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Tiny blood clot in early pregnancy: Vaginal Bleeding and Blood Clots During Pregnancy

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Blood clots and pregnancy | March of Dimes

A blood clot (also called a thrombosis) is a mass or clump of blood that forms when blood changes from a liquid to a solid. 

The body normally makes blood clots to stop the bleeding after a scrape or cut. But sometimes blood clots can partly or completely block the flow of blood in a blood vessel, like a vein or artery. This can cause damage to body organs and even death. 

Most women with blood clotting conditions have healthy pregnancies. But these conditions may cause problems for some pregnant women. In severe cases, they can cause death for both mom and baby. But testing and treatment can help save both you and your baby.

If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant and have had problems with blood clots in the past, tell your health care provider at a preconception checkup (before pregnancy) or at your first prenatal care checkup. Also tell your provider if someone in your family (your parent or a brother or sister) has had problems with blood clots. This means the condition may be in your family history (run in your family).  

If you or someone in your family has had problems with blood clots, talk to your provider about getting a blood test to see if you have a thrombophilia. This is a health condition that increases your chances of making abnormal blood clots. Some pregnant women with thrombophilias need treatment with medicines called blood thinners. They stop clots from getting bigger and prevent new clots from forming.

Who is at risk for having blood clots?

Certain things make you more likely than others to have a blood clot. These are called risk factors. Having a risk factor doesn’t mean for sure that you’ll have a blood clot. But it may increase your chances. Talk to your health provider about what you can do to help reduce your risk. 

Risk factors for blood clots include:

  • Being pregnant. Your blood clots more easily during pregnancy to help your body get ready to lessen blood loss during labor and birth. Also, blood flow in your legs gets slower late in pregnancy. This is because the blood vessels around your pelvis and other places are more compressed (narrow) and your growing uterus (womb) puts pressure on your pelvis.
  • Having certain health conditions, like a thrombophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (also called DIC), high blood pressure, diabetes or being overweight or obese. DIC causes blood clots to form in small blood vessels and can lead to serious bleeding. Certain pregnancy and childbirth complications (like placenta accreta), surgery, sepsis (blood infection) and cancer can cause DIC. A family history of blood clotting problems also increases your chances of blood clots. 
  • Taking certain medicines, like birth control pills or estrogen hormones. These medicines can increase the risk of clotting. If you’ve had problems with blood clots or thrombophilias or have a family history of these conditions, birth control pills may not be safe for you to use. Talk to your health care provider about other birth control options.
  • Smoking. Smoking damages the lining of blood vessels, which can cause blood clots to form. 
  • Having surgery, like a cesarean section (also called c-section). A c-section is a surgery in which your baby is born through a cut that your doctor makes in your belly and uterus. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that doctors help prevent blood clots in women during a c-section. This may include using compression devices that put pressure on your legs to help keep your blood flowing during the c-section.
  • Being dehydrated. This means you don’t have enough water in your body. Dehydration causes blood vessels to narrow and your blood to thicken, which makes you more likely to have blood clots. 
  • Not moving around much. This may be because you’re on bed rest during pregnancy or recovering from surgery or an accident. Being still for long periods of time can lead to poor blood flow, which makes you more likely to have blood clots. Even sitting for long periods of time, like when travelling by car or plane, can increase your chances of having a blood clot.
  • Having a baby. You’re more likely to have a blood clot in the first 6 weeks after birth than women who haven’t given birth recently.  

What problems can blood clots cause during pregnancy?

If you have a blood clot or a kind of thrombophilia called antiphospholipid syndrome (also called APS), you may be more likely to have complications that can affect your health and your baby’s health, including:    

Blood clots in the placenta. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. A blood clot in the placenta can stop blood flow to your baby and harm your baby. 

Heart attack. This usually happens when a blood clot blocks blood and oxygen flow to the heart. Without blood and oxygen, the heart can’t pump blood well, and the affected heart muscle can die. A heart attack can lead to lasting heart damage or death. 

Intauterine growth restriction (also called IUGR). This is when your baby grows poorly in the womb. 

Miscarriage.  A miscarriage is when a baby dies in the womb before 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Placental insufficiency. This is when the placenta doesn’t work as well as it should so your baby gets less food and oxygen.

Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Some of these signs include having protein in the urine, changes in vision and severe headache.   

Premature birth. This is when your baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. 

Pulmonary embolism (also called PE). An embolism is a blood clot that moves from where it formed to another place in the body. When the clot moves to a lung, it’s a PE. PE can cause low oxygen levels in your blood and damage your body organs. It’s an emergency and a leading cause of death during pregnancy. Signs and symptoms of PE may include:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting
  • Feeling anxious
  • Coughing up blood

Stillbirth. This is when a baby dies in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Stroke. This happens when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that brings blood to the brain, or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts open. Pregnancy and childbirth cause strokes in about 8 in 100,000 women. Stroke can cause lasting damage to the body or death.

Thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel and blocks blood flow. It most often happens in the deep veins of the legs but can be in other places of the body: 

  • Cerebral vein thrombosis (also called CVT). This happens when a blood clot forms in a vein in the brain. CVT can lead to stroke. Signs and symptoms include headache, vision problems and seizures.   
  • Deep vein thrombosis (also called DVT). This happens when a blood clot forms in a vein deep in the body, usually in the lower leg or thigh. DVT can be diagnosed with ultrasound or other imaging tests. Signs and symptoms may include warmth and tenderness over the vein and pain, swelling or skin redness in the affected area.

Venous thromboembolism (also called VTE). This happens when a blood clot breaks off and travels through blood to vital organs, like the brain, lungs or heart. This condition includes DVT and PE. VTEs that block blood vessels in the brain or heart can cause stroke or heart attack.

How are these conditions treated?

Your provider may use tests like ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (also called MRI) to find out if you have a blot clot or clotting conditions. Ultrasound uses sound waves and a computer screen to show a picture of your baby inside the womb. MRI is a medical test that makes a detailed picture of the inside of your body. These tests are painless and safe for you and your baby.

If you’re pregnant and have a clotting condition, you may need to go for prenatal care checkups more often than women who don’t have these blood clot conditions. At these visits, your provider checks your blood pressure and can use other tests, like blood tests, to monitor your health. 

Your provider also checks your baby’s health in the womb using tests like:

  • Ultrasound to check your baby’s growth and development. She may use a special kind of ultrasound called Doppler to check your baby’s blood flow in the umbilical artery, a blood vessel in the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord connects your baby to the placenta. It carries food and oxygen from the placenta to the baby. 
  • Fetal heart rate monitoring (also called a nonstress test or NST). This test checks your baby’s heart rate in the womb and sees how the heart rate changes when your baby moves. Your provider uses this test to make sure your baby’s getting enough oxygen. 

During pregnancy your provider may give you a blood thinner called heparin (low-molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin). Your provider also may refer you to a hematologist. This is a doctor who treats blood conditions. 

After you give birth, your provider may continue to treat you with heparin. Or he may treat you with a blood thinner called warfarin. Warfarin is safe to take after pregnancy, even if you’re breastfeeding. Warfarin is not safe to take during pregnancy because it may cause birth defects.

More information

 

Last reviewed: February, 2015

Doulas getting personal: Bleeding during the first Trimester

Note: This blog entry is based on personal experience and includes mentions of pelvic bleeding and pregnancy loss.

If you look anywhere on the internet and in books it will tell you that bleeding during the first trimester is both normal and abnormal. There is little consensus on what constitutes normal and abnormal, when you should or shouldn’t be worried, and what you can do about it.

I found out I was pregnant a few weeks before a big trip. The excitement was tampered by the knowledge that most miscarriages happen in the first trimester and the desire to be “realistic” (whatever I thought that may mean). In my pragmatic state I packed a few pads with me – just in case.

The first half of the trip was uneventful; however, one evening during dinner I felt a gush in my underwear. was gushing bright red blood. My mind went blank – I stuffed my underwear with toilet paper (my partner and I were at a restaurant), rushed out, and declared we need pay, go to the hotel, and then the ER.

We did just that (and I used one of my packed pads while changing). Everyone in the ER was incredibly kind, but there wasn’t much they could do for me. I was scheduled for an ultrasound 3 days later.

I stopped bleeding after 4 hours, and had spotting for the next 3 days. I never had any cramps. On the third day, the tech found a fetal heartbeat with a normal development. The nurse we chatted with said it could’ve been implantation bleeding or unknown causes. I was 7 weeks pregnant. My partner and I cried in the ultrasound room and in the car. I slept for the whole next day.

Three days later, it happened again, in another city. Gushing blood, with small clots. We went to the ER again – they were busy in the emergency maternal unit where I got transferred and the OB we talked with said it could be a miscarriage, blood clots as the placenta attaches to the uterine wall, or (again) unknown causes. I had a pelvic exam to examine my (closed) cervix and got scheduled again for an ultrasound the next morning. Again, I stopped bleeding after 4 hours. The ultrasound (again) was normal. I spotted for the next several weeks.

Upon returning to Canada, I had a check-up ultrasound at the fertility clinic where I got diagnosed with a subchorionic hematoma. A subchorionic hematoma is accumulation of blood under the membranes surrounding the embryo or the placenta. Some people bleed, some people don’t.

The nurse was not concerned, mentioning that it wasn’t very big and it can cause bleeding and spotting and will eventually clear up on its own.

It did. After several more weeks of spotting, it stopped and the pregnancy continues on track. But so do my fear, panic, and anxiety.

Love,

The pregnant doula

To be continued in part 2.

Implantation Bleeding: Signs and Symptoms

If you’re trying to conceive, you’re probably hyper-aware of any little sign, symptom or out-of-the-ordinary twinge that you’ve noticed during your wait, especially if you see any bleeding before your period is due. And even if you’re not officially “trying,” the sight of any unexpected blood can still give you pause. A friend may have mentioned implantation bleeding as a possibility, but exactly what is implantation bleeding? We’re here to break down all things implantation bleeding: the truths, the myths and the need-to-knows surrounding this part of early pregnancy.

What is Implantation Bleeding?

Implantation bleeding is defined as a small amount of spotting or light bleeding that occurs anywhere from 10 to 14 days after fertilization and a few days before your next menstrual cycle. You may experience it, but likely won’t—only about one-third of all women report experiencing it. “Implantation usually has no symptoms but can be associated with [light] spotting,” explains Dr. Sarah Yamaguchi, MD, FACOG, OBGYN. “The spotting is usually just a little and lasts a few days at the most,” she adds.

Implantation bleeding occurs during the time when the fertilized egg is implanting into the uterine wall. Implantation bleeding is not a sure sign of conception, though; one study found no link between implantation and vaginal bleeding, and since spotting can occur in cycles that end in both pregnancy and not, it’s not an accurate way to tell whether you’re pregnant or not.

Implantation Bleeding Symptoms

Implantation bleeding can often be confused for a light period. The same is true for a lot of the signs and symptoms that could accompany implantation bleeding—they’re very similar to those you may experience when you have your period. But there are some specific things to keep an eye out for:

  • Light spotting/brown discharge
  • Light cramping (much less severe than a normal period)
  • Nausea
  • Sore breasts
  • Headaches
  • Mood swings

What Does Implantation Bleeding Look Like?

If symptoms of implantation are so similar to menstruation symptoms, how can you tell the difference between the two? You’re not alone if you’re finding this really confusing. There’s no real way to tell which one you’re experiencing until you take a pregnancy test later on in your cycle, but there are a few things that could distinguish implantation bleeding from menstrual blood.

  • Blood color. Although the color of your menstrual blood can vary, especially according to where you are in your cycle, it tends to be a brighter red, especially during the first few days of your period. Implantation bleeding, however, is usually light pink or dark brown in color.
  • Clots. Menstrual bleeding often contains clots, while implantation bleeding usually does not.
  • Heaviness/amount. Even though every woman’s period is different, menstrual blood is often heavier and lasts for a much longer time than implantation bleeding. A good way to visualize it is to think about how much blood it takes to fill a pad or a tampon. If there’s enough blood to do that, it’s usually your period; if you’re noticing something more like light spotting or a trace of blood when you wipe, it could be implantation bleeding.

Implantation Bleeding vs. Period

Blood color, clots and the heaviness of the bleeding you’re experiencing are all good indicators as to whether you’re dealing with implantation bleeding vs. your period. But there’s another important thing to consider: length of time you’re bleeding.

Most women’s menstrual cycles last anywhere from 3-7 days. Implantation bleeding, however, lasts anywhere from a few hours to up to three days at the most. (If it’s your first pregnancy, you may end up on the longer side of that range, while women who have already been pregnant will be on the shorter range.) So if you’re only bleeding lightly for a short time and the flow never increases, odds are you’re experiencing implantation bleeding.

When to See a Doctor

If you’re truly experiencing implantation bleeding, there’s no cause for concern. It’s normal, harmless for you and for baby, and will go away on its own. However, in some instances, there are a few reasons to reach out to your healthcare provider.

If your bleeding is not subsiding, you may be experiencing a miscarriage or an issue such as an ectopic pregnancy. It’s definitely worth a call or a visit to your doctor. And if you’re pregnant and experiencing spotting or bleeding, especially if you’re in your second trimester or third trimester, it’s also important that you speak with your healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Bottom line: it’s always better to be safe than sorry, especially when it comes to bleeding and pregnancy, so if you’re ever worried, don’t hesitate to contact your healthcare provider.

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NIHR Evidence – Imaging is the only way to diagnose blood clots in pregnancy

No blood test can accurately tell if a pregnant or recently pregnant woman has a blood clot. All pregnant women with a suspected clot should continue to have imaging investigations as per current UK guidelines.

This NIHR-funded study recruited 328 pregnant or postpartum women with a suspected blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism) or leg (deep vein thrombosis). They had a blood test to measure the levels of 13 biomarkers, such as the D-dimer, to see if they could rule a blood clot in or out. It was hoped that this could reduce the number of women who would need confirmation from a scan, and so decrease their exposure to radiation.

None of the tests were accurate enough. The range of levels for each biomarker overlapped between women with and without a clot.

Why was this study needed?

Blood clots are the leading cause of death during pregnancy and after giving birth. Between 2012 and 2014 there were 20 maternal deaths due to blood clots in the UK. There are concerns about using CT scans to diagnose pulmonary embolism in pregnant women as only 5% of scans are positive. This could mean that women and their unborn baby are unnecessarily exposed to radiation.

A blood test called D-dimer is used to rule out a blood clot in people who are not pregnant. Those who test positive are then given an appropriate scan. The accuracy of the test is unclear for pregnant women as the level of D-dimer increases throughout pregnancy. This study aimed to see if the D-dimer or other blood tests could be used as a screening tool to reduce the number of women who need a scan.

What did this study do?

The Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy (DiPEP) cohort study recruited 328 pregnant or postnatal women with a suspected blood clot from 11 hospitals in England. Most had clinically suspected pulmonary embolism while 18 had a diagnosed deep vein thrombosis. A blood sample was analysed for 13 biomarkers including D-dimer, prothrombin time, troponin and C-reactive protein.

The researchers followed women for 30 days through medical records, a questionnaire survey or the woman’s GP. The accuracy of blood tests was compared against a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis confirmed by two independent assessors. They were unaware of blood tests results and made the diagnosis by reviewing imaging results, adverse events and treatments given.

Most women had already been given the anticoagulant heparin before the blood test which may have affected the results.

What did it find?

  • Thirty-six women had a clot: 18 with diagnosed deep vein thrombosis, 18 with pulmonary embolism confirmed by imaging and five with pulmonary embolism confirmed on clinical grounds.
  • None of the biomarkers were able to accurately predict who did and did not have a clot.
  • Average levels of D-dimer tests, thrombin generation, Clauss fibrinogen and plasmin-antiplasmin were higher in women with a clot. However, the spread of levels overlapped across women with and without a clot, so some women with high levels did not have a clot. Setting a cut-off level that maximised sensitivity and ensured they missed as few cases as possible made specificity extremely poor. This meant most women without a blood clot would be wrongly indicated to have one on the basis of these tests.
  • Average levels of all other biomarkers tested did not differ between women with and without a clot.

What does current guidance say on this issue?

The 2015 Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guidelines recommend imaging for any pregnant woman who has symptoms of a pulmonary embolus or deep vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin should be started while waiting for the imaging results.

A compression ultrasound should be performed for suspected deep vein thrombosis. A chest X-Ray, ECG and either ventilation/perfusion lung scan or a CT pulmonary angiogram should be performed if pulmonary embolism is suspected.

Neither D-dimer nor any other blood test is recommended for screening purposes before imaging for pregnant women.

What are the implications?

The results of this trial do not change current guideline recommendations. However, it seems prudent that women of childbearing age who present with symptoms of a pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis have a pregnancy test as part of the initial investigations in case they are at the early stages of pregnancy.

Citation and Funding

Hunt BJ, Parmar K, Horspool K, et al. The DiPEP (Diagnosis of PE in Pregnancy) biomarker study: An observational cohort study augmented with additional cases to determine the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for suspected venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium. Br J Haematol. 2018;180(5):694-704.

This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

 

Bibliography

Knight M, Nair M, Tuffnell D, et al. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care – Surveillance of maternal deaths in the UK 2012-14 and lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009-14. MBRRACE-UK. Oxford; 2016.

RCOG. Thromboembolic Disease in Pregnancy and the Puerperium: Acute Management. Green-top Guideline No. 37b. Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. London; 2015.

Produced by the University of Southampton and Bazian on behalf of NIHR through the NIHR Dissemination Centre

 

Placental Abruption | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?

What is placental abruption?

Bleeding can happen at any time during pregnancy. Placental abruption can cause bleeding
late in pregnancy. This means after about 20 weeks.

Placental abruption is when the
placenta pulls away from where it’s attached to the uterus. The placenta has many
blood
vessels that bring the nutrients from the mother to the developing baby. If the placenta
starts to pull away during pregnancy, these blood vessels bleed. The larger the area
that pulls away, the greater the amount of bleeding.

What causes placental abruption?

A direct blow to the uterus can
cause placental abruption. For instance, this could happen during a car crash.
Healthcare providers don’t know what causes it in other cases. You may be at higher
risk
if:

  • You had a placental abruption with a previous pregnancy
  • Your water breaks before 37 weeks of pregnancy (called preterm premature rupture of
    membranes or PPROM)
  • You have high blood pressure
  • You smoke cigarettes
  • You’re pregnant with twins or more
    (multiple pregnancy)
  • You have sickle cell anemia, a disorder with abnormally shaped red blood cells­

What are the symptoms of placental abruption?

The most common symptom of placental abruption is painful, dark red bleeding from
the vagina. It happens during the third trimester of pregnancy. It also can occur
during labor. Some women may not have vaginal bleeding that can be seen, but there
may be bleeding inside the uterus. Symptoms of placental abruption may include:

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Pain in the belly (abdomen)
  • Back pain
  • Labor pains (uterine contractions)
    that don’t relax
  • Blood in the bag of water (amniotic fluid)
  • Feeling faint
  • Not feeling the baby move as much as before

These symptoms may be caused by
other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is placental abruption diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider can
diagnose placental abruption based on your symptoms. These include the amount of
bleeding and pain. You will likely need an ultrasound. This test will show where the
bleeding is. The provider will also check on your developing baby.

There are 3 grades of placental abruption: 

  • Grade
    1. 
    Small amount of vaginal bleeding and some uterine contractions. But
    no signs of fetal distress or low blood pressure in the mother.
  • Grade
    2. 
    Mild to medium amount of bleeding and uterine contractions. The
    baby’s heart rate may show signs of distress.
  • Grade 3.Medium to severe bleeding or hidden bleeding. Also uterine contractions that
    don’t relax, belly pain, low blood pressure, and the death of the baby.

Sometimes placental abruption isn’t
found until after delivery, when an area of clotted blood is found behind the
placenta.

How is placental abruption treated?

There is no treatment to stop
placental abruption or reattach the placenta. Your care depends on how much bleeding
you
have, how far along your pregnancy is, and how healthy your developing baby is. You
may
be able to have a vaginal delivery. Or you may need a cesarean section delivery if
you
have severe bleeding or if you or your baby are in danger. You may need a blood
transfusion if you lose a lot of blood.

What are possible complications of placental abruption?

Placental abruption is dangerous because of the risk of uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhage).
This can mean less oxygen and nutrients going to the developing baby. Severe placental
abruption is rare. Other complications may include:

  • Uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhage) and shock
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). This is a serious blood clotting problem.
  • Poor blood flow and damage to kidneys or brain
  • The baby dies in the uterus (stillbirth)

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call your healthcare provider about any bleeding you have while pregnant. Bleeding
during pregnancy may not be serious. If the bleeding is medium to severe, or you have
pain, contact your healthcare provider right away.

Key points about placental abruption

  • Placental abruption causes bleeding when the placenta starts to pull away too early
    from the uterus.
  • This condition is often painful.
  • If you have placental abruption, you
    may need to deliver your baby early and may need a cesarean section delivery.
  • Report any bleeding in pregnancy to your healthcare provider.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
    you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
    or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
    know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
    visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Medical Reviewer: Irina Burd MD PhD

Medical Reviewer: Donna Freeborn PhD CNM FNP

Medical Reviewer: Heather M Trevino BSN RNC

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

Not what you’re looking for?

Pregnant women can reduce their blood clot risk on flights

(Reuters Health) – Pregnant air travelers face a higher risk of blood clots, but they can reduce their risks by walking airplane aisles, drinking water and doing calf exercises, according to a new review.

For women with additional risk, doctors may recommend compression stockings and injectable blood thinners while traveling, the authors write in the Journal of Travel Medicine.

“Both pregnancy and air travel are risk factors for venous thromboembolism, or a blood clot in the legs or lungs,” said senior author Dr. Leslie Skeith of the University of Calgary, a member of the CanVECTOR Canadian thrombosis research network.

Blood clots affect about one to two per 1,000 nonpregnant people each year and are the third leading cause of vascular death after heart attacks and strokes, the authors note. With more than two billion passengers flying each year, about 150,000 cases of travel-related blood clots are diagnosed annually.

Long-distance flights tend to increase the risk by three-fold, yet travel-related studies either don’t include pregnant women or only include a small number and don’t directly investigate how pregnancy increases the risk.

“There is very little evidence to guide what pregnant and postpartum women should do to prevent blood clots while traveling,” Skeith told Reuters Health by email.

Skeith and her colleagues review the many factors that play into an individual’s risk for a blood clot, including height, weight, recent surgery, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and a family history of clots or diseases that promote clotting.

With pregnancy in particular, they write, the risk is higher because of physiological changes, such as slower blood flow and blood vessel dilation. Pelvic blood vessels may also be compressed as the uterus grows. Starting in early pregnancy, the body starts to become hypercoagulable, or more likely to form blood clots. These risks remain higher until about 12 weeks after giving birth.

Although the average pregnant or postpartum air traveler faces an increased risk of clots, the absolute risk estimate is low at less than 1%, the study found.

Pregnant women with other risk factors, such as inherited blood problems, obesity and recent surgery, may face a higher blood clot risk, however. Although the risk depends on individual factors, women with a history of blood clots tend to have a 4% higher risk while pregnant, and those with hormonal-associated blood clots tend to have a 6% higher risk while pregnant.

For most women with a history of blood clots, the risk during air travel still remains low at just over 1%. At the same time, pregnant women who face these higher risks should consider using more extensive blood clot prevention measures while traveling, such as the injectable blood thinner low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).

“It is known that LMWH prophylaxis lowers the risk of recurrent thrombosis in women with previous venous thromboembolism,” said Dr. Ida Martinelli of the University of Milan, who wasn’t involved in the study.

However, some studies show that certain blood conditions and blood thinners can lead to complications during delivery, so it’s best to consult a doctor for individual recommendations.

Skeith and colleagues are now studying whether aspirin can prevent blood clots in postpartum women with risk factors for clots. The pilot randomized trial, called PARTUM, is expected to start in 2020.

“We desperately need more research to better prevent blood clots in pregnant and postpartum women,” Skeith said. “We recommend talking to your doctor about different options.”

SOURCE: bit.ly/34YV2cm Journal of Travel Medicine, online December 11, 2019.

Miscarriage: Information and Support | Kicks Count

A miscarriage is the loss of a baby before the 24th week of pregnancy.

Miscarriage is the most common kind of pregnancy loss, affecting around one in four pregnancies.

In the UK, the miscarriage definition applies to pregnancies up to 23 weeks and 6 days, and any loss from 24 weeks is called a stillbirth.

The death of a baby at any stage of pregnancy is a deeply personal experience. Everyone is affected differently and it can be a very distressing time for parents.

What is an early miscarriage?

Most miscarriages are early miscarriages – those that happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy, also known as the first trimester. These can happen before the woman knows that she’s pregnant and some miscarriages go unreported and unnoticed.

The most common cause is thought to be a genetic problem within the developing baby, but a poorly formed placenta can also cause problems. In most cases though, the cause of an early miscarriage is unknown, which can be difficult to cope with.

It’s important to know that your miscarriage is very unlikely to have happened because of anything you did or didn’t do.

What is a late miscarriage?

A late miscarriage is one that happens after the first 3 months but before 24 weeks of pregnancy.

It can be very hard to understand why a very late loss is called a miscarriage rather than a stillbirth. This is because, from a legal point of view, a baby is thought to have a good chance of surviving if they are born alive at 24 weeks. 

This distinction can be upsetting for some women who have a late miscarriage because they may also give birth to their baby and, understandably, feel that it should be called a stillbirth.

Late miscarriages are not as common as early miscarriages and happen in 1-2% of pregnancies.

What are the signs and symptoms of miscarriage?

The most common symptom of miscarriage is vaginal bleeding, but there are other symptoms to be aware of. Sometimes there are no obvious signs at all.

Vaginal Bleeding

This varies from light spotting or brown discharge, to a heavy bleed that may be heavier than a normal period. You may pass clots or “stringy bits”.  You may also have spotting, which you notice on your underwear or when you wipe yourself.

Light bleeding before 12 weeks of pregnancy can be quite common and is not always a sign of miscarriage. Bleeding after 12 weeks is not common. But you should always contact your midwife, maternity unit or GP straight away if you have any bleeding, with or without pain, at any point in your pregnancy.

If you are bleeding, use a clean sanitary pad. Don’t use tampons, they can increase the risk of infection.

Abdominal Pain

Pain and cramping, like bleeding, can vary. Some pain and very light cramps in the stomach area in early pregnancy is not unusual. Mild stomach pain in early pregnancy is usually caused by your womb expanding, the ligaments stretching as your bump grows, hormones, constipation or trapped wind.

However, cramping and pain in your lower tummy may be caused by a miscarriage. If you have any concerns about any pains you’re having, or even if you just feel like something is wrong, contact your GP or midwife.

Lack or loss of pregnancy symptoms

This can also sometimes be a sign of miscarriage but, like pain and bleeding, that doesn’t necessarily mean there is a problem.  Some women have very little in the way of pregnancy symptoms, and many feel differently in different pregnancies.

But if you have strong pregnancy symptoms which suddenly reduce or stop well before 12 weeks of pregnancy, that might mean that hormone levels are dropping.  You may want to do another pregnancy test and/or talk to your GP about perhaps having a scan.

In some cases there are no signs at all that anything is wrong and miscarriage is diagnosed only during a routine scan. 

How is a miscarriage diagnosed?

Miscarriage is usually diagnosed or confirmed with an ultrasound. The person doing the scan needs to be absolutely certain that the baby has died or not developed and they may need more than one scan to confirm.

Having to wait can be very upsetting but it means that there is no risk of damaging an ongoing pregnancy.

In some cases, especially in later (second trimester) pregnancy, there may be no need for the miscarriage to be confirmed by scan. 

Can miscarriage be prevented?

As it’s not known why the majority of miscarriages happen, most miscarriages can’t be prevented. It’s important to remember that there’s nothing you can do that will guarantee that you won’t have a miscarriage too. However, we do know that there are some things that increase your risk of miscarriage and these changes can help.

  • not smoking
  • eating a healthy, balanced diet 
  • losing weight before pregnancy if you are overweight or obese
  • managing your weight gain if you are overweight or obese in pregnancy
  • trying to avoid certain infections during pregnancy, including rubella
  • avoiding certain foods in pregnancy
  • not drinking alcohol or using illegal drugs in pregnancy
  • staying active
  • limiting your caffeine intake before and during pregnancy.

It’s also important to go to all your antenatal appointments and any other medical appointments you are offered during pregnancy.

Where can I get more information and support?

The Miscarriage Association offers support and information to anyone affected by the loss of a baby in early pregnancy.  They also raise awareness of miscarriage and promote good practice in medical care. They provide a network of support groups and telephone contacts throughout the UK.

Helpline: 01924 200799 (Monday–Friday, from 9.00am – 4.00pm)

Email: [email protected]

Website: https://www.miscarriageassociation.org.uk/

Published:

Updated:

Author:

Lisa Newhouse

90,000 Blood clots during pregnancy. Blood clots during pregnancy

 

Distinct blood clots during pregnancy. Or frankly bloody discharge with blood clots during pregnancy, is it dangerous?

Among the many advantages of the onset of pregnancy as a physiological process itself and, of course, as a period in the life of any woman, the indisputable fact is that now, literally for nine months, you can simply forget about your period.If, of course, the pregnancy is proceeding completely normal, then there will be no night pads or pains in the lower abdomen, and for many this can really make life much easier.

However, to our great regret, a safely proceeding or normal pregnancy has recently become more an exception than a usual rule. Stress, as well as nervous tension, and living conditions, and so on ... Absolutely all of this directly affects the condition of the woman and, consequently, the condition of the developing fetus.As soon as you get worried - and that's it - the so-called daub appeared. The threat of termination of pregnancy, unfortunately, has long been not something truly out of the ordinary for anyone. Today, it may even be the other way around - it is becoming a pattern. And therefore, if you suddenly have bloody vaginal discharge, then do not hesitate and do not think too long - go straight to the doctor. And if such discharge is also with blood clots ... run faster. In general, this is not very good, it is probably understandable, this should not be at all.After all, blood clots are really bad harbingers.

Blood clots in case of a threat of miscarriage

I must say that the most indicative symptom directly with the threat of spontaneous termination of pregnancy can be profuse bleeding. In this case, as a rule, blood clots often come out of the vagina. If such spotting is bright red, then immediately try to call an ambulance.Moreover, this must be done immediately, or even better, if you have such an opportunity, immediately go to the hospital yourself, not at all waiting for the arrival of the doctors themselves.

It is also necessary to remember and know that in addition to heavy bleeding, the following symptoms may indicate a threat of miscarriage: a woman sometimes experiences colic or a sharp extreme pain in the abdomen. Also, weakness and increased body temperature are often added to this, and in addition, it also happens that sometimes profuse vomiting is also added to this.

Blood clots with hematoma

Sometimes a hematoma occurs during pregnancy - this is a condition when a woman observes a dark brown discharge. So directly with a hematoma itself, the ovum is simply detached from the wall of the uterus and blood simply collects at this very place. In such a situation, dark, and even more often smearing vaginal discharge may well be accompanied by blood clots.

However, in any case, even if the woman herself does not observe profuse bleeding, but the discharge occurs with blood clots, this is bad.In such a situation, it would be better not to delay a visit to an experienced doctor. Indeed, it is in such situations that the likelihood of spontaneous miscarriage is really extremely high, especially in the early stages of pregnancy.

Blood clots in spontaneous abortion

Of course, it's incredibly difficult to even think about it, but the so-called spontaneous miscarriages or simply abortions, alas, can happen quite often. As a rule, in such situations, women feel cramping pains, which can constantly intensify.Often in such cases, the cervix opens, and even the uterus itself begins to contract sharply, because the fetus is pushed out.

All this is usually accompanied by copious discharge of blood with frequent intersperses of blood clots and even certain fragments of tissue. This is definitely a sign that the ovum itself is exfoliating. And in such cases, a real abortion is rarely avoided. Already after the fertilization product comes out (after all, this is what they call the tissue released from the vagina in the form of numerous blood clots, from which the embryo itself was later to form), the contractions completely stop.This may indicate, first of all, that the miscarriage has already taken place. Most often, this can happen in the very first days or even weeks of pregnancy.

The greatest danger of such a spontaneous abortion may also lie in the fact that not all tissues can come out. After that, certain remnants of the ovum itself still remain directly in the uterine cavity. Therefore, it is usually considered necessary to carry out a special curettage in order to prevent the development of the most serious infections and real complications.

Blood clots during pregnancy fading

Sometimes it also happens that the fetus simply freezes in the womb. And of course, there are many real factors that may be to blame for this phenomenon. However, it is not at all necessary that the woman herself will be able to immediately find out about what happened, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, when the expectant mother still does not feel any movements. Most often, it happens that a woman learns about the tragedy literally after a few days, and sometimes even weeks after such a freezing of the embryo.So usually in this case, severe bleeding can open, accompanied, among other things, by the release of dense blood clots.

Blood clots with thrombophlebitis

I must also say that during pregnancy, a completely different kind of blood clots appear - for example, in the veins and numerous vessels. Now we will talk about such a disease as thrombophlebitis. And the point here is that the blood of a pregnant woman, as a rule, can undergo certain changes.And in particular, the composition of her blood and even the usual mechanisms of its coagulation are almost completely changing. In addition, it is during this period that the blood circulation of a pregnant woman slows down somewhat - and the tummy, which is constantly growing, presses on all blood vessels. And, of course, all this can be the most real reason for the appearance of such blood clots in the vessels. Moreover, this is the situation that can occur in 1% of all pregnant women. And therefore, if you have already encountered a similar problem before, then you simply need to inform your gynecologist about this, and immediately upon registering you.

Therefore, it will be completely unnecessary to worry strongly about this if, for example, such blood clots become visible directly on the surface of the legs or in the veins. As a rule, this does not represent too serious a danger, but it still requires adequate treatment. In such a situation, analgesics can usually be prescribed, as well as local heat, or even a bandage on the leg. In any case, you will need to see a doctor, even if you do not notice such clots close to the surface of the skin, but, for example, your legs have become pale and cold, and the usual red stripes began to be visible directly above the veins.Often in such a situation, part of the leg may swell or become soft and hot, as well as soreness in the legs.

White curdled clots for thrush

If we talk about the appearance of certain clots released directly from the vagina during the onset of pregnancy, one cannot but say that it may well be white clots, curdled or mucous. And of course, if at the same time they definitely have a cheesy loose consistency and an extremely characteristic sour smell - you can be sure that you have thrush.As a rule, in such cases, a sensation of severe itching may also appear, and sometimes women even notice a strong burning sensation in the vagina.

Quite often, during the bearing of a future baby, candidiasis powerfully attacks the somewhat weakened body of a woman. And besides, this disease can manifest itself at any time of pregnancy, literally in any of the trimesters. Sometimes candidiasis can appear literally from the very first days and, due to the complexity of its treatment, it may not disappear until the very last day of the term.Without fail, it would be necessary to be cured before the onset of childbirth. At the same time, remember that you will always need to wear only natural underwear, as well as traditional medicine advises to lubricate the vagina with plain kefir. In addition, you should not use soap for intimate hygiene at all - just wash yourself with a mild baking soda solution.

And the last thing that is definitely worth remembering, no matter what the prominent clots you have, you should always find out the real reason for their appearance.And after that, you will need to do absolutely everything possible that will be required in your specific situation in order to infect the baby. And may your pregnancy never be overshadowed by the slightest trouble!

3rd week of pregnancy – Clinic Health 365, Yekaterinburg

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3 weeks pregnant

As a child grows:

What happens in the womb in the third week of pregnancy? Lot.Your baby is still just a tiny “ball” consisting of several hundred cells, the number of which is multiplying at an insane rate. As soon as the “ball” of cells (these cells are called blastocysts) is located in the uterus, its part, from which the placenta will develop in the future, begins to produce the pregnancy hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin). HCG “instructs” the ovaries to stop producing eggs, and also provides the synthesis of progesterone and estrogen necessary to maintain pregnancy.HCG stimulates the growth of the placenta, maintains the existence of the corpus luteum until the fetus-placenta complex acquires the ability to independently form the necessary hormonal background.

hCG is an early pregnancy test. At 1-2 weeks, it reaches values ​​of 25 – 300 mU / ml, and at 3-4 weeks, 1500 – 5000 mU / ml (in non-pregnant women, hCG <5 mU / ml).

Meanwhile, amniotic fluid begins to collect around the blastocyte cluster, forming the fetal bladder.In the third week of pregnancy, your little baby receives oxygen and nutrients (and removes waste) through primitive circulation systems that connect the developing baby to the blood vessels in the uterine wall. The placenta is not yet developed enough to take on this task until the end of next week.

Inside the womb – implantation

Note: The development of each baby in the womb may differ slightly.Our information gives you an overview of your baby’s development.

How your life is changing:

The meeting of the sperm and the egg inside you has taken place. A few days after conception, the fertilized egg was implanted in the uterus and began to grow. The child is already growing! Many women, in their third week, do not yet know they are pregnant, but may notice minor spotting before the end of the week.This is the so-called “implantation discharge”, which is caused by the implantation of an egg into the uterus. The discharge is very scarce and few pregnant women notice it.

Surprising Facts: Early Pregnancy Symptoms.

Some women feel pregnant even before the test is positive. Earliest indications include:

  • Breast swelling. Many women say that the sensitivity of the mammary glands changes.
  • Feeling tired. Fatigue can be as pronounced as if you were running a marathon. Fatigue is caused by elevated levels of progesterone and other hormones needed for a child’s development.
  • Frequent urination. You may suddenly become aware that you are using the toilet with an alarming frequency.
  • Heightened sense of smell. Many pregnant women cannot tolerate certain odors during early pregnancy.A heightened sense of smell is a side effect of a rapid rise in the level of estrogen in your blood.
  • Aversion to certain foods. It occurs even more often than cravings for certain foods during pregnancy. You may suddenly find that certain foods, even your favorite foods, disgust you.
  • Nausea or vomiting in the morning usually does not occur this early, but some women experience nausea as early as the third week.
  • Your basal body temperature remains high. If it remains elevated after you ovulate on schedule, you are probably pregnant.
  • Bleeding or spotting. Some women notice a small amount of red discharge (spots) that can be pink or reddish brown. If you have bleeding pain or bleeding, see your doctor immediately, as this could be a sign of an ectopic pregnancy.

As tempting as it is, take your time using a home pregnancy test. The overwhelming majority of them do not work correctly during these periods.

Things to do this week of pregnancy:

1. Buy a pregnancy test in case your period won’t come next week.

90,000 to be or not to be. – Family Clinic

Pregnancy for a woman is a special period when she wants to feel not only a future mother, but also to remain an object of desire for her man.But with men, not everything is so simple. Some of them will gladly take the opportunity to please their beloved, while others will fight back, assuming that sex can only do harm. Therefore, the article will be useful for future fathers as well.

Not so long ago, doctors warned their patients that sexual rest is necessary in the first and last trimesters. Experience shows that such restrictions are not supported by anything. Today, most experts believe that sex, even in late pregnancy, with its normal course, is not prohibited.For some women, the gynecologist even strongly advises to urge her husband to have an active sex life in the period before childbirth.

Benefits of having sex during pregnancy:

  • During sex, endorphins are produced – hormones of happiness. Through the blood, they are transmitted to the fetus, having a beneficial effect.

  • With intimacy, muscle fibers contract, thereby the uterus trains in preparation for childbirth.

  • The seminal fluid contains prostaglandins, which contribute to the “maturation” of the cervix before childbirth.

  • During intercourse, the blood supply to the pelvic organs is activated, and the baby’s nutrition is improved.

  • The psychological state of both parents will be much better if their usual life does not change for the worse.The desired woman will be calm about the relationship, and the man will not think to make a connection on the side. You can try new sex positions that will be a way for spouses to get vivid emotions.

Negative effects of intimacy:

  • If a woman has had miscarriages, sex can provoke an increase in uterine tone and abortion.

  • With isthmic-cervical insufficiency, the cervix is ​​shortened, and the internal pharynx opens slightly.Sex can cause progressive cervical shortening and lead to miscarriage or premature birth.

  • Placenta previa is a good reason to refuse intimacy, because The placenta is very low in the uterus, and during sex it can detach with bleeding. In this case, there is a direct threat to the life of the mother and baby.

  • The presence of sexually transmitted infections in any of the partners with unprotected intercourse can provoke infection of the amniotic fluid and infection of the baby.

  • With too frequent sexual activity without a condom, microflora disturbance and the development of thrush are possible. The fact is that sperm has an alkaline pH and, when it enters the vagina, reduces the acidity of the vaginal secretion, which promotes the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

When is it recommended to refrain from intimacy:

  • Placenta previa

  • The presence of sexually transmitted diseases in the active phase in one or both parents (syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydial infection, etc.).If HIV infection is detected in a future father, a pregnant woman is advised to refrain from unprotected sexual intercourse while carrying a pregnancy.

  • Acute inflammation of the genitals in one or both partners (it is recommended to give up sex before and during sanitation).

  • Symptoms indicating the threat of termination of pregnancy: spotting from the genital tract, pain in the lower abdomen, increased uterine tone, etc.

  • History of recurrent miscarriage or premature birth.
  • If the pregnancy is multiple, resting is recommended after 28 weeks to avoid premature birth.
  • Leakage of amniotic fluid. If you suspect water leakage, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Features of intimacy during pregnancy

With deep penetration after sex, bloody discharge from the genital tract may appear due to trauma by the penis of the fragile epithelium on the surface of the cervix.But also spotting can be a sign of the onset of placental abruption and premature birth. Therefore, you should immediately consult a doctor!

Do not use toys from a sex shop, as you can injure the vaginal mucosa, which will lead to inflammation. This is especially true for vibrators. Mechanical vibrations can cause excessive contractions of the uterus and the threat of miscarriage / premature birth.

Pregnancy is not a contraindication for cunnilingus.It is important that the man does not have fresh herpes sores or other infection on his lips. But anal sex should be postponed – it can provoke the development of hemorrhoids and the appearance of anal fissures, which can already begin to bother the expectant mother.

Active nipple stimulation can lead to a risk of miscarriage / premature birth. This is due to the reflex production of oxytocin, a hormone that contracts the uterus.

Many caring dads are afraid to harm the child or leave such an introduction into his space in the fetus’s memory.This myth is very common, but absolutely groundless. The child cannot remember anything and will not experience unpleasant sensations. And light swaying will not be able to harm in any way.

What poses should be abandoned

She is only one – missionary. It is during sex in this position that a woman may experience discomfort due to pressure on her stomach. Even if the term is still very short, it is better to exclude such a situation.

Also, in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, we refuse all positions in which the woman lies on her back.Because in the supine position, the future may experience difficulty breathing, dizziness, lack of air, weakness. Blood pressure decreases and in some cases even collapse with fainting occurs. This is due to the fact that the enlarged uterus compresses the inferior vena cava.

Allowed positions are those positions in which there is no deep penetration and there is no pressure on the abdomen:

1. Pose “On the side”. It is very convenient for women in the third trimester of pregnancy, becausebecause with it, pressure on the abdomen is completely excluded. All of your erogenous zones are available to your partner, so with this position you can get maximum pleasure.

2. Pose “Behind”. You are on all fours and your partner is behind. This position is shown to pregnant women until delivery, because with it there is no pressure on the abdomen, and, importantly, on the chest.

3. “Rider”. The partner lies on his back, and you sit on top of him, facing or with your back. This position will be convenient because you are more free in movement and can control the depth of penetration yourself.

4. Pose “Face to face”. You sit opposite each other, your legs gripping your partner’s hips. The pose is very comfortable until mid-pregnancy. With her, partners can not only see each other, but also hug, kiss, massage, etc. in the last stages, this position is also suitable only if the woman rests on her hands, placing them behind her.

5. Pose “reclining”. In a reclining position, you sit on the sofa (bed) so that your feet remain on the floor.Your partner is kneeling between your legs. This position is considered the safest, because the woman is not physically tense, her belly and breasts are safe.

6. Pose “Sitting on a chair.” The partner sits on a chair, and you are on his knees with your back to the man. The pose requires effort from you, because only you will have to move. Although a man can help a pregnant woman by lifting her waist or buttocks. This position is most convenient in the first trimester of pregnancy.

7.Standing Behind Pose In the bathroom, kitchen, or other area where there is good support. The man enters from behind, and the pressure on the abdomen is completely eliminated.

There is nothing more important in this special period so that future parents happily anticipate the birth of a baby and do not forget to pay attention to each other. It is during pregnancy that a woman can enjoy unique sensations, and a man can provide his beloved with physical and moral satisfaction.

In our center we conduct
pregnancy is carried out according to individual programs in accordance with
by order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated 01.11.2012 No. 572n “On approval
the procedure for rendering medical care in the field of obstetrics and gynecology “.
Favorable prices, convenient form of payment for terms. 90,000 Clots and tissue in miscarriage – what is it? Photo by week

The fact of a miscarriage can cause great injury. But monitoring the spontaneous abortion process itself can be even more difficult. A miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is defined as the loss of a child before 24 weeks, although this period is sometimes shortened to 20 weeks.About 50% of pregnancies end in miscarriage, but very early in pregnancy, women often do not even know they were already pregnant and did not experience any symptoms. Among clinically confirmed pregnancies, this figure is about 15-20%.

Images of the clots can help prepare for what is happening if you have been told that you are likely to lose your child. This article will also help prepare you for what to expect when you have a miscarriage.

Bleeding during pregnancy

Before looking at some of the photographs, it is important to discuss bleeding during pregnancy.
Every fourth woman notices bleeding at an early stage. But bleeding is common in the first 12 weeks and is generally not something to worry about. If the bleeding decreases and goes away in 1-2 days, then it does not indicate a miscarriage. Most often, pregnancy continues and a healthy baby is born.

However, some types of bleeding can be a sign of something more serious, especially if they are heavy or with cramps.Find out what it looks like and how long the bleeding lasts during a miscarriage.

Bleeding may be red, like during menstruation, or light brown in color. Early bleeding is usually normal and is often a sign that an egg has been implanted into the uterus (implantation bleeding). This usually happens around the estimated date of your period and then stops after a few days.

Exiting clots and tissues during miscarriage by week of pregnancy

Pregnancy can be terminated at any stage, but more often it occurs in the first weeks.At an earlier date, during a miscarriage, only blood and clots can be seen, but if a miscarriage occurs after 8 weeks, then there is a possibility of detecting more dense tissues, a sac with an embryo and even a formed fetus.

Please keep in mind that these photographs are only examples, intended to give you a general idea and to help you get ready. They do not mean that the embryo or fetus will come out in such a preserved form.

If you are less than 8 weeks pregnant, clots, cramps and bleeding will usually not even differ from a heavy period (period).At a more difficult period, in addition to clots, you may notice parts of a denser tissue that is placental or other products of conception. Also, you may or may not see tissue that looks like an embryo or fetus.

4 – 5 weeks

During a miscarriage at 4 weeks gestation with bleeding with blood clots, you may notice some white or gray tissue among them. At this stage of pregnancy, you will not see the embryo itself at all during a miscarriage, since it is less than ½ cm long or the size of a grain of rice.

6 weeks

You may have bleeding, clots and sometimes a small sac of fluid, a very small embryo about the size of a pea, and an attached placenta. Some women even found the umbilical cord, but at six weeks it is still very difficult to see something.

7 – 8 weeks

For miscarriage around eight weeks of gestation, many women describe the tissue as “liver”. The clots and placenta are dark red and very shiny.You can find the sac and the embryo in the baby will almost look like a “bean”. You can even understand that his eyes are closed, and consider the rudiments of arms and legs.

10 weeks

In a spontaneous abortion, which occurs at ten weeks, the clots are dark red and jelly-like. Among them, you may notice tissue that looks like a film that will be part of the placenta. If you separate the clots, you will most likely find the yolk sac and see the formed fruit inside the liquid.He now looks more like a child with fully formed arms, legs, toes.

12 weeks

A child can come out in a bag with fluid (fetal egg), but often at this time the membrane is damaged, and the fetal fluid comes out on its own. You may notice that after the blood clots, the baby with the umbilical cord has not yet come out and is inside you. Then the placenta is expelled. At this stage of pregnancy, you can even tell if your baby was a girl or a boy.

16 – 20 weeks

During the period from the sixteenth to the twentieth week, very large clots can be observed that look like a “raw liver”.They can also be around the baby. In addition, you can observe pieces of fabric that resemble a film. During this time, you may notice that water is leaking from your vagina. At about twenty weeks, the baby is fully formed, about the size of an arm.

What to do if you suspect a miscarriage

If you notice clotted bleeding, place a sanitary napkin on your underwear. If you need more than two pads per hour, or if you experience severe cramps, see your doctor or ambulance immediately.
The doctor will look at the cervix to see if it is open. Your blood will be taken for an analysis of your hCG level to find out when you are pregnant, and then re-tested to see if the level is rising or falling. If it grows, your pregnancy is likely to progress, but if it decreases, a miscarriage occurs. You will likely have an ultrasound scan to check your heartbeat and make sure it is not an ectopic pregnancy.
If you are at risk of miscarriage, your doctor may prescribe certain treatments if that makes sense.You will most likely be sent home and asked to rest, although the benefits of bed rest have not been proven. If the bleeding stops and you have symptoms of pregnancy, it often develops further. If the symptoms of pregnancy suddenly disappear, with severe spasms and clotting begin, then the doctor will give the opportunity for a miscarriage to occur at home. If this is not your first miscarriage, your doctor may suggest that you bring clots and tissue for examination.

Experience of other women

Taken from a foreign women’s forum on pregnancy:

I am 10 weeks pregnant and 2 days ago I went for an ultrasound scan because a little blood came out.They said my baby died at 8 weeks and 5 days. I decided not to have an operation to remove the baby, but to wait for a natural miscarriage. The thought of what I can see scares me, but can I really say that the baby came out? I had a miscarriage 7 years ago, and I was 6 weeks pregnant, when it came out, it looked like a blood clot. I’m so upset that I still had a miscarriage, and I get worse from panic every time I go to the toilet when I see something.

SallyJW

“After eight weeks, my pregnancy symptoms just disappeared overnight.Then I started to bleed, so I called the doctor. He told me to rest, but I got really bad spasms and came out with quite large clots. Then the bleeding suddenly stopped. I knew I had a miscarriage and my period returned after about 6 weeks. I was able to conceive a child again and the next pregnancy was successful. ”

Caitlin

“At about 7 weeks, I started bleeding, and then I saw two pieces of white rubbery tissue about a centimeter in size.They reminded me of a small piece of raw chicken. Then a clot came out about five centimeters long and nothing else. ”

Julia

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Hirudotherapy (treatment with leeches)

Hirudotherapy – leech therapy. Not any leech taken from a pond can be used in medicine, but only a special kind – pharmacy.

It is grown on special leech biofactories (farms). In Russia, the pharmacy leech is even registered as a medicine and is widely used by hirudotherapists.

Leech has been used in medicine for a very long time, but still the modern approach to this method is significantly different, even from the 19th century. Then it was believed that leeches “draw out bad blood”, now the therapeutic effect is associated with special substances that the small worm secretes while sucking in the wound.

There are dozens of useful substances secreted by the leech, but very little has been studied. The leech uses them so that during sucking the blood in the wound does not curdle, but flows freely.But at the same time, they enter the general bloodstream of the body and have an effect on the entire circulatory system.

The complex action of the leech is much wider than each of its substances taken separately. Main effects:

– anticoagulant – reduces the viscosity and blood clotting;

– anti-inflammatory – reduces inflammation;

– restores microcirculation – tissue nutrition through capillaries;

– decongestant – reduces edema due to the outflow of blood;

– pain reliever – reduces pain at the site of the bite and distantly;

– immunostimulating – improves the functioning of the immune system.

The consequences of bleeding from the wound also inevitably affects: redistribution of blood, its outflow from stagnant areas, resorption of blood clots.

What diseases can be treated with a leech

Diseases associated with increased blood clotting and viscosity, blood congestion, and deterioration of microcirculation respond well to leeches.

Firstly, these are thrombosis and thrombophlebitis (except for the acute stage), varicose veins, hemorrhoids. Then – chronic inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis – prostatitis in men, uterine fibroids and endometritis in women.Coronary heart disease, hypertension, arthrosis and even some types of female infertility are also treatable.

Contraindications to hirudotherapy are all types of anemia (low hemoglobin), hemophilia and any types of poor blood clotting, cancer in the stage of metastasis, severely low blood pressure, acute infections and allergy to leeches.

Hirudotherapy during pregnancy

During pregnancy, leeches can be treated only in the first trimester, in the second and third it can be dangerous.The fact is that normally expectant mothers experience significant blood thinning by the middle of the term, and if you add the leech effect to this, the coagulability will drop completely, and will most likely cause problems in the baby, up to miscarriage or premature birth.

A completely different situation at the beginning of pregnancy, when hirudotherapy, on the contrary, is able to prevent miscarriage. One of the fairly common reasons for early termination of pregnancy is a hereditary tendency to thrombosis, and this is where the leech will help.Several sessions after conception will prevent excessive blood clotting, which prevents the embryo from taking root and growing.

Preparation for pregnancy with leeches

Since leeches have a general regulating effect on the human body, improve immunity, they are very useful for planning pregnancy, both for men and women.

Several sessions of hirudotherapy will help to cope with blood congestion in the small pelvis, in men – to improve the function of the prostate gland and its secretion, in women – to normalize the ovaries and relieve inflammation of the pelvic organs.After such a preventive course, the health of future parents improves and conception is greatly facilitated.

Leeches and infertility

Many forms of infertility can be treated with leeches. First of all, this is infertility associated with inflammatory processes in the small pelvis: adnexitis, endometritis, inflammation after abortions and operations, adhesive disease, etc. Even the possibility of treatment with leeches of polycystic ovary syndrome has been revealed.

If infertility is severe, and the woman has chosen IVF, in this case leeches can help to pass the protocol more easily, get high-quality eggs, increase the chances of embryo engraftment.In any case, treatment with a hirudotherapist must be coordinated with your attending gynecologist.

At session

If you are going to a session for the first time, it is a good idea to take a blood test for hemoglobin and coagulability with you – this will make life easier for the doctor. In addition, there are several rules that are recommended to be followed before and after treatment with leeches:

– Before the session, you must not use perfumes, scented creams, cologne and eau de toilette. Any foreign smell will scare off the leech and it will not stick;

– after the session, you cannot engage in physical labor, it is best to go to bed right away.Therefore, plan your treatment for the afternoon;

– a significant amount of blood can leak from the wound, so your attire should be appropriate for this circumstance. Do not wear light and revealing clothes. In addition, keep in mind that in the places where the leeches are attached, you will be bandaged, take something to cover it from prying eyes.

A session lasts from 20 minutes to an hour, depending on the prefix method and the density of your blood. The thicker the blood, the more difficult it is for the leech to suck it.The frequency of sessions usually does not exceed 1 – 2 times a week, and their number can be from 5 – 10 or more.

The places for the attachment of leeches are chosen by the doctor depending on your disease and condition. Be prepared for the most unexpected turn: for example, for the treatment of infertility, one of the places where leeches are attached is on the perineum and the upper vaginal fornix. They are also placed on the stomach, lower back, sacrum, shoulders, behind the ears and in other places.

After being sucked, the leeches fall off on their own after about 30 – 60 minutes, if the doctor does not decide to remove them earlier.During this time, they manage to drink from 5 to 15 ml of blood, but the main bleeding will be after – from the wound. The bite sites will be covered with absorbent wipes or regular pads, and then with a waterproof layer and adhesive tape.

The average time of bleeding from a wound is from 6 to 12 hours, sometimes up to a day. During this time, up to 50 ml of blood can flow out, but usually less. To reduce blood loss, the dressing should not be changed earlier than 12 hours. If it gets wet, you need to apply an additional layer of cotton wool on top and bandage it again.

In some cases, the doctor wants to get more profuse bleeding, for example, with high blood viscosity. Then he recommends removing the old bandage in the evening and sticking a new one.

Pain from bites is comparable to mosquitoes, only a little longer. In the first days after the session, the wounds are not felt and look like brown dots on the skin. But on the 4th – 5th day, they swell and begin to itch a lot. This is called a “prefix reaction” and is completely normal and does not indicate any abnormalities or allergies.It is undesirable to scratch the wounds, it is better to anoint them with any insect bite remedy or just alcohol and endure.

Registration by phone: 204-2-700 The friendly staff of the call center will always help to resolve any issue, prompt the right specialist, and select a convenient time for you to visit.

Requirements for the intake of biomaterial

25 November 2019

Requirements for the intake of biomaterial

Interdistrict Centralized Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory of the Nikolaev hospital pays special attention to the quality of the studies performed .

Some preanalytical factors (the used anticoagulant and the ratio of the volume of the anticoagulant to the biomaterial, the properties of the sample (hemolysis, chylez, blood clots), the duration of transportation and storage of the biomaterial, etc.) can have a pronounced effect on the results of laboratory tests. Therefore, before performing research, laboratory staff carefully monitor the state of biomaterial samples.

We are responsible for the reliable result of laboratory tests.In some cases, if the biomaterial is inadequate, the study is not carried out, the following reasons will be indicated in the form of results in the Comment column:

  • Clot found in biomaterial! Please repeat taking the biomaterial!
  • Hemolysis! Please repeat taking the biomaterial!
  • Pronounced chilez! Please repeat the sampling of the biomaterial, strictly observing the preanalytical rules!
  • Excessive blood volume collected! Please repeat taking the biomaterial!
  • Insufficient blood volume collected! Please repeat taking the biomaterial!
  • The conditions of storage and transportation of biomaterial are violated.Please repeat taking the biomaterial!
  • The permissible transport time has been exceeded! Please repeat taking biomaterial

The following documents are required for taking tests:

  1. Passport.
  2. Medical policy.
  3. Referral from a doctor at any polyclinic in St. Petersburg.

Preparing for testing

Blood test (biochemical, clinical): blood for laboratory tests is given in the morning on an empty stomach.In the morning after waking up, you must refrain from smoking. The day before the study – stop drinking alcohol.

Cholesterol and lipoproteins: fasting should be started 12 hours before the study. A cholesterol-free diet should be followed for three days prior to the study.

Uric acid: To accurately determine the level of uric acid, you need to limit the intake of meat, fish, coffee and tea in the diet. For three days before the study, stop eating foods rich in purines (liver, kidneys).

General urine analysis: on the eve of the test, it is recommended not to eat vegetables and fruits that can change the color of urine (beets, carrots, etc.), not to take diuretics. Before collecting urine, a genital hygienic toilet should be performed. Women are advised not to have a urine test during their period. The urine is collected in a dry, clean container while urinating freely, including the initial (first) portion.
!!! For the Nechiporenko sample, an average portion of urine is collected.

Research on hormones: blood for sex hormones for women is donated strictly according to the days of the menstrual cycle:
– LH, FSH – 3-5 days from the beginning of the cycle;
– estradiol – 3-5 or 20-23 days of the cycle;
– progesterone – 20-23 days of the cycle;
– DHEA sulfate, testosterone, prolactin, 17-OH-progesterone do not depend on the day of the cycle.

Before donating blood for stress hormones (ACTH, cortisol), it is imperative to calm down, relax, since any stress causes an unmotivated release of these hormones into the blood.

3 days before the test of testosterone in men, it is necessary to exclude taking medications that increase potency (Viagra, etc.).

Parasitological analysis of feces: collected with a spoon in one bowel movement in a special plastic container. During the period of menstruation in women, it is recommended to postpone the receipt of the biomaterial. Do not collect faeces after enemas.

Analysis of feces for occult blood: the purpose of the study is to diagnose latent bleeding, therefore, in the 3 days preceding the analysis, the patient is prohibited from eating foods that include meat, fish, green vegetables and medicines.

Operating mode of the Biomaterial collection point:
Daily from 08.00 to 14.30
Saturday from 09.00 to 12.00
Sunday – closed
Phone: 409-75-54
Address: Peterhof, St. Petersburg pr., 20, lit. B.

90,000 Small clot during pregnancy – 46 doctors’ answers to the question on the site Ask a Doctor

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Good day! If the discharge was scanty and more brownish, do not worry.Observe further, whether the discharge intensifies or this will not happen again. If scarlet spotting begins, you need to start taking duphaston and tranexam. Tell me if you have erosion on the cervix? Are there pains in the lower abdomen?

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, the discharge was small, scanty, there is no pain only if the lower back pulls, an hour before that she lifted the meat grinder and dragged it.

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

You shouldn’t worry, it may be a one-off discharge.But I strongly discourage you from lifting weights, especially to insert your fingers into the vagina. Thus, you can disrupt the microflora of the vagina, you can damage the mucous membranes. Now monitor the condition, if there is bleeding, take the above drugs. Duphaston 1 tab 3 times a day, tranexam 500 mg 1 tab 3 times a day. To be sure that everything is developing as it should, you can take a blood test for hCG twice with an interval of 48 hours, and evaluate the increase. As a rule, the indicators of the second result exceed the indicators of the first by 2-3 times – this is the norm!

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, can you only take hCG on an empty stomach? and when do you have to go get registered? I realized that I had late ovulation and I got pregnant into it.

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

HCG is given on an empty stomach, that’s right! It is still better to register for pregnancy when visualizing the embryo in the ovum and registering the heartbeat.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, of course, thanks, as I understand it, I probably had late ovulation, because of this, the embryo is not visible?

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Yes, against the background of late ovulation, the dates are postponed.According to the protocols that you attached, everything is normal. Control the ultrasound and take HCG. Be healthy and grow up with joy!

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, when can I go to the doctor to get registered? when will I control everything myself?

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

As soon as the ultrasound scan describes the size of the embryo and fixes the heartbeat, you can safely register.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, good evening! Brown discharge started, not bloody, but brown if you rub it with toilet paper

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Start taking duphaston at once 4 tabs once, then 1 tab 3 times a day.If the discharge intensifies, add tranexam at a dose of 500 mg, 1 tablet 3 times a day.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, why do you need dyufaston, it won’t hurt?

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Dofaston maintains pregnancy and relieves threat symptoms. It won’t hurt in any way, don’t worry.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, good.Thank you.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, I have just talked to you, the discharge is over, do you still have to run to buy and have a drink just in case?

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, I have just talked to you, the discharge is over, do you still have to run to buy and have a drink just in case?

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Yes, it is advisable to start drinking.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Marina, I wanted to ask if it can’t be that I have a negative Rh and my husband is Rh positive because of this discharge …

Maria, 27 October

Client

Marina, when to stop drinking dyufostan? now there is no discharge

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Hello! You will be monitored for Rh antibodies from 14-16 weeks.there should be no conflict now. Duphaston will be canceled by the antenatal clinic doctor. If I were you, I would continue to drink it at least until the heartbeat is registered.

Maria, 27 October

Client

Marina, I want to go get tested for hCG, but don’t I need progesterone?

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

There is no point in checking progesterone. During the day, it can change, both rise and fall. The most important thing is to determine the level of hCG, and subsequently to control its growth.As soon as you see numbers over 1000, you can make an ultrasound – as a rule, these numbers determine the ovum in the uterine cavity.

Maria, 27 October

Client

Marina, the result is hCG 19 670.00

Gynecologist, Reproductologist

Hello! Great results! Do the ultrasound control in a week.

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Pediatric Gynecologist

Hello! Please tell me the day before there was no intercourse? the stomach does not hurt or pulls? no more discharge? Couldn’t hurt the mucous membrane with your fingernail?

Maria, 26 October

Client

Svetlana, there is no discharge in the form of a clot, but if you crawl deeply with toilet paper, there is a little blood, as if mixed with water is barely visible.

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Pediatric Gynecologist

Hello. Is there no erosion on the cervix? Pain in the lower abdomen?

Maria, 26 October

Client

Valeria, erosion was never set

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Pediatric Gynecologist

The clot came out after an ultrasound scan?

Maria, 26 October

Client

Valeria, I did an ultrasound scan on Sunday and now it’s Tuesday, no

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Pediatric Gynecologist

See, during pregnancy, the cervix becomes softer and well-supplied with blood.Any trauma to her could lead to the fact that the vessel could burst and slightly undercut. Therefore, such discharge could appear.
Now it is necessary to trace whether they will appear again – and then this will mean the threat of termination of pregnancy. Or it was only one time. It is also worth redoing the ultrasound in 5-7 days to see the fetal heartbeat

Maria, 26 October

Client

Valeria, as far as I understand, if I see a heartbeat and hCG will be in the room, I can go to get registered?

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Pediatric Gynecologist

That’s right 👍🏻

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Pediatric Gynecologist

Hello! I recommend that you donate blood for HCG twice with an interval of 48 hours, the growth in normal uterine pregnancy is 2 times.
Observe the discharge, if there is no discharge, then there is nothing terrible.

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Ultrasound doctor

Good afternoon.
It is not yet clear whether the pregnancy is progressing or not, as the embryo is not clearly visible.
First of all, it is necessary to track hCG over time.

Obstetrician, Gynecologist

Hello Maria. For pm 11.09. SVD is small, does not correspond to the period of delay. Late ovulation can be assumed.But, in any case, it is necessary to perform 2 stages of diagnosis:
– the level of hCG 2 times with a difference of 48 hours
– ultrasound in dynamics in a week.
Write on the results.

Maria, 26 October

Client

Julia, on October 14, she passed hCG and he showed 318 Honey / ml does this mean late ovulation?

Obstetrician, Gynecologist

Marina, one analysis alone will tell you nothing, except that there is a pregnancy. Please hand over tomorrow and Friday.
Write on the results!

Maria, 26 October

Client

Julia, okay, I’ll do

Obstetrician, Gynecologist

Maria, I’ll wait!

Maria, 27 October

Client

Julia, the result is hCG 19670.00

Obstetrician, Gynecologist

Okay, we are waiting for the results on Friday.

Gynecologist

Good afternoon, Maria! Now you do not need to do anything, the time is short, just observe the discharge, if the discharge is more abundant than menstruation, a re-examination is necessary.

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Ultrasound doctor

Hello. Do not be afraid. This is most likely a small detachment. Put papaverine rectally for 2 rubles a day for 7 days, magnesium in 6 forte 2 rubles a day for the entire pregnancy and Duphaston 10 mg for 2 rubles a day until 16 weeks. Withdraw gradually if necessary

Maria, 27 October

Client

Asiet, I just have magnesium B6, if how much should I drink a day?

Obstetrician, Gynecologist, Ultrasound doctor

.