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Premenstrual Syndrome: Angry Before My Period

By: Stephanie Kirby

Updated November 19, 2021

You may have experienced times when things are going well…

Wondering Why You Get So Angry Before Your Period?

This website is owned and operated by BetterHelp, who receives all fees associated with the platform.Source: rawpixel.com

… you feel productive, and you’re connecting well with the people in your life, and then everything suddenly changes. It seems like everyone’s just out to get you or get in the way of your plans. Everything seems to be falling apart and going wrong, and you’re just angry. Then you realize that you’re getting premenstrual syndrome cramps and that you’re going to start your period. This experience, especially if it happens repeatedly, may leave you wondering, “Why do I get so angry before my period? and “How can I navigate premenstrual syndrome?”

It can be incredibly frustrating to feel like you’re losing control of your own emotions during premenstrual syndrome. You don’t want to be angry, but at the same time, you don’t feel like it’s your fault. And it truly isn’t! Experiences of premenstrual anger are common, and they’re nobody’s fault. But you may wonder what you can do about it. This article will discuss why premenstrual anger occurs and then review the following strategies in greater detail to help you manage premenstrual syndrome symptoms before your period.

  • Keep track of symptoms in a schedule to avoid surprises.
  • Allow yourself time to rest.
  • Don’t take on too much.
  • Consider natural remedies.
  • Focus on management rather than perfection.

What Causes PMS And Anger Before My Period?

As Healthline explains, experts aren’t exactly sure what causes premenstrual syndrome, or PMS. However, most believe that it’s tied to hormonal changes throughout the month. When the egg is released from the ovaries, estrogen and progesterone levels can drop, which has been linked to lowering the levels of serotonin in your body during premenstrual syndrome. Lower serotonin is tied to symptoms like difficulty sleeping, irritability, sadness, and even food cravings.

When these hormone levels drop, many people who menstruate experience an increase in premenstrual syndrome symptoms. This can be frustrating because it’s invisible, which means you often don’t realize what you’re going through at the time. You may find yourself experiencing strong premenstrual syndrome symptoms before you even realize what’s causing it.

Premenstrual anger in some ways is out of your control because of your hormones. However, that does not mean that you are justified to act on your anger, and it also doesn’t mean that you are powerless to change it. You can take several approaches to control your anger and premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

How To Deal With Anger Before Your Period

It can be incredibly frustrating to deal with anger related to premenstrual syndrome, but you can take steps to help combat the situation. Remember that every person is different, and that what works for one might not work for another; trial and error may be necessary. This means you need to take the time, test out strategies, and find out what works for you. Try to be patient with yourself through this process.

Keep Track Of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms

When you first started having periods, you may have been advised to keep track of the dates on your calendar. It can be easy, especially during busy times, to lose track of your cycle. However, if you do have a regular cycle, it should be fairly easy to predict when you’re going to start. Several apps can help you keep track of your period and symptoms.

Whether you use an app or paper and pencil, use data to your advantage. Instead of just keeping track of your cycle’s start and end dates, keep a detailed calendar or journal that includes what type of premenstrual syndrome symptoms you’re dealing with through several cycles. You can keep track of your energy and motivation levels, physical feelings, emotions, food cravings, and so on.

When you keep track of your daily emotions in a journal over time, you’re able to look back and try to identify patterns. This can help you start to predict when you’re going to become more irritable, for example. Then, you can take care during that point in your cycle to avoid taking anger out on other people.

Allow Yourself Extra Time For Rest

Source: rawpixel.comMenstruation is a complex process that requires a lot from your body; it can cause you to feel exhausted. The Sleep Health Foundation explains that the majority of people who menstruate don’t sleep as well in the days leading up to the start of their cycle.

When you’re tired, it’s typical to feel more irritable. Therefore, it’s wise to make sure that you’re allowing yourself extra time to rest before you start your period. If possible, try to go to bed earlier, sleep in just a little bit later, or find a way to sneak a nap throughout the day. It may not be possible to do these things, but look for ways to give yourself a little extra rest.

Don’t Try To Take On Things That Will Frustrate You – It’s Not Worth It

After you track your symptoms on a calendar for a few months, you may be able to predict the times during your cycle that you struggle the most with anger and irritability. Once you know when these times are, do your best to avoid taking on new tasks or things that will try your patience during those times. Doing so can set you up for frustration.

If you find yourself in a situation, such as at work, that doesn’t leave you with options on what tasks you take on, be more mindful about how your work affects your attitude. Try to check in with yourself throughout each day to consider your anger or frustration level. Ask yourself if feeling anger is justifiable or possibly triggered by your physiological state.

Focus on Symptom Management

Many anger management strategies can also help when you’re dealing with premenstrual syndrome, such as making sure that you are practicing good self-care habits. Premenstrual syndrome self-care includes steps like getting enough sleep, eating the right foods, and making time for physical activity. Exercise is also a great way to increase serotonin levels and boost your mood.

You also may find journaling helpful. Writing out your feelings and emotions and the things that you’re experiencing can help you process emotions and situations. If something is making you angry, journaling about it can help you to see the situation more clearly and find a solution.

Seek Professional Help

Remember that caring for your wellbeing is not limited to your physical health. If you are experiencing recurrent anger or other difficult emotions at any point during your menstrual cycle, talking with a mental health professional may help you to cope and develop strategies to move forward. Premenstrual symptoms are common, even though they can vary for every person. You are not the first person to face feelings of anger before your period, and help is available. If you feel uncomfortable talking face-to-face with a stranger about your cycle and how it affects you, then an online therapy service such as BetterHelp could be a great fit. In fact, studies have shown that internet-based therapy can be highly effective at treating premenstrual struggles.

Online therapy can be arranged around your life; with no need for transportation to an appointment, you can save time and hassle that might cause you additional stress. The discretion of online therapy also means that you can keep your mental healthcare journey as private as you wish, and you can choose the channel of communications that fit you the best—video chats, phone calls, emails, or even text messages. These reviews from BetterHelp users show how online therapy can be a great fit for addressing difficult emotions.

Counselor Reviews

“I am a 42 year old female, successful entrepreneur in a loving marriage and have a bright and healthy 4 year old boy. I shouldn’t have anything to complain about. I am generally happy, motivated and have ample self confidence. So why in the world would I need therapy? Because I need help with constructive ideas to control my negative attitude. I’m generally not a negative person but I’m very self aware that I have vast mood swings of anger and pessimism and I get that from my dad. I chose Douglas because he counsels using cognitive behavioral therapy and anger management – which is the kind of therapy I need. Douglas comes up with clear solutions and I appreciate that. I didn’t want a therapist to tell me to talk about my day and how does that make me feel and that it’s normal to have these feelings. I know it is normal to feel angry sometimes, but I wanted to understand how to recognize it and address it. So if you need constructive conversation with fast results for everyday annoyances and (especially effective child rearing advice!) I think Douglas is your therapist.”

Wondering Why You Get So Angry Before Your Period?

Tracy Hollingsworth has played an instrumental role in my constant journey to take good care of myself both mentally and physically. She has a great sense of humor which I love and is extremely creative in her approach to offer strategies for things I struggle with in my life, especially during COVID when EVERYTHING is constantly changing. I struggle with my motivation, mood swings, anxiety and sometimes my relationships with people. When I feel a “mood” coming on I can often use some of the tools Tracy has taught me so that I don’t fall deeper into one of my moods that in the past would have destroyed my entire day or even week. I always feel awesome after a session with her no matter how I felt starting the session!



Sometimes it can feel like your premenstrual syndrome symptoms such as anger are out of your control, but with the help of the information included above, you can take control of your anger before your period. Tools are available for anyone who would like help managing their symptoms. You can take the first step today.

Is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Making You Miserable?

How does premenstrual dysphoric disorder differ from PMS?

If you’ve ever felt bloated, tense and ready to obliterate anyone who gets in your way in the days before your period, you’ve experienced symptoms commonly associated with PMS and PMDD.  

Both disorders are characterized by physical symptoms like headaches, decreased energy, difficulty concentrating, bloating, breast tenderness, food cravings and insomnia; and emotional symptoms like irritability, mood swings, anxiety and depression. 

“The disease processes are on a spectrum so there are overlapping similarities, but if you have PMDD, your mood symptoms are severe enough to affect your quality of life and day-to-day functioning,” says Mendiratta. 

That’s a nice way of saying that the depression is the kind that keeps you from getting out of bed in the morning, the irritability is the kind that upends relationships, and the mood swings mimic bipolar disorder.

“The intensity of feeling is so great that you can feel like you have a mental illness during that time,” says Mendiratta. “Women can feel like they’re losing their minds, can’t control their emotions, can’t be productive, can’t be around their partner. The loss of control is significant enough that it makes some women suicidal.

These symptoms occur between ovulation and the start of your next period—the luteal phase of your menstrual cycle. While the majority of menstruating women experience some premenstrual symptoms, only 3 to 8 percent experience PMDD. 

What is the cause of PMDD?

Researchers know that PMDD symptoms are tied to the cycling of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, but the cause-effect relationship is not entirely understood.

“We think it’s more likely to be the estrogen than the progesterone, but it’s complicated,” says Mendiratta. 

In women of childbearing age, estrogen levels peak at ovulation and then begin to fall. For some women, symptoms start just after ovulation (about two weeks before the start of their period), but for most women, symptoms begin about a week before their period.

Whether symptoms roll in like a rising tide or like a tsunami also differs among women. 

“For some women, symptoms come on abruptly. One moment you are fine, the next moment you are depressed or manic or angry for no reason,” says Mendiratta.  

Once you get your period, your estrogen levels bottom out, and symptoms resolve within a day or two. 

How is premenstrual dysphoric disorder diagnosed?

To be diagnosed with PMDD, you will be asked to track your symptoms using a rating tool like the Daily Record of Severity of Problems. If you experience at least five symptoms in the days leading up to your period, including one severe mood-related symptom (over a minimum of two cycles), you meet the criteria for a diagnosis of PMDD.

It’s also important to rule out other diseases that could masquerade as PMDD, says Mendiratta.

Mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression share some symptoms with PMDD, and also tend to get worse in the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle. There are also thyroid and autoimmune diseases that might present in this way and need to be ruled out, says Mendiratta. 

How is PMDD treated? 

An antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is the first-line treatment and works well for many women with PMDD, says Mendiratta. It can be taken continuously or on an intermittent basis known as luteal phase dosing (during the time from ovulation to the beginning of the next menstrual flow).

Thirty minutes per day of high-intensity aerobic exercise on most days of the week also helps, says Mendiratta. Additional treatment options include non-SSRI antidepressants, oral contraceptives, cognitive behavior therapy, bright light therapy, relaxation techniques and changes in diet. 

Mendiratta says that the most important thing to do is to seek treatment because PMDD is more severe than PMS and won’t resolve without it.

“When I make the diagnosis, I say, look, you have this significant disease. It’s real and it’s been defined. It’s not that you just need to learn to deal with your period.” 

What’s the Difference and Which is Worse?

Many women feel different a week or so before they get their periods. They may get depressed, cry often, feel angry, get acne, have tender breasts, feel sleepy, have less energy, and feel heavy or bloated.

If you have these problems around the same time every month and they go away when your period starts, you likely have premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

But if your PMS symptoms are so extreme that they stop you from doing the normal things that you do at work or at home, or if they affect the way that you relate to the people in your life, you may have premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a more severe form of PMS.

Signs of PMS vs. PMDD

Up to 75% of women who have their periods may have mild PMS, but PMDD is much less common. It affects only between 3% and 8% of women. Women with mild PMS may not need a doctor’s help to cope with the symptoms. But women who have PMDD might need to talk to their doctor about ways to improve their issues.

At first glance, PMS and PMDD may seem to be the same because they have many of the same symptoms, including:

But PMS and PMDD are different in several ways. For example:

Depression. If you have PMS, you may feel depressed. But if you have PMDD, your sadness may be so extreme that you feel hopeless. You might even have thoughts about suicide.

Anxiety. You could feel anxious when you have PMS. But with PMDD, the anxiety you feel is probably on a very different level. Some women with PMDD describe feeling very tense or on edge.

Mood swings. When you have PMS, you can get moody. You feel happy one minute and upset or angry the next, and you’re more likely to cry. But with PMDD, your mood swings will be much more severe. You may become very angry, and things are likely to irritate you that wouldn’t normally bother you. You might pick fights, even if this isn’t your usual style. You may also cry about things that wouldn’t usually upset you. You may feel out of control of your life.

Feelings about your life. If you have PMS and feel depressed, you may feel a little detached from your usual routine. But if you have PMDD, you’re likely to stop caring about your job, your hobbies, your friends and family — anything that otherwise might put you in a good mood.


No one knows the exact causes of PMS or PMDD, but changes in hormone levels are thought to play a part. Genetics may also play a role. Depression is also linked to PMS and PMDD, although one doesn’t cause the other to happen. The changes in hormone levels may make mood disorders like depression worse, though.


There are no formal tests to diagnose you with PMS or PMDD. A doctor, usually a gynecologist, can tell you whether you have PMS or PMDD after you discuss your symptoms.

They might ask you to fill out a chart for several weeks to confirm that the timing of your symptoms fits the profile of PMS or PMDD. Your symptoms need to be present 1 to 2 weeks before your period, then go away when you get your period for at least two menstrual cycles


Whether you need treatment depends upon how mild or severe your condition is.

Some women with mild PMS can manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes, including exercise, a change in diet, quality sleep, and reduction in stress. Others may need over-the-counter medicine, or drugs their doctors prescribe.

If you have PMDD, these lifestyle changes may help somewhat, but your doctor will likely prescribe you medication, as well. There are two types of drugs that have been shown to help reduce symptoms in women with PMDD:

SSRI antidepressants. Because PMDD affects mood and can cause depression, doctors often prescribe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These are antidepressant that can affect a chemical in your brain called serotonin. Taking these can likely to help relieve many PMDD symptoms that affect your mood.

Birth control pills. When you take birth control pills, you don’t ovulate (release an egg from your ovary each month), which will likely reduce the symptoms of PMDD. Birth control pills often relieve physical symptoms like aches and pains, as well. One such pill, drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol (Yaz) is FDA-approved to help with PMDD.

The Period, Our Simplest Punctuation Mark, Has Become a Sign of Anger

Now, however, technology has led us to use written language more like speech—that is, in a real-time, back-and-forth between two or more people. “[P]eople are communicating like they are talking, but encoding that talk in writing,” Clay Shirky recently told Slate. This might help explain the rise of the line break: It allows people to more accurately emulate in writing the rhythm of speech. It has also confronted people with the problem of tone in writing, and they’re trying to solve it with the familiar punctuation marks that the line break largely displaced.

It’s not just the period. Nearly everyone has struggled to figure out whether or not a received message is sarcastic. So people began using exclamation points almost as sincerity markers: “I really mean the sentence I just concluded!” (This is especially true of exclamation points used in sequence: “Are you being sarcastic?” “No!!!!!”) And as problems of tone kept arising on text and instant message, people turned to other punctuation marks on their keyboards rather than inventing new ones. The question mark has similarly outgrown its traditional purpose. I notice it more and more as a way to temper straightforward statements that might otherwise seem cocky, as in “I’m pretty sure he likes me?” The ellipsis, as Slate noted, has come to serve a whole range of purposes. I often see people using it as a passive-aggressive alternative to the period’s outright hostility—an invitation to the offender to guess at his mistake and remedy it. (“No.” shuts down the conversation; “No…” allows it to continue.)

Medial punctuation, like the comma and parentheses, has yet to take on emotional significance (at least as far as I’ve observed). And these newfangled, emotional uses of terminal punctuation haven’t crossed over into more traditional, thoughtful writing. (I have used the period throughout this story, and I’m in a perfectly pleasant mood.) Perhaps one day it will, though, and our descendants will wonder why everyone used to be so angry. For posterity’s sake, then, let my author bio be clear:

Ben Crair is a story editor at The New Republic!

We explain period mood swings

Period mood swings are a pain in the behind. But it’s absolutely normal to have them. We tell you why.

The moment periods hit us, they take a toll on our emotions. Well, that’s what most women feel during that time of the month. It’s largely because of fluctuating hormones, ladies. But here’s the question — is it normal to turn into an emotional snowball?

The answer to this question is a big fat YES! You heard it right. Getting emotional or being a little moody is a part of premenstrual syndrome. As part of PMS, you can also experience other symptoms like period cramps, fatigue, headache, acne, change in appetite, etc. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 85 percent of menstruating women experience at least one PMS symptom regularly.    

It is seen that mood swings happen majorly in the initial days of your period, and they disappear as your period progresses. If you’re still wondering what’s going wrong with you, let us tell you it is normal and you aren’t at fault.

If you are feeling any of these six emotions during your period, there is nothing to worry about



Have you heard of serotonin? Basically, this hormone is THE hormone that regulates our mood. If it is present in large amounts in your body, you will feel low as ever. If it is on the lower side, you will feel elated.

It’s fine to break down and cry. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Unfortunately, during your period, it is at an all-time high and that’s why even the smallest of all things can make you a little oversensitive. Maybe that’s possibly why you end up crying so easily!

2. Angry

Periods are pretty uncomfortable, don’t we all know that? With all the hormones fluctuating, it makes things all the more ugly. At times, you also get confused about what you’re feeling. After all, emotions take over you in so many ways! This mash-up can be really hard to tackle, and it can infuriate you, making you feel angry and exasperated.



Being sad is a consequence of low endorphins and high serotonin in the body. During this lockdown situation, things have taken a turn for the worse. To tackle this, you can engage in low-intensity workouts like yoga. You can even meditate, while doing so.

Mood swings can be very confusing. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

It’s a fact that exercising can help you beat the period blues. You can also indulge in something that makes you happy. The purpose is to boost your endorphins, so suit yourself.

4. Irritable

This majorly happens when you aren’t resting enough during your period. Sleeping doesn’t just help you deal with menstrual cramps, but it also regulates your mood by eliminating fatigue. So, if you don’t want to be irritated during your period, sleep well.

5. Anxious and depressed

Firstly, we need to understand that being sad isn’t equal to being depressed or anxious. That’s because these two terms have deep-rooted reasons. Technically, this is known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder or PMDD. It majorly happens, when the receptors of your brain react abnormally to fluctuating hormones.

Managing your mood swings isn’t easy but it’s not impossible as well. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

In this situation, a person suffers from major anxiety attacks, despair, and lasting irritability. It won’t be wrong to say that it is an exaggerated version of PMS.

If someone has PMDD, these symptoms disappear a week before the commencement of your period. If they don’t go away in a month’s time, one must seek help.

6. Binge eating

This majorly happens when you don’t maintain a healthy diet. This results in your blood sugar levels dipping, and that means you binge on foods that you should avoid. Another reason for binge eating is momentary satisfaction that you get out of that ice-cream or your favourite bar of chocolate. Once the satiety levels dip, your cravings start again. That’s another reason you tend to gain weight during your periods.

Our advice to you would be to eat small and frequent meals. Incorporate a lot of salads, fruits, and nuts. Most importantly, avoid too much sugar, alcohol, and smoke. Lastly, don’t forget to take your supplements as they will help you keep your spirits high during this time.

Remember you aren’t a moody person or a cry baby . It’s just your hormones talking.

Depression Symptoms Can Include Anger, And That’s Often Misunderstood : Shots

Registered nurse Ebony Monroe of Houston recently went through a period of being quick to anger about every little thing. She didn’t realize then what it might mean for her health.

“If you had told me in the beginning that my irritability was related to depression, I would probably be livid,” Monroe says with a laugh. “I did not think irritability aligned with depression.”

She’s not alone. Many people — including physicians — associate depression with feelings of hopelessness, sadness and a lack of motivation or concentration, but not anger. Some researchers say that’s a problem, given that there appears to be a strong link between irritability and depression.

If you pick up what is often called the “bible of psychiatry,” the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, you’ll find that the list of core symptoms for major depression doesn’t include anger.

“It’s not included at all in the adult classification of depression,” says Dr. Maurizio Fava, a psychiatrist at Massachusetts General Hospital and a professor at Harvard Medical School.

This story is part of a series from NPR’s Science desk called “The Other Side of Anger. ” There’s no question we are in angry times. It’s in our politics, our schools and homes. Anger can be a destructive emotion but it can also be a positive force.

Join NPR in our exploration of anger and what we can learn from this powerful emotion. Read and listen to stories in the series here.

But he points out that irritability — a reduced control over one’s temper that results in angry outbursts — is listed as a core symptom of depression for children and adolescents. It has never made sense to him that it’s not included for adults. “Why would someone who happens to be irritable and angry when depressed as an adolescent suddenly stop being angry at age 18?” he asks.

Anger is an emotional and physical feeling that makes people want to warn, intimidate or attack a person who is perceived as threatening. Fava says a depressed adult with lots of anger is often assumed to have bipolar disorder or a personality disorder.

“We see in our clinics patients who are labeled as having other diagnoses because people think, ‘Well, you shouldn’t be so angry if you are depressed,’ ” says Fava. The diagnosis matters because it affects the kind of treatment people get.

Back when he was trained decades ago, Fava says, he was taught that in depression, anger is projected inward — that depressed people would be angry at themselves but not at others. That didn’t match what he was seeing in a lot of his patients with depression.

“I would say 1 in 3 patients would report to me that they would lose their temper, they would get angry, they would throw things or yell and scream or slam the door,” says Fava. Afterward, these people would be filled with remorse.

Fava thinks these “anger attacks” may be a phenomenon that is similar to panic attacks. His research found that this kind of anger subsided in the majority of patients treated with antidepressants.

Psychiatry has carefully studied how anxiety and depressed mood are experienced by patients, notes Fava, but anger has been relatively neglected. “I don’t think that we have really examined all the variables and all the levels of anger dysregulation that people experience,” he says.

That view is shared by Dr. Mark Zimmerman, a professor of psychiatry at Brown University. “The field has not sufficiently attended to problems with anger,” says Zimmerman.

“The most frequently used scales to evaluate whether or not medications work for treating depression don’t have any anger-specific items,” he notes.

Yet Zimmerman says clinicians frequently see increased anger in people who come to doctors seeking help. “Irritability is not that much less frequent than sadness and anxiety in patients who are presenting for psychiatric treatment,” he says.

Zimmerman and some colleagues recently surveyed thousands of patients who were making their first visit to the Rhode Island Hospital’s outpatient psychiatric practice. All were asked about the level of anger they had felt or expressed in the preceding week.

“Two-thirds of individuals reported notable irritability and anger,” he says, “and approximately half reported it at a moderate or severe level.”

Another large study by a different research group looked at more than 500 people who had been diagnosed with major depression. It found that more than half showed “overt irritability/anger,” and that this anger and irritability appeared to be associated with more severe, chronic depression.

Monroe, the nurse, was lucky enough to have a concerned friend who gently suggested that maybe she should talk to someone. “The way that she approached me decreased that wall of anger and anxiety,” says Monroe, “and that’s when I decided to seek the help.”

Monroe came to realize that traumatic events from her childhood had left her depressed and full of unresolved anger. With nowhere for that anger to go, she was lashing out at loved ones like her sister and husband. “So they caught the back end of my irritability when, in fact, they had nothing to do with the source of it,” she says.

After about a year of counseling, her life has improved a lot, Monroe says. She now works with a group called Families for Depression Awareness to help others recognize the signs of depression. Its list of symptoms that families should watch for includes “picking fights, being irritable, critical, or mean.”

Still, people with depression can have a hard time recognizing this in their own lives.

When I called up the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance to ask about anger, I reached its communications person, Kevin Einbinder. He initially thought to himself, “I’m sure somebody else certainly deals with anger, but I don’t have anger issues associated with depression.”

Then he started reflecting on his life with depression over the past three decades. “I thought of all the people in my life who have interacted with me — my family, the counselors, psychiatrists, even employers, significant others,” he says, “and I realized that anger was an underlying factor in all those relationships.

For example, he used to use caustic, sarcastic humor to put people down. “This really drove people away,” says Einbinder. He also recalls sending angry emails late at night after lying awake and ruminating about things that had happened during the day. A counselor helped him see why this wasn’t such a good way to handle problems.

Overall, though, he and his caregivers never focused on anger.

In hindsight, he says, he really wishes they had.

“I think that would have provided a tremendous amount of context for what’s adding to my depression and in helping me, early on in my life, with more effective coping mechanisms,” Einbinder says.

With medication and therapy, he is doing much better now. Einbinder hopes that sharing his experiences will help people understand that if they’re dealing with depression and anger, “they’re not alone and there’s loads of resources out there.”

Post menstrual syndrome is a thing

Bloated, lethargic, craving chocolate, and wanting to shake my fists angrily at the whole world.

No, I’m not in the throes of PMS (which NHS Choices sums up as ‘the physical, psychological and behavioural symptoms that can occur in the two weeks before a woman’s monthly period) but post-menstrual syndrome. All the fun of regular PMS, just at the wrong end of my bleed.

And until I had a chance conversation with a friend while in the midst of a hormonal meltdown on day four of my period (the point where most women are at the lightest stage of their flow, emotionally stable and gleefully roller-skating in tight white hot-pants), I thought it was just me.

But it turns out I am not alone in experiencing end-of-period tearfulness, breast heaviness, and a rage so ferocious I sit at my desk idly drawing up hit lists.

“I know exactly how you feel,” my friend Linda told me. “I have all that along with feeling chilly, unreasonably tired and in a really dark mood. I’m irritable and intolerant and I want to be alone. My husband is very understanding but I think it is quite hard on him.

Chilly! Yes. That too – to such extremes that some days I am wishing for the menopause and hot flushes just to warm up my frozen bones.

Fortunately for the male population, unlike Linda, I do not have a husband or partner to take my post-menstrual fury out on, but my 14 year old son definitely picks up on my monthly change of mood, as does my mother, to whom my attempts to explain ‘it is not PMS – I’m already bleeding’ fall on deaf ears and a worse diagnosis: ‘You must be on the change, then’.

I’m not. I am 43, and have been having these symptoms for as long as I can remember.

Another friend, Eve, told me how she realised she had post-menstrual syndrome after painstakingly noting the phases of her monthly cycle.

“I journal and colour code depending on where I am in my cycle,” Eve said, adding that she was inspired to do this after reading Lisa Lister’s Code Red book, which encourages women to ‘know your flow’.

“Bleed (red) is easy, then I guesstimate pre-ovulation (pink), ovulation (green) and premenstrual (purple),” Eve explained. “While I’ve been taking extra care of my bleed and PMS needs for years, I’ve only realised through diarising it like this that my mood dips lowest after my period. Sometimes even (briefly, thankfully) leaving me feeling like I’ve lost the will to live.”

I know exactly how she feels.

What actually is post menstrual syndrome?

So what is the official word on this? A quick Google of post menstrual tension returns 280,00 results, many linking to message board queries from women asking if it even exists. Whilst my own experiences and those of my friends have convinced me that it does, I asked Dr Lara Briden, author of the Period Repair Manual what the medical perspective was.

Disappointingly, she told me that the only recognised menstrually related mood disorders are premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and perimenopausal depression (the mood changes in the years leading up to menopause).

“In my experience, post menstrual syndrome is usually associated with anovulatory cycles,” she said. “Those are menstrual cycles in which ovulation did not occur, such as with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and contraceptive implants. Unlike premenstrual syndrome, which is triggered by a drop in progesterone, post menstrual syndrome is most likely associated with a surge in oestrogen or androgens (male hormones).”

What should we do about it?

Dr Briden’s advice is to investigate the underlying reasons – for example polycycstic ovarian syndrome, or pre-diabetic insulin resistance. Something I will of course follow up and pass on to my similarly affected friends.

But can anything be done in the meantime to ease my – and their – symptoms? Currently, I mainly self medicate with chocolate and shouting, but Dr Briden suggests a more sensible option, a magnesium supplement, which she says could be beneficial for both post and pre-menstrual syndrome. I’ll give it a go. And for the sake of everyone around me, here’s hoping it works.

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The filming of the tape “Union of Salvation. Time of Wrath” has been completed in St. Petersburg

In St. Petersburg, the filming of the eight-part tape about the Decembrists “Union of Salvation. The Time of Wrath” has been completed. This will be an expanded version of the feature film “Union of Salvation”.

Popular Belarusian actress Marina Konyashkina played Ekaterina Trubetskaya in the series. In the role of Sergei Trubetskoy – her husband – Russian actor Maxim Matveev.

The full-length film “Union of Salvation” was released in Russia in 2019, but it was not until 2021 that it was decided to start filming the series “Union of Salvation. Time of Wrath “- an extended version of the story of the December uprising. It will include materials shot for the film, but not included in the final version, and completely new episodes and storylines.

Alexander Domogarov plays the governor-general of St. Petersburg, Count Miloradovich, in the series his role is spelled out in more detail.In the center of the tape is the fate of Sergei Muravyov-Apostol, played by Leonid Bichevin.People’s Artist of Russia Sergei Bezrukov as Pyotr Volkonsky. In the continuation of the film, such celebrities as Pavel Priluchny, Ivan Yankovsky, Anton Shagin … , on Elagin Island and in other historical locations. In Rostov-on-Don, they even had to rebuild the village – the old film building, which remained after the filming of a full-length film, burned down.

SOYUZ dossier

Marina Konyashkina was born in Minsk, her father is a military man, and her mother is a teacher of the Belarusian language. In 2007, Marina graduated from the acting department of the Boris Shchukin Theater Institute (course of Pavel Lyubimtsev. – Author’s note). Now the actress lives in Moscow.

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90,000 5 stages of making the inevitable, changes and management decisions ⋆ NewRealGoal

5 stages of making the inevitable, changes and management decisions

Before you change, something incredibly important to you must be in jeopardy.
Richard Bach. Messiah Pocket Guide

Most of us face change with fear. The new reality – whether it be a change in the company’s strategy, the system of remuneration, planned reductions – cause us concern, as well as an unexpected diagnosis that emerged during a routine preventive examination. The “degree” of emotions, of course, is different, but their spectrum is practically the same. From the initial shock: “No, this cannot happen to me!” before accepting the inevitability: “Well, you need to start living differently.”Why is that?

This is quite understandable by human nature. The changes threaten us with various losses:

  • stability;
  • 90,040 control over the situation;

  • status;
  • competencies;
  • 90,040 career opportunities;

    90,040 money;

    90,040 social connections;

    90,040 workplaces, etc.

And people react to losses, even potential ones, primarily emotionally, including defense mechanisms.

Such a basic defense mechanism is well known under the name of the 5 stages of response to changes according to E.Kubler-Ross. An outstanding psychologist once described in her cult book On Death and Dying (1969) the emotional reactions of seriously ill and dying people, and identified 5 key stages of emotional response:

  1. Negation
  2. Anger
  3. Bargaining
  4. Depression
  5. Acceptance

People go through almost the same stages in their emotional reactions when faced with the need to adapt to a new reality.In a sense, change is the death of the status quo. As Anatole France wrote: “ Every change, even the most desired one, has its own sadness, because what we part with is a part of ourselves. One must die for one life in order to enter another. ”

Let’s look at the behavior of people and the possible actions of leadership at each stage.

1. Negation

At the initial stage of denial, people are usually afraid that the changes will be negative for them personally : “The company may need this, but I don’t need it! I have stable and habitual responsibilities. “Denial can manifest itself in the fact that:

90,039 90,040 people do not come to meetings dedicated to the change project, under any convenient pretext;

  • they do not participate in discussions;
  • they are indifferent or demonstratively busy with routine bureaucratic duties.
  • What can be done at this stage:

    1. Provide the maximum possible amount of information through various communication channels about the goals and reasons for the changes;
    2. 90,040 to give people time to understand the changes;

    3. to stimulate discussion and participation of people.

    2. Anger

    It is at this stage that it is important to understand that it is not the changes in themselves that cause anger in people, but the losses that they incur: “This is unfair! Not! I cannot accept this! ”

    As a result, employees at this stage can:

    • Complain endlessly instead of working;
    • indulge in accusations and criticism;
    • Get annoyed more than usual, cling to little things.

    In fact, openly expressed anger indicates people’s involvement, which is good! This is an opportunity for managers to let employees “let off steam” strong emotions, and, at the same time, to analyze the expressed skepticism and doubts – they may not be unfounded.

    Some recommendations at this stage:

    1. first listen to people without trying to dissuade them, acknowledge their feelings;
    2. Suggest ways to make up for the losses that employees fear, for example, additional training, retraining, flexible hours, etc . ;
    3. 90 040 Encourage people to direct their work energy towards implementing change instead of criticism and idle talk;

    4. Stop blatant sabotage, but do not respond with aggression to aggression.


    This is an attempt to postpone the inevitable. We are trying to “make a deal” with management or with ourselves in order to postpone changes or find a way out of the situation: “If I promise to do this, you will not allow these changes in my life?” For example, an employee starts working overtime in an effort to avoid an upcoming layoff.

    Bargaining is a sign that people are already starting to look towards the future . They have not yet given up their fears, but they are already looking for new opportunities and are going to negotiations.

    Very important here:

    1. to direct the energy of people in a positive direction, not to reject their ideas;
    2. stimulate brainstorming, strategic sessions;
    3. Help employees re-evaluate their careers and opportunities.

    4. Depression

    If the previous stage has a negative outcome, people will be in a state of depression, depression, uncertainty about the future and lack of energy: “Why try? All the same, it will not lead to anything good. “In this case, by depression we mean a defensive reaction, not a mental disorder.

    Signs of depression in the company are:

    • General mood of apathy;
    • 90,040 increase in sick leave and absences from the workplace;

    • increase in staff turnover.

    Tasks in this phase:

    1. recognize the existing complexities and problems;
    2. eliminate remaining fears, doubts and indecision;
    3. 90,040 Help people get out of their depression, support any attempts at action, and provide positive feedback;

    4. to show employees a personal example of being involved in a change project;


    Although this is the final stage, leaders need to understand that acceptance does not necessarily mean consent. People understand that further resistance is pointless, and they begin to assess the prospects: “Okay, it’s time to work. Let’s think about possible options and solutions. ” Acceptance often occurs after the first short-term results. You can see the manifestation of this stage in the fact that employees:

    • are ready to learn new things;
    • 90,040 are investing in making the change work;

      90,040 feel involved and involve others.

    To achieve results at this stage it is necessary: ​​

    1. Strengthen and reinforce new behaviors;
    2. to reward for successes and achievements;
    3. to develop and set new tasks.

    Of course, in reality, people do not always go through all the stages sequentially. Moreover, not everyone comes to the stage of acceptance. But leaders and change leaders in organizations who are aware of these emotional dynamics have a number of benefits:

    • understand that resistance is normal.
    • are aware of what stage of resistance people are at, and what reactions can be expected next.
    • are relieved to know that their own reactions and feelings are normal and not signs of weakness.
    • can design and implement appropriate actions to navigate these stages quickly and efficiently.

    Successful changes to you!

    Expert on emotional intelligence: Elena Eliseeva

    Complete collection of materials in the electronic manual “Change Management.An overview of methods and tools ”you can get free of charge by filling out the form.

    90,000 Five stages of grief. The rise and fall of the Kubler-Ross theory

    • Lucy Burns
    • BBC

    Photo Credit, Getty Images

    Denial. Anger. Finding a compromise. Despair. Adoption. Many people know the theory that grief goes through these steps when receiving information unbearable for a person. Its scope is wide: from hospices to company boards of directors.

    An interview with a psychologist that has recently spread over the Internet in English proves that the perception of the current quarantine is subject to the same rules. But do we all experience the same?

    When the Swiss psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross began working in American hospitals in 1958, she was struck by the lack of methods of psychological care for dying patients.

    “Everything was impersonal, the focus was on the purely technical side of the matter,” she told the BBC in 1983.“The terminally ill patients were on their own, no one spoke to them.”

    She began teaching a seminar with medical students at Colorado State University based on her conversations with cancer patients about how they thought and felt.

    Author photo, LIFE / Getty Images

    Photo caption,

    Elizabeth Kubler-Ross talking to a woman with leukemia in Chicago (1969) Seminar participants observe through a special mirror glass

    Despite misunderstanding and resistance from a number of colleagues, soon Kubler seminars -Ross the apple had nowhere to fall.

    In 1969, she published On Death and Dying, in which she cited typical statements from her patients, and then moved on to discuss how to help doomed people get out of life without fear and suffering as much as possible.

    Kübler-Ross described in detail five emotional states through which a person who has learned and a fatal diagnosis goes through:

    • Denial: “No, it can’t be true”
    • Anger: “Why me? Why? It’s unfair! !! ”
    • Bargaining: “There must be a way to save myself, or at least improve my situation! I will think of something, I will behave correctly and do whatever is necessary!”
    • Depression: “There is no way out, everything is indifferent”
    • Acceptance: “Well, you need to somehow live with this and prepare for your last journey” difficult situation.

      A separate chapter of the book is devoted to each of the stages. In addition to the five main ones, the author identified intermediate states – the first shock, preliminary grief, hope – from 10 to 13 types in total.

      Photo by Getty Images

      Elizabeth Kubler-Ross died in 2004. Her son, Ken Ross, says she never insisted that everyone must go through these five stages in a given sequence.

      “It was a flexible framework, not a panacea for grief.If people wanted to use other theories and models, the mother did not mind. First of all, she wanted to start a discussion of the topic, “he says.

      The book” On Death and Dying “became a bestseller, and Elizabeth Kubler-Ross was soon inundated with letters from patients and doctors from all over the world.

      ” The phone rang incessantly , and the postman began to visit us twice a day, “recalls Ken Ross.

      The notorious five steps took on a life of their own. Following the doctors, the patients and their relatives learned about them.They were mentioned by the heroes of the series “Star Trek” and “Sesame Street”. They were parodied in cartoons, they gave food for creativity to the mass of musicians and artists and spawned many successful memes.

      Literally, thousands of scientific papers have been written that apply the theory of the five steps to a variety of people and situations: from athletes who received injuries incompatible with their sports career, to the concerns of Apple fans about the release of the 5th iPhone.

      Photo by Getty Images

      The Kubler-Ross legacy has found its way into corporate governance: large companies from Boeing to IBM (including the BBC) have used the “curve of change” it developed to help employees in moments of big changes in business.

      And it is applicable during the coronavirus pandemic, says psychologist David Kessler.

      Kessler has worked with Elisabeth Kübler-Ross and co-authored her latest book On Grief and How We Grieve. His interview with the Harvard Business Review at the outbreak of the pandemic attracted widespread online attention as people everywhere looked for solutions to their emotional problems.

      “And here first there is denial: the virus is not terrible, nothing will happen to me. Then anger: who dares to deprive me of my usual life and force me to stay at home ?! Then an attempt to find a compromise: okay, if after two weeks of social distancing it gets better, then why not? Next comes sadness: no one knows when it will end.And finally, acceptance: the world is like this now, you have to somehow live with it “, – describes David Kessler.

      ” As you already understood, strength comes with acceptance. It gives control over the situation: I can wash my hands, I can keep a safe distance, I can work from home, “he says.

      ” This is a roadmap, “says George Bonanno, professor of clinical psychology and head of the Laboratory of emotions of Columbia University. – When people are in pain, they want to know: how long will it last? What will become of me? They need to grab onto something.And the five-step model gives them that opportunity. “

      ” This scheme is seductive, “notes Charles Corr, social psychologist and author of Death and Dying, Life and Being. “She offers an easy solution: sort everyone out, and it takes no more than one hand to put a label on each.”

      George Bonanno sees potential harm in this. according to my observations, the majority – can decide that they are, so to speak, grieving wrong, “- he explains.

      According to him, over the years he has seen many cases when people themselves suggested that they must feel this and that, or they were convinced of this by friends and relatives, but they did not feel it and decided, that they need a doctor.

      There is insufficient empirical evidence for the existence of the five stages of grief. The longest and most massive interviews with bereaved people took place in 2007.

      According to him, the most common condition at any time is acceptance, only a few go through the stage of denial, and the second most common emotion is longing.

      However, according to David Kessler, while scientists debate about nuances and terms, people in grief continue to find meaning in the Kubler-Ross scheme.

      “I meet people who say to me:” I don’t know what’s wrong with me. Now I am angry, and a minute later I am sad. I guess I’m out of my mind. “And I say,” It has names. These are called stages of grief. “The person says,” Oh, so there is a special stage called anger? It’s about me! “And it feels more normal.”

      Photo by Getty Images

      “People need catchy language. If Kübler-Ross hadn’t called it stages and said there are five stages, it probably would have been closer to the truth. But then it would not have attracted attention to yourself, “- believes Charles Corr.

      He believes that talking about the five stages distracts from the main scientific legacy of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.

      “She wanted to raise the topic of death and dying in the broadest sense: how to help terminally ill people come to terms with their diagnosis, how to help those who care for them, to support these patients and cope with their own emotions, how to help everyone live a full life, realizing that we are not eternal, “says Charles Corr.

      “The terminally ill can teach us everything: not only how to die, but also how to live,” said Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in 1983.

      During the 1970s and 1980s, she traveled all over the world giving lectures and master classes to thousands of people. She was a passionate supporter of the hospice concept, pioneered by British nurse Cecily Saunders.

      Kübler-Ross has established hospices in many countries, the first in the Netherlands in 1999.Time magazine included her in the list of the 100 most important thinkers of the 20th century.

      Professor Kübler-Ross’s scientific reputation was shaken after she became fascinated with theories of the afterlife and began to experiment with mediums.

      One of them, a certain Jay Barham, practiced non-standard religious-erotic therapy, in particular, he persuaded women to have sex, assuring him that a person close to them from the afterlife had infiltrated him. In 1979, because of this, a loud scandal arose.

      In the late 1980s, she tried to establish a hospice for AIDS children in rural Virginia, but faced strong opposition from local residents.

      In 1995, her house caught fire under suspicious circumstances. The next day, Kubler-Ross suffered his first stroke.

      She spent the last nine years of her life with her son in Arizona, moving in a wheelchair.

      In the last interview with the famous TV presenter Oprah Winfrey, she said that she felt only anger at the thought of her own death.

      “The public wanted the famous death and dying expert to be some kind of angelic person, and quickly came to the stage of adoption itself,” says Ken Ross.“But we all experience grief and loss as best we can.”

      The theory of the five stages of grief is not widely taught in medical schools these days. It is more popular in corporate training called the “curve of change.”

      Many theories have arisen since

      David Kessler, with the consent of his family Kubler-Ross, added a sixth to the five stages: understanding that everything that is done makes sense.

      “You can come to understanding in a million different ways.Let’s say I have become better after losing a loved one. Maybe my loved one did not die the way it should have happened, and I can try to make the world a better place so that this does not happen to others, “says David Kessler.

      Charles Corr recommends the” dual process model ” It was developed by Dutch researchers Margaret Strobe and Nenk Schut and suggests that a person in grief simultaneously experiences loss and prepares himself for new business and life challenges.

      George Bonanno talks about four trajectories of grief. Some people have great resilience and do not fall into depression, or it is weakly expressed in them, others remain morally broken for many years, others recover relatively close, but then a second wave of grief rolls over them, and finally, the fourth become stronger from the loss.

      The overwhelming majority gets better with time, one way or another.

      But Professor Bonanno admits that his approach is less clear-cut than the five-stage theory.

      “I can tell a person:“ Time heals. ”But it doesn’t sound so convincing,” he says.

      Grief is difficult to control and hard to bear. The thought that there is some kind of roadmap that suggests a way out is comforting, even if it is an illusion.

      In her latest book, On Grief and How We Grieve, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross wrote that she did not expect to sort out the tangled human emotions on the shelves.

      Everyone experiences grief in their own way, even if sometimes some patterns can be deduced.Everyone goes their own way.

      ART – Aggression Replacement Training

      Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at adolescents to train them to cope with their aggressive behavior. ART was developed by Arnold P. Goldstein and Barry Glick in the 1980s. It is a multi-modular program with three components: Social Skills, Anger Management Training, and Moral Reasoning.

      Each of the three components focuses on different aspects of functioning in society, and during the learning process, participants master these skills first in the classroom, and then transfer them to a new situation outside the group. This model is also based on Piaget’s concept of peer learning, according to which young people learn best from their peers.

      The Family ART program was first implemented by R. Calame and K. Parker at the Center for Youth and Family in Batshaw (Quebec, Canada).The program was revised and supplemented in cooperation with the University College of the Deaconist House and the Lindøy Center for Children and Youth in Stavanger (Norway). In its structure, the Family ART program is similar to the ART program.

      The aim of the training is to improve the participants’ ability to function in the community, as well as to reduce the incidence of anger. Through role play, the training seeks to find alternative actions / responses that are effective for everyone.The goal of the Family ART program is to increase the likelihood of generalizing new behaviors at home. The program is based on work in groups with 4-6 families, where they discuss urgent problems, participate in role-playing games, give each other constructive comments and advice.

      Target groups
      The program is mainly aimed at children and young people who have a tendency to develop problem behavior (primary prevention) and persons with already developed problem behavior (secondary prevention of further negative development).However, this program can be useful for people with adequate behavior.

      ART consists of meetings three times a week for 10 weeks, one hour for each component of the program. For the best result, the meetings are conducted by trainers / group coordinators who have received the necessary training. The decor in the room, the use of different materials, the number of participants, their stories, all affect how successful the work of a given group will be.

      Goldstein, Glick and Gibbs (1998) recommend 6 to 8 participants per group, but groups with fewer participants, especially at the beginning of the program, may be necessary and desirable if participants have severe behavioral problems.At the same time, in too small groups, the training loses its dynamics and structure, since some role-playing games require the participation of a large number of people, and the less feedback from other participants will be.

      Many adolescents / young adults have anger control problems and / or lack of social skills. ART intervention focuses on the following social skills that play a significant role in reducing violent behavior:

      • Ability to complain
      • Ability to understand the feelings of others
      • Ability to cope with other people’s anger
      • Preparing for a difficult conversation
      • Do not get into fights
      • Ability to cope with pressure group
      • Ability to deal with accusation
      • Help others
      • Express love for others
      • Ability to cope with failure

      These social skills are broken down into steps (steps in thinking and in action).The group facilitator discusses the Skill of the Day with examples. The facilitator then presents the situation so that the participants understand how to apply this skill. Participants are asked to indicate each step in this process. Then each of the participants is asked to give an example of a specific situation where this skill is used. Other participants discuss the steps to take in this situation.

      Anger control is an emotional component in ART. The training goes from teaching social skills to losing anti-social skills and replacing them with pro-social ones.Anger management training uses an anger control circuit. Participants are trained in this method in order to deal with situations that arouse their anger. One week is allocated for each segment of the anger control chain, and facilitators and participants practice the application of new skills in relevant life situations. The chain of anger control is presented below:

      • Triggers (external and internal) – situations that cause anger and
      internal dialogue that aggravates the situation.
      • Signal – physical signs of anger
      • Anger Silencers – deep breathing, counting backwards,
      pleasant images; help to reduce the significance of the situation or distract the situation
      from her
      • Reminders – short positive statements spoken by
      silently to further reduce manifestations of anger
      • Consequence – awareness of the consequences of behavior
      • Social skill – application of pro-social skill in a situation
      • Evaluation – look back at how the anger control chain was
      applied, and score

      Moral reasoning is the cognitive aspect of the ART program.This component provides adolescents with the opportunity to look at the situation from the outside. Thus, they get a more reliable picture of the world. Group coordinators also present four faulty modes of reasoning, thus promoting perspective development and rebuilding the moral retardation. The following errors of reasoning are identified:

      • Self-centered thinking – “It’s all about me”
      • Assuming the worst – “It would have happened anyway” or “They would be
      did it to me “
      • Blame others – “It’s their fault”
      • Mislabelling / Decreasing – “This is not theft,
      I’ll just take advantage of it… “or” Everybody does it “

      ART in the world
      ART has undergone extensive evaluation and effectiveness studies in many US states (including Washington), as well as in the world – in Sweden, more recently in the UK and Norway.

      ICART is an alliance of North American (US and Canada) and European individuals and institutions implementing the ART program or its variants. The association was created by Arnold P. Goldstein, and he brought together those experts who, in his opinion, could disseminate and develop ART.The association includes representatives of educational institutions (scientists from colleges and universities), correctional services, child welfare institutions (public and private), health services and schools. The association provides advice and facilitates contact between institutions interested in the ART method.

      ART in Norway
      In Norway, this method is used in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, child welfare services, and psychiatric practice when working with children with Asperger’s Syndrome.

      The University College of the Deacon House in Rogaland is the academic center of the ART method in Norway. In 1999, after a meeting with the creator of the ART program, Arnold P. Goldstein, it was decided to open a 60-point professional development course for training social competence, the core of which will be the ART method.

      There are currently ART groups throughout Norway. The ART scientific environment in Norway has become one of the leading worldwide. The credit for this belongs largely to the organization “Youth Alternative” in Sweden, Knut Gundersen, Børge Strømgren and Luke Moynahan.The University College of Deacon House in Rogaland (Norway) is an important node in the application of this method in Norway, and the College has published a series of interesting research papers on the effectiveness of the ART method in Norway.

      A research team appointed by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs of the Kingdom of Norway concluded the following about the ART program:
      “This program is categorized as 3: Program with documented outcome.The research team recommends ART for use in high school in groups where problem behaviors have already developed or are at risk of developing them. The program is used as a primary prevention tool and should be complemented by a wide range of school activities. ”

      Experience shows that family interaction patterns change significantly, the program has a pronounced effect on children, their prosocial skills and behavior improve after correction according to the ART program.The incidence of resumption of destructive behavior is also reduced.

      ART in Russia

      The ART method is being implemented in all four regions of North-West Russia participating in the program “Children and Youth of Risk Groups in the Barents Region, 2008-2015”, and more than 1,760 children and adolescents have completed ART and Family ART classes. As of November 2014, within the framework of the CYAR, more than 300 specialists completed a basic training course on ART and received trainer certificates. Including 100 specialists trained in the Family ART methodology, 16 specialists from Karelia, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk regions and the Komi Republic have a master trainer certificate, and therefore can teach new ART trainers.

      The pilot part of the research project to assess the effectiveness of ART in Russia was launched within the framework of bilateral cooperation between Norway and the Republic of Karelia in 2009. Since 2012, the main part of the research work has begun, which now also includes other Russian regions participating in the CYAR program. In total, more than 20 institutions representing the social, educational and penitentiary systems are involved in the research project.

      The aim of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the ART method in relation to a) the acquisition of social skills, b) learning to control anger, and c) the reduction of problem behaviors in children and adolescents participating in ART groups.Groups consist of an average of 6 to 7 participants, aged 7 to 17 years. The survey is conducted both among children and among teachers or educators of the institution, as well as parents who fill out questionnaires about participating in ART groups. The questionnaire procedure is structured in such a way that the study participants fill out the questionnaires two times – before and after the ART method (pre-test, post-test 1). If the ART is followed by the Family ART, then another evaluation slice is added (post-test 2).

      The survey includes the completion of the Social Skills Rating Scale (Gresham & Elliot, 1990) (SHOS), which assesses a wide range of social skills, as well as problem and positive behavior questionnaires. SCOS includes the following scales: cooperativity, judgment, self-control, responsibility, hyperactivity, “external” behavior (behavioral problems, aggression), “internal” behavior (anxiety, depression). SHOSN is filled in by the child, teacher (educator) and parent.

      At the moment the data of the main research project has been analyzed. Based on the data of children’s self-reports (questionnaires), the results of the study indicated positive changes in the general indicators of social competence when comparing the data of the preliminary and final tests among children from the ART group. The ART group demonstrated improved performance across all four subscales of the social skills rating scale, namely cooperation, self-affirmation, empathy, and self-control.At the same time, the most reliable and pronounced effect of the program’s impact was achieved in two age groups: 6-9 years old and 10-14 years old. In contrast, in the control group (children who did not participate in ART training), when comparing the provisions of the preliminary and final tests, there were no changes in the general indicators of competence and the SCOS subscales.

      As shown by the evaluation of the data provided by parents and teachers, when comparing the provisions of the preliminary and final tests, children from both the experimental and control groups began to demonstrate more social skills and to a lesser extent problem behavior.Overall results indicate a significant improvement in social skills among children in the experimental groups, but improvements in social skills and a decrease in problem behavior were seen among children in the control groups. These findings can be considered as a result of the possible influence of children from the experimental group on children from the control groups.

      Terms of Use

      Contact information

      Knut Gundersen
      Associate Professor
      Rogaland County Deacon House University College, Norway
      Tel: +47 51 97 22 62
      Emailmail: [email protected]

      Roman Koposov
      Associate Professor
      Regional Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Wellbeing
      University of Tromsø, Arctic University of Norway
      Tel: +47 776 45 880
      Email: [email protected]

      How can you help yourself cope with anger?

      Our anger, both explicit and latent, is meant to convey something important to those around us. But he also repels them. We sincerely want to be heard and understood, but we get the opposite result.In whatever form we express aggression, it interferes with building effective communication.


      Anger is the force that prompts a person to act. To fight a tiger or mammoth, you need to get really angry. Initially, anger was given to a person so that he could get excited, go hunting and feed himself, and maybe conquer the world. Anger is the force that prompts a person to act.

      Now we don’t see mammoths on the streets, but we communicate with other people every day.And we continue to feel anger. So where does it come from?

      The first reason is exhaustion. When the body lacks resources, a person rises to search for them and at the same time tries to save himself, driving away all potential competitors. Therefore, the cause of anger can easily be lack of sleep, pain, even poor nutrition. In adults, an imbalance in body fat increases irritability, and in children, high sugar levels increase anxiety.

      The second reason is the frustration of having to be accepted. When a person feels that there is no place for his interests, his opinion in the family or at work, that he lacks support and love, he accumulates aggression. Most often, such situations arise with people who do not know how to express it; we will talk about them below.

      The third reason is not understanding why the other person is behaving this way. Why is your partner rude every time you try to find out where he is now? Why doesn’t a five-year-old child sit quietly in the theater, but throws his arms and legs over his neighbor? The adult believes that his partner is just nervous, and the child does not respect other people’s boundaries.In fact, it may turn out that the partner had a controlling mother, and he still perceives questions as a violation of his freedom, and an emotionally immature child is so addicted to the performance that he cannot control himself.

      The fourth reason is the need for protection. When a child screams in the street and the mother cannot do anything, she becomes angry. First of all – that she is losing control, and everyone can see it. Protection may be needed from pain, sadness, disappointment – in general, from all difficult emotions that threaten psychological safety.

      The fifth reason for anger is the threat to self-esteem. Guilt sometimes arises from the behavior of a loved one. “I’m a bad mother,” if a child screams and falls, if he is silent and plays with his tablet, if he eats a lot, if he eats a little … This situation forces us to try to be good all the time and do everything right. It is especially hard for perfectionists, that is, those who have the attitude of “being good” in childhood in response to parental demands. The result is suppressed aggression, more guilt, and more anger.


      There are situations from which an adult explodes. The reaction is not always adequate to the situation – the one who caused the outburst of anger thinks to himself: “What did I say? ..” In fact, he, without knowing it, pressed the “red button”. Each person has their own content, but globally they are divided into two types.

      1. The last drop

      Let’s say a mother gives all the time to her child.She plays with full dedication, eats lunch in five minutes, does not close the toilet door, hardly sleeps … Or, on the contrary, she spends 10 hours a day at work, barely has time to play with the child in the evening, and she also cooks soup, washes the floor, reads a book on how to communicate with a child … And finally the husband says something about an unwashed plate. Can you imagine the reaction? Explosion! The problem, of course, is not the plate. When a person holds back emotions for a very long time, anything can serve as the last straw.

      What to do with it: do not sacrifice everything for the sake of one area of ​​life, but do exactly as much as you get; track irritation and fatigue at the very beginning; talk about it to loved ones and carry out prophylaxis (“make children a happy mother”) until the glass is overfilled.

      2. Sore corn

      Suppose a man had a father who, throughout his childhood, kept track of at what time the child came home, monitored whether the light in the bathroom was turned off, whether the closet was tidied up, and the dishes were washed. Or the mother constantly read the diary, interfered with relationships with peers, aggressively invaded life. Or already in adulthood, the previous partner terrorized with calls. Therefore, past experiences can be incorporated into new relationships.

      “Look, maybe you need to leave the meeting earlier than the others, because you’re walking down a dark street?” – the partner asks. “What are you telling me? Why should I always do everything as you said at all? ” – A sudden explosion occurs.

      A red button can be an emotionally charged experience from any period of life when a person experienced and suppressed anger.

      What to do about it : Track your emotions at the level of irritation, talk to your partner about your feelings and what causes irritation; regard such issues as the desire to take care of you; let your loved ones take care of you.


      Both an adult and a child can find themselves in a situation when sparks are already flying, a cry or even a fight begins. Sometimes it’s not clear how the calm situation turned into this one.

      What’s going on? Anger does not manifest immediately, but goes through several stages before reaching its peak. This can be depicted as a ladder . It all starts in the zone of emotional comfort , where it is calm and not disturbing. This is a different situation for each person.

      You should think about when this state comes for you: when you are lying on the couch with a book, walking in the park, playing with your child, at work.

      At the next stage, irritation arises. Someone said something wrong, did something wrong, everything does not go according to plan – and the person begins to boil. In this state, you can still think and understand what caused the irritation.

      Here it is important to notice the first notes of irritation , before they develop into uncontrollable aggression.

      At the last stage, an emotional explosion occurs. There is no control in it: a person no longer realizes what is happening to him, cannot analyze his behavior, does not want to stop and “turns himself on”.

      Remember the slogan: “Fire is better prevented than extinguished”? When you are already on the last step, only the automatic mechanism for getting out of this situation will work. For example, run out of the room shouting: “That’s it, I can’t take it anymore,” and take a breath.But this does not solve the problem globally. Therefore, a mechanism should be developed on how to cope with irritation at the previous stage, and then you simply will not reach the peak of uncontrolled anger.


      Have you ever met people who have difficulty expressing anger?

      The problem is that this emotion still arises, but is expressed inadequately: either it blows up a person inappropriately to the situation, or hides and makes itself felt in the form of passive aggression.

      Unfortunately, this is a very common story: in our culture, the open expression of strong emotions is taboo, we are taught from childhood “not to be angry.” People who do not know how to be angry, as a rule, are held captive by their childhood conflicts. They cannot talk about their needs and adequately defend their position, they are internally irritated with themselves and those around them that they cannot do it.

      Sometimes they do not even realize that they are feeling anger and cannot do anything about it.The problem is that this emotion still arises, but is expressed inadequately: either it blows up a person inappropriate to the situation, or hides and makes itself felt in the form of passive aggression. Let’s say a person gets a job. At first, he shows himself well, but over time he begins to sabotage everything. And his boss is a fool, and tasks are not by his measure, and colleagues do everything wrong. As a result, the person is fired or he leaves on his own, and the cycle begins anew. At the same time, he can become a tyrant at home: to find fault that the dishes are not washed, the slippers are not so, the child is capricious.Emotional and physical rejection between spouses (unwillingness to talk, listen, make love) also speaks of passive aggression. In children, it can manifest itself through poor grades or refusal to eat, that is, neglect of what is important to parents. What’s happening? A person cannot express his anger directly, so he begins to do things that will anger others and lead to a breakdown in relationships.

      If you see a person who constantly blames others around him , believes that everyone around is a fool, this is a person with suppressed anger.As a child, he could not be angry, especially at his parents, and he unconsciously “plays out” in adulthood.

      It is worth remembering that anger is an emotion, it will arise in any case. And it depends only on us how it will be expressed in behavior and how it will affect our relationships with others.


      It is imperative to express anger, and it is preferable to do it constructively. This skill improves life, makes a person a more whole person and allows you to build harmonious relationships with others.So how do you help yourself deal with your anger?

      1. Learn to recognize irritation in yourself before it turns into anger

      First, before looking for deep psychosomatic causes of irritation and anger, we recommend checking hormones, assessing your body condition and counting how many hours a day you sleep. Remember, the first cause of anger is exhaustion. Give yourself permission to take a break from your daily routine, and arrange with family members to help you with this.

      Second, review past experiences. What makes you angry and angry? If you’ve already found your pain points, try noticing them in different situations.

      2. Allow yourself to feel

      Despite children’s attitudes, there are no good or bad emotions. Feeling and expressing is okay. Moreover, anger, resentment, sadness and anger are due to the characteristics of the human body. If you completely deny negative emotions and try to pretend that you are positive, problems come.Once you admit to yourself what you are really experiencing and allow yourself to be with it, the feeling of guilt will go away. This means that anger will not accumulate, risking breaking through at the most unfortunate moment.

      It is important to broadcast the right to feelings to children. They understand how much parents allow themselves and others to express their emotions, even if they have never been told about it. Access to anger must be open: if an adult learns this first, then a child can follow him.

      3.Take responsibility

      Of course, your relationship with anger was formed in childhood, in your parental family. Then you didn’t know how to deal with difficult emotions. But now you are an adult and you can take it into your own hands. Admit it to yourself: you are not annoyed and angry because someone else is bad and does everything wrong. You feel this emotion because you yourself wanted to.

      It is important and necessary to investigate the reasons, but this is not a reason to say to loved ones: “Endure my unconstructive anger until I figure it out” .As an adult, you yourself build relationships with others and with yourself. By accepting this responsibility, you get the opportunity to talk about yourself, about your feelings. Not “you are not a good person, you do not pay attention to me and the child”, but “I feel lonely if I do not spend enough time with you.” The second option sounds different, right?

      Do not store up anger in yourself. You are responsible for expressing it while maintaining a relationship.

      4. Speak in words

      When people just enter into a relationship, they rub against each other, including in everyday life. At this point, it is important to find out and talk about your pain points that you already know about. As we recognize each other, there will be more and more discoveries, and it is important not to forget to discuss them constructively.

      Without dialogues, irritation will accumulate like a snowball, and eventually turn into a scandal. So we recommend that you take measures in advance and negotiate with each other, but not blame, but first of all talk about yourself.

      By the way, a parent can talk about his anger to his children. True, it is important not to do this too often and take into account the age. Overwhelming a child with his feelings can make him feel responsible for the mood and condition of the parent.

      5. Arrange emotional release

      Run, squat, close in the room and paint a sheet of paper with force, hit the pillow, shout in the forest … Any activity related to the body helps to express aggression.In the long term, rest often and change activities.

      6. Provide yourself an ambulance when you are angry

      When a person is in a difficult condition, it is important for him to connect his body, emotions and thoughts. It helps to pull yourself together and start behaving constructively.
      Ask yourself the question: “What do I feel in my body?” Answer it: twitching in your fingertips, palpitations, etc. Concentrate on this.
      Next question: “What emotions do I have?” I am angry, hurt, annoyed, hurt my self-esteem … Track an emotion, name it.
      Last question: “What do I think?” For example, I think the situation is terrible, that I get in here all the time, this is the 15th time I explode this week.

      By answering all the questions, you will connect the body, emotions and thoughts. Despite the fact that nothing seems to have changed, you as a person will come to a balance from which it is easier to perform other actions.For example, to talk.

      7. Helping a loved one who cannot cope with his anger

      One child once asked: “Why can daddy shout at us, but I can’t?” If you understand that reproach and ignorance only aggravate the situation, it’s time to help loved ones.

      For a partner who came home from work and started yelling at a child, you can, for example, say:
      – I see that you are tired and therefore you break down.You find it difficult to endure imperfection, that the dishes are not clean enough or the child is not well-behaved.

      This should be said without irony, but sincerely, trying to understand how hard it really is for a person. For a child observing the situation, this option will also serve as a good example. And your partner may not be able to verbalize their anger right away, but they will feel better.

      8. Admit your mistakes

      What if you lost your temper, got angry with a child, and then feel guilty? Honestly ask for forgiveness:

      – Forgive me.Sometimes I cannot control my emotions, I don’t want to do that, I don’t like it, and you are not worthy of such treatment. Nobody deserves to be shouted at, I beg your pardon.

      This is a very valuable experience for a child, unless, of course, repeating the apology five times a day. He is good because, first, , the child sees: the parent is not God, he can make mistakes, which means that the child does not have to be perfect. Secondly, an understanding arises: a person can correct a mistake, apologize and improve relations. Thirdly, the child understands that the relationship with him is significant for the parent, his feelings are important, and he is ready for a dialogue.

      By the way, this scheme also works with a partner.

      9. Go to a psychologist, psychotherapist

      As a rule, you play emotionally difficult situations from childhood in a circle: you find partners who are similar to parents, change some authoritarian bosses for others, etc. You do this to cope with an old problem like an adult, but use the old ways – and again it does not work.Psychotherapy helps you get to the bottom of frustrated emotions and develop new mechanisms that will help you get out of the vicious circle.

      So let’s summarize:

      There are no good and bad emotions. Each of them has a specific function, including anger. Healthy aggression helps protect yourself and defend your interests, while unhealthy one destroys relationships.

      Our way of dealing with anger begins in childhood, when we do not yet know how to handle difficult emotions.Many adults then go around in circles, repeating scenarios of communication with parents in the family and at work, and try to replay past experiences. The advantage of growing up is that we can consciously learn to express anger in a constructive way and teach our children to do so.

      As much as we want to be “positive” all the time, anger sometimes arises and needs to be expressed. Unexpressed anger builds up and turns into passive aggression.

      Each of us has our own “red buttons” that cause outbursts of anger.By researching and discussing them with loved ones, emotional outbursts can be avoided.

      Because of “childhood amnesia”, adults do not remember how angry they were when they were young, and do not realize the prohibition against anger, if any. For some, these feelings are still too complex. Psychotherapy helps to understand them.

      Department of psychological support and career guidance.

      Time of Wrath – Mission – World of Warcraft

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      Wrath of the Lich King


      Under the onslaught of the Scourge, we are united.Our lives were on the line, but we entered the battle with unprecedented evil and won the victory.


      King Ymiron Loken Scourge Tyranny


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      90,000 The era of anger and the year of uprising

      “2020 will be remembered along with 1848 and 1968 as the year of crisis and global uprising,” writes the British Evening Standard. The protests covered 40 countries on all continents. Demonstrators take to the streets with anti-government slogans, break through cordons and erect barricades in hundreds of cities in all parts of the world. And ahead of the possible second wave of the pandemic, the continuation of the economic crisis, the exit of Great Britain from the EU, difficult elections in the United States.Not to mention the black swans that now fly in flocks.

      “An era of wrath” was predicted by the authors of the global risks report prepared for the Davos Forum 2019 two years ago. They conducted a study and found that 59% of respondents in developed countries expect an increase in “public anger against the elite”. Finally, anger accumulated in marketable quantities.

      But the nations, driven by anger, go in different directions. “In America, capricious, infantile, wealthy millennials are rebelling.And in poor Belarus, real millennials, the present generation of the future, went out for their freedom against the dictator, ”Yulia Latynina describes this dialectic. But behind the likes and dislikes of the liberal publicist, objective reality looms. The days when the streets around the world fought for the ideals of Western democracy are over. Now the rage of street riots has gripped the West itself. Yellow Vests, BLM and other movements question the legitimacy of the liberal project. And on the world periphery, mass movements continue to erupt, for which the Western order still serves as a political landmark.The philosopher Slavoj ižek called them “catch-up protests.”

      Partly, the identity of the protesters is formed through the denial of the ideological self-presentation of the ruling class. Therefore, in Russia they demand Western democracy, and in Germany they sometimes chant the name of Putin. Social evil merges with ideology, which the local elites use to justify their domination, and the good is associated with its opponents.

      But there is another reason for the split within the global protest. The social engine of most of the street revolutions of the past 30 years has been the urban middle class.It emerged from a consumer society, and therefore it was constantly drawn to the liberal ideology of the Western mainstream. And the world “deep people” have been silent since the collapse of the international labor movement and the socialist camp. The current crisis is interrupting this lethargy. And the social lower classes are returning to politics. So far, without their own language, mass organizations and a clear project for the future.

      The social antagonists of the “losers from globalization” are not only the elites, but also the successful creative class.This conflict is fueled by Donald Trump. But more and more often the outcome of the struggle depends precisely on the choice of the “deep people”. Therefore, both in America and in Belarus, both sides are fighting for the sympathies of the working class.