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Poop by color: Stool Color Chart, Meaning, Texture Changes, Size & Unhealthy

Digestive Disorders: Worst Foods for Digestion

Fried Foods

They’re high in fat and can bring on diarrhea. Rich sauces, fatty cuts of meat, and buttery or creamy desserts can cause problems, too.

Choose roasted or baked foods and light sauces that feature vegetables instead of butter or cream.

Citrus Fruits

Because they’re high in fiber, they can give some folks an upset stomach. Go easy on oranges, grapefruit, and other citrus fruits if your belly doesn’t feel right.

Artificial Sugar

Chew too much sugar-free gum made with sorbitol and you might get cramps and diarrhea. Food made with this artificial sweetener can cause the same problems.

The FDA warns that you might get diarrhea if you eat 50 or more grams a day of sorbitol, though even much lower amounts reportedly cause trouble for some people.

Too Much Fiber

Foods high in this healthy carb, like whole grains and vegetables, are good for digestion. But if you start eating lots of them, your digestive system may have trouble adjusting. The result: gas and bloating. So step up the amount of fiber you eat gradually.


They’re loaded with healthy protein and fiber, but they also have hard-to-digest sugars that cause gas and cramping. Your body doesn’t have enzymes that can break them down. Bacteria in your gut do the work instead, giving off gas in the process.

Try this tip to get rid of some of the troublesome sugars: Soak dried beans for at least 4 hours and pour off the water before cooking.

Cabbage and Its Cousins

Cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli and cabbage, have the same sugars that make beans gassy. Their high fiber can also make them hard to digest. It will be easier on your stomach if you cook them instead of eating raw.


Foods sweetened with this — including sodas, candy, fruit juice, and pastries — are hard for some people to digest. That can lead to diarrhea, bloating, and cramps.

Spicy Foods

Some people get indigestion or heartburn after eating them, especially when it’s a large meal.

Studies suggest the hot ingredient in chili peppers, called capsaicin, may be a culprit.

Dairy Products

If they trigger diarrhea, bloating, and gas, you may be “lactose intolerant.” It means you don’t have an enzyme that digests a sugar in milk and other forms of dairy.

Avoid those foods or try an over-the-counter drop or pill that has the missing enzyme.


It can relax the muscle at the top of the stomach, which lets food move back into your esophagus. That can cause heartburn. Other culprits include chocolate or coffee.

Experts say you can lower the pressure that pushes the food back up if you lose extra weight, eat smaller portions, and don’t lie down after eating.

Also, learn what foods give you problems, so you can avoid them.

Appearance, color, and what is normal

Poop, also known as stool or feces, is a normal part of the digestive process. Poop consists of waste products that are being eliminated from the body. It may include undigested food particles, bacteria, salts, and other substances.

Sometimes, poop can vary in its color, texture, amount, and odor. These differences can be worrying, but usually, these changes are not significant and will resolve in a day or two. Other times, however, changes in poop indicate a more serious condition.

Keep reading to discover more about the different types of poop, including what is and is not normal.

Fast facts on types of poop:

  • Poop can come in different shapes, colors, and smells.
  • A person should pass a normal, healthy poop easily and with minimal strain.
  • Anyone who has blood in their stool should seek urgent medical attention.

Normal poop is generally:

  • Medium to dark brown: This is because it contains a pigment called bilirubin, which forms when red blood cells break down.
  • Strong-smelling: Bacteria in excrement emit gases that contain the unpleasant odor associated with poop.
  • Pain-free to pass: A healthy bowel movement should be painless and require minimal strain.
  • Soft to firm in texture: Poop that is passed in one single piece or a few smaller pieces is typically considered to be a sign of a healthy bowel. The long, sausage-like shape of poop is due to the shape of the intestines.
  • Passed once or twice daily: Most people pass stool once a day, although others may poop every other day or up to three times daily. At a minimum, a person should pass stool three times a week.
  • Consistent in its characteristics: A healthy poop varies from person to person. However, a person should monitor any changes in the smell, firmness, frequency, or color of poop as it can indicate there is a problem.

Image credit: Kylet, 2011.

Devised by doctors in the Bristol Royal Infirmary, England, and based on the bowel movements of nearly 2,000 people, the Bristol stool chart characterizes the different types of poop as shown above.

Types 1 and 2 indicate constipation, types 3 and 4 are considered healthy stool, while types 5 to 7 suggest diarrhea and urgency.

While brown poop is considered the “normal” color of poop, some greenish-brown hues may also be acceptable.

Poop can be other colors too, such as:


Stools that are black, especially if they have the appearance of coffee grounds, suggest gastrointestinal bleeding. Substances such as iron supplements, black licorice, black stout, and bismuth medications also cause black poop.


If stools are white, gray, or pale, a person may have an issue with the liver or gallbladder as pale stools suggest a lack of bile. Some anti-diarrhea medications cause white stools.


Spinach, kale, or other green foods can cause green poop. However, green-colored stool may be a sign that there is too much bile and not enough bilirubin in the poop.


Share on PinterestWhile normal poop is usually brown, other colors are possible, including black or white.

Poop that is red-colored may be the result of gastrointestinal bleeding. Small amounts of blood in the stool can indicate hemorrhoids.

Eating beets or red berries, or drinking beet or tomato juice, also turns poop red. Once these foods have passed through the digestive tract, poop should become brown again.


Consuming many orange-colored foods, which are rich in a pigment called beta-carotene, causes orange stool.

Carrots, sweet potatoes, and winter squash are among the many foods that contain this pigment.

However, blocked bile ducts or certain medications including some antacids and the antibiotic rifampin can cause orange poop.


If stool appears yellow or is greasy-looking, it suggests the poop contains too much fat. This may be the result of absorption issues, or difficulty producing enzymes or bile.

Most people will experience variations in stool color at some stage. Usually, this is down to diet or some other minor cause. However, anyone who experiences changes in poop color that last for 2 or more weeks or has red or black stool should see their doctor.

How long should a poop take?

At most, it should take no more than 10 to 15 minutes to pass stool.

People that take longer than this may have constipation, hemorrhoids, or another condition.

The following situations may suggest a digestive issue:

  • pooping too often (more than three times daily)
  • not pooping often enough (less than three times a week)
  • excessive straining when pooping.
  • poop that is colored red, black, green, yellow, or white
  • greasy, fatty stools
  • pain when pooping
  • blood in the stool
  • bleeding while passing stool
  • watery poop (diarrhea)
  • very hard, dry poop that is difficult to pass

People experiencing any of these types of poop should see a doctor.

Share on PinterestExcessive caffeine consumption may cause abnormal poop. Staying hydrated can prevent constipation.

Abnormal poop can have many causes, ranging from minor to severe. Causes can include:


Digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), can be triggered or exacerbated by stress. In some people, it can manifest as diarrhea and in others as constipation.


Not drinking enough water and other fluids can lead to constipation, as stool requires moisture to be able to move through the digestive tract. Too much caffeine and alcohol can contribute to dehydration.

Lack of dietary fiber

Fiber acts as a binding substance to give stool its form. It also helps poop to move smoothly through the digestive tract. A diet that is low in fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and pulses, can lead to bowel problems.

Food intolerances and allergies

People with an intolerance or allergy to certain foods can often experience diarrhea, constipation, or other traits of abnormal poop when they consume a problematic food.

For example, people with lactose intolerance often experience diarrhea if they have dairy, while those with celiac disease will have an adverse reaction to gluten.

Medical conditions

Certain conditions can cause constipation, diarrhea, or other poop abnormalities. Examples of such conditions include:

See a doctor if changes to poop persist for 2 or more weeks.

Seek immediate medical treatment if the stool is bright red, black, or resembles coffee grounds. This suggests blood loss, which could become a medical emergency if left untreated.

How to ensure healthy bowels

To ensure healthy bowel function and healthy poops, follow the tips below:

  • Eat enough fiber: Aim to get the recommended minimum daily amount of fiber, which is 25 grams (g) for women and 38 g for men under 50 years old; women over 50 should aim for 21 g while men over 50 should consume 30 g daily.
  • Drink plenty of water: A reasonable amount is about 8 glasses (64 ounces) per day. It is especially important to stay hydrated when consuming more fiber.
  • Take probiotics. These beneficial bacteria can be found in capsule form, although some yogurts and drinks can also provide probiotics. Probiotics have been found to aid in relief from constipation, as well as infectious diarrhea.
  • Try magnesium: Magnesium hydroxide is often used to treat constipation. It is safe for most people, although it is not recommended for people with renal insufficiency.
  • Exercise: Staying physically active can encourage normal bowel function and can alleviate constipation. It also relieves stress, a common cause of abnormal poops.

A well-functioning digestive system is essential for health and wellbeing. It also suggests that a person is eating a balanced diet balanced diet.

Poop abnormalities that persist can lead to complications. For example, ongoing diarrhea can result in nutritional deficiencies while constipation can cause bowel obstructions.

Normal poop tends to be brown, soft to firm in texture, and easy to pass. If someone experiences changes in poop, they should monitor the changes and consult a doctor if the issue does not resolve within 2 weeks.

To encourage a normal bowel function, a person should eat a fiber-rich diet, take regular exercise, try to reduce stress, and drink lots of water to stay hydrated.

What Does the Color of Your Poop Tell You?

Brown Stool

Poop owes its normal, brown color to bile, a substance produced by our liver that helps us digest fats, says Dr. Nandi. (Though bile is naturally green, its pigments change color to yellow and brown as they travel through your digestive system and are broken down by enzymes.) If your excrement is brown and solid, you have no obvious reason for concern.

Green Stool

Green poop is “very much in the realm of normal,” says Arun Swaminath, MD, director of the inflammatory bowel diseases program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. It is usually attributed to something you ate, adds Nandi. Eating lots of green, leafy vegetables like spinach or kale — rich in the pigment chlorophyll — will easily give your feces an emerald hue.

White Stool

Whitish, clay-colored poop is caused by a lack of bile, which can stem from a blockage of bile ducts. Gallstones are one possible culprit of such an obstruction, says Dr. Swaminath. In addition, “Sometimes people can see white mucus on top of normal colored stool which has a whitish coating,” he says. This can be normal or a sign of a Crohn’s flare. Crohn’s disease causes ulcers in the intestines, which produce mucus in the stool. Alert your doctor when you notice mucus in your bowel movements, especially if it’s more than usual.

For people without Crohn’s, white poop along with abdominal pain, fever, or vomiting means they should call the emergency services. But if you see white poop without any of the aforementioned symptoms, you can wait to see a doctor, Swaminath says.

Yellow Stool

Yellow poop is another potential indicator of bile shortage, which, again, may be related to obstructed bile ducts. It can also mean that the pancreas is not secreting enough enzymes needed for digestion. “Oftentimes, a few questions about one’s health and medical history by a medical professional can suggest the underlying reason with tailored testing to confirm the diagnosis,” says Nandi. But these aren’t the only possible explanations. When people prep for a colonoscopy, their stool becomes diluted and can also turn yellow, says Nandi. This is a normal phenomenon that shouldn’t cause any concern.

Yellow poop can also arise from excess fat in stool, often due to an inability to break down foods, such as gluten for someone living with celiac disease. If you think this may be causing yellow stool, you should consult your doctor.

Black Stool

If you have ever taken iron tablets or Pepto-Bismol, you have likely experienced this common, though harmless, side effect: black poop. Indeed, certain ingredients in some foods or medications are the most common reason behind your stool turning dark. Even eating a full pack of Oreos can have this effect, says Nandi.

If your poop is dark and solid, you probably have nothing to worry about. But black poop with a more liquid, tarry consistency and a particularly pungent smell is a sign of bleeding in the gastrointestinal system. This issue “may require emergency evaluation with endoscopy,” says Swaminath.

Bright Red Stool

Bright-red stool often results from consumption of scarlet-colored foods or drinks like beets or tomato juice, but it might also indicate bleeding. Small amounts of blood in the stool may be from hemorrhoids, colon polyps, or anal fissures, especially if you are also experiencing pain when pooping, says Swaminath. “Larger amounts of bleeding require hospital admission and further evaluation, often with colonoscopy, to identify and treat the source of bleeding,” he says.

One of the hallmark symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease is bloody diarrhea. Although this is a common symptom of the disease, it’s not normal, and you should tell your doctor how much blood is present in your stool.

Additional reporting by Max Lee Onderdonk

Stool Colors | What Poop Colors Mean & When to Worry

Strange colored stool can mean nothing or be a sign of something serious.

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Last updatedMarch 2, 2021

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What do different stool colors mean?

Checking the color of your stool is a very good way to monitor your overall health. Most of the time, stool will be light to dark brown in color. But stool that’s a different color, texture, or consistency, are all signs there’s something different going on in your body.

In many cases, it could be caused by the food you eat or a medication you’re taking. But if your stool is discolored for a few days, or you have other symptoms, it could be a sign of something more serious.

Black, tarry stool or bright red stool could be a sign of blood in the stool. Pale, clay-colored stool can be a sign of a blockage of your bile duct. Contact your doctor if you are concerned about the color of your stool.

Black stool

Our stool is a marker of our gut health, but it is also a reflection of what we ate, how we ate, and what medications we may have taken, among many other things! —Dr. Shria Kumar

Stool that’s darker than your typical brown is quite common. Black stool can be a cause for concern. Black or tarry stool can be a sign of blood in your gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

The main causes of dark stool are:

  • Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, which can be from an infection, medication, trauma (like a car accident), or lesions of the blood vessels
  • Stomach/peptic ulcers that cause bleeding in the esophagus
  • Acid reflux that causes bleeding and irritation in the esophagus
  • Colon cancer
  • Swallowing blood from a mouth injury or a nosebleed
  • Large amounts of foods like black licorice
  • Iron supplements
  • Anti-diarrheal drugs like Pepto-Bismol

Green stool

Bile is a greenish fluid that helps your body digest fat. Bile travels through the GI tract and changes to brown when it interacts with certain enzymes. If your stool is green, it usually means that you have changed your diet slightly or your food is traveling through the large intestines faster than normal so it doesn’t have enough time to break down and change color.

Green stool may be caused by:

  • Diarrhea, since food is moving through your intestines faster
  • Green foods like leafy green vegetables
  • Foods that have been dyed with green food coloring
  • Iron supplements

Light-colored stool

If your stool is pale in color or white, it usually means that bile isn’t moving through your GI tract. This would mean that there’s an obstruction of the bile duct that isn’t letting the bile flow into the intestine. Sometimes, the color can be from large doses of medications.

The main causes of light-colored stool include:

  • Gallstones, or hardened deposits of bile that form in the gallbladder and block your common bile duct
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Liver disease

Bright red stool

There are quite a few reasons why your stool can appear bright red in color. It can be from bleeding in the rectum or large intestines, or simply eating certain foods.

Red stool may be a sign of:

  • Hemorrhoids or anal fissures, causing lower intestinal tract bleeding.
  • Diverticulosis, small outpouchings of the wall of the large intestine that can bleed.
  • Colon or rectal tumors.
  • Ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes ulcers and inflammation in the GI tract. It can cause bleeding and loose stools.
  • Crohn’s disease, the other type of IBD, causes inflammation that can be anywhere in the GI tract (mouth, small intestine, large intestine, even outside the GI tract). It also can cause bleeding and loose stools.
  • Foods like beets, tomato juice, cherries, or cranberries, though this is usually not accompanied by other symptoms.

Yellow stool

If your stool is yellow, or more likely, contains yellow droplets (seen floating on the toilet bowl), it is a sign of fat in the stool. It can also have a bad odor and a greasy texture. You may see noticeable amounts of fat in your stool when it’s not absorbed properly by the body. Yellow stool can be a sign you’re having malabsorption issues—along with other signs like difficulty maintaining or gaining weight.

Yellow stool may be caused by:

  • Bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections that may be causing malabsorption. One of the most common is giardiasis (also called giardia infection), caused by a microscopic waterborne parasite.
  • Surgery, including removing the gallbladder, bariatric surgery, or for another GI issue (like a structural blockage or tumor) where part of the colon is removed. These can all change fat absorption.
  • Stress. The brain can signal distress to the gut, affecting how the gut functions. Stress can cause disruptive changes to how nutrients pass through the digestive system.
  • Celiac disease, a gluten intolerance in which eating wheat, barley, or rye damages the small intestines and triggers the production of certain antibodies. These antibodies flatten the small intestines villi—structures crucial to proper nutrient absorption.
  • Chronic pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is responsible for producing enzymes that help digestion. Chronic pancreatitis inhibits this.
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease that causes mucus, sweat, and digestive juices to be thick and sticky rather than thin and slippery. They then block ducts, tubes, and passageways in the pancreas, intestines, liver, and gallbladder. It causes poor absorption of fat.

When to call the doctor

Stool is important to look at. Yes, it’s gross! But knowing whether you are having any color or texture changes in your stool is something your doctor will want to know. —Dr. Kumar

You should call your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms that don’t stop.

  • Weight loss
  • High fever
  • Severe pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

Should I go to the ER for abnormal stool colors?

You should go to the emergency department if you have any of these signs of a more serious problem:

  • Black, tarry stools or blood in stool
  • Very pale stool
  • Weight loss
  • High fever
  • Severe pain
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting


One-off changes in stool color is not, in and of itself, an issue. It’s when it signifies something more than a dietary change (by being persistent or accompanied by new issues) that it becomes something to investigate. —Dr. Kumar

Abnormal stool color by itself is not a problem. It’s the underlying cause that may need to be treated. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to your stool color, note any other symptoms (diarrhea, fever) or foods you’ve eaten recently, and talk to your doctor.

  • If your stool color has changed because of a change in diet and there are no other symptoms, no treatment is needed.
  • If you are bleeding, you may need to go to the hospital, have laboratory and imaging tests, and possibly even a procedure, such as an endoscopy or colonoscopy. 
  • If you have an infection, you will need laboratory testing and, possibly, medications for the infection.

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  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder of the gut (primarily the intestines) that causes abdominal pain and constipation, diarrhea, or both. There is no cure for IBS, but there are many treatments to reduce symptoms.

  • Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, long-term inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, involving ulcers and sores of the large intestine and rectum.

  • Green poop can be commonly caused by eating certain green foods, an infection that causes diarrhea, bile, or a side effect of medication. In addition, irritable bowel syndrome can cause green poop and stomach pain.

  • While red stool may be caused by ingesting certain foods or medications, red stool can indicate an internal problem. Paying attention to other symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort and discussing your concerns with a doctor in a timely manner is important.

  • Blackish or reddish stool may be from too much iron in your diet, or from certain foods. Black stool may also be caused by constipation, which can make stool harder and drier than normal. But sometimes, it’s a sign of internal bleeding and needs immediate attention.

  • Dark brown stool can be normal. But it may mean you’re dehydrated or constipated. If it continues, it could be a sign of a larger issue that needs to be checked with your doctor.

The Color of Baby Poop and What It Means – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic

As a new parent, you expect to change hundreds – if not thousands – of poopy diapers. Yet the broad range of colors and textures you’ll encounter are at times concerning or downright shocking. 

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Pediatrician Jason Sherman, DO, demystifies what hues are healthy and which warrant a call to your pediatrician.

Deciphering the dreaded dirty diaper 

The color and texture of poop evolves dramatically – sometimes alarmingly so – over baby’s first days and months. Don’t spend any longer than necessary pondering a stinky bowel movement.

Here’s what you can expect:

Baby’s first stool, within the first few days of life, called meconium, rids a newborn baby of all the materials swallowed in utero: amniotic fluid, intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo, mucus, bile and water. (If you don’t see it within 48 hours, mention it to your pediatrician.) It’s very sticky and you may need an entire tub of wipes for this one.

“After the first few days, meconium stools should never be black again,” says Dr. Sherman. “If the stool is black, white, clay colored or you can see blood or mucus in the stools, you need to call your pediatrician and let them know.”

In their first week of life, breastfed babies have three to four mustard-yellow, seedy, loose stools every 24 hours. Many babies poop after each feeding, so don’t worry about not using up the newborn size before they outgrow them. Later on, they may continue to poop after nursing, or only poop once a week. Either is normal!

Formula-fed babies have thicker, darker stools once a day (or more often) from day one. They’re usually tan, but can also be yellow or greenish. The consistency is similar to peanut butter or hummus. 

Don’t freak out: Once you introduce solids, know that you’ll find a new “guacamole-esque” hue awaiting you at diaper changing time. As more foods are added, you might notice other colors – such as orange and yellow – and occasionally whole beans or raisins.

Toddlers’ stools gradually bulk up to a Play-Doh-like consistency. How often they poop isn’t important. What matters is consistency. The downside of toddler poop? It starts smelling more like regular grown-up poop.

A thick, dark-as-a-pine-tree-at-night poop may look off-putting, but it’s typically no cause for concern. The most usual culprit: an iron supplement or iron-fortified baby formula. The discoloration has no effect on your baby’s health – just possibly your appetite!

This hue may be seen in breastfed babies who switch breasts often, consuming more lower-fat than full-fat milk. Try nursing until your baby drains the breast before switching. Viruses can also cause bright green stools, so contact your pediatrician if your baby isn’t acting normally.

“Brown, yellow and green are all normal,” says Dr. Sherman. “It can often go back and forth between the them, but if its yellow brown or green you likely have nothing to worry about.”

Some babies poop with every feed and other babies poop every five to seven days. If your baby is one that poops less frequently, as long as they are going once a week, their abdomen doesn’t get distended and they aren’t overly fussy or irritable, then you can have a piece of mind.

“Stool patterns typically change around two to three months,” he says. “Often, babies will poop multiple times per day and then around two to three months of age, this changes to daily or every other day. As long as the stools are soft, this is nothing to be concerned about.”

Call your pediatrician immediately if you see any of the following:

  • Red: Baby poop shouldn’t be red. The harmless causes? Eating beets, certain medications or food colorings. However, red streaks in a diaper may indicate blood in the stool. Small amounts may be caused by constipation while larger amounts are cause for a greater concern.
  • Chalk white: Ghostly looking poop is no joking matter. If your baby isn’t producing bile (which gives your stool its characteristic color), it will look colorless, white or chalky. This can be a sign of a serious liver or gallbladder problem. 
  • Black: While tar-like stools are normal in newborns, they are a cause for concern if your child is more than three days old. Called melena, this type of thick, black stool may be a sign that blood has entered your baby’s gastrointestinal tract.

A word about diarrhea and constipation:

Too liquidy. While baby poop isn’t as solid as adult poop, if it’s extremely loose and watery – that’s diarrhea. Don’t ignore these diapers as they can be a sign of an infection and put your little one at risk for dehydration. Other causes: food sensitivities/allergies, giving a toddler too much juice, a side effect of antibiotics or a symptom of inflammatory bowel or celiac diseases. Call your pediatrician if it lasts for more than 24 hours. Most cases resolve in two to three days.

Too hard. If your baby is straining before bowel movements and producing dark, hard stools, your little one is constipated. Sometimes it’s just that a baby’s digestive tract absorbs too much water – ask your pediatrician because there may be some simple solutions. Other possible causes: food sensitivities/allergies, dehydration, or in rare cases, more serious conditions such as anatomical problems, thyroid dysfunction, metabolic disorders or Hirschsprung’s disease.

For babies, stools should be an apple sauce-type of consistency for the most part. As kids get a little older, to about age 1 or age 2, it will change to more of a tooth paste or peanut butter type of consistency. If the stool is ever hard, little balls or really formed from an early age, that is often a sign of constipation and you should discuss with your pediatrician.

Odds are, over the course of changing hundreds of diapers, you’re sure to run across a few that surprise you. Since it’s not always easy to tell what’s normal and what’s not, call your pediatrician if you have any doubts.

What Do All of Those Colors Mean?

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Boerger, MEd, CCC-SLPAndrew AxelsonAndrew Kroger, MD, MPHAndrew SchwadererAngela AbenaimAngela Billingslea, LISW-SAnn Pakalnis, MDAnna Lillis, MD, PhDAnnette Haban-BartzAnnie Drapeau, MDAnnie Temple, MS, CCC-SLP, CLCAnthony Audino, MDAnup D. Patel, MDAri Rabkin, PhDAriana Hoet, PhDArleen KarczewskiAshleigh Kussman, MDAshley EcksteinAshley Kroon Van DiestAshley M. Davidson, AT, ATC, MSAshley Minnick, MSAH, AT, ATCAshley Overall, FNPAshley Parikh, CPNP-PCAshley Parker MSW, LISW-SAshley Parker, LISW-SAshley Tuisku, CTRSAsuncion Mejias, MD, PhDAurelia Wood, MDBecky Corbitt, RNBelinda Mills, MDBenjamin Fields, PhD, MEdBenjamin Kopp, MDBernadette Burke, AT, ATC, MSBeth Martin, RNBeth Villanueva, OTD, OTR/LBethany Uhl, MDBethany Walker, PhDBhuvana Setty, MDBill Kulju, MS, ATBlake SkinnerBonnie Gourley, MSW, LSWBrad Childers, RRT, BSBrandi Cogdill, RN, BSN, CFRN, EMT-PBreanne L. Bowers, PT, DPT, CHT, CFSTBrendan Boyle, MD, MPHBrian Boe, MDBrian K. Kaspar, PhDBrian Kellogg, MDBriana Crowe, PT, DPT, OCSBrigid Pargeon, MS, MT-BCBrittney Hardin, MOT, OTR/LBrooke Sims, LPC, ATR-PCagri Toruner, MDCaitlin TullyCaleb MosleyCallista DammannCami Winkelspecht, PhDCanice Crerand, PhDCara Inglis, PsyDCarl H. Backes, MDCarlo Di Lorenzo, MDCarol Baumhardt, LMTCasey Cottrill, MD, MPHCasey TrimbleCassandra McNabb, RN-BSNCatherine Earlenbaugh, RNCatherine Sinclair, MDCatherine Trimble, NPCatrina Litzenburg, PhDCharae Keys, MSW, LISW-SCharles Elmaraghy, MDChelsie Doster, BSCheryl Boop, MS, OTR/LCheryl G. Baxter, CPNPCheryl Gariepy, MDChet Kaczor, PharmD, MBAChris Smith, RNChristina Ching, MDChristina DayChristine Johnson, MA, CCC-SLPChristine Mansfield, PT, DPT, OCS, ATCChristine PrusaChristopher Goettee, PT, DPT, OCSChristopher Iobst, MDCindy IskeClaire Kopko PT, DPT, OCS, NASM-PESCody Hostutler, PhDConnor McDanel, MSW, LSWCorey Rood, MDCourtney Bishop. PA-CCourtney Hall, CPNP-PCCourtney Porter, RN, MSCurt Daniels, MDCynthia Holland-Hall, MD, MPHDana Lenobel, FNPDana Noffsinger, CPNP-ACDane Snyder, MDDaniel Coury, MDDaniel DaJusta, MDDaniel Herz, MDDanielle Peifer, PT, DPTDavid A Wessells, PT, MHADavid Axelson, MDDavid Stukus, MDDean Lee, MD, PhDDebbie Terry, NPDeborah Hill, LSWDeborah Zerkle, LMTDeena Chisolm, PhDDeipanjan Nandi, MD MScDenis King, MDDenise EllDennis Cunningham, MDDennis McTigue, DDSDiane LangDominique R. Williams, MD, MPH, FAAP, Dipl ABOMDonna TeachDoug WolfDouglas McLaughlin, MDDrew Duerson, MDEdward Oberle, MD, RhMSUSEdward Shepherd, MDEileen Chaves, PhDElise Berlan, MDElise DawkinsElizabeth A. Cannon, LPCCElizabeth Cipollone, LPCC-SElizabeth Zmuda, DOEllyn Hamm, MM, MT-BCEmily A. Stuart, MDEmily Decker, MDEmily GetschmanEmma Wysocki, PharmD, RDNEric Butter, PhDEric Leighton, AT, ATCEric Sribnick, MD, PhDErica Domrose, RD, LDEricca L Lovegrove, RDErika RobertsErin Gates, PT, DPTErin Johnson, M.Ed., C.S.C.S.Erin Shann, BSN, RNErin TebbenFarah W. Brink, MDGail Bagwell, DNP, APRN, CNSGail Swisher, ATGarey Noritz, MDGary A. Smith, MD, DrPHGeri Hewitt, MDGina Hounam, PhDGina McDowellGina MinotGrace Paul, MDGregory D. Pearson, MDGriffin Stout, MDGuliz Erdem, MDHailey Blosser, MA, CCC-SLPHeather Battles, MDHeather ClarkHeather Yardley, PhDHenry SpillerHerman Hundley, MS, AT, ATC, CSCSHiren Patel, MDHoma Amini, DDS, MPH, MSHoward Jacobs, MDHunter Wernick, DOIbrahim Khansa, MDIhuoma Eneli, MDIlana Moss, PhDIlene Crabtree, PTIrene Mikhail, MDIrina Buhimschi, MDIvor Hill, MDJacqueline Wynn, PhD, BCBA-DJacquelyn Doxie King, PhDJaime-Dawn Twanow, MDJames Murakami, MDJames Popp, MDJames Ruda, MDJameson Mattingly, MDJamie Macklin, MDJane AbelJanelle Huefner, MA, CCC-SLPJanice Townsend, DDS, MSJared SylvesterJaysson EicholtzJean Hruschak, MA, CCC/SLPJeff Sydes, CSCSJeffery Auletta, MDJeffrey Bennett, MD, PhDJeffrey Hoffman, MDJeffrey Leonard, MDJen Campbell, PT, MSPTJena HeckJenn Gonya, PhDJennifer Borda, PT, DPTJennifer HofherrJennifer LockerJennifer Reese, PsyDJennifer Smith, MS, RD, CSP, LD, LMTJenny Worthington, PT, DPTJerry R. Mendell, MDJessalyn Mayer, MSOT, OTR/LJessica Bailey, PsyDJessica Bogacik, MS, MT-BCJessica Bowman, MDJessica BrockJessica Bullock, MA/CCC-SLPJessica Buschmann, RDJessica Scherr, PhDJim O’Shea OT, MOT, CHTJoan Fraser, MSW, LISW-SJohn Ackerman, PhDJohn Caballero, PT, DPT, CSCSJohn Kovalchin, MDJonathan D. Thackeray, MDJonathan Finlay, MB, ChB, FRCPJonathan M. Grischkan, MDJonathan Napolitano, MDJoshua Watson, MDJulee Eing, CRA, RT(R)Julia Colman, MOT, OTR/LJulie ApthorpeJulie Leonard, MD, MPHJulie Racine, PhDJulie Samora, MDJustin Indyk, MD, PhDKady LacyKaleigh Hague, MA, MT-BCKaleigh MatesickKamilah Twymon, LPCC-SKara Malone, MDKara Miller, OTR/LKaren Allen, MDKaren Days, MBAKari A. Meeks, OTKari Dubro, MS, RD, LD, CWWSKari Phang, MDKarla Vaz, MDKaryn L. Kassis, MD, MPHKatherine Deans, MDKatherine McCracken, MDKathleen (Katie) RoushKathryn Blocher, CPNP-PCKathryn J. Junge, RN, BSNKatie Brind’Amour, MSKatie Thomas, APRKatrina Hall, MA, CCLSKatrina Ruege, LPCC-SKatya Harfmann, MDKayla Zimpfer, PCCKelley SwopeKelli Dilver, PT, DPTKelly AbramsKelly BooneKelly HustonKelly J. Kelleher, MDKelly McNally, PhDKelly N. Day, CPNP-PCKelly Pack, LISW-SKelly Tanner,PhD, OTR/L, BCPKelly Wesolowski, PsyDKent Williams, MDKevin Bosse, PhDKevin Klingele, MDKim Bjorklund, MDKim Hammersmith, DDS, MPH, MSKimberly Bates, MDKimberly Sisto, PT, DPT, SCSKimberly Van Camp, PT, DPT, SCSKirk SabalkaKris Jatana, MD, FAAPKrista Winner, AuD, CCC-AKristen Armbrust, LISW-SKristen Cannon, MDKristen Martin, OTR/LKristi Roberts, MS MPHKristina Booth, MSN, CFNPKristina Reber, MDKyle DavisLance Governale, MDLara McKenzie, PhD, MALaura Brubaker, BSN, RNLaura DattnerLaurel Biever, LPCLauren Durinka, AuDLauren Garbacz, PhDLauren Justice, OTR/L, MOTLauren Madhoun, MS, CCC-SLPLauryn RozumLee Hlad, DPMLeena Nahata, MDLelia Emery, MT-BCLeslie Appiah, MDLinda Stoverock, DNP, RN NEA-BCLindsay Pietruszewski, PT, DPTLindsay SchwartzLindsey Vater, PsyDLisa GoldenLisa M. Humphrey, MDLogan Blankemeyer, MA, CCC-SLPLori Grisez PT, DPTLorraine Kelley-QuonLouis Bezold, MDLourdes Hill, LPCC-S Luke Tipple, MS, CSCSLynda Wolfe, PhDLyndsey MillerLynn RosenthalLynne Ruess, MDMaggy Rule, MS, AT, ATCMahmoud Kallash, MDManmohan K Kamboj, MDMarc Levitt, MDMarc P. Michalsky, MDMarcel J. Casavant, MDMarci Johnson, LISW-SMarco Corridore, MDMargaret Bassi, OTR/LMaria HaghnazariMaria Vegh, MSN, RN, CPNMarissa Condon, BSN, RNMarissa LarouereMark E. Galantowicz, MDMark Smith, MS RT R (MR), ABMP PhysicistMarnie Wagner, MDMary Ann Abrams, MD, MPHMary Fristad, PhD, ABPPMary Kay SharrettMary Shull, MDMatthew Washam, MD, MPHMeagan Horn, MAMegan Brundrett, MDMegan Dominik, OTR/LMegan FrancisMegan Letson, MD, M.EdMeghan Cass, PT, DPTMeghan Fisher, BSN, RNMeika Eby, MDMelanie Fluellen, LPCCMelanie Luken, LISW-SMelissa McMillen, CTRSMelissa Winterhalter, MDMeredith Merz Lind, MDMichael Flores, PhDMichael T. Brady, MDMike Patrick, MDMindy Deno, PT, DPTMolly Gardner, PhDMonica Ardura, DOMonica EllisMonique Goldschmidt, MDMotao Zhu, MD, MS, PhDNancy AuerNancy Cunningham, PsyDNaomi Kertesz, MDNatalie Powell, LPCC-S, LICDC-CSNatalie Rose, BSN, RNNathalie Maitre, MD, PhDNationwide Children’s HospitalNationwide Children’s Hospital Behavioral Health ExpertsNeetu Bali, MD, MPHNehal Parikh, DO, MSNichole Mayer, OTR/L, MOTNicole Caldwell, MDNicole Dempster, PhDNicole Parente, LSWNicole Powell, PsyD, BCBA-DNkeiruka Orajiaka, MBBSOliver Adunka, MD, FACSOlivia Thomas, MDOmar Khalid, MD, FAAP, FACCOnnalisa Nash, CPNP-PCOula KhouryPaige Duly, CTRSParker Huston, PhDPatrick C. Walz, MDPatrick Queen, BSN, RNPedro Weisleder, MDPeter Minneci, MDPeter White, PhDPreeti Jaggi, MDRachael Morocco-Zanotti, DORachel D’Amico, MDRachel Schrader, CPNP-PCRachel Tyson, LSWRajan Thakkar, MDRaymond Troy, MDRebecca Fisher, PTRebecca Hicks, CCLSRebecca Lewis, AuD, CCC-AReggie Ash Jr.Reno Ravindran, MDRichard Kirschner, MDRichard Wood, MDRobert A. Kowatch, MD, Ph.D.Rochelle Krouse, CTRSRohan Henry, MD, MSRose Ayoob, MDRose Schroedl, PhDRoss Maltz, MDRyan Ingley AT, ATCSamanta Boddapati, PhDSamantha MaloneSammy CygnorSandra C. Kim, MDSara Bentley, MT-BCSara Breidigan, MS, AT, ATCSara N. Smith, MSN, APRNSara O’Rourke, MOT, OTR/L, Clinical LeadSarah A. Denny, MDSarah Cline, CRA, RT(R)Sarah Driesbach, CPN, APNSarah GreenbergSarah Hastie, BSN, RNC-NIC Sarah Keim, PhDSarah MyersSarah O’Brien, MDSarah SaxbeSarah Schmidt, LISW-SSarah ScottSarah TraceySarah VerLee, PhDSasigarn Bowden, MDSatya Gedela, MD, MRCP(UK)Scott Coven, DO, MPHScott Hickey, MDSean EingSean Rose, MDSeth Alpert, MDShana Moore, MA, CCC-AShannon Reinhart, LISW-SShari UncapherSharon Wrona, DNP, PNP, PMHSShawn Pitcher, BS, RD, USAWShawNaye Scott-MillerSheila GilesSimon Lee, MDStacy Whiteside APRN, MS, CPNP-AC/PC, CPONStefanie Bester, MDStefanie Hirota, OTR/LStephanie Burkhardt, MPH, CCRCStephanie CannonStephanie Santoro, MDStephanie Vyrostek BSN, RNStephen Hersey, MDSteve Allen, MDSteven C. Matson, MDSteven Ciciora, MDSteven CuffSuellen Sharp, OTR/L, MOTSusan Colace, MDSusan Creary, MDTabatha BallardTabbetha GrecoTabitha Jones-McKnight, DOTahagod Mohamed, MDTamara MappTammi Young-Saleme, PhDTerry Barber, MDTerry Bravender, MD, MPHTerry Laurila, MS, RPhThomas Pommering, DOThomas SavageTiasha Letostak, PhDTiffanie Ryan, BCBA Tim RobinsonTimothy Cripe, MD, PhDTracey L. Sisk, RN, BSN, MHATracie Rohal RD, LD, CDETracy Mehan, MATravis Gallagher, ATTrevor MillerTyanna Snider, PsyDTyler Congrove, ATVanessa Shanks, MD, FAAPVenkata Rama Jayanthi, MDVidu Garg, MDVidya Raman, MDW. Garrett Hunt, MDWalter Samora, MDWarren D. Lo, MDWendy Anderson, MDWendy Cleveland, MA, LPCC-SWhitney McCormick, CTRSWhitney Raglin Bignall, PhDWilliam Cotton, MDWilliam J. Barson, MDWilliam Ray, PhDWilliam W. Long, MD