and exercising regularly. Consulting with a doctor or hormone specialist can help develop a personalized treatment plan that will be the best solution for managing hormonal changes and breast tenderness.

Mechanical actions

Mechanical actions can be one of the causes of chest pain and tightness. It can be injuries, falls or blows to the chest area. With a strong blow, a rib fracture can occur, which will be accompanied by sharp pains, difficulty breathing and visible compaction at the site of injury.

If a chest injury is suspected, a physician should be consulted for examination and x-rays. In case of serious damage, surgery and hospitalization may be required. When receiving a mechanical effect on the chest, self-treatment is not recommended, as this can worsen the situation and lead to complications.

Cardiovascular problems

Cardiovascular problems often cause chest pain and tightness. They can occur due to various factors such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, arrhythmias, and other diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

Atherosclerosis is a process of gradual accumulation of cholesterol and other substances on the walls of blood vessels, which leads to their thickening and narrowing. This can lead to the formation of blood clots, which can block blood flow and cause chest pain.

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can also cause chest pain and tightness. In this condition, the vessels become less elastic and unable to expand and contract, which leads to increased stress on the heart and possible pain in the chest.

An arrhythmia is a heart rhythm disorder in which the heart may beat too quickly, slowly, or irregularly. This can cause discomfort in the chest, such as pain, pressure, or a feeling of irregular heartbeat.

If you experience pain and tightness in your chest, you should see a doctor to diagnose and treat cardiovascular problems. Depending on the cause and severity of the condition, your doctor may prescribe medication, lifestyle changes, regular exercise, or procedures to restore blood flow.

Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is a periodic physiological change in women that occurs approximately every 28 days. It includes several phases, each of which is characterized by certain changes in the body.

Then comes the ovulatory phase, which lasts about 24 hours. During this period, one of the follicles begins to grow faster than the others and ovulates – it releases a mature egg into the fallopian tube. At this point, the likelihood of conception is greatest.

This is followed by the luteal phase, which is accompanied by an increase in the level of progesterone in the body. It is a hormone that helps maintain pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels begin to decline, leading to endometrial shedding and the start of the next cycle.

During menstruation, the upper layer of the endometrium is shed, accompanied by blood discharge. Usually menstruation lasts from 2 to 7 days.

The menstrual cycle is an important indicator of a woman’s health and any changes in it may indicate a problem. Therefore, it is important to monitor the regularity and nature of the menstrual cycle and consult a doctor in case of violations.


Breastfeeding is the baby’s natural and preferred way of feeding. Mother’s milk contains all the necessary nutrients, antibodies and enzymes that help strengthen the baby’s immune system and prevent the occurrence of many diseases.

When breastfeeding, the child receives not only food, but also warmth, affection and love, which contributes to the formation of a psychological bond between mother and child. In addition, breast milk is easier to digest and digest than artificial formulas.

Breastfeeding is also good for the mother herself. During feeding, milk flow stimulates uterine contractions, which helps to recover faster after childbirth. In addition, breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing breast, ovarian, and uterine cancer and helps control the mother’s weight.

An important aspect of breastfeeding is the correct attachment of the baby to the breast. Mom needs to create comfortable conditions for feeding, provide a quiet and calm environment, and also choose the right position for feeding. If necessary, you can seek the help of a lactation consultant

Mammary glands

Mammary glands are organs that are part of the female breast and are responsible for the synthesis of milk during breastfeeding.

Building. The mammary glands are made up of milk lobules that contain glandular tissue. Each milk lobe includes a papilla, ducts, and milk tears. The papilla serves to secrete milk, the ducts are responsible for the transport of milk from the mammary gland to the nipple, and milk tears perform the function of storing milk.

Physiology. During pregnancy, under the influence of hormones, the mammary glands increase in size and begin to actively secrete milk. During breastfeeding, milk passes through the milk ducts and is secreted from the nipples to nourish the baby.

Development of diseases. The mammary glands can become the object of various diseases, such as mastopathy, mastitis, neoplasms. Pain and tightness in the mammary glands can be signs of these diseases and require attention and a visit to the doctor.

Prevention and health criteria. To maintain breast health, regular self-palpation is recommended to detect changes or lumps in the breast tissue. Criteria for breast health include the absence of pain, lumps, or discharge from the nipples.


Mammography is an x-ray examination of the breast that detects early signs of breast cancer. This is an incredibly important procedure for women, especially after the age of 40, when the risk of developing breast cancer increases significantly.

During a mammogram, a woman must expose her upper body and put on a special device that helps to evenly compress the breast. The specialist then takes several x-rays to get a detailed picture of the breast.

As a rule, mammography is carried out in two projections – mediolateral and craniocaudal. This helps to detect even gross changes in the structure of the mammary gland.

Mammography includes the detection of microcalcifications (small mineral deposits), as well as the definition of lumps, cysts and tumors in the mammary glands. The study is carried out both for diagnosis and for screening. It allows you to detect breast cancer in the early stages, when it still does not cause symptoms and is easier to treat.

Mammography is a safe procedure, although some women may experience some discomfort or even pain during breast compression. This usually resolves quickly and does not cause serious complications. It is important that a mammogram is performed by a qualified specialist who can correctly interpret the results and determine the need for additional studies or treatment.

Breast implants

Breast implants are medical devices used to increase the size or shape of the breast. They can be used for both cosmetic and medical purposes.

The main reasons for breast implants are the desire to improve appearance, restore breast volume after a mastectomy, or correct chest wall defects. Implants can be made from a variety of materials, including silicone, salt water, or other solutions.

It is important to note that breast implant placement is a major surgical procedure that requires all necessary precautions to be taken. In addition, implants are not permanent and may need to be replaced or removed in the future. Patients should discuss all possible risks and side effects with their doctor before deciding to have breast implants.

  • Breast implants can cause a variety of sensations and symptoms, including pain, discomfort, or changes in sensation in the breasts and nipples.
  • Possible complications after breast implant placement include infection, bleeding, implant displacement, or reaction to the material. Patients should seek medical attention if they experience any problems or unusual symptoms.
  • Regular breast self-exams and consultations with your doctor can help determine the status of your breast implants and possible complications.

In general, the decision to have breast implants is an individual decision and should be based on careful discussion with your doctor and a clear understanding of all possible risks and benefits of such a procedure.

Mastitis and abscess

Mastitis is an inflammation of the breast that usually occurs in women who are breastfeeding. One of the most common causes of mastitis is stagnation of milk in the gland, caused by incomplete or irregular breastfeeding. As a result, the glands become inflamed and this can cause pain and tightness in the chest.

With mastitis, the skin over the inflamed gland may become red and hot to the touch, and there may also be swelling and enlargement of the breast. In some cases, mastitis may be accompanied by fever and a feeling of general weakness.

If mastitis is not treated, an abscess may develop – this is a formation filled with a purulent mass inside the mammary gland. An abscess usually occurs as a complication of mastitis and poses a serious threat to a woman’s health. Symptoms of an abscess can include severe pain, redness and swelling of the breast, fever, general weakness, and even purulent drainage from the breast.

Treatment of mastitis and abscess includes antibiotics to fight inflammation and infection, as well as proper hygiene and proper feeding. In some cases, it may be necessary to drain the abscess, a procedure in which pus is removed from the breast.

It is important to note that mastitis and abscess require medical intervention, so if you experience pain and tightness in your chest, you should seek medical attention. He will diagnose and prescribe the appropriate treatment to relieve symptoms and prevent complications.

Chest injuries

Chest injuries can be caused by a variety of circumstances such as traffic accidents, falls, impacts or sports injuries. With a strong blow to the chest area, various injuries can occur that can lead to pain and seals.

One of the most common types of chest injuries is rib fractures. In this case, acute pain may occur, aggravated by touch or movement, as well as swelling and hematoma. Treatment usually involves wearing special bandages or tourniquets, and in some cases, surgery may be required.

Also, in case of chest injuries, concussions and bruises of internal organs can occur. This can lead to chest pain as well as other symptoms such as coughing, difficulty breathing, or bleeding. If you suspect an injury to the internal organs, immediately consult a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

The joints and muscles of the chest can also be subject to injury. For example, when stretching or dissolving the intercostal muscles, pain and tightness in the chest area may appear. Treatment usually includes rest, ice packs, and pain medication.

In the event of a chest injury, it is recommended that you immediately consult a doctor to assess the severity of the injury and prescribe appropriate treatment. Self-medication can lead to complications and slow down the healing process.

Thoracic intercostal neuralgia

Thoracic intercostal neuralgia is a condition characterized by pain and discomfort in the chest area. It is associated with irritation or compression of the intercostal nerves.

Symptoms of thoracic intercostal neuralgia may include sharp chest pain that may radiate along a nerve, discomfort with breathing or movement, tenderness or numbness in the chest. The chest and back muscles may also be tense.

Causes of thoracic intercostal neuralgia can be varied, including chest trauma, inflammatory processes in the intercostal muscles, spinal osteochondrosis and a number of other conditions.

Thoracic intercostal neuralgia can be treated with a variety of methods, including pain medication, physical therapy, massage, and special exercises to strengthen the pectoral muscle and improve posture.


Osteochondrosis is a chronic disease of the spine characterized by destruction of the structure of the intervertebral discs and degenerative changes in the joints. It can lead to pain and tightness in the chest area.

The main causes of osteochondrosis in the chest include poor posture, sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity and injury. Increased stress levels and age-related changes can also contribute to the development of this disease.

Symptoms of degenerative disc disease include chest pain that may worsen with movement and breathing, a burning sensation or numbness in the chest area, and lumps in the paravertebral muscles. For the diagnosis and treatment of osteochondrosis, you must consult a doctor. He may order an x-ray, MRI or ultrasound to get more information about the condition of the spine.

Treatment of osteochondrosis includes physical therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics, as well as posture correction and massage. Regular exercise and good posture can help prevent osteochondrosis and improve spinal health.

Nervous disorders

Nervous disorders may be one of the causes of chest pain and tightness. Possible problems with the nervous system may include neuralgia (pain caused by nerve damage or irritation), neuropathy (damage to the peripheral nerves), or nerve rashes.

Intercostal neuralgia is a common nerve disorder that causes pain and tightness in the chest. This condition is characterized by constant or paroxysmal sharp pains in the chest area. Symptoms may be aggravated by breathing, coughing, or movement. Intercostal neuralgia is usually caused by compression or irritation of the intercostal nerves and may be due to trauma, inflammation, or aging.

Nerve disorders affecting the chest can also be caused by stress and anxiety. Prolonged nervous tension can cause chest muscles to contract, which can lead to pain and tightness.

If you suspect a nervous disorder, you should consult a doctor for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Other medical conditions can also cause chest pain and tightness, so it’s important to get professional advice to determine the exact cause and develop a treatment plan.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that can affect both men and women. One of the main symptoms of a malignant tumor is the formation of seals or nodes in the mammary glands.

Most often, malignant tumors of the breast occur in women, especially after 40 years. But that doesn’t mean young women aren’t at risk. The occurrence of breast cancer can be associated with various factors, including genetic predisposition and hormonal changes.

However, not all breast lumps are cancerous. Often they can be the result of cystic formations or fibrous nodes, which are not dangerous. In any case, if you find any change in your chest, you should consult a doctor for diagnosis and the necessary measures.

Various methods are used to diagnose breast cancer, including mammography, ultrasound, and biopsy. If the tumor is diagnosed as malignant, the patient may be offered treatment, including surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, depending on the stage and nature of the disease.

However, prevention remains the most important factor in the fight against breast cancer. Regular breast self-exams and mammograms as recommended by doctors will help to identify the disease in the early stages and increase the chances of a full recovery.

Diseases of the respiratory system

The human respiratory system includes organs that are responsible for supplying oxygen to the body and removing carbon dioxide. The main diseases of the respiratory system are associated with dysfunction of the lungs, bronchi and respiratory tract.

One of the most common diseases of the respiratory system is asthma. It is a chronic condition in which the airways become inflamed and constricted, leading to bouts of shortness of breath, shortness of breath, and coughing. Asthma can be caused by an allergic reaction to pollen, dust, or other substances.

Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi, usually caused by an infection. The main symptoms of bronchitis are cough with sputum, shortness of breath and general weakness. Chronic bronchitis can develop from prolonged exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke or polluted air.

  • Acute respiratory viral infection is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by viruses. The main symptoms include runny nose, sore throat and cough. The infection can cause various types of viruses, including the flu and the common cold.
  • Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or a fungal infection. The main symptoms of pneumonia include chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and coughing up purulent sputum.

Other common diseases of the respiratory system are rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis. All of these diseases are associated with inflammation of the airways and can cause coughing, nasal congestion, and sore throats.

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What causes chest pain and tightness?

Pain and tightness in the chest can have various causes. Perhaps this is due to problems in the mammary gland, for example, mastopathy or cysts. Pain and tightness can also be symptoms of breast cancer. Other causes include chronic lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and even stress. In any case, if you have such symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for an examination and determine the exact cause.

How can you tell if chest pain and tightness is related to breast cancer?

It is impossible to determine whether chest pain and tightness is related to breast cancer without proper medical research. However, there are several signs that may indicate a possible link to cancer. For example, if the pain and tightness does not go away for a long time or gets worse, if you have changes in the shape or size of your breasts, if there are ulcers or redness on the skin, this may require the attention of a specialist. Do not panic, but it is important to consult a doctor to get detailed advice and prescribe the necessary studies.

What should I do if I have pain and tightness in my chest?

If you have pain and tightness in your chest, it is important to talk to your doctor. Your doctor will examine you and ask you a series of questions to clarify your symptoms and likely causes. Based on the results of the examination, additional studies, such as mammography, ultrasound or biopsy, may be prescribed. After receiving the results of tests and studies, the doctor will be able to determine the exact cause of pain and tightness in the chest and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Can chest pain and tightness be related to heart problems?

Yes, chest pain and tightness can be related to heart problems. For example, they can be symptoms of angina pectoris, a disease in which the heart does not get enough oxygen. They can also indicate myocardial (heart muscle) infection, oxmic aperfusion (impaired blood supply to the heart muscle), arterial hypertension, or even myocardial infarction. If you have these symptoms, it is important to see a cardiologist for the necessary tests and appropriate treatment.

Can chest pain and tightness be related to breathing problems?

Yes, chest pain and tightness can be related to breathing problems. For example, they can be symptoms of bronchitis, pneumonia, or asthma. Pain and tightness can also be caused by pleurisy, an inflammation of the lining of the lungs.