Post nasal drip and headache: Feel Like, Treatment, Symptoms, vs Migraine, & Relief
Understanding Sinus Headaches | Everyday Health
Many common ailments, including the common cold, seasonal allergies, and the flu, can cause a sinus infection, also known as sinusitis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 30 million Americans are diagnosed with sinusitis every year, and for many of them, this uncomfortable condition is accompanied by a pounding, throbbing headache.
But is there really such a thing as a “sinus headache”?
Headache is one symptom of sinus disease, but sinus disease is actually an infrequent cause of recurrent headaches, says Ellen Drexler, MD, the vice-chair in the regional department of neurology at Maimonides Medical Center in New York City.
“In fact, studies have shown that most people who identify themselves as having ‘sinus headaches’ can actually be diagnosed with migraine,” Dr. Drexler says.
A study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that of the 2,991 participants who thought they had at least six “sinus” headaches in the six months prior, 88 percent of them actually had migraine, according to the International Headache Society guidelines on diagnosing migraine.
Headaches that interfere with your ability to function or come with other symptoms such as nausea and light sensitivity may be migraine attacks and not due to sinusitis, according to the American Migraine Foundation.
Sinus Anatomy and Headaches
Sinuses are air-filled cavities located in your forehead, above your teeth, between your eyes, and behind your nose.
The sinuses are lined with a mucous membrane that has tiny hairs called cilia. The cilia move mucus, a sticky, gelatinous material produced by the mucous membrane, out of the sinuses and into your nose for drainage. Along the way, the mucus traps bacteria and other germs that can cause infection, and moves them out of the respiratory system.
When the linings of the sinuses and the inside of your nose become swollen from allergy or infection, fluid can build up. When that happens, bacteria can grow in the fluid and cause an infection. The congestion and infection can produce intense sinus pressure and facial and head pain.
The Signs of a Sinus Headache
A sinus headache rarely occurs without other signs of congestion. When headache is your only symptom, it’s probably not related to your sinuses.
Other signs or symptoms of a sinus headache are facial pain, teary or reddened eyes, postnasal drip, and head pain that gets worse when you’re leaning forward, says Lauren Doyle Strauss, DO, a headache specialist and an assistant professor at Wake Forest Baptist Health in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
The facial pain related to a sinus infection is located in the sinus areas around your eyes, cheeks, and forehead.
Sore throat, cough, and bad breath are also common symptoms of sinusitis, according to the CDC.
A headache can occur as part of an upper respiratory infection or follow a typical cold — possibly causing pain over the involved sinus, explains Drexler.
In this case, there is often tenderness over the sinus area, and the pain usually begins an hour or so after the person gets out of bed in the morning. Congestion and mucus production — often yellowish or greenish if there is a bacterial infection, or clear discharge if it’s a viral infection — are associated signs, as is fever.
Can Allergies Cause a Sinus Headache?
“Headache is not a very common symptom, in and of itself, of seasonal allergies or allergic rhinitis,” says Katherine Hamilton, MD, an assistant professor of clinical neurology and a headache specialist at Penn Medicine in Philadelphia.
With allergies, it’s much more common to have symptoms such as nasal congestion, like a stuffy nose or runny nose, and eye-watering, she says.
But allergies, or allergic rhinitis, can increase your risk of a sinus infection, according to the CDC. One indication of whether you have allergies or sinusitis is your nasal discharge: In allergies it’s normally thin and clear, whereas in a sinus infection the mucus is yellow or green and thick, according to the Mayo Clinic.
If you do have a headache that persists, it may not be just allergies, but rather an indication that you have migraine, says Dr. Hamilton.
“Typically, headache can be due to a sinus infection or viral or bacterial infection, but it’s rare to have a significant headache from just allergy symptoms,” she says.
Prevention and Treatment of Sinus Headaches
The best way to prevent a sinus headache is to avoid a sinus infection. The CDC recommends washing your hands frequently, getting a flu shot, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, not smoking, and using a clean humidifier to moisten the air.
By humidifying the air, you can decrease sinus pressure, which should translate into decreased incidence of headaches, says Kiran Rajneesh, MBBS, a neurologist and pain medicine specialist at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus.
Dr. Rajneesh also suggests drinking a lot of water. “Hydrating is important because it can help keep the mucus thin and loose, which can decrease infection and irritation,” he says.
Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help relieve a sinus headache. A nasal spray — either a decongestant or a steroid spray — may help as well, according to Michigan Medicine. Keep in mind that overuse of nasal sprays (beyond two to three days) can further irritate the sinuses, leading to what is known as rebound congestion.
If you have a history of high blood pressure or heart problems, talk to your doctor before using oral decongestants (such as phenylephrine or pseudoephedrine).
A neti pot, which looks like a little teapot with a long spout, may be used to flush out nasal passages to improve congested sinuses, says Rajneesh.
Research published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal in September 2016 found that people with chronic sinusitis who used a neti pot with a salt solution had improvement in symptoms, including fewer headaches, and used fewer over-the-counter medications.
RELATED: 9 Natural Ways to Relieve Sinus Pain and Headache
There are times when you should seek medical help for possible sinus infection. According to the CDC, you should see a doctor if any of the following is true:
- You have severe headache or facial pain that doesn’t improve with the use of over-the-counter medications.
- Your symptoms improve but then get worse again.
- Your symptoms last longer than 10 days without getting better.
- You have a fever than lasts longer than three or four days.
In these cases, your doctor may or may not decide that you need antibiotics. Many sinus infections clear up on their own, according to the agency.
Additional reporting by Becky Upham.
Post Nasal Drip – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Questions & Related Topics
- Health A-Z
- Post Nasal Drip
Top 7 Post Nasal Drip Causes
Sinusitis occurs when mucus builds up in the nasal passage, causing swelling and inflammation in areas surrounding the nasal passage. Symptoms of sinusitis include headache, runny nose, nasal congestion, and post nasal drip.
Sinusitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and air pollutants. People at highest risk for developing sinusitis are those who have nasal polyps, weakened immune systems, allergies, and previous respiratory infections such as the common cold.
2. Common Cold
This common viral infection of the nose and throat is characterized by symptoms of sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion, post nasal drip, fever, and body ache. Adults typically experience between two and three colds per year, but children experience them even more frequently. The common cold tends to clear on its own within seven to 10 days.
Cold viruses can spread through exposure to sneezes and coughs from those already infected. Cold viruses can also spread by touching someone who has a cold or by touching surfaces that contain the virus, such as doorknobs, railings, and elevator buttons. You can lower your risk for the common cold by avoiding contact with infected people, exercising regularly, and eating healthy foods that boost immunity.
Also known as the flu, influenza is a contagious respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses that infect the throat, nose, and lungs. Early symptoms of the flu are similar to those of the common cold, but they tend to develop more abruptly. Common flu symptoms include sore throat, post nasal drip, muscle aches, dry cough, fatigue, and a fever over 100.4 degrees F (38 C).
Flu viruses can spread through the air when someone talks, sneezes, or coughs, and they can be picked up from surfaces touched by people who already have the flu. These viruses can then transfer to the eyes, nose, and mouth. Risk factors for the flu include obesity, pregnancy, a weakened immune system, and chronic illnesses such as asthma or diabetes.
4. Allergic Rhinitis
An allergy occurs when the immune system reacts abnormally to something that is usually harmless to other people, such as pet dander, dust mites, and perfumes. Breathing in substances you’re allergic to can cause inflammation in the nasal and sinus passages as the body reacts to the offending substance. Common symptoms of allergic rhinitis include post nasal drip, headache, sore throat, watery eyes, and coughing.
Common triggers of allergic rhinitis are pollen, animal dander, mold, and dust mites. Avoiding these allergens and reducing your exposure are the best ways to prevent allergic rhinitis, but you can treat symptoms with antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal corticosteroid sprays.
5. Pregnancy Rhinitis
Rising estrogen levels have been shown to stimulate the body’s histamine production. During pregnancy, a woman’s estrogen levels rise to help facilitate a healthy uterus, placenta, and growing baby. As a result, pregnant women are often more susceptible to congestion, post nasal drip, runny nose, ear infections, and sinus infections.
When experienced during pregnancy, these symptoms are commonly known as pregnancy rhinitis. Fluctuations in estrogen levels can cause women who are not pregnant to experience these same symptoms before and after their menstrual periods. Pregnant women can lower their risk for developing rhinitis by drinking plenty of water, keeping the head elevated while sleeping, and avoiding exposure to known allergy triggers such as pet dander and secondhand smoke.
6. Certain Foods
Dairy and spicy foods are common triggers of post nasal drip. Dairy intake has been linked to congestion, runny nose, and post nasal drip in some individuals — particularly those who suffer from asthma. Chili powders and hot peppers contain a compound known as capsaicin, which can irritate the mucous membranes in the mouth and cause post nasal drip. Other foods found to trigger post nasal drip include curry, ginger, and garlic.
Avoiding foods that trigger post nasal drip is the best way to prevent symptoms. Keeping a food journal can help you identify which foods trigger your post nasal drip.
Certain medications, including over the counter cold medicine, have been linked to post nasal drip and other rhinitis symptoms, which commonly include sneezing, cough, runny nose, and stuffy nose. Medications that can trigger post nasal drip are ibuprofen, aspirin, and high blood pressure medications such as ACE inhibitors and beta blockers. Evidence suggests that ACE inhibitors boost histamine production, causing inflammation, cough, post nasal drip, and other related symptoms.
People who use medications that trigger or worsen post nasal drip can talk to their doctors about other effective therapies that don’t cause symptoms. For example, acupuncture can reduce painful symptoms such as headache, arthritis, and neck pain, and it doesn’t lead to post nasal drip or other rhinitis symptoms.
Possible Health Conditions Related to Post Nasal Drip
- Bacterial infection: Post nasal drip is a symptom of many bacterial infections and often occurs alongside symptoms of sneezing, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, and fever.
- Viral infection: Post nasal drip is a sign of viral infections such as the common cold, which also produces symptoms of fever, cough, sore throat, stomach cramps, and diarrhea.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): With this digestive disease, stomach acid flows back into the esophagus to irritate its lining. GERD produces symptoms that include nausea, heartburn, belching, dry cough, and post nasal drip.
Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Post Nasal Drip
- Do you suffer from allergies?
- What other symptoms do you experience aside from post nasal drip?
- How long have you experienced post nasal drip?
- What medications do you currently take?
- Do you notice that certain foods trigger post nasal drip?
Post Nasal Drip May Also Be Known as
- Upper airway cough syndrome
- Post nasal drip syndrome
- National Library of Medicine. Sinusitis. https://medlineplus.gov/sinusitis.html
- National Library of Medicine. Risk Factors For Chronic Rhinosinusitis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368058/
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Common Colds: Protect Yourself and Others. https://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html
- National Library of Medicine. Prevention and treatment of the common cold: making sense of the evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928210/
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Key Facts About Influenza (Flu). https://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm
- National Library of Medicine. Allergic rhinitis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000813.htm
- National Library of Medicine. Estrogen effects in allergy and asthma. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537328/
- National Library of Medicine. Pregnancy rhinitis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16443147
- National Library of Medicine. Does milk increase mucus production? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932941
- National Pesticide Information Center. Capsaicin General Fact Sheet. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/capgen.html
- National Library of Medicine. ACE inhibitors: upper respiratory symptoms. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4112303/
- National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Acupuncture: In Depth. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/introduction
Sinus Headaches: Treatment, Symptoms & Causes
Location of frontal and maxillary sinuses shown on face
What are sinuses?
Sinuses are a series of connected, hollow spaces behind your cheekbones, forehead and nose
(see illustration). The sinuses produce thin mucus. As air travels through the sinuses to your lungs, the mucus traps harmful particles like dust, pollutants and bacteria. The mucus drains out through your nose.
What is a sinus headache?
About 80% of the time, what people call a sinus headache is actually a migraine with nasal symptoms. A true sinus headache develops because of a sinus infection (sinusitis). The infection causes pain and pressure in the sinuses.
How common are sinus headaches?
Sinus headaches are very common with an infection. You can also feel like you have a sinus headache when you have migraines, which affect 12% of people.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes sinus headaches?
Sinus infections cause sinus headaches. Anything that makes mucus buildup in the sinuses can lead to a sinus infection, such as:
- The common cold is most often to blame.
- Seasonal allergies trigger mucus production.
- Nasal polyps, abnormal growths in the nose or sinuses. Nasal polyps can block mucus from draining.
- Deviated septum, which is when the line of cartilage and bone down the center of the nose isn’t straight. A deviated septum can prevent mucus from properly draining.
Too much mucus gives germs an opportunity to grow. As germs build up, they irritate the sinuses. In response, sinus tissue swells, blocking the passage of mucus. Swollen, irritated sinuses filled with liquid make your face feel tender and achy.
Do allergies cause sinus headaches (allergy headaches)?
Allergies themselves don’t cause headaches. However, allergies can cause sinus congestion (stuffy nose), which can lead to sinus pressure, pain and infection. If you have seasonal allergies (allergic rhinitis), you’re 10 times more likely to suffer from migraines, too.
What does a sinus headache feel like?
When you have a sinus headache, your face hurts. Typically, pain gets worse when you move your head suddenly. Depending on the sinus affected, you may feel a constant dull ache behind the eyes or in your:
- Bridge of the nose.
What are the other symptoms of sinus headaches?
Besides facial pain, sinus headaches cause other symptoms, including:
- Stuffy nose.
- Thick, colored mucus discharge from the nose.
- Feeling of fullness in the ears.
- Swollen or puffy face.
Can you have a sinus headache without being congested?
If you don’t have congestion, it’s probably not a sinus headache. The pain in your face is more likely due to a migraine (severe headache) or tension headache.
What’s the difference between a sinus headache and a migraine?
It’s easy to confuse the two, since migraines can also cause facial pain, nasal congestion and a runny nose. With a migraine, nasal discharge is clear. If you have a real sinus headache — caused by a sinus infection — you’ll also have a fever and thick, discolored nasal mucus.
Diagnosis and Tests
How are sinus headaches diagnosed?
Most of the time when people diagnose themselves with a sinus headache, it’s really a migraine. So, it’s important to see your healthcare provider to get an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. If your symptoms are severe or ongoing, you may also need imaging tests. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test can rule out serious brain conditions. Multiple imaging tests can reveal sinus blockages and include:
- Computed tomography (CT) scan.
- Nasal endoscopy (a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera that views inside your nose and sinus).
Management and Treatment
How do I get rid of a sinus headache?
To get rid of a sinus headache, you have to treat the underlying cause. But you can take steps to ease sinus pressure and pain at home:
- Apply a warm compress to painful areas of the face.
- Use a decongestant to reduce sinus swelling and allow mucus to drain.
- Try a saline nasal spray or drops to thin mucus.
- Use a vaporizer or inhale steam from a pan of boiled water. Warm, moist air may help relieve sinus congestion.
Viruses, bacteria and sometimes fungi cause sinus infections. Viral infections often go away on their own. But if your infection is bacterial or fungal, you need antibiotics or antifungal medications. Your healthcare provider may also recommend other medications to ease discomfort, such as:
- Antihistamines to prevent allergy symptoms.
- Decongestants to reduce swelling in the nose and sinuses.
- Pain relievers to ease headache pain.
- Steroids to reduce inflammation.
Migraines with sinus symptoms
Sinus headaches that are actually migraines need a different type of treatment. The first step is to relieve your pain. You should know that frequently using over-the-counter medications when you have a headache can cause even more headaches (rebound or medication overuse headaches).
Your provider may recommend prescription medication for migraine pain. You may also need a preventive medication that helps you have fewer migraine attacks.
How can I prevent a sinus headache?
You can prevent recurring sinus infections (chronic sinusitis) by treating the root cause. For allergies, seeing an allergy specialist for treatment can help. For a deviated septum, your healthcare provider may need to perform surgery. If you have nasal polyps, you may need a procedure to remove them.
Outlook / Prognosis
How long do sinus headaches last?
Viruses cause most sinus infections. A viral sinus infection typically resolves on its own. Similar to how the common cold clears up by itself, your sinus headache should feel better within about a week. If it doesn’t go away, see your healthcare provider. You may have a bacterial or fungal sinus infection that requires medication.
What can I do about recurring sinus headaches?
Many sinus headaches, especially those that recur, are actually migraines. But it’s smart to see your healthcare provider to figure out the cause of your headaches.
You may find that the best long-term solution is figuring out what triggers your migraine headaches so you can avoid them. It’s helpful to keep a headache diary to track potential triggers. Triggers you can control include:
- Specific foods, such as chocolate, red wine or strong cheese.
- Lack of sleep.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
People often mistake migraines for sinus headaches. But treatment for those two conditions is very different, so it’s important to pinpoint the real problem. If you’ve had more than one sinus infection or get frequent sinus headaches, seek medical care. Getting to the bottom of what’s going on will help you find a successful treatment.
Allergic Sinusitis | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
Allergic sinusitis, common in early childhood, is a reaction to exposure to inhalants such as dust, pollen, smoke and animal dander. A family history or allergic sinusitis may predispose certain individuals to be sensitive to certain foods and indoor and outdoor allergens.
Although people are not born with allergies, they develop symptoms when they are repeatedly exposed to the allergen. Sinusitis can be acute, lasting less then four weeks or chronic, lasting longer than eight weeks.
Allergic sinusitis is sometimes confused with nonallergic sinusitis because the symptoms are similar. A key difference is nonallergic sinusitis doesn’t usually cause an itchy nose, eyes or throat. Allergic sinusitis symptoms generally vary with the season and may include:
- Nasal congestion (sneezing, runny nose) and post nasal drip that persists for more then two weeks
- Itchy eyes, nose and throat.
- Headache, pain, tenderness, swelling and pressure around the forehead, cheeks, nose and between eyes.
- Behavioral changes including irritability, inability to focus, fatigue.
- Sleep problems such as insomnia, bed-wetting, or sleepwalking.
- Reduced sense of smell and taste.
A physician can diagnose sinusitis by:
- Taking a detailed medical history and performing a physical examination.
- Allergy skin tests may identify the allergen causing nasal flare-up.
- Nasal endoscopy – A flexible tube is inserted into the nasal passages and fiber optic light allows the doctor to see the smallest of abnormalities in the sinuses.
- Computed tomography (CT) scan – A CT of the sinus can help your physician to assess any injury, infection, or other abnormalities.
For mild seasonal allergies and allergies to pet dander, avoidance is the most effective course of action. Unfortunately, not all allergens can be avoided and year round exposure to certain triggers may be unavoidable.
Some self-help and pharmaceutical remedies are:
- Saline nasal sprays rinse your nasal passages and may provide some relief.
- Inhaling steam may reduce nasal congestion.
- Decongestants (over-the-counter products are available) may provide some relief.
- Corticosteroid nasal sprays may reduce inflammation.
- Desensitization through allergy shots (exposure to the allergen) may benefit children with pollen sensitive allergies.
- Over-the-counter pain relievers can provide relief (Caution: do not give acetylsalicylic acid (i.e. Aspirin) to children).
- For severe bacterial infections, antibiotics may be required.
When self-help and prescription medication measures are insufficient and the allergic sinusitis symptoms interfere with one’s quality of life, chronic allergic sinusitis may be treated with:
Balloon Sinuplasty – Similar to balloon angioplasty used to break up blood clots in the arteries in the heart, balloon sinuplasty utilizes small balloons to expand the openings of the sinuses. This procedure is less invasive than traditional surgery to restore normal sinus drainage and the benefits may include less pain, bleeding and swelling with a quicker return to normal activities.
Surgery – When treatments or medications aren’t effective, endoscopic sinus surgery may be an option. A flexible tube is inserted into the nasal passages and fiber-optic light allows the doctor to see the smallest of abnormalities in the sinuses and problem tissue or polyps that may be causing the nasal blockage can be removed.
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
Not what you’re looking for?
Migraine vs. Sinus Headache: What’s the Difference?
How to Spot the Difference Between Migraines & Sinus Headaches
If you have a runny nose, watery eyes and your head hurts, you might assume that you have a sinus headache. But studies show that about 90% of self-diagnosed sinus headaches are actually migraine.
There’s a belief that sinus headache is a common illness. The marketing of over-the-counter medications designed to treat these symptoms reinforce this belief.. However, sinus headache is not as common as you might think.
How can you tell if you have migraine or sinus headache and get the treatment you need? Let’s start by defining migraine and sinus headache.
What is migraine?
Migraine is not just a bad headache. It’s a disabling neurological disease with different symptoms and different treatment approaches compared to other headache disorders. The American Migraine Foundation estimates that at least 39 million Americans live with migraine. However, many people do not get an accurate diagnosis or the treatment they need so the actual number is probably higher.
Common symptoms of migraine include:
- Moderate to severe head pain
- Head pain that causes a throbbing, pounding, or pulsating sensation
- Head pain that gets worse with physical activity or movement
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Sensitivity to light, noise and/or smells
- Nasal congestion and runny nose
What is sinus headache?
A true sinus headache, called rhinosinusitis, is rare. The cause is a viral or bacterial sinus infection characterized by thick, discolored nasal discharge. You’ll get symptoms like possibly weaker smell or no smell, facial pain or pressure and commonly, fever. Facial pain and headache should resolve within seven days after viral symptoms improve or after successful treatment with antibiotics (if a bacterial sinus infection is present). If pain continues, then your diagnosis should be reconsidered.
Why do we misdiagnose migraine as sinus headache?
Research studies show common sinus symptoms occur with migraine. In one study, 45% of migraine patients had at least one symptom of either nasal congestion or watery eyes. Migraine is also underdiagnosed and undertreated, meaning that a self-diagnosis of migraine is less likely.
A study involving almost 3,000 patients was important in evaluating the frequent complaint of sinus headache. In this study, the participants had at least six sinus headaches in the six months prior to entrance into the study. They had neither a migraine diagnosis nor treatment with a migraine-specific medication. What were the results? Eighty-eight percent of the participants had migraine and not sinus headaches.
Another study, called the American Migraine Study II, showed that many people who were diagnosed with migraine thought they had sinus headache. Significantly, there were almost 30,000 study participants—only about 50% who were diagnosed with migraine knew they had migraine before the study. The most common misdiagnosis was sinus headache.
How do I know if my headache is migraine or sinus headache?
So, how do you know if your headache is migraine and not sinus? Go beyond the nasal and sinus congestion and the facial pain and pressure; look for a headache associated with the inability to function normally at work, school, home or social functions, nausea, sensitivity to light and triggers such as weather change, menstrual cycle, and stress (all common triggers for migraine). Significantly, it is commonly thought that weather change often causes “sinus headache” when weather change is a common trigger for migraine.
You can also ask yourself the following questions from the ID Migraine Questionnaire developed by Dr. Richard Lipton of Albert Einstein College of Medicine:
- In the past three months, how disabling are your headaches? Do they interfere with your ability to function? (Are you missing work; school; family activities?)
- Do you ever feel nausea when you have a headache?
- Do you become sensitive to light while you have a headache?
If you answer “yes” to two of the above three criteria, migraine is likely 93% of the time. If you answer “yes” to all three, a migraine diagnosis is 98% likely.
In the event you feel that your sinus headaches could be migraine, ask your provider if a migraine-specific medication could be right for you. If so, try the migraine-specific medication for your next three “sinus headaches.” Look for the headache and associated symptoms to improve more than they did for previous treatments you were using. In some cases, a work-up may be done such as a CT scan of your sinuses to rule out sinus disease or simply to reassure you that the diagnosis is migraine and not a sinus problem.
The American Migraine Foundation is committed to improving the lives of those living with this debilitating disease. For more of the latest news and information on migraine, visit the AMF Resource Library. For help finding a healthcare provider, check out our Find a Doctor tool. Together, we are as relentless as migraine.
Your postnasal dripping may not be a drip or even related to your nose
Many patients complain of postnasal dripping. Most people perceive this as a sensation of mucus buildup in the back of the throat. The majority of the patients point to the different parts of the neck and the throat area as the center of their discomfort. Various patients also feel sensation of a ball being stuck in the back of the throat or feeling of discomfort with swallowing or symptoms with speaking or breathing.
A significant number of patients with self-described symptoms of postnasal dripping actually deny any specific nasal or sinus symptoms such as congestion, runny nose, difficulty breathing, allergies, or recurrent sinus infections.
The area in the back of their throats, the same area that most people refer to as a center of the postnasal dripping, can be the receiving end of secretions from various organ systems. The obvious organ system could be the nose and sinuses. In patients with an upper respiratory infection, allergies, cold, or sinusitis, the secretions can then drip down in the back of the nose and land in the throat. This can create very sticky secretions which the patients feel a great deal of discomfort trying to alleviate. By addressing the nasal symptoms directly, the dripping could be reduced, and the sensation of postnasal dripping can be significantly improved. Many patients use nasal saline irrigation as well as various prescription nasal preparations and antibiotics that are appropriate in each individual case. Most patients with dripping in the back of the nose that is actually from nose and sinuses do have significant amount of nasal symptoms that are obvious. It is rare to have true postnasal dripping with no obvious nasal and sinus symptoms.
Other organ systems can also affect the back of the throat. One of them could be the lungs and trachea. In patients suffering from chronic asthma, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, or various lung symptoms, the secretions can come up and land on the back of the throat. These patients typically complain of incessant cough, difficulty breathing, asthma-like symptoms, and chronic secretions. These secretions also tend to be more productive, and they can present as yellow or green secretions. Many patients with either asthma or pneumonia-type symptoms are also significantly symptomatic in addition to the sensation of postnasal dripping.
A third organ system that can give a sensation of postnasal dripping is actually the stomach.
Our stomachs make a quite bit of acid on a daily basis to digest our food. We have various protective mechanisms to keep the acid down in the stomach and prevent from regurgitating back through our esophagus into the back of our throats. However, in certain patients with acid reflux this can result in a sensation of something not being quite right in the back of the throat. Some patients complain of a feeling of globus (as though a ball is stuck in the back of the throat). Other patients describe raspiness of the voice, difficulty breathing, waking up several times in the middle of the night with cough, and a feeling of not being able to alleviate something sticky in the back of the throat. The kind of reflux that gives many people a sensation of postnasal dripping could actually be what is called silent reflux. This has to do with the protective mechanisms and how much they can protect us before we actually develop symptoms in our stomach area. It is thought that our protective mechanisms allow enough relief for us to have up to 50 episodes of reflux per day before we feel anything. If the patient experiences more episodes of reflux than that, we start having symptoms of heartburn. However, certain patients in whom the acid reaches the back of the throat where there are no protective mechanisms feel a discomfort much sooner. The treatment for these patients usually centers on diet modifications to comply with reflux guidelines, antacid medications, and gargling on a regular basis with salt and water.
Patients with postnasal dripping would be best served by seeing their specialist to examine all options. Once the exact sources of the symptoms are found, the appropriate treatment protocol can be prescribed.
Tagged with: acid, acid reflux, antacid, ball, bronchitis, cough, drip, ear nose throat, ENT, globus, Isaac Namdar, Isaac Namdar MD, nasal, New York, new york city, Nose, ny, NYC, Otolaryngology, Otorhinolaryngology, phlegm, pneumonia, post-nasal drip, reflux, secretions, silent reflux, sinus, throat
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How to Tell the Difference between Sinusitis and a Cold
posted: Jul. 17, 2017.
Many people mistake a common cold for sinusitis, and vice versa, as the symptoms of a cold and a sinus infection can be quite similar to each other because the same viruses often cause both conditions. Additionally, since the nose and sinuses are connected, it is possible for viruses to move easily between the nasal passages and the sinuses.
Your child may feel run down, have a low-grade fever, post-nasal drip and a sore throat. So is it a common cold or a sinus infection? Typically, a cold can definitely morph into a sinus infection, but there are some classic symptoms for each illness that can help distinguish between the two.
The Common Cold
With a cold, there is a cluster of symptoms that your child might be experiencing, including:
- Nasal congestion
- A run-down feeling
- Runny nose with clear discharge
- Sore throat
- Post nasal drip
- Fever may be seen in children, but not often in adults
If your child has a cold, they may even experience a cough or a headache, and it can often last from three to seven days with or without any treatment. Your child develops a cold from a virus in which the symptoms usually build slowly over the course of a day or two, peak by days three or four, then slowly improve around the fifth or seventh day.
With a cold, treatment might include supportive care, fluids and chicken soup. Drinking plenty of water is also beneficial as it helps to hydrate your child. By hydrating your child through water consumption, you can help to flush out the infection because it liquefies the mucus. There are also medications available to help make your child more comfortable as the cold passes.
Sometimes colds can set in the sinuses and cause swelling, which then prevents the flow of mucus and turns the cold into a sinus infection. Sinusitis is the inflammation of the sinuses that can be caused by a cold, an infection or allergies. Any swelling of the sinuses can produce symptoms such as:
- Pressure or pain behind the eyes or cheeks
- Pain in the top teeth
- Green or yellow nasal drainage
- Post nasal drip
Your child may also complain of being tired, having a difficult time breathing through his or her nose, decreased sense of smell and restless sleep. If your child develops a cold every month or every other month, this is because his or her sinuses are flaring up and it is probably not a cold, but chronic sinusitis.
The main difference between a common cold and sinusitis is that a cold comes around once a year and lasts for three to five days, and then is gone and your child most likely will not experience it again until next year. Acute sinusitis typically lasts less than four weeks, with chronic sinusitis lasting more than 12 weeks. So if your child’s symptoms last more than a week, odds are they are experiencing a sinus infection and should visit your pediatrician.
By visiting your child’s pediatrician, you can help your child breathe easy once again. Whether it is a common cold, or a more serious sinus infection, your child’s pediatrician is available to help relieve their symptoms.
90,000 One drop – a sea of problems
Ordinary drops that we use to relieve nasal congestion, get rid of a runny nose, can lead to serious negative consequences that can only be dealt with by surgery. And it’s good if modern methods and equipment are used. However, the operation can take place, so to speak, according to the “classical” technology: when a person has enlarged shells as a result of prolonged uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictor drops, sometimes they are simply cut off – partially or completely.And if the shells are removed, an even more serious disease develops, called “empty nose syndrome.” Then the nose – a complex “mechanism”, endowed by nature with protective functions to purify the inhaled air, humidify it, warm it – turns into a primitive pipe.
How often, when reading the instructions for a particular medicine, many dismissed the warning about side effects, or adjusted the dosage and method of administration for themselves, arguing that there would be no harm from extra pills or drops – they say, doctors are reinsured…
This also applies to vasoconstrictor drugs – vasoconstrictors and nasal decongestants. The active ingredients in their composition can be naphazoline, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine.
Practice has shown that drug dependence is most often caused by those drugs that contain naphazoline. For example, naftizin, sanorin, allergophthal, betadrin, okumetil, spersallerg, naphazol.
Excessive zeal when taking such vasoconstrictor drugs from scratch, more precisely, in full (we are talking about drugs that fight nasal congestion, rhinitis, runny nose, edema) can lead to drug and psychological dependence.And she cannot be defeated by sheer will alone – the participation of a doctor will definitely be required. Whether he will help with therapeutic or surgical methods depends on the scale of the problem in each case.
Phenomenon of ricochet
The development of drug dependence due to ordinary drops became known back in the 40s of the last century: it was first described by German doctors, who created naphazoline. Even then, they announced their naphthyzine dependence.
At the congress of the Russian Society of Rhinologists, the president of which is an otorhinolaryngologist, Dr.MD, Professor A.S. Lopatin, in the summer of 2015 in Nizhny Novgorod, the topic of vasoconstrictor drugs was raised again. In his report, Andrei Stanislavovich spoke in detail about the harm caused by their uncontrolled use, and cited threatening statistics.
“What is happening with the use of decongestants in our country, to put it mildly, causes concern … us for an operation, – says Andrei Stanislavovich.- Drug addiction is a problem not only for Russia, but for the whole world. However, compare: 600 million packages of vasoconstrictor drugs are sold annually in the world, sales in Russia are 221 million packages, and almost half of them – 107 million packages – naphthyzine. ”
What is causing this concern? As Professor Lopatin said, with prolonged use of decongestants, the so-called rebound phenomenon develops: these drugs contract the vessels, restore nasal breathing, but after they cease to work, the vessels expand even more, and it becomes more difficult to breathe.As a result, the blood supply to the turbinates increases. Therefore, in order to restore nasal breathing, they have to be used more and more often, and the period between doses becomes shorter. This is how drug addiction develops. At some stage, the drugs lose their effect, and a person can no longer breathe through the nose, no matter how much he buries them. Therefore, turbinate surgery is often the only treatment.
With prolonged use or excess of the dosage of vasoconstrictor drugs, a negative effect is also exerted on the cardiovascular system, which can lead to headache, segmental vasospasm, cerebral stroke, bradycardia, tachycardia, increase or decrease in blood pressure.
Despite the fact that naphthyzine dependence has been known for several decades, according to Professor Lopatin, the problem is not given due attention: “In many countries, naphazoline has been discontinued, its use in children’s practice is prohibited. In our country, it is produced on a hyperindustrial scale and continues to be used in the treatment of children: in our country, 60% of vasoconstrictor drugs are prescribed by pediatricians. I hope that they do not recommend taking naphazoline, but safer analogues adapted for children.And of course, they explain to the parents how to use them. But still, one of the most common reasons for hospitalization of children in toxicology departments is poisoning with drugs containing naphazoline. ”
How to solve the problem?
Professor Lopatin is convinced that the problem of drug addiction can be solved by educational methods, including among medical staff: nebulizer naphthyzin is the most harmful drug of all that can be chosen, I understand that educational work should be carried out among doctors as well. “
All decongestants have side effects like any drug. But there are drugs, the negative effects of which are minimized. According to international studies, xylometazoline has the longest and safest effect, with a lesser tendency to the development of the rebound phenomenon. It is enough to take preparations based on it twice a day. According to its characteristics, drugs based on oxymetazoline are close to it.
Pay attention to the form of release of the drug.It’s one thing if a person buys drops and starts pouring them into the nose with a pipette, and quite another if it’s a spray. Optimal form – metered spray, aerosol.
It is important to remember that these drugs can be taken for five to seven days. If they do not help, you need to stop self-medication and consult a doctor.
How to minimize the side effects of nasal decongestants?
- Use spray, not drops;
- buy drugs with a dispenser;
- to be combined with a nasal shower;
- use a lower concentration, for example, intended for children (for xylometazoline and oxymetazoline – 0.05%, not 0.1% solution).
Getting rid of drug addiction
If a person has been using vasoconstrictor drugs for a long time, and nasal congestion does not go away, he must definitely contact an otorhinolaryngologist. The doctor never starts treatment with an operation. First, he will try to solve the problem with therapeutic methods, for example, by washing the nasal cavity.
90,000 Moscow ENT doctors told about the harm of nasal drops
Doctors of the Research Clinical Institute of Otorhinolaryngology named after L.I. Sverzhevsky Department of Health of Moscow told why it is impossible to constantly use vasoconstrictor drugs for the common cold.
– As a result of prolonged use of vasoconstrictor drugs, rhinitis medication occurs – a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa.The danger lies in the fact that as the application progresses, the sensitivity of the mucous membrane to them decreases, and then completely disappears. In this case, the mucous membrane itself undergoes changes that lead to a feeling of nasal congestion and impaired nasal breathing. Thus, we get a “vicious circle” – when more drops are needed to relieve nasal congestion each time, and the more the drug is used, the more the mucous membrane suffers, which in turn leads to even greater respiratory impairment, – notes Anna Tovmasyan, doctor -torinolaryngologist NIKIO them.L.I. Sverzhevsky.
The term of application of vasoconstrictor drops should not exceed 5-7 days. During this time, you can cure colds and get rid of a cold. If the congestion persists, you should consult an ENT doctor. In addition to difficulty in nasal breathing, the symptoms of medication rhinitis are: headache, impaired sense of smell, sleep disturbances, irritability, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, tachycardia. Prolonged use of vasoconstrictor drops can lead to irreversible changes in the lower turbinates, and in this case, only surgical treatment will help to restore nasal breathing.
– Often people turn to when the situation becomes critical and neglected. At the same time, they cannot sleep or leave the house without a bottle of drops or spray, using them every hour. If you notice a drug dependence on vasoconstrictor drops, then first of all you need to try to stop using drops on your own and consult an otorhinolaryngologist, added Anna Tovmasyan.
Experts note that there is no risk of addiction when using saline solutions as part of therapy.For example, in an isotonic solution, the salt concentration is close to the concentration in the body fluids, so it helps to normalize the ionic balance of the nasal mucosa, the violation of which is accompanied by its edema. Hypertonic saline solution contains a higher concentration of salt, which promotes the intensive movement of water towards the increased concentration of ions, thus providing an anti-edema effect. Acting as an irritant to the nasal mucosa, hypertonic saline stimulates glandular secretion without altering vascular permeability.All this applies to seawater.
Doctors emphasize that it is absolutely impossible to self-medicate and it is better to consult an otorhinolaryngologist who will prescribe an appropriate treatment regimen.
90,000 ARI (ARVI): Causes of ARI, Symptoms of ARI, Treatment of ARI
With ARI, internal organs are damaged – from the bronchial passages to the nasopharynx. Such diseases affect all age groups, from infants to the elderly. Most often, a surge in infections is recorded in the spring and at the turn of the autumn-winter period.During this period, wave-like bursts most often occur, diseases are very difficult in young children, infants and everyone who has weakened immunity. A special manifestation of such a disease is the combination of microbes with viruses and protozoa, against their background it is difficult to diagnose and treat colds.
The causative agents of the disease are conventionally divided into several groups
- mixed forms (viral-microbial, viral-protozoa).
Causes of ARI
Infection with more than 200 types of viruses is currently the cause of ARI. Each of the subspecies is included in the groups:
90,038 90,039 rhinoviruses;
90,039 influenza viruses;
90,039 respiratory-sensational viruses and others.
In addition to the listed pathogens, pneumococci, streptococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae and Legionella can also contribute to the disease.
Symptoms of ARI
A bacterium or virus, penetrating through the upper respiratory tract, stops on the mucous membrane and begins to damage it. All this is accompanied by edema and inflammation of the mucous membrane. If a person’s immunity is reduced, the pathogen quickly descends into the respiratory tract, damaging the nasopharynx membrane along the way.
Usually, after a previous illness, a person should develop strong immunity, but due to the large number of varieties and pathogens of the disease, it is possible to get sick often and to varying degrees, therefore, the methods of treating acute respiratory infections may also differ depending on the clinical picture of the disease.
Signs of ARI
Specialists divide the course of the disease into two groups:
- Presence of nasal discharge;
- the presence of a dry or wet cough, accompanied by a sore throat, sore throat and redness;
- the appearance of conjunctivitis;
- the timbre of the voice changes – hoarseness, vultures.
General infectious symptoms:
- weakness and malaise of the whole body, aches in the body, muscles and joints;
- loss of appetite or no appetite at all;
- enlargement of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes;
- pallor, nausea and anemia.
Diagnostics of ARI
For a complete and accurate determination of the diagnosis, a blood test in laboratories is necessary. In the presence of a microbial initiator of the disease, leukocytes will be increased, with the manifestation of a viral one – lymphocytes. To determine the type of bacteria or ARI virus, you should take an analysis for sowing mucous secretions from the nose.
For adults, an additional study will be a chest x-ray and ultrasound of organs to clarify the size of the liver and spleen.Pregnant women are not assigned such studies.
The symptoms of acute respiratory infections are similar to each other and they are observed in people of different age categories.
Treatment of acute respiratory infections
If you want to know how to quickly cure a cold, then you must adhere to certain rules and recommendations.
As a general rule, the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children and adults proceeds in compliance with such recommendations
- the maximum amount of fluid should be supplied to the body;
- compliance with strict bed rest.
90,039 dieting.Food should not be hot, not coarse, preferably of a uniform consistency;
If signs of acute respiratory infections of a viral nature are observed, then symptomatic treatment is necessary.
Medicines for cold symptoms
Throat medications can be used to reduce inflammation and pain. Various throat rinses and sprays are also effective.
For nasal congestion, vasoconstrictor drops or sprays are used, as well as nasal rinses to remove mucus and reduce swelling.
Antipyretic for colds
Particularly acute is the question of what medications to take for colds to bring down a high fever. The most commonly used are:
- acetylsalicylic acid;
- mefenamic acid;
Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug with a pronounced analgesic and antipyretic effect. It is recommended to take it 4-6 times a day after meals.
Mefenamic acid is a medicine with antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to relieve fever and pain.
Ibuprofen is effective in the complex treatment of infectious and inflammatory processes. It lowers fever, relieves headaches and joint aches.
Paracetamol is an effective and at the same time safe means for lowering fever. It can be taken up to 4 times a day.
Powders for colds
Soluble powders for colds are taken internally, effectively eliminate the symptoms of the disease and are reasonably safe.They may be contraindicated in connection with some serious pathologies of internal organs or pregnancy.
Pharmacitron is a combined preparation, the active ingredient of which is paracetamol. It has antipyretic and analgesic effects. It also contains an antihistamine component that neutralizes allergic rhinitis and other manifestations of anaphylactic reactions.
This cold remedy is not suitable for persons suffering from alcoholism, renal failure, glaucoma, pregnant women in the first and third trimesters, nursing mothers, children under 6 years of age, as well as persons with individual intolerance to the components of the drug.It is also necessary to take into account the interaction of Pharmacitron with some other drugs. It can enhance the effects of sedatives and antidepressants.
Pharmacitron is also recommended not to be used in combination with drugs that contain ethanol. Drinking alcohol while taking Pharmacitron can provoke intoxication. Also among the possible side effects of this medication are delayed reactions and decreased concentration.
Fervex is an effective cold remedy based on paracetamol, ascorbic acid and pheniramine.It has a pronounced analgesic effect and is suitable not only for the treatment of colds, but also for burns and injuries, that is, in situations where it is necessary to relieve pain.
This drug is most effective in the treatment of acute and allergic rhinitis, pharyngitis, inflammatory processes of the nasopharynx. Among the contraindications are glaucoma, portal hypertension, alcoholism, 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The classic form of the drug is not recommended for children under 15 years of age, but there is also a special form for children.
Nimesil is a cold remedy with a pronounced analgesic and antipyretic effect. It not only removes the signs of respiratory diseases, but is also effective for migraines and post-traumatic syndromes. Contraindications include pregnancy, breastfeeding, internal bleeding, liver dysfunction, severe pathologies of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.
Antiviral cold medicines
It is not always easy to determine which virus triggered the common cold, so broad-spectrum drugs have an advantage over drugs that affect a specific group of viruses.As a rule, adults are prescribed antiviral drugs for the common cold, which are of synthetic origin.
Arbidol is a medication with an antioxidant effect that increases immunity and promotes the body’s production of its own interferon. Cytovir-3 is a drug with a pronounced immunostimulating effect. It is contraindicated for persons suffering from vegetative-vascular dystonia. Inosine pranobex is effective against rhinoviruses and adenoviruses, influenza, parainfluenza and viral bronchitis.Amiksin is an immunostimulating and antiviral agent that stimulates the production of interferon. These pills for the cold virus are contraindicated in pregnant and lactating mothers.
Antibiotics for colds
Antibiotics for colds are used only for 5-6 days, if there are no positive dynamics or the patient’s condition deteriorates sharply.
The most effective antibiotics for colds are cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides and penicillins.
Cephalosporins are semisynthetic antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action; for colds, they are prescribed even to children weighing 25 to 50 kg.The drugs in this group include apsetil, cephalexin and seporin.
Fluoroquinolones are also broad-spectrum drugs. They are quickly absorbed and have a bactericidal effect. This group includes levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. You can take such an antibiotic for a cold in an adult who does not suffer from epilepsy, severe cerebral atherosclerosis, or an allergy to fluoroquinolones. For children, pregnant women and lactating mothers, drugs in this group are contraindicated.
Macrolides have bactericidal and bacteriostatic action.Usually, the effect of taking drugs of this group is noted on the 3rd day. They give a good result for sinusitis, sore throat, pneumonia, otitis media, bronchitis, and can be prescribed during pregnancy. The drugs in this group include erythromycin and azithromycin.
Penicillins are broad-spectrum antibiotics that have bacteriostatic and bactericidal action on streptococci and staphylococci. These drugs are the least toxic, therefore, in cases where a good antibiotic is needed for a cold in a child, penicillins (amoxicillin, amoxiclav, ampicillin) are most often prescribed.
Recovery of the body after taking antibiotics
Such drugs as “Khilak”, “Lactobacterin”, “Bifidumbacterin” will help to return the body to its normal state. Taking them is usually recommended for at least a month. In the first two weeks of admission, the state of health may worsen, but this indicates the effectiveness of the drug: pathogenic organisms die and their toxins enter the bloodstream.
After taking antibiotics, you may also need drugs that restore the liver – hepatoprotectors.Many of these preparations contain milk thistle extract, which protects liver cells from toxic substances. Also, the restoration of the liver is facilitated by the roots of dandelion and burdock, St. John’s wort, linden flowers, lingonberry leaves, rose hips and black currants, peppermint.
It is necessary to consider a diet that will maximize the speedy recovery. The emphasis should be on lactic acid foods: they should be consumed in large quantities daily. Dill, parsley, beets, carrots, dried apricots, cabbage, oat flour, wheat bran are useful during this period.As for fruits, bananas have a pronounced probiotic effect.
Only the attending physician can decide what antibiotics to drink for colds and how to restore the body in each case. The patient needs to follow the doctor’s recommendations, in no case reducing or increasing the dosage of drugs and adhering to a healthy lifestyle. If the doctor gave recommendations on the medications necessary in this case for the successful treatment of ARVI, the search for drugs in pharmacies can be carried out through the DOC Internet service.ua.
Cold medicine for children
At the initial signs of illness, parents try to decide which pills to take for a child with a cold, so that he gets back on his feet faster and does not suffer from overly intensive drug therapy. Doctors prescribe effective and yet safe medicines, resorting to antibiotics only in extreme cases.
Anaferon for children is available in the form of tablets and is suitable for children from 1 month. It is an antiviral and immunomodulatory agent, effective for acute respiratory infections, influenza, upper respiratory tract diseases.The tablets have a pleasant sweetish taste, so the child can easily dissolve the tablet. For very young children, 1 tablet is dissolved in 150 ml of boiled water, cooled to room temperature. Arbidol can also be used in children from 2 years of age.
Viferon 150,000 IU is among the effective medicines for colds in children that are safe for children. This medication comes in the form of suppositories. It is an antiviral and immunomodulatory agent that is safe even for premature babies.
During this period, such means as Panadol, children’s paracetamol, Coldrex Junior (suitable for children from 6 years old), Viferon suppositories (for newborns) will facilitate the well-being.
Special antiviral drugs will also improve the general condition, as well as strengthen the immune system. It can be remantadine (for children from 7 years old), arbidol (for children from 2 years old), children’s anaferon (from 1 month old).
Tizin, nasivin or galazolin drops (always with a child’s concentration) will help a child to cope with a runny nose.The drug rinofluimucil is very effective, but it is prescribed with caution in children under 3 years of age. Parents who are deciding how to treat a runny nose with a cold in a child aged 2 years or younger, it is better to refuse vasoconstrictor drops.
For cough, such mucolytic and expectorant drugs as baby bromhexine, lazolvan, stodal are suitable. To reduce allergic reactions, children are given antihistamines (tavegil, fenistil, zodak).
During this dangerous period, you need to protect the newborn from all risk factors.First of all, the following steps should be taken:
- Postpone walks until the main symptoms of the disease subside;
- to reduce water procedures to a minimum;
- in the children’s room to carry out wet cleaning daily, and airing – twice a day;
- Give a newborn a lot of warm boiled water to drink.
Specialists have different attitudes towards the use of heat compresses and rubbing of the chest in newborns.Many people believe that rubbing with eucalyptus balms can be used from the first days of life. Others argue that this treatment is outdated. It is recommended to use this technique only at normal temperature and under the supervision of a specialist.
Treatment of colds in babies
An antipyretic agent should be given if the temperature rises above 38 degrees. Sometimes, when the temperature rises, the child’s hands become cold, the skin turns pale, and chills are observed. In such cases, the baby needs to be warmed: rub the cold limbs with a terry towel, put on mittens and warm socks, give an antipyretic agent and a warm drink.Antipyretic medicines for children usually come in the form of syrup or suppositories. The drug is given in a dosage appropriate for the child’s age.
A cold in infants is usually accompanied by nasal congestion, therefore it is recommended to rinse the nasal passages with saline solution twice a day. To do this, you need to drip the solution into the nasal passage, wait a few minutes, and then suck the liquid with a syringe. With the permission of the doctor, after this procedure, you can drip the nose with vasoconstrictor drops.
Antiviral agents will speed up the healing process and provide the prevention of colds in the future. For a cold in a newborn, they are usually prescribed in the form of suppositories.
If there are symptoms of a bacterial infection, the doctor may prescribe antibacterial agents. Also, with complications of a cold, there is a need for drugs that thin phlegm. Medicines in the form of sprays in the treatment of colds in infants are contraindicated, since they contain coarse particles that can cause laryngeal edema.
Sometimes mothers, not trusting traditional drug treatment, give preference to various herbal preparations, which are supposedly completely safe. This is actually a risky step, as medicinal herbs can cause an allergic reaction in a child.
With such a phenomenon as a cold in infants, the treatment should be effective and at the same time gentle. In order not to risk the health and life of the child, it is best to seek help from a doctor as soon as possible.
Treating colds at home
To prepare most of the folk remedies for colds, no special skills are required.Many of them are not only useful, but also quite pleasant to the taste. The main ingredients used in recipes are:
- medicinal herbs.
Folk remedies for colds
Honey for colds
Honey is a product that can act on many diseases. It has an anti-inflammatory and tonic effect, which is especially important for colds.For treatment, it is necessary to use natural homemade honey, as retail outlets often offer poor quality products.
In case of colds, tea with honey is indispensable, however, to achieve the desired effect, it must be properly prepared. Under the influence of temperatures above 40 ° C, the active substances of honey decompose and the product loses its healing properties, that is, you should not immediately put it in boiling water. To prepare a remedy that can really help, you need to let the tea cool down, and then add honey to it.It is advisable to use green tea as it helps to cleanse the body.
Garlic is very effective in the prevention and treatment of colds, but because of the pungent smell, children often refuse to use it. However, a remedy such as garlic with honey will help a child get rid of a cold at home. To prepare this medicine, you need to grate the garlic and mix with natural honey (1: 1 ratio). If you take the mixture for 5 days, then the body will strengthen, and the symptoms of the disease will go away.
Ginger for colds
Ginger root for colds acts in a complex way: relieves heat and inflammation, creates a warming effect, acts as an immunostimulant. From it you can prepare many not only useful, but also extremely tasty remedies for colds.
The main properties of this product, which make it indispensable for colds:
To prepare a ginger drink, brew black or green tea, strain and add grated fresh ginger root. For 1 liter of liquid, 2-3 tablespoons of ginger are taken. A little clove, cardamom and a cinnamon stick are also added to the drink. The mixture is put on low heat and cooked for 15 minutes. To improve the taste of the drink, you can add freshly squeezed juice (orange, tangerine or grapefruit).
Peel and cut the ginger root 5 cm long.It is placed in a teapot, poured with boiling water, cinnamon, anise, lemon zest and mint leaves are added. When the drink is infused for 10 minutes and cools down a little, honey is added to it.
Raspberry for colds
One of the best natural antipyretic agents is raspberry. This berry contains a number of useful substances, including salicylates, due to the action of which the temperature decreases (in raspberries there are 2 times more of them than, for example, in cherries). It also contains tannins and anthocyanins that act on microbes.
Raspberry jam for colds is traditionally considered an indispensable medicine that allows you to recover in the shortest possible time. However, many experts believe that the usefulness of this tool is exaggerated. Tea with raspberry jam does partly relieve cold symptoms, but this is due to the diaphoretic effect of warm drinking. Raspberries for colds are most useful fresh. Also, dried and frozen berries give a good effect, from which you can prepare a variety of compotes and fruit drinks.
Infusion of dry raspberries
It is necessary to pour 100 g of dry berries into 600 ml of boiling water and leave to infuse for 30 minutes. The filtered infusion is taken in 1 glass a quarter of an hour before bedtime. This product can be prepared with both garden and forest raspberries.
It is necessary to boil 100 g of berries in 500 ml of water, and then cool. To improve the taste, you can add jam to the drink.
Milk with garlic for colds
Many folk remedies for colds are prepared on the basis of garlic.Due to its high antiviral and antiseptic properties, it is often called a natural antibiotic. Its not always delicate effect on the gastrointestinal tract can be mitigated with milk.
To prepare an effective cold remedy, add 10 drops of fresh garlic juice to a glass of warm milk. It is recommended to drink this drink before going to bed for 5 days.
Inhalation with medicinal plants
When the vapor is inhaled, the mucous membranes are covered with the smallest drops of a useful substance, which is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and quickly improves the patient’s condition.
Inhalation with onion juice is quite effective. Their beneficial effect is explained by the content of phytoncides in onions, which have antimicrobial action. However, such inhalations must be carried out carefully, since onion juice, irritating the mucous membrane, can cause burning sensation in the eyes and nose.
Treatment of colds with folk remedies should be accompanied by bed rest and good sleep. It is usually effective in the early stages of the disease. If the cold is carried on the legs, then serious complex treatment may be needed.
How to treat a cold in the summer
During the summer months, people face a variety of risk factors all the time, including temperature extremes, swimming in cold water and ice cold drinks. Treating colds always requires rest, drinking plenty of fluids, and gargling. When deciding how to treat a cold in the summer, you need to remember the main rule: it should not be carried on your feet.
It is easier to stay in bed in winter, because cold weather favors staying in a warm bed.In the summer, it can be difficult to lie on the bed, in addition, people usually relate to the summer cold more easily, believing that it can go away by itself. However, you need to come to terms with possible discomfort and stay in bed. At the same time, it is not recommended to wrap yourself in a blanket, since there is a high risk of overheating of the body, and this phenomenon is as dangerous as hypothermia.
Even with a mild cold, you should not fly in an airplane: during takeoffs and landings, due to the pressure difference, comfortable conditions are created for the infection from the nasopharynx to pass into the middle ear.As a result, a runny nose can provoke such a serious complication as otitis media. To prevent this from happening, it is enough to take on the road with you proven vasoconstrictor drops, for example, sanorin, naphthyzin or galazolin. They should be buried during the flight and during the first hours after landing.
What to do if your ears are blocked with a cold
In this situation, self-medication is dangerous, so you need to immediately contact an otolaryngologist. It is he who should determine how to treat the ear for a cold in your case.If the cause of the phenomenon is a sulfur plug, then the doctor simply removes it. If we are talking about otitis media, then serious treatment will be required, including, possibly, taking antibiotics.
Consider what to do if the ear is blocked after a cold, but there is absolutely no way to immediately consult a doctor. There are several methods to temporarily improve the situation, but they should not be used for too long, delaying the visit to the hospital.
To get rid of excess mucus, blow your nose thoroughly and rinse your nose with saline with a syringe.You can inflate a rubber ball through a straw or squeeze the wings of your nose while trying to blow out air. When a soft pop is heard, you must stop the exercise and swallow several times.
Neutralization of ear congestion in case of a cold under the supervision of a physician can be carried out using different techniques. The most common of these are the use of vasoconstrictor drops and special ear drops, as well as compresses on the ear area.
The easiest way is to instill nasal drops such as tizine, naphthyzine or sanorin.The active ingredients of these drugs will reduce swelling, which will have a positive effect for 5-6 hours.
Special ear drops contain very strong components, so in many cases it is not recommended to use them at the onset of the disease. The most popular of them are otium, resorcinol, albucid. An alternative method of symptomatic treatment is vodka and salt compresses.
Congestion of the ear with a cold is not so much an independent disease as a symptom.In the course of treatment, it is necessary to influence mainly the cause of the pathology.
Loss of smell and taste with colds
Loss of smell and taste in colds is the result of prolonged rhinitis. This phenomenon is inconvenient as it reduces the ability of people to enjoy food, drinks and various pleasant smells. Also, due to such a violation, a person can ignore the presence of harmful substances in the environment, and this is already life-threatening.
Proven remedies help to quickly remove the swelling of the nose and restore the senses.They use massage of the nose, rinsing with saline solutions and herbal decoctions, breathing exercises, physiotherapy, inhalations.
Of the vasoconstrictor agents that effectively affect the common cold and contribute to the early restoration of the sense of smell, the most common are naphthyzine, naphazoline, reserpine. Drops should not be abused: an overdose can provoke swelling of the mucous membrane, which is the main reason for the deterioration of the sense of smell.
How to restore your sense of smell after a cold
To quickly restore your sense of smell after a cold, you can exercise.For example, take a lemon, first look at it, then smell it, and then taste it. You can also spray the inside of the nostrils with a sea salt solution. In general, in order to quickly restore all body systems after a cold, it is recommended to drink a course of vitamins, which will be prescribed by the attending physician.
How to restore your voice after a cold
Usually, doctors, advising how to restore the voice in case of a cold, recommend measures such as silence, rinsing, copious warm drinks and inhalation.You usually need to be silent for several days, while your throat is wrapped in a warm scarf. This time is usually enough for the injured larynx to restore its functions.
It is recommended to use decoctions of chamomile and eucalyptus for rinsing, potato juice is also effective. During the recovery of the throat, you need to drink a lot (unsweetened tea made from medicinal herbs, milk with the addition of natural honey, still water are suitable). For inhalation at home, you can use dried herbs and essential oils.
If your voice disappears with a cold, then for a while you need to give up very hot, cold and spicy food. The food should be moderately warm so as not to injure the throat even more. During this period, it is very important not to breathe cold air, that is, it is advisable not to be in cold rooms. It is also recommended to breathe exclusively through the nose.
Cold during pregnancy
Frequent colds during gestation are explained by the fact that at this time the immune system of women is physiologically weakened.
Signs of a cold during pregnancy
Initially, the disease manifests itself in the form of mild malaise, accompanied by a feeling of fatigue and headaches, but the condition usually worsens over the course of a day. There is pain in the throat, cough, runny nose, loss of appetite.
The temperature in most cases does not rise above 38 degrees and often remains normal, the cough is moderate, dry. The active phase of the disease usually lasts 2-3 days, then the symptoms regress.The doctor diagnoses a cold on the basis of complaints and examination results, during which he fixes the constant secretion of mucus from the nose, plaque on the tonsils, etc.
Consequences of a cold in pregnant women
Due to this disease, the expectant mother may experience complications such as inflammation of the reproductive system, loss of a large amount of blood during childbirth, and chronic infections. A cold during pregnancy is also dangerous for the fetus, as it is fraught with the following consequences:
- fetal malformations;
- fetal hypoxia;
- intrauterine infection;
- placental insufficiency.
The most severe of the likely consequences of a cold is fetal death. Therefore, you cannot ignore the initial manifestations of a cold and try to transfer it without treatment.
Cold in the first trimester of pregnancy
Colds in early pregnancy are the result of hormonal changes in the body. Progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum, has the ability to retain fluid, so the nasal mucosa may swell. Also, this hormone sometimes causes an increase in temperature (no more than 37-37.5 degrees).However, the symptoms of a cold may indicate that the expectant mother is really sick, and at the beginning of pregnancy it is dangerous.
Colds are really the most dangerous before the 10th week of pregnancy. Usually, if a cold occurs during pregnancy, the 1st trimester causes the greatest concern in expectant mothers. Colds are really the most dangerous until the 10th week: during this period of time, all the most important organs of the child are laid (brain, entire nervous system, sensory organs, limbs) …At 9-10 weeks, the embryo already has a beating heart, cartilage tissue begins to be replaced by bone. The circulatory system, liver, genitals are formed. Viral and microbial infections during this period can provoke dangerous fetal developmental disorders.
A cold in the first trimester of pregnancy is extremely dangerous because the expectant mother may not yet know about the child and begins to self-medicate, uncontrollably taking pills that helped her before. However, most of the widely used medicines are contraindicated for pregnant women.A limited number of drugs are allowed, but all of them must be taken under the supervision of a doctor, carefully observing the dosage.
A cold during pregnancy in the 1st trimester is also undesirable due to the fact that, due to low immunity, the risk of complications is too high – otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. Treatment of these conditions requires the use of potent drugs that can negatively affect pregnancy.
Colds in the second trimester of pregnancy
The second trimester is the period from 12 to 24 weeks after the moment of conception.Diseases are no longer as dangerous as in the 1st trimester, since the fetus is protected by the placenta. It is a conductor of oxygen and all the necessary nutrients, performs the function of a kind of barrier that protects the child from external negative influences. A cold during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy can affect the placenta, and then there is such a problem as fetoplacental insufficiency. In this case, the transfer of oxygen and all necessary nutrients to the fetus is difficult. As a result, the baby is born prematurely, with a weight below normal.Also, due to a cold during pregnancy in the 2nd trimester, the nervous system of the fetus can be seriously affected.
A cold illness at week 14 can provoke changes in the endocrine system. A disease at 16 or 17 weeks is dangerous because it leads to improper formation of bone tissue. For a female fetus, 19 and 20 weeks are critical: during this period of time, eggs are formed, and the intervention of the virus in this process can lead to infertility.
Colds in the third trimester of pregnancy
Third trimester – the period from 24 weeks from the moment of conception to childbirth.The fetus is finally formed, protected by the placenta, develops and ripens. However, a cold in the third trimester of pregnancy poses a certain danger to both the baby and the mother.
Any disease can undermine the immunity of the expectant mother and disrupt the course of the labor process. In the third trimester, even a healthy woman has difficulty moving and breathing. Colds may not cause complications, but coughing, sneezing and difficulty breathing during this period are objectively harder than usual.The fact is that nasal congestion increases shortness of breath, and during coughing, intra-abdominal pressure increases.
At 33 weeks gestation, the placenta and undeveloped immune system are unable to protect the baby from infections, and he becomes extremely vulnerable to disease. At 34 weeks of gestation, a cold can disrupt hormonal levels, which will negatively affect the production of breast milk: hormones of the placenta are responsible for this process, and she experiences a colossal load with colossal diseases.A cold at 35 weeks gestation in some cases provokes premature labor and complicates their course. A cold at 36 weeks of gestation, accompanied by a high fever, can cause placental exfoliation, as well as premature rupture of amniotic fluid.
A woman after an illness has not yet had time to restore immunity, for this reason, those who fall ill at a later date are usually hospitalized, and the child who is born is temporarily isolated to prevent its infection.As a result, he does not receive breastfeeding, which negatively affects his health. A cold during pregnancy in the 3rd trimester also complicates the birth process itself: giving birth at an elevated temperature is difficult and dangerous.
Treatment of colds in pregnant women
How to treat a cold during pregnancy in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester? Do not abuse antipyretics, antibiotics or homeopathic medicines. Often, pregnant women are sure that herbs are absolutely harmless, and they take them without consulting a doctor.Meanwhile, many medicinal plants have dangerous side effects and are even capable of provoking a miscarriage, so they must be used with caution when treating colds during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Any means of traditional or alternative medicine during this period can be used only with the permission of a specialist.
Only in emergency situations, it is allowed to take alcoholic tinctures, antibiotics (especially chloramphenicol, streptomycin and tetracycline), many antipyretic drugs.It is not recommended to use acetylsalicylic acid, askofen and citramon: such drugs contribute to blood thinning and can provoke bleeding.
It is especially dangerous to take aspirin in the 1st trimester, because it is fraught with the occurrence of serious defects in the fetus. Possible consequences of taking indomethacin are neonatal hypertension and fetal death. Taking chloramphenicol on the eve of childbirth is fraught with cardiovascular collapse in newborns.
For the treatment of rhinitis, it is better not to use vasoconstrictor drops, but in extreme cases it is allowed to instill sanorin, pharmacolin, galazolin, naphthyzin or nasivin 1-2 times a day.Such treatment can last no more than 3 days. For the initial symptoms of a runny nose, it is better to rinse the nose with saline or saline water.
Traditional methods of treating colds during pregnancy
Colds in pregnant women are often cured by means of traditional medicine. For example, if the temperature rises sharply and chills begin, you can simply drink a lot of tea and cover yourself with a blanket. When the chills have passed, you should wipe the body with vinegar solution. There is no need to rush to wrap yourself in a blanket: the body must give maximum heat to the air while the liquid evaporates from the skin.
At the first symptoms of a cold, you can drink warm milk, still mineral water, rosehip decoction. Lemon balm and mint teas should be consumed with caution as they can reduce blood viscosity.
In case of severe inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, inhalation with decoctions of St. John’s wort or sage helps. They soothe inflammation, sore throat and coughs. You can also inhale the vapors of a decoction of potatoes, water with soda, eucalyptus leaves or black currant.Inhalation will be even more effective if you add thyme, hyssop or rosehip oil to them. Sometimes these oils cause allergies in pregnant women, so you need to use them carefully.
How to treat a cold while breastfeeding
At the first symptoms of this disease, you can drink paracetamol. It is an effective and safe antipyretic agent. In addition, it has analgesic properties, that is, it can eliminate muscle and headaches that are characteristic of the common cold.
It is not recommended to interrupt breastfeeding in case of a cold, as this step can weaken the child’s body. A slight cold in a nursing mother will be eliminated by traditional medicine and sparing medicines.
How to treat in cases when a cold in nursing mothers is accompanied by pain in the throat? In such situations, help:
- soda and iodine-salt rinses;
- Throat lubrication with Lugol’s solution.
What can a nursing mother drink from a cough with a cold? Expectorants such as ambroxol and lazolvan are good options. You can also drink herbal syrups such as Dr. Mom. Treatment of colds while breastfeeding is recommended without drugs containing bromhexine.
If the nose is blocked, vasoconstrictor drops such as nasivine, pharmacoline and tizine are suitable. Abuse of them is fraught with complications (for example, atrophic rhinitis may develop). It is not recommended to use them for more than a week.The nasal mucosa for colds needs additional moisture. To do this, you can use drops that include sea salt.
Before taking any medication, you need to read the instructions. Even a drug that is considered safe contains chemicals, the excess of which can harm the mother or baby. Taking medicines for colds while breastfeeding, do not exceed the dosage indicated in the annotation. It is also necessary to monitor the feeding time so that it does not coincide with the period when the concentration of the active substances of the drug in the mother’s body is maximum.
Prevention of colds during pregnancy
When the weather is fine, it is necessary to walk in the fresh air. On rainy days, it is better to refrain from walking, as there is a high risk of getting your feet wet. You should dress according to the weather, without wrapping yourself up again, so as not to sweat.
Vitamin teas are very useful, but you should not drink them in too large quantities: hypervitaminosis is just as dangerous as a lack of vitamins. It is necessary to regularly ventilate the house, as well as do wet cleaning.
Prevention of colds in a child
Aromatherapy is an effective prophylactic agent. The most useful natural essential oils are pine, orange, lemon, mint, lavender. It is necessary to use only high-quality oils without impurities, follow the instructions and ventilate the room after each session.
A child’s cold is a disease that is easier to prevent than to cure. To prevent this disease, it is important to provide children with adequate sleep and a clear daily routine.When meals, rest, walks and studies occur at about the same time, the body responds more effectively to various changes, that is, it is easier to cope with the effects of viruses.
Prevention of colds in a newborn
To protect the baby from colds, it is necessary to limit contacts. If the mother has a cold, then when communicating with the child, she should wear a cotton-gauze bandage.
Compliance with basic hygiene rules is essential.In the house where the newborn lives, wet cleaning should be carried out daily. Also, before communicating with a baby, you should definitely wash your hands.
Breastfeeding is of particular importance for the prevention of colds and other diseases.