Pregnancy card test: The request could not be satisfied
Pregnancy | FDA
What does this test do? This is a home-use test kit to measure human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in your urine. You produce this hormone only when you are pregnant.
What is hCG? hCG is a hormone produced by your placenta when you are pregnant. It appears shortly after the embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus. If you are pregnant, this hormone increases very rapidly. If you have a 28 day menstrual cycle, you can detect hCG in your urine 12-15 days after ovulation.
What type of test is this? This is a qualitative test — you find out whether or not you have elevated hCG levels indicating that you are pregnant.
Why should you do this test? You should use this test to find out if you are pregnant.
How accurate is this test? The accuracy of this test depends on how well you follow the instructions and interpret the results. If you mishandle or misunderstand the test kit, you may get poor results.
Most pregnancy tests have about the same ability to detect hCG, but their ability to show whether or not you are pregnant depends on how much hCG you are producing. If you test too early in your cycle or too close to the time you became pregnant, your placenta may not have had enough time to produce hCG. This would mean that you are pregnant but you got a negative test result.
Because many women have irregular periods, and women may miscalculate when their period is due, 10 to 20 pregnant women out of every 100 will not detect their pregnancy on the first day of their missed period.
How do you do this test? For most home pregnancy tests, you either hold a test strip in your urine stream or you collect your urine in a cup and dip your test strip into the cup. If you are pregnant, most test strips produce a colored line, but this will depend on the brand you purchased. Read the instructions for the test you bought and follow them carefully. Make sure you know how to get good results. The test usually takes only about 5 minutes.
The different tests for sale vary in their abilities to detect low levels of hCG. For the most reliable results, test 1-2 weeks after you miss your period. There are some tests for sale that are sensitive enough to show you are pregnant before you miss your period.
You can improve your chances for an accurate result by using your first morning urine for the test. If you are pregnant, it will have more hCG in it than later urines. If you think you are pregnant, but your first test was negative, you can take the test again after several days. Since the amount of hCG increases rapidly when you are pregnant, you may get a positive test on later days. Some test kits come with more than one test in them to allow you to repeat the test.
Is this test similar to the one my doctor uses? The home pregnancy test and the test your doctor uses are similar in their abilities to detect hCG, however your doctor is probably more experienced in running the test. If you produce only a small amount of hCG, your doctor may not be able to detect it any better than you could. Your doctor may also use a blood test to see if you are pregnant. Finally, your doctor may have more information about you from your history, physical exam, and other tests that may give a more reliable result.
Does a positive test mean you are pregnant? Usually, yes, but you must be sure to read and interpret the results correctly.
Do negative test results mean that you are not pregnant? No, there are several reasons why you could receive false negative test results. If you tested too early in your cycle, your placenta may not have had time to produce enough hCG for the test to detect. Or, you may not have waited long enough before you took this test.
If you have a negative result, you would be wise to consider this a tentative finding. You should not use medications and should consider avoiding potentially harmful behaviors, such as smoking or drinking alcohol, until you have greater certainty that you are not pregnant.
You will probably recognize incorrect results with the passage of time. You may detect false negatives by the unexpected onset of menses (regular vaginal bleeding associated with “periods”.) Repeat testing and/or other investigations such as ultrasound may provide corrected results.
PREGNANCY TESTING URINE AND SERUM **
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
POSITIVE*: Two distinct red lines appear. One line should be in the control region (C) and another line should be in the test region (T). NOTE: A sample hCG concentration below the cut-off level of this test might result in a weak line appearing in the test region (T) after an extended period of time. A line in the test region (T) seen after the read time could be indicative of a low hCG level in the sample. If such results are seen, it is recommended that the test be repeated with a new sample in 48-72 hours or that an alternate confirmation method is used.
NEGATIVE: One red line appears in the control region (C). No apparent red or pink line appears in the test region (T).
INVALID: Control line fails to appear. Insufficient specimen volume or incorrect procedural techniques are the most likely reasons for control line failure. Review the procedure and repeat the test with a new test cassette. If the problem persists, discontinue using the test kit immediately and contact Technical Service at 1-877-441-7440, Option 2.
*NOTE: The intensity of the red color in the test line region (T) will vary depending on the concentration of hCG present in the specimen. However, neither the quantitative value nor the rate of increase in hCG can be determined by this qualitative test.
Internal procedural controls are included in the test. A red line appearing in the control region (C) is the internal procedural control. It confirms sufficient specimen volume and correct procedural technique. A clear background is an internal negative background control. If the test is working properly, the background in the result area should be white to light pink and not interfere with the ability to read the test result.
Exteranal controls hCG urine: Quantimetrix Dropper Plus Positive and Negative control are run every thirty days, with each new lot, each new shipment and each new operator. Results are entered in the LIS and the date is recorded on the “Quick Check…” chart on the cupboard door.
External Contros hCG Serum: Stanbio hCG Trilevel Serum Controls, two positive levels and one negative level are run with each patient sample. Results are entered in LIS.
1. Very dilute urine specimens, as indicated by a low specific gravity, may not contain representative levels of hCG. If pregnancy is still suspected, a first morning urine specimen should be collected 48 hours later and tested.
2. False negative results may occur when the levels of hCG are below the sensitivity level of the test. When pregnancy is still suspected, a first morning urine or serum specimen should be collected 48 hours later and tested.
3. Very low levels of hCG (less than 50 mIU/mL) are present in urine specimen shortly after implantation. However, because a significant number of first trimester pregnancies terminate for natural reasons, a test result that is weakly positive should be confirmed by retesting with a first morning serum or urine specimen collected 48 hours later.
4. This test reliably detects intact hCG up to 500,000 mIU/mL. It does not reliably detect hCG degradation products, including free-beta hCG and beta core fragments. Quantitative assays used to detect hCG may detect hCG degradation products and therefore may disagree with the results of this rapid test.
5. A number of conditions other than pregnancy, including trophoblastic disease and certain non-trophoblastic neoplasms including testicular tumors, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer, cause elevated levels of hCG. Therefore, the presence of hCG in serum or urine specimens should not be used to diagnose pregnancy unless these conditions have been ruled out.
6. This test provides a presumptive diagnosis for pregnancy. A confirmed pregnancy diagnosis should only be made by a physician after all clinical and laboratory findings have been evaluated.
Sensitivity and Specificity
The Consult Diagnostics hCG Combo Test – Cassette detects hCG at a concentration of 20 mIU/mL or greater in urine and 10 mIU/ml or great in serum. The test has been standardized to the W.H.O. Third International Standard. The addition of LH (300 mIU/mL), FSH (1,000 mIU/mL), and TSH (1,000 µIU/mL) to negative (0 mIU/mL hCG) and positive (25 mIU/mL hCG) specimens showed no cross-reactivity
Consult Diagnostics hCG Combo Cassette Package Insert 09/13
When and How to Take a Pregnancy Test
Have questions about using an at-home pregnancy test? We’ve got all your answers.
By Halle Tecco
Pregnancy tests detect a hormone called human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), which can be detected in urine or blood after an embryo implants itself into your uterine wall. hCG is the first detectable sign of pregnancy, and home tests (like the Natalist Pregnancy Test) are an easy and reliable way to determine if you’re pregnant.
🌟 Shop Natalist Pregnancy Tests ⟶
You can use the Natalist Pregnancy Test starting five days before you expect your period to start. For the most accurate results (over 99%), test three days before your expected period.
If you get a negative result and tested more than three days before your expected period, you could still be pregnant (see chart). We recommend taking another test in a few days. Since it would be really early in your pregnancy, you may not have enough hCG for the test to detect yet. In just two days, your hCG levels will usually double. The more hCG your body makes, the more likely you are to get a positive result.
If you’re testing before your expected period, it’s best to test first thing in the morning (when your urine has a higher concentration of hCG), but you can still test any time of the day. Keep in mind that drinking a bunch of liquid in the few hours before testing can dilute your urine and cause a false negative result (meaning you could be pregnant, but the test will show you’re not).
15% of women have irregular periods, which can make it harder to predict when to test. If this is you, try counting at least 14 days from when you had sex. If your test says you’re not pregnant and you think you might be, test again tomorrow or in a few days.
After following the instructions to take the test, you can view your results in the test window. The test window shows two lines—one for the control line (C) to make sure the test worked and another, the test line (T), that shows a positive result.
- Positive: If two lines show up, even if the test line (T) is very faint, that’s a positive—or pregnant result.
- Negative: If only the control line (C) shows up, the test didn’t detect hCG. Either you’re not pregnant or it’s too early to test.
- Invalid: If only the test line (T) shows up, or no lines develop, the test didn’t work. This could mean the absorbent tip wasn’t saturated with enough urine, or the test is expired or damaged. Grab another test and try again. If you still get an invalid result, contact us.
A negative result means the test did not detect hCG in your urine. A false-negative result (when the pregnancy test is negative, but you’re actually pregnant) can happen for two reasons:
- Either your urine was too diluted (don’t drink a lot of liquid for a few hours before testing) or
- It’s too early to detect a pregnancy. If you tested before your expected period, this could be the case. If you feel you’re pregnant, test again in a day or two. hCG levels soar in early pregnancy—doubling every 48 hours. If you miss your period and still get a negative result, see your doctor.
It’s really rare, but if after five minutes you see no lines or only a test line (T), the test either wasn’t saturated with enough urine—or it’s defective or expired (check the wrapper). Throw it out and try again with a new one.
- Fertility drugs containing hCG (such as Pregnyl* and Profasi**). Drugs containing hCG usually clear your body two weeks post-injection.
- A recent miscarriage or pregnancy, including a chemical pregnancy (a pregnancy loss very soon after implantation). This may give you a false-positive result when you’re no longer pregnant.
- Rare medical conditions that result in the production of hCG unrelated to pregnancy. These include gestational trophoblastic disease, ovarian tumors, and hCG secreted by the pituitary gland during menopause. If you think this could be you, talk to your doctor.
- Following instructions incorrectly.
- Waiting too long to read your results. Results read after 15 minutes aren’t accurate.
Check out this post on spotting by Dr. Mare.
Do you have more questions? Learn more about our pregnancy tests here.
*Pregnyl is a registered trademark of Organon USA, Inc.
**Profasi is a registered trademark of Ares Trading S.A.
How to Read a Pregnancy Test: Positive and Negative Results
Whether or not you’re trying to conceive, missing your period—one of the clearest signs of pregnancy—can be a nerve-wracking and overwhelming experience.
To relieve this anxiety, many people choose to take at-home pregnancy tests. But with all the options out there, it’s hard to know which one to pick and how they work to get the most accurate results.
How Do Home Pregnancy Tests Work?
At-home pregnancy tests have become more accurate because they are more sensitive to the hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) which indicates pregnancy. When an egg is fertilized and attaches to your uterine wall, the placenta begins to form and produces hCG, which flows throughout your bloodstream and urine (that’s where the pee part of pregnancy tests comes in). As you get further along in pregnancy, hCG levels rise more rapidly, doubling every couple of days. At-home pregnancy tests measure the level of hcG in your urine.
How Soon Can I Take a Pregnancy Test?
Many at-home pregnancy tests say they are 99% accurate on the first day of a missed period. According to Mayo Clinic, however, you should wait at least a week from the day of your missed period to take the test for more reliable results. Before taking the test, keep these things in mind:
- Carefully read the directions in the box—meaning the fine print. Make sure you clearly understand the results time window and how to pee on the test.
- If you are taking any fertility drugs, be sure to call your doctor to see if any of the medications you are taking will interfere with your test results.
- Don’t have to pee? Although common sense might tell you to drink a gallon of water, it’s actually recommended not to because this could dilute your hCG levels. Just take the test when you actually have to go.
- Make sure to check the expiration date of the pregnancy test.
How to Take a Pregnancy Test
Take the test in the morning right when you get out of bed since this is when your hCG levels are at their highest.
Tip: Catch a “midstream sample” for the most accurate results. This basically means peeing a little bit into the toilet before peeing on the test.
You can either pee directly on the test for up to 5-10 seconds (or however long the instructions say) or you can pee in a cup and put the pregnancy stick inside for no longer than 10 seconds—whichever is more comfortable for you. When you pee on the stick, make sure to keep the results window facing you. Pregnancy tests typically only take a couple of minutes, but it’s important to read the directions to determine how long test results take to process.
How to Read a Pregnancy Test
Nowadays pregnancy tests range from the traditional to the more high-tech. Here’s how to read positive and negative results for both.
Positive Pregnancy Test
Traditional at-home pregnancy tests come with a single window or two windows on the pregnancy stick. All tests will have a test line to make sure that the pregnancy stick is actually working.
For single window tests a positive result would show both the test line and another line to indicate that you are pregnant.
For the two-window tests, in one window a test line would appear and in the second window a plus sign (+) will appear even if it is faint to indicate that you are pregnant.
Some women prefer digital tests because they are easier to read and there are no lines (faint or bold) to interpret. There will also be some type of countdown to indicate when the results are ready.
A positive pregnancy result will say “You’re Pregnant” or it would say “Yes” in a digital test
Negative Pregnancy Test
If you are not pregnant, a single window test would only show the single test line. For two-window tests, the first window would show the test line and the second window would show a single line that looks like a minus (-) symbol. This means you are not pregnant.
On a digital test, a negative test result will say “Not Pregnant” or “No” to indicate that you aren’t expecting.
Faint Line on Pregnancy Test
You might end up with a faint line, also called an evaporation line. It can be confused with a false positive. The line usually appears several minutes after the time of the test and is caused by evaporating urine. If the line seems faint or you are at all uncertain, take another test.
How Accurate are Pregnancy Tests?
False positives: This is rare but can definitely happen. If you receive a false positive it could be that infertility drugs are messing with your hCG levels, you recently gave birth or had a miscarriage, or the test could be broken. If you get a positive result, go to your healthcare provider to have confirmed by the lab.
False negatives are also rare but more common than false positives. Around 5% of tests may lead to false negatives. Factors that could give you a false negative result range from taking the test too soon and having a faulty test. For the best results be patient and wait at least a week to take the test.
If you tested early and it came up negative, but you end up missing your period, test again. If your home pregnancy test says you’re pregnant, it’s time to make an appointment with your healthcare provider to confirm the results.
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How do pregnancy tests work? – Compound Interest
Click to enlarge
Pregnancy has been in the news over the past month, with a royal baby back in October and the usual smattering of celebrity pregnancies. The inspiration for this post, however, originated a little closer to home; let’s just say that, in around 6 months’ time, my wife and I are going to be entering a fun new world of sleep deprivation! Pregnancy brings up a whole host of science and chemistry questions, the first of which is: how do pregnancy tests work?
For some women, the first signs of pregnancy come before the use of a pregnancy test. This can be in the form of tiredness, a missed period, or even nausea and vomiting. Home pregnancy tests can confirm the suspicions these may generate, with a claimed 99% accuracy. The most reliable results come a week after a missed period. However, some pregnancy tests can confirm that you’re pregnant earlier than this, as early as 8 days after conception.
Pregnancy tests work by detecting the presence of the hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG is a hormone produced by cells in the placenta. Its production starts from the point at which the developing embryo attaches to the uterus, 6-12 days after conception.
hCG’s primary role is to support the function of the corpus luteum, a temporary structure in the ovaries. The corpus luteum is essential during pregnancy. It produces the important hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone relaxes the muscular wall of the uterus and prepares its tissue lining so that the embryo can implant. Estrogen is key for the development of the foetus, stimulating organ growth and thickening the lining of the uterus.
hCG concentration increases from conception, and peaks between 8-11 weeks after conception. For the first few days after conception, its levels can be too low to be detected by pregnancy tests. After implantation its levels double approximately every 48 hours, making it much easier to detect.
hCG is eliminated from the mother’s body through urine, and this is what pregnancy tests use to detect it. Urine is applied to a sample pad at the end of the test stick and is drawn up the strip. The first area it reaches is the reaction zone. If hCG is present in the urine, here it binds to proteins called antibodies. These antibodies have an enzyme attached to them which can participate in reactions further along the test strip.
The test zone contains different antibodies which are attached to the strip and unable to move. These antibodies also bind to hCG, creating something of a hCG sandwich between the two different antibodies. The enzyme on the mobile antibodies triggers a colour change in dye molecules on the test strip. This line only appears if the urine contains hCG – and hence, if the woman is pregnant. If there’s no hCG, the mobile antibodies just sail on past.
Whether the woman is pregnant or not, another line appears on the test in what’s known as the control zone. Here, more immobile antibodies bind to the excess mobile antibodies that didn’t pick up hCG and continued travelling up the strip. Again, this triggers a colour change. This proves that the test is functioning correctly – whether a woman is pregnant or not, the control line should show.
Digital pregnancy tests have become more common in recent years. Though these may look different from the outside, they work in exactly the same way. They simply use a sensor to detect the colour changes and determine whether to display ‘pregnant’ or ‘not pregnant’ on their screens.
Though home pregnancy tests seem commonplace now, they were only developed in the 1970s. Prior to this, tests had to be carried out in laboratories. These laboratory tests were developed less than 100 years ago and were initially somewhat weirder than today’s methods. The first test which could accurately detect pregnancy involved injecting a woman’s urine into several immature female mice. If the woman was pregnant, the ovaries of the mice would grow and produce eggs. Later developments of this test substituted frogs for the mice, in what became the first widely used pregnancy test. Waiting for results took up to a week – a far cry from the mere minutes home pregnancy tests operate in!
Even these first laboratory tests weren’t as odd as some of the methods used to predict pregnancy prior to their development. In the Middle Ages, uromancers (given the fantastic nickname of ‘piss prophets’) tried to divine whether a woman was pregnant. They did this via a number of methods, including whether a woman’s urine rusted a nail or changed the colour of leaves. It’s likely none of these methods were particularly effective.
There are, however, some ancient techniques which had a degree of accuracy, even if at the time people didn’t know why. Ancient Egyptian women reportedly urinated in bags of barley and wheat seeds. If either of the seeds sprouted quickly, this indicated pregnancy. This had a surprising success rate of 70-85% – scientists believe this is because estrogen in the urine stimulated the seed growth.
Happily, women today don’t have to urinate in bags of seeds or have their urine injected into mice to determine if they’re pregnant. Today’s home pregnancy tests are so accurate that doctors often won’t need to follow up a positive result with further confirmatory tests.
When Do I See a Doctor?: Calvary Urgent Care:
At-home pregnancy tests are a great way to find out whether you’re about to be a mom. You can take the test whenever you want, wherever you want, on your own terms. You might choose to be alone, just you and your partner, or with your whole family gathered around. You can have all the privacy you want when you take your first peek at the stick. And if the results are positive, meaning you’re going to have a baby, an at-home test allows you space to take in this life-changing news, to let it sink in as you feel all the emotions that come along with it.
Whether your pregnancy was planned and hoped for, or it’s a complete surprise, your thoughts will eventually turn to the universal question: What now? At Calvary Urgent Care, in Humble Texas, our team of experienced medical professionals love caring for moms-to-be, and we understand that you have many questions. The first may be: When should I call my doctor? Here are some guidelines to help you navigate the next few days and weeks after you first learn that you’re pregnant.
When to make the first call to the doctor
It’s a good idea to call us within the first few days of receiving a positive result on your pregnancy test. Depending on a few different conditions, we may or may not suggest that you make an appointment soon.
One of the main reasons to call us is to begin taking care of that life growing inside you. Prenatal care is essential to the health and development of your unborn baby, and it’s important to start early. By partnering with a professional, you increase your baby’s chance to be born at a healthy birth weight by a factor of three, and also increase their chance of survival by five.
At-home pregnancy tests aren’t only incredibly convenient, they’re 99% accurate. However, there are times when they fail. This could be because of the time you took the test, improper technique, or simply a failed test.
To understand how any pregnancy test works, you need to know what it’s testing for. After your egg has been fertilized, it attaches itself to the wall of your uterus. Then, about six days later, your body starts to produce a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which shows up in your urine and blood. If the test detects it, then it comes back positive, and you’re pregnant.
If you take the test too early, you might be pregnant, even though the test reads negative. If you suspect that your results are inaccurate, a blood test at our office can tell you with certainty.
Why it’s important to talk to a doctor if you’re pregnant
In addition to the routine prenatal care all pregnant women should follow, such as quitting smoking, abstaining from drinking alcohol, and taking folic acid supplements, an early appointment with a doctor is the best way to detect conditions that might put you or your baby at risk.
Some issues can be discussed over the phone, and others may require an in-person appointment. Here are a few of the conditions that may affect your pregnancy:
- Prescription medications
- Previous miscarriages
- Your age
- Chronic health conditions (diabetes, high blood pressure, thyroid disease, and others)
Even over-the-counter medications and supplements can cross the placenta and reach your baby. When you come to see us, we talk to you about the best diet and exercise routines for each stage of your pregnancy and help you and your baby enjoy the time together before the birth.
Typically, we schedule appointments with pregnant women once a month during the first trimester, twice a month during the second, and once a week during the final month. This schedule may change if you or your baby begin to experience any complications, which we identify and monitor throughout your journey.
If you’re pregnant, think you might be, or are getting ready to be, you can trust us to come alongside you every step of the way, from the pregnancy test to the birth of your healthy baby. Call us today at 832-680-2273 or book an appointment online.
Pregnancy Test Cassette One Step Testing Kits
Pregnancy Test Cassettes
One Step HCG Urine Pregnancy Test Cassettes measures the presence of the hormone (HCG) in your urine for the early detection of pregnancy. Pregnancy Test results can be seen clearly in the test window, please see the links below for a image showing you what the rests should look like.
Summary and Explanation:
HCG is produced by the placenta during pregnancy, shortly after the embryo attaches to the uterine lining. Usually HCG can be detected by a home pregnancy test 7-10 days after conception. This test is capable of detecting pregnancy as early as the first day after you miss a period. The further in to the pregnancy you are the higher the levels of HCG in your urine. The concentration of HCG in non-pregnant women is normally 5.0mIU/ml. At the time of the last missed menstrual period; urine HCG levels are about 100mlU/ml with peak levels of 100,000 to 200,000mlU/ml seen at the end of the first trimester.
Each Pregnancy Test Cassette Pack Contains:
Each pouch contains:
- One Step HCG Urine Pregnancy Device Test
- Desiccant (Discard – Do not eat)
Storage and Stability of Pregnancy Test Cassettes:
The test kit can be stored at room temperature (4 °C to 30 °C) in the sealed pouch to the date of expiration. The test kits should be kept away from direct sunlight, moisture and heat.
FOR IN -VITRO DIAGNOSTIC USE ONLY
- Read directions for use carefully before performing this test.
- Do not use beyond the expiration date marked on the foil pouch.
- Each test Cassette can only be used for one time do not re-use the test Cassettes.
- Do not use the cassette if the foil pouch is damaged.
- Once the foil pouch has been opened, the cassette should be used immediately.
- Discard each cassette after use. Treat urine samples and used test devices as if they are potentially infectious. Avoid contact with skin.
- Keep out of reach of children.
For further information about carrying out a pregnancy test from the NHS click here.
To see our health information pages about pregnancy click here.
Pregnancy Test Procedure:
When Can I Carry Out the Test?
You can take this pregnancy test from the first day after a missed period and onwards.
Specimen Collection and Handling:
A urine specimen must be collected in a clean and dry container. The first morning urine specimen is preferred since it generally contains the highest concentration of HCG; however, urine specimens collected at any time of the day may be used.
To Carry Out the Test
- Bring the test pouch and urine to room temperature. To begin testing, open the sealed pouch and remove the cassette.
- Place the test Cassette laterally on a flat and clean surface. Draw 0.2ml (about 4 drops) sample into the pipette, and dispense it into the sample well on the cassette.
- Wait for coloured bands to appear. Positive results may be visible within 1 minute but to confirm a negative result wait up to 5 minutes and until the background is clear. Results obtained after 5 minutes may be considered invalid.
- Discard the test after use.
Interpretation of Pregnancy Test Results
See the image below of the pregnancy test results that you should see in the window.
Negative: If one coloured line appears in the control region on the pregnancy test cassette and there is no line in the test region, then this indicates a negative result, no HCG has been detected in the urine. This means you are either not pregnant or you have tested too early. If you are not sure repeat the test in 48 hours.
Positive: If two coloured lines appear on the pregnancy test cassette, one in the test region and one in the control region, then this means there is a strong possibility that you are pregnant — HCG has been detected in your urine. One line may be lighter than the other, they do not have to match and this is still a positive result.
Invalid: If a red line appears in the test region but there is no visible line at all in the control region of the pregnancy test cassette then the test is invalid. If no lines appear anywhere on the test device then the test is also invalid and should be repeated using another pregnancy test device.
Limitation of the Pregnancy Test:
Alcohol may interfere with the test result. It is not recommended to use the test after drinking alcohol.
If you test too early HCG levels may still be low and so can give a negative result. In this case, another urine specimen should be obtained at least 48 hours later and tested.
If a urine sample is too dilute (i.e.: low specific gravity) it may not contain a representative level of HCG. If pregnancy is still suspected, a first morning urine sample should be obtained and retested 48 hours later.
As is true with any diagnostic procedure, the user should evaluate data obtained by the use of this kit in light of other clinical information and consult their doctor for the final diagnosis of pregnancy before making any decision of medical relevance.
Paper pregnancy test. What else have you invented for the sake of ecology? | Study and work in Germany | DW
For 10 years in a row, the Bundespreis Ecodesign award has been presented in Germany for the best ecodesign. It can be earned by both experienced companies that have implemented green initiatives and students who are just starting to work on their projects. You can apply for the competition until April 21, 2021. What works won in 2020?
Grow forgotten varieties of vegetables
How to diversify plantings in your garden and help the environment at the same time? Trier Graduate School student Jana Hoffmann came up with a project to draw attention to endangered vegetable varieties.She has created colorful, informative brochures and seed packaging that will definitely stand out on the shelves of gardening stores. Ever heard of Chinese artichokes? Think quinoa is a worthless weed?
Seeds of “forgotten” varieties of vegetables
Hoffman suggests rethinking what we buy in supermarkets and eat, because many of the “forgotten” vegetables are actually more unpretentious and productive. The student came up with this idea when she learned about the existence of a seed vault from all over the world on the island of Svalbard.Hoffman hopes that by 2025 we will have a choice between the “old” vegetables and the varieties that are popular today.
Paper pregnancy test
Every year over 5 million pregnancy tests are bought in Europe, all made of plastic. Kiel student Yue Zhao has developed prototype tests that are made from recycled paper. She was faced with a difficult task – it was necessary to find a durable and environmentally friendly material that could replace plastic. Zhao expects that in a few years the tests will be produced in large quantities and they will be on sale.But before that, several issues need to be resolved: for example, come up with moisture-resistant packaging and conduct several strength tests of the product.
Eco-friendly markers and flawed plates
Many of the things we use every day are made of plastic. For example, office supplies. Since 2008, the German company Edding has been trying to make its products more environmentally friendly. One example is the EcoLine marker, which is 90 percent natural and recycled.These markers can be sent to the company and refilled, or additional refills can be purchased for them.
Flawed plates from Weimar
The winning work in the Concept category is another example of a meaningful approach to using things. Student Susann Paduch from Weimar decided to use porcelain that would never go on sale due to marriage. On each plate she made a drawing describing the flaw. The dishes are already being used at the local restaurant “LÜCKE”.
Students at the University of the Arts Zurich and the University of Friborg draw attention to the problem of global warming and melting glaciers. An example they found in their native Switzerland is the Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier in the Alps. With the help of 3D glasses, you can go on a virtual journey 200 years ago, move to the present, and then look into the future – warm and already without the Aletsch glacier. The idea arose while writing a bachelor’s thesis for a student at the University of Friborg.Noemi Chu used 3D models based on accurate measurements and predicted changes in the glacial landscape. The virtual tour has already been held in several museums in Switzerland, in other countries it will be possible after the lockdown.
LED lighting rental from Deutsche Lichtmiete was named Best Eco Service. They design, manufacture and rent low energy lamps themselves. The firm assists with project planning and is also responsible for the repair and recycling of its appliances.
Who can receive the Bundespreis Ecodesign prize? The competition accepts developments that can be considered environmentally friendly at all stages of production, sale and disposal. The jury also considers how the presented idea can change consumer habits and what benefits it can bring to the environment.
The most beautiful incineration plants
Spittelau in Vienna
This plant has been supplying heat and energy to the center of the Austrian capital for 50 years, but it did not become so beautiful immediately, but after the fire of 1987.The then Mayor of Vienna decided that after the renovation, the plant should work in accordance with the latest environmental standards and become a decoration of the city. To this end, the famous Austrian artist and architect Friedensreich Hundertwasser was involved in the project.
The most beautiful incinerators
Less harm, more beauty
Hundertwasser said he would only take over the plant if the harm from incineration is minimized.His demand was taken into account. The central chimney was decorated with a huge golden ball, the building with enamel tiles. After the reconstruction, the plant was ceremonially opened and started working in 1992. Today it is one of the brightest and most popular attractions in Vienna.
The most beautiful incinerators
Amager Bakke – factory and resort
Copenhagen-based Amager Bakke incineration plant went into operation in 2017. And in 2019, the Ropenhill Recreation Area with a ski slope was opened on its roof.The construction of a plant using the latest technology is one of the important milestones on the path to an ambitious goal: by 2025, Copenhagen intends to become a carbon-neutral city.
The most beautiful incinerators
Rubbish and sports
Cover – synthetic. There is both a “black track” and a “green” one, so both beginners and professionals can ride and enjoy themselves at any time of the year. With this project, the creators killed three birds with one stone: Amager Bakke is an environmentally friendly waste disposal, energy supply for the Danish capital and a recreation center for residents and guests of Copenhagen.
The most beautiful incinerators
Frankfurt am Main plant
Frankfurt am Main plant (pictured right) was commissioned in the 1960s. Then it was repaired and updated several times taking into account the updated environmental standards. In the late 1990s, its 110-meter pipe took on its current appearance: a dragon was drawn along its entire length, which has become one of the favorite motifs for photographers.
The most beautiful incineration plants
It used to be a power plant that produced energy for the mining industry.Now that mines in the Ruhr region in western Germany have closed, a completely rebuilt incinerator, equipped with all the latest technology, is supplying energy to this large and populous region.
The most beautiful incinerators
This plant burned its first waste in 2009. It is located in the middle of a beautiful mountain landscape in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, in the south of Switzerland.It looks like, perhaps, some giant and not quite identified flying object that has landed in one of the most picturesque corners of Europe.
The most beautiful incineration plants
Former swimming pool near Paris
No one has burned garbage here for a long time, but the story is so cute! A municipal waste incineration plant was built in the town of Chatne-Malabri in 1930. And in 1938, a pool was added to it, the water in which was heated by the plant. In 1950, the plant was decommissioned, and then the pool was closed.For a long time, the buildings were empty, but then investors were found: now there is a cultural center here.
Author: Daria Bryantseva
Serial Pregnancy test watch online
Obstetrician-gynecologist Natalya Bakhmetyeva is talking with patient Nefedova, who is under a dropper: the dynamics worsened, let’s discuss options, I called a urologist. Nefedova: if he removes my second kidney, it will make some sense. Bakhmetyeva: it’s risky to wait, I suggest you delivery at 31 weeks.Nefedova refuses: Kolmogorov said that I can hold out for another 3-4 weeks, I want to give birth to a healthy child. I knew what I was going for – the only kidney, chronic pyelonephritis. I decided everything – I want to inform. And Kolmogorov guided you from the very beginning of pregnancy? Yes, I chose the best doctor. When he directed me to you, he said that I can decide for myself if there are options. And they are.
Bakhmetyeva unsuccessfully tries to get through to Kolmogorov. Bakhmetyeva approaches the head physician of the clinic, Ilya Yakovlevich, and says that Nefedov needs to be operated on urgently.And what about Kolmogorov? Not available. The head doctor says that with such urgency, Bakhmetyeva, instead of jerking him, could take the initiative into her own hands. At this moment, Bakhmetyeva is summoned to Nefedova. The patient has stopped breathing. The resuscitator gives her intubation and chest compressions. Nefedova is taken to the operating room. But, despite all the efforts of Bakhmeteva and her colleagues, the patient dies on the operating table. The child is saved.
Bakhmetyeva drives up to the building of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.She leaves Kolmogorov a message on the answering machine: come down, I’m downstairs. But then she sees that Kolmogorov is leaving the building. Bakhmetyeva informs him: if you are interested, Yuri Alekseevich, then Nadezhda Grigorievna Nefedova died during the operation. Kolmogorov told her that at 46 years old with one kidney it is possible to give birth to a hero and a genius in the 40th week. Yura, I called you a hundred times … Kolmogorov says: stop behaving like a quivering student, it’s time for you to make your own decisions, it’s time to grow up.Deal with it! Leaving Natalia, Kolmogorov goes to his wife, who meets him near the car. She asks her husband: who is this? My student. Kolmogorov kisses his wife, they get into the car and drive away.
Bakhmetyeva submits a letter of resignation of her own free will. Ilya Yakovlevich: it’s not your fault, don’t punish yourself. Losing a patient on the operating table is always a tragedy, but it happens. Bakhmetyeva: no need to console me, just sign the statement, I will not change my mind. Ilya Yakovlevich: But you understand that without Kolmogorov’s blessing you will not be allowed to visit any shop in Moscow now.Bakhmetyeva: fortunately, there are shops not only in Moscow. Having signed the statement, Ilya Yakovlevich reports: a couple of weeks ago an old acquaintance called me, the head physician of a clinic in a northern city, he was looking for the head of the observation – a young, promising one.
Late in the evening Bakhmetyeva loads things into the trunk of her car. Kolmogorov arrives: Natasha, what’s going on? Why do you need to drop everything at once – a clinic, a dissertation? Running away in the middle of the night, not answering my calls – what kind of kindergarten? Bakhmetyeva: don’t you understand? The man died.Kolmogorov: Yes, patients sometimes die. So what? Analyzed, sad – we go further. Bakhmetyeva: here I am going. Kolmogorov: to whom and what are you proving? That you can handle everything without me? You lived with me for ten years. Yura, to live is when under one roof. So you wanted simple philistine happiness? I know too little about him to want to. But I know for sure what I don’t want anymore. Thinking that you have a man when he is not. It’s okay to talk yourself into working 24/7 and meeting you once a week.Thank you for reminding me how old I am. I’m going to grow up and find out what I want.
Bakhmetyeva arrives in St. Petersburg.
Obstetrician-gynecologist Alla Valerievna Kashina sleeps in her office after celebrating her anniversary with colleagues the day before. Kashina is 50 years old. She is woken up by a phone call: another patient has been brought to the clinic. Kashina puts herself in order and goes to the emergency department. She asks: what do we have here? The waters had drained forty hours ago.Kashina examines the patient, commands: a gurney! In her operblock, quickly! The husband of the woman in labor remains in the ward, he is dressed in the attire of a Krishnaite, and reads mantras.
Bakhmetyeva drives up to the clinic building, where she will now work. The guard refuses to let her into the parking lot. He refers to the instructions: your car is not on the list, I don’t know you, no one warned me about you, you don’t have a pass either. Bakhmetyeva says she can call the head physician. The guard declares that he has his own superiors, to whom he obeys.Bakhmetyeva leaves her passport as a pledge so that she will still be allowed through.
Midwife Evgenia Efimovna Mishina, whom her colleagues call Misha in a familiar way, is trying to hear the fetal heartbeat of a Hare Krishna patient with the help of a wooden tube. A young obstetrician-gynecologist is interested in: what is it, Misha? If I can’t hear with my ear, then it is not there. Kashina enters the operational block, reports: the head doctor is unavailable. Mishina turns to Kashina: the fruit is dead, it is necessary to make a fruit-destroying one. Leave her the uterus, you fool, because the first child, you don’t need the last one.Irritated Kashina pulls back the midwife: Evgenia Efimovna, mind your own business. Offended Mishina walks away. Anesthesiologist Alexander Anatolyevich Dontsov appears: so what have we got here? Kashina: supravaginal amputation, due to prolonged anhydrous. Dontsov sighs: it means that her fate is to be childless. Kashina: I would like children, would not give birth at home.
In the hallway, intern Pavel Samoryadov is filling out the case history of a newly admitted patient. Misha is standing next to her, she grumbles: why should you immediately shred the uterus and the table? Previously, a dead fetus was pulled out through a certain place, and the uterus was left in place.Bakhmetyeva approaches, greets, looks at the medical history, is horrified and runs to the operating room. Mishina: what was it now? Pavel: I didn’t understand myself.
Kashina brings the scalpel over the patient’s abdomen. Bakhmetyeva bursts into the operating room, she throws the surgical instruments prepared for the operation onto the floor. Kashina is indignant: why are there outsiders in the operblock? Call security! Bakhmetyeva introduces herself, says that from today she is the head of the observation department. Then she commands: the patient to the delivery room, quickly!
Mishina helps Bakhmetyeva to extract the dead fetus.Pavel faints during this procedure. Dontsov brings the intern to his senses and puts him in the corridor.
After a successful operation, Bakhmetyeva tells Pavel to leave his sensitivity for dating, in the operating room is an unaffordable luxury. Bakhmetyev is called by the head physician. When she leaves, Pavel asks Dontsov: who was right – Bakhmetyev or Kashin? He says: Kashina did what she was supposed to, and Bakhmetyeva aimed at more. So are you for Bakhmetyev? No, I am for my own people.Kashina and I gave birth to half a division of children together, and I never liked doctors with God syndrome.
Kashina reprimands the head physician of the clinic, Oleg Evgenievich Samoryadov (Pasha’s father): well, you gave me a present for the anniversary. Couldn’t even warn you in advance? Samoryadov: Bakhmetyeva acted boldly and professionally, and she kept the uterus, which you wanted to cut into pieces so as not to risk it. Yeah, but now the temperature will rise, and the uterus will still have to be removed, but only the septic one.You’re doing it! Go to work and do not bother her. I will follow.
Bakhmetyev enters the office. Kashina purses her lips and leaves. Samoryadov congratulates the new head of the observation with the military entry into office. Just keep in mind for the future: such decisions are made by a council. Bakhmetyev: which still needs to be collected, but the risk of infectious complications increases. Samoryadov: I have no doubt that you are a good doctor, but what kind of manager you will be remains to be seen. You need to be able to build relationships with subordinates.
After going around Bakhmetyev scolds Pavel. Why did you tell the patient about placental abruption? If next time you dream of something, be patient until the corridor, have pity on the patient. Have you read her medical history? She had eight miscarriages! She has never reached the 30th week yet. Then Bakhmetyeva switches to Sechenov: I asked you to do an ultrasound, where is it? Sechenov is silent. Bakhmetyeva leaves. Pavel: does she even know how to speak normally? Sechenov: something else worries me. I brought her maps half an hour before the detour.How did she manage to learn everything about the 12 patients? I feel, Pasha, our free life is over with you. We will remember Kashina later as a kind tsar.
A specialist in artificial insemination Ruslan Bazanov is entering the building of the clinic. The head nurse Dina Rafailovna shares with him the latest gossip about the new head of the observation. Learning her name, Bazanov drops a glass of coffee from his hands.
A patient comes to Bazanov who has been trying to get pregnant for 15 years.She underwent IVF 25 times, but to no avail. Bazanov assures that there are still chances for success. He sees no reason to refuse a woman who so wants to become a mother.
At lunchtime, Bakhmetyeva is resting on a bench in the clinic’s courtyard. A Krishnaite approaches her: why didn’t you save my child? Because you marinated your wife at home for two days. Krishna is crying: so you also think that only obscurantists give birth at home? But after all, you cannot tear the child away from the mother when he is born, the umbilical cord cannot be cut, and the placenta must be buried.We wanted children so much. My wife couldn’t get pregnant for two years. Then we went to India, and a miracle happened. Why didn’t you save the child?
Neonatologist Andrei Lazarev is entering the courtyard. He addresses the Hare Krishna: what is your name? Andrey. Listen, namesake, is your beloved woman still alive? Yes. This is the main thing. She will still be able to give birth – not bad either. Let’s go to her now, you will say that you love her. Lazarev takes the Hare Krishna away.
Bakhmetyeva sees Bazanov getting out of the car that drove up to the clinic.She recognizes her classmate, sneaks up behind him, closes her eyes with her palms: Ruslanchik-Bazanchik, a sunny boy. Bakhmetyev! Natalya hangs around Ruslan’s neck. He says: you have not changed at all. And you have grown and become even more beautiful, are you not ashamed? Bakhmetyeva asks: where is the buffet here? I haven’t seen food for a day. Bazanov: The buffet is not food. And you are still the same snob. A long-legged brown-haired woman in a medical gown comes out of the clinic building, greets Bazanov, passes by. Bakhmetyeva: is this Nicole Kidman’s sister? Bazanov: he is lying that he is the head of the laboratory.This is Olga Olshanskaya, a very clever girl. In love? But not me. Bazanchik, well, can there really be someone who is not in love with you? You were kind of hungry, let’s go eat.
Lazarev comes to the laboratory, asks Olshanskaya to do one analysis. Olshanskaya asks Lazarev about Bakhmetyeva. He says that he saw her briefly, but already on the first occasion it is clear that she is a maximalist, with such difficulties. Olshanskaya: are we meeting on Friday? Lazarev: I have children on Friday. On Saturday? Olshanskaya: I don’t know. I have a sports club, massage, then a meeting with a childhood friend.If you, of course, squeeze in … Lazarev kisses Olshanskaya: I am compact.
In the dining room Bazanov and Bakhmetyeva ask each other what happened in the seven years during which they did not see each other. Bakhmetyeva answers evasively to questions about his personal life and the reasons for leaving Moscow. Her phone rings. There was an accident, eight cars. A pregnant woman is being taken among the victims.
At the admission department Pavel and Sechenov are waiting for the arrival of a patient injured in the accident. A married couple comes up.A pregnant woman says that her five-year-old daughter kicked her in the stomach last night: it hurts very badly. Sechenov instructs Pavel to do an ultrasound. Walking towards Kashina tells Pavel to start the examination, she will come up later.
A patient is brought in after an accident, she is 40 weeks pregnant, she has a hip injury and bleeding. Kashina believes that the placenta has exfoliated. Bakhmetyeva gives her an order: take her to the operating unit, first the caesarean, then the hip, call the traumatologist. Pavel approaches Kashina: what to do with the woman who was kicked in the stomach by her daughter? Oh, I completely forgot.What is ultrasound? I did it, I can’t see anything, but it looks like something is wrong. She complains of pain. Bakhmetyeva decides to take care of the patient. On examination, the woman grimaces in sharp pain. Is that your cesarean scar? Yes. Have there been other operations? Myoma was cut out.
Bakhmetyeva and Pavel take the patient to the operating room. Next to her is another gurney with a woman after the accident. Bakhmetyeva asks Kashina: why haven’t they started yet? All anesthesiologists are in surgery now, for an accident. Mishina: they will be in 20 minutes, if they don’t lie.Bakhmetyeva: we urgently need an operating room, the condition is critical. Kashina: we cannot do two cesareans at the same time, the patient has a lot of blood loss. Bakhmetyeva: yours can wait, she has a lot of injuries, but the child is out of danger, and here we can lose both.
Bakhmetyeva believes that her patient has a ruptured uterus. She gives her a caesarean section under local anesthesia. As a result, both the child and the woman in labor survive. Mishina is delighted with Bakhmetyeva’s actions. Kashina thinks that she was just lucky.
Bazanov helps Bakhmetyeva find an apartment in St. Petersburg. On the way to work, Bakhmetyeva asks him about his subordinates: which of them should I be afraid of? You can handle the rest.
The pop diva Meridiana (her real name is Marina) is brought to the clinic. At the reception with Bakhmetyeva, she says that already in the late stages of pregnancy, the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome. The pop diva’s husband is an oligarch, he is waiting for a normal heir. Therefore, Marina hid the diagnosis from him. And now she doesn’t want the baby to be born alive.Bakhmetyeva says that no doctor will agree to kill a child with a pathology. Marina intends to leave the clinic, but at the door she faints. Bakhmetyeva insists on hospitalization of the VIP patient, who has a presentation of the fetus.
Bazanov is trying to convince a patient who underwent an IVF procedure by his colleagues from another clinic to get rid of at least two of the four embryos. There is very little chance of giving birth to a healthy quadruple. The woman is stubborn.
A prisoner is brought to the clinic from the pre-trial detention center.The woman (Anastasia) killed her husband – an excess of self-defense, he beat her. She already had contractions. Despite the protests of Dina Rafailovna, Bakhmetyeva gave the order to register the patient and issue the dressing gowns to the escorts accompanying her.
At the end of the working day, Samoryadov calls Bakhmetyeva and tells her to inform the management of her decisions in extraordinary situations.
Late in the evening, Meridiana starts vaginal bleeding. She is urgently delivered to the operating room.
Bakhmetyeva accepts Bazanov’s invitation to dine in a restaurant. He orders champagne, expresses the hope that their relationship will become more than friendly. Bakhmetyeva flirts and jokes.
Misha sees that Kashina cannot cope with the bleeding at Meridiana. She calls the head nurse and demands that she call Bakhmetyeva: otherwise we will have two VIP corpses.
Having said goodbye to Bazanov, Bakhmetyeva answers Diana Rafailovna’s call and rushes to the clinic.She replaces Kashina and finishes the operation begun by that. The baby is born prematurely. Lazarev is engaged in it. In the morning he tells Meridian: your child is alive, boy, a genetic test has come, your son has Down syndrome. Thank you, I’m in the know.
Meridiana is visited by her producer Vladik. He says that a child down at a star can be a reason for a crazy PR: everyone will just cry out. Meridiana declares: you wouldn’t go to the forest with such PR.
Bakhmetyeva takes delivery of Anastasia.Pavel arrives. Bakhmetyeva smells a strong smell of fumes from the intern. She declares that Pavel has been demoted to orderlies for three days and drives him out.
A husband comes to Meridian. Upon learning that the child was born with an incurable pathology, the oligarch declares: we are parting, everything that is written in the contract, you will receive. And the child? A healthy child is registered in our contract. The oligarch leaves.
Anastasia has a healthy boy. But the prisoners do not have the opportunity to raise their children.
Meridiana decides to abandon her child. She asks Bakhmetyeva and Lazarev to invite a lawyer to her.
Bazanov speaks at a medical conference at the institute where his late father taught. He tells interns about modern IVF methods, and after the lecture, Inga Elizarova, a graduate student, meets him.
Samoryadov tells Bakhmetyeva that usually a lot is forgiven to the children of the bosses. But she did the right thing with Pavel: I still hope that he will become a real doctor.Therefore, henceforth, do not forgive him anything like that.
At night, Meridiana comes to the neonatology department. She cries near the box for premature babies, asks her son for forgiveness.
Can the test be wrong?
According to statistics, about a quarter of women are not sure about the accuracy of pregnancy test results. Therefore, it is worth figuring out whether a pregnancy test can really be wrong and, if so, in what cases. We will talk about this now.
Could the test be wrong?
Yes, there is a possibility of error.At the same time, the test can show both a false positive and a false negative result. What does it depend on?
The test may show an incorrect result if it is banally expired or the conditions of its storage have been violated. Therefore, it is better to buy it at the pharmacy and check the expiration date.
You can make a mistake, and if you do not follow the instructions for use. This is especially true for test strips, which are very easy to overexpose or, conversely, underexpose.
Possible causes of a false negative result
The test contains substances that react to the content of the hormone gonadotropin in the urine, which is produced in the woman’s body on the 7-10th day of pregnancy.
Therefore, the test may show a negative result in the following cases:
- Conception occurred shortly before the onset of menstruation and the hormone did not have time to accumulate in the required concentration for the test to catch;
- The gestation period is more than 12 weeks and the hormone has already ceased to be produced;
- Ectopic pregnancy has occurred or there is a threat of miscarriage;
- Woman drinks a lot of fluids or drinks diuretics;
- The test is weak and the test was not performed in the morning.
Why might the test be false positive?
This also happens, and below are possible reasons.
- A woman is taking medications containing gonadotropin, such as ovulation stimulants.
- Recently had an abortion or miscarriage.
- There are tumor processes in the body.
- If the test showed a positive, and a few days later – a negative result, it is possible that the fetus froze and an early miscarriage occurred.
To avoid mistakes, it is important to buy quality tests with high sensitivity, check their expiration date and follow the instructions completely. Also, it is better to test in the morning and not earlier than two weeks after the end of taking medications that stimulate ovulation. Also, it is better to postpone the test immediately after an abortion or miscarriage. And on the eve of testing, it is better for a woman to refrain from diuretics and large amounts of fluids.
If a pregnancy test is positive, the best way to confirm its accuracy is to have an ultrasound scan.We invite you to our medical center, where you can undergo an examination, pass all the necessary tests, register and receive professional advice from a doctor.
WONDFO pregnancy test – wondfo.com.ua – rapid diagnostic tests
The pregnancy test is a rapid pregnancy test that you can easily do yourself. This test detects the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which appears in the urine at the very beginning of pregnancy.
T For in vitro diagnostic use only. For external use only.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta during its development shortly after fertilization and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test contains antibodies that react specifically with this hormone.
When the strip is immersed in a urine sample, the sample migrates along the membrane in a capillary manner.When the hCG in the sample reaches the test site of the membrane, it results in a colored line. The absence of a colored line indicates a negative result.
As a procedure control, a colored line will appear in the control area (C) if the test was performed correctly.
WHAT ELSE DO YOU NEED?
1. A clean, dry, plastic or glass container for collecting urine.
2. Timer (clock or chronometer).
1.This kit is for external use only. Do not swallow.
2. Dispose of after first use. The test strip is for single use only.
3. Do not use the test kit after the expiration date.
4. Do not use the kit if the bag has holes or is poorly sealed.
5. Keep out of reach of children.
STORAGE AND STABILITY
1. Store at 2ºC to 30ºC in a sealed bag until the expiration date.
2. Store in a place protected from direct sunlight, moisture and high temperatures.
3. Do not freeze.
4. It is advisable to open the bag only for a short time, before testing.
COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF SAMPLES
WHEN TO COLLECT URINE FOR ANALYSIS?
Any urine sample is suitable for a pregnancy test, but a first morning urine sample is optimal given the high hCG concentration in it.
HOW TO COLLECT URINE
Urine samples may be collected in any clean, dry, plastic or glass container.
HOW TO DO THE TEST?
1. To perform the test, the test strip and urine must be brought to room temperature (15-30 ° C).
2. Remove the test strip from the sealed container.
3. Immerse the strip in the urine with the arrow pointing in the direction of urine. Remove the strip after 3 seconds and place it horizontally on a clean, dry, non-absorbent surface (such as the neck of a urine container).
IMPORTANT: Do not allow the urine level to exceed the MAX level (marking line), otherwise the test will not be performed correctly.
4. Positive results can be observed after 1 minute. However, a full reaction time of 3 minutes must be maintained to confirm negative results. Does not read results after more than 5 minutes.
HOW TO READ THE RESULTS?
Negative (not pregnant)
Only one colored line appears in the control area. The strip is not visualized in the test area. This indicates that pregnancy has not been identified.
Clear colored streaks appear in the control and test areas. This indicates that you are pregnant. The color intensity of the test strips may vary, since the concentration of the hCG hormone is different at different stages of pregnancy.
The strip is not rendered at all, or is rendered only in the test area, but not in the control area. Repeat the test with a new test.If the test fails again, contact the distributor or store where you purchased the product with the batch number.
WHAT SHOULD YOU DO WHEN YOU KNOW THE RESULT?
If positive (TWO LINES)
See a doctor. He must confirm that you are pregnant after evaluating all clinical and laboratory findings. Under certain conditions, the test can give a false positive result. Your doctor will provide you with additional information and advice on pregnancy.
If negative (ONE LINE)
If you have reason to believe that you are pregnant (for example, no menstrual bleeding), you can repeat the test a few days later. If the test result is still negative, see your doctor.
1. As with all diagnostic procedures, the final diagnosis of pregnancy can only be confirmed by a physician, after evaluating all clinical and laboratory tests.
2. If the urine sample is too dilute (ie, has a low relative density), it may not contain sufficient hCG levels. If pregnancy is still suspected, another urine sample should be collected 48 hours later and tested.
3. Low concentration of hCG at an early stage of pregnancy can give a negative result. In this case, collect another sample no earlier than 48 hours later and test it.
4. Elevated levels of hCG can be caused by conditions other than pregnancy.Therefore, the presence of hCG in a urine sample should not be used to diagnose pregnancy unless these conditions have been ruled out.
5. Normal pregnancy cannot be distinguished from ectopic pregnancy only by the levels of hCG. In addition, spontaneous miscarriage can cause difficulties in interpreting test results.
6. HCG based fertility drugs can cause false results. See your doctor.
Negative results are expected in healthy non-pregnant women and healthy men.Despite the variability of hCG levels in healthy women at an early stage of pregnancy, a pregnancy test can be used to detect pregnancy as early as 1 day of delayed menstruation.
The pregnancy test detects hCG in urine at a concentration of 20 mIU / ml or higher.
The specificity of the pregnancy test was determined from cross-reactivity studies with known concentrations of luteinizing hormone (human LH), follicle stimulating hormone (human FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (human TSH).All test results obtained using 300 mIU / ml human LH, 300 mIU / ml human FSH and 1000 μMU / ml human TSH were negative.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. The control lines of the two tests are very different. This is problem?
No. Variations in the color of the control strip will not affect the test result.
2. Can the test results be interpreted later than five minutes?
No. The analysis results must be read immediately after 3-5 minutes.Although a positive result will not change over a few days, a negative result may change to a false positive within a few minutes after the end of the test time. It is always best to read the results at the 5th minute of the test and then discard the test to avoid confusion.
3. During the test, a pink background and vertical streaks appeared in the results area. This is problem?
No. Each urine sample will have a different chemical profile, as will the humidity level in the room (s) where the test is being performed.Such differences in physical conditions may cause vertical streaks and / or a pale pink background, but will not affect the analysis results. As long as the control strip appears within five minutes, the test will run correctly.
How pregnancy tests work, types of tests
How pregnancy tests work, types of tests
July 23, 2014
For any woman, the news of pregnancy is a very exciting moment, for everyone in different ways.But in any case, I want to make sure of the presence or, on the contrary, of the absence of pregnancy, as soon as possible.
Modern medical technologies make it possible to detect pregnancy from the first week of a delay in the menstrual cycle, even before a visit to the doctor. Pregnancy tests make it possible to do this. Such tests can be of good quality, i.e. simply determine the presence or absence of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin, also called pregnancy hormone, in the urine.And they can also be quantitative – to determine the amount of hCG in urine or blood.
The most popular instrument is the test strips for rapid detection of pregnancy by urine analysis. The principle of their action is the same – it is the determination of the presence of the hormone in the urine by liquid chromatography. The simplest and most popular, due to its affordable cost, the test is an ordinary paper test strip with reagents applied to it.
To carry out the test, it is necessary to collect a portion of urine in a dry, clean container and lower the test there to the marked line.After the strip has absorbed urine to the reference line, the test should be removed and the result evaluated within 2 to 5 minutes. In the absence of pregnancy, only one control strip will appear, if it is present – two strips.
For the accuracy of the test, the cleanliness of the dishes, adherence to the technique of performing the test (do not overexpose the test in urine or, conversely, do not take it out ahead of time) are important. Do not touch the reaction zone with your hands. That is why it is not recommended to conduct the test in conditions that cannot provide it.The result is highly likely to be incorrect. The cassette pregnancy test is more convenient. In this embodiment, the test strip is placed inside a plastic container, and a window is left for applying urine using the supplied pipette. The urine should also be collected in a clean container. The most convenient test model for determining pregnancy is the inkjet test, which does not require a prior urine collection. The plastic case is simply enough to substitute the test area under the stream of urine.Naturally, as the ergonomics of the test increases, its cost increases. All of these types of test strips are available at almost every pharmacy.
The sensitivity of such tests for detecting pregnancy is quite high and amounts to 10 -25 micromol / ml. The most sensitive tests are those with a detection limit of 10 micromol / ml. This makes it possible to determine if there is a pregnancy, with an accuracy of about 99%. To improve accuracy, you should do the test in the morning, because at this time, the level of hCG in the body is at its highest.If the second strip is pale, then the result should be considered positive, you can duplicate the test when the concentration of the hormone increases (after a week, for example).
Not so long ago, a new product appeared in pharmacies – a test that allows you to determine not only the presence, but also the approximate gestational age. This electronic test is able to determine not only the presence of hCG in urine, but also to quantitatively analyze it. And the amount of the hormone normally directly depends on the duration of pregnancy. Inconsistency is possible only in case of a threat of spontaneous termination of pregnancy or certain tumor diseases of the organs of the woman’s reproductive system.Some tumors can also give a false positive result in the absence of pregnancy. Also, the test result can distort the intake of certain medications. The cost of the electronic test is quite high, but, nevertheless, it is starting to gain popularity among modern women.
Pregnancy can be determined, among other things, by a blood test. To do this, if you show any signs of pregnancy, you should visit the laboratory. Laboratory methods are also based on the determination of chorionic gonadotropin, but this time in the blood.A laboratory test can be either qualitative or quantitative. The test should be done on an empty stomach, like all other blood tests.
The proposed online tests for quick identification of pregnancy, based on questionnaires, are not reliable. Since they are exclusively subjective in nature, and even an experienced doctor does not make a diagnosis based only on a survey, without laboratory confirmation.
As soon as you received a test result and it turned out to be positive, you should definitely visit a doctor to confirm the fact of pregnancy and register.Do not forget that only a qualified specialist can control the normal course of pregnancy and prevent possible problems. By registering with the antenatal clinic on time, you will take care of your own health and the health of your unborn child.
90,000 When a rapid pregnancy test is wrong, explained the gynecologist of the Mechnikov University
All express tests, regardless of the price and method of work, are based on one principle – they determine the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the urine.This is a hormone that begins to be produced in the female body 7-10 days after the fertilized egg begins to develop. It is believed that with the onset of pregnancy, hCG can be determined already in the first days of a delay in the menstrual cycle.
The tests contain special substances that capture the hormone and react to it by changing the color on the strip or by the appearance on the screen of an electronic device of the inscription: pregnon or non pregnon (“pregnant” or “not pregnant”).
Why the negative answer can be false
If the concentration of gonadotropin is insufficient, the test result can be false negative.This can happen when conception occurred shortly before the onset of menstruation, and hCG has not yet had time to accumulate in a perceptible amount. By the way, for a period of more than 12 weeks, an express test will also be useless: hCG stops being produced.
A false negative test can be in case of an ectopic pregnancy and the threat of miscarriage. With excessive fluid intake, the concentration of hCG in the urine may also decrease, which means that the test result may be unreliable. Therefore, before the test, experts advise not to drink a lot of fluids and not to use diuretics.This is especially important for short periods, when a woman does a test in the first days after a delay. And it’s best to measure your hormone levels in the morning.
“Some tests say that the time of day at which it is held does not matter,” says Yulia Dolgo-Saburova. – As a rule, such tests are positioned as highly sensitive. But whatever the instructions say, a few days after the delay, I would still recommend doing the test in the morning, since a noticeable amount of hCG throughout the day appears in the urine somewhere around the third week of embryo development. “
Why a positive answer can be false
In addition to false negative results, rapid pregnancy tests can show false positives. This happens when taking drugs containing hCG, for example, stimulating ovulation “Pregnil” and “Profazi”. At the end of the course of treatment with these drugs, high levels of hCG can persist for up to two weeks. Therefore, the test will have to be postponed for this period. After miscarriages, abortions, removal of an ectopic pregnancy, the hormone does not leave immediately – it remains in the body for some time, and tests can give false positive answers.
Show pregnancy where there is none, the test can be used for various tumor processes.
what is it and how to use it correctly
We have compiled a few key facts about pregnancy tests and how to use them correctly to get the most accurate results possible.
Taking a pregnancy test can be both exciting and exciting. This is the case when a lot, if not all, depends on the results.Knowing the nuances of this simple procedure will allow you to be completely confident in the accuracy of the results obtained.
How pregnancy tests actually work
Test strips, test cassettes, inkjet – absolutely all pregnancy tests that can be bought today even in a supermarket work according to the same scheme: they react to the presence of a special hormone in the urine. Human chorionic gonadotropin, or hCG for short, begins to be actively produced in early pregnancy.
A home pregnancy test can detect elevated hCG levels 12-14 days after conception.
The later, the more accurate
Take a pregnancy test as late as possible? For many, this is unrealistic. But you are guaranteed to get a more accurate result if you are patient.
Experts from leading clinics in the world recommend waiting for the first day of missed periods or, even better, a pregnancy test a week later.
If you are pregnant, the level of hCG in your urine doubles every two to three days.Waiting in this case will not only help to save on the number of tests performed, but also to avoid inaccurate first readings.
Do it in the morning
Using a pregnancy test immediately after waking up in the morning will help you get a more accurate result.
The first morning urine portion is the most concentrated. This also applies to the content of chorionic gonadotropin in it. Even tests with low sensitivity are more likely to respond to a higher level of hCG.
Before the test, drink less than
This recommendation is for the same reason as the advice to take a pregnancy test in the morning. Any liquid you drink, even drinking water, can affect the results of tests done very early in pregnancy. Less concentrated urine becomes pale yellow or even colorless – in this case, the content of hCG in it is significantly reduced.
Carefully read instructions
Even if you are sure that you know how home pregnancy tests work, it is worth reading the recommendations indicated in the instructions.
This is an elementary action, but not everyone decides on it: before entering the bathroom, take out the instructions from the package with the test and carefully read it – do not rely on memory and the description of the procedure you read earlier.
Use a glass or cup
A small exception to the previous recommendation: the instructions for some tests say that the procedure should be performed under a stream of urine, but in most cases it will be sufficient to immerse the test in a container of urine.
Place the absorbent tip of the pregnancy test in a glass or cup of urine and hold it in the container for about the same amount as you would hold it under the stream.
Not all tests are equally sensitive
Now let’s talk about the differences between the pregnancy tests available on the market: yes, they are still different – some of the tests can detect pregnancy earlier.
The more sensitive the test, the better it detects hCG in the urine. To find out how sensitive a particular specimen is, read the labels on the packaging or instructions – it must contain an indication of the concentration of hCG that the test is able to determine.
The lower the number, the more sensitive the test. For example, a test with a sensitivity of 10 mIU / ml will detect pregnancy earlier than a test with a reading of 40 mIU / ml.
More expensive does not mean better
If you pay more for a pregnancy test, this does not mean that you will get a more accurate result. Cheap tests, as a rule, have a classic system of indication in the form of stripes, and those that are more expensive can display some kind of symbol or inscription. The only thing that determines how soon the test will indicate pregnancy is the sensitivity to hCG indicated on the package.
Check the result immediately
This recommendation sounds a little silly until you explain it. Let’s say you performed the procedure, the result is negative, the test went to the trash can. Half an hour passes, and you decide to double-check the number of strips – you never know. Stop! In fact, the indications of a pregnancy test (more precisely – indication) are limited in time. Sometimes it is even possible to observe a change in the number of strips during the evaporation of urine from the absorbent surface of the dough.
Sometimes tests do not detect pregnancy
A false negative result means you are pregnant, but the test did not reveal pregnancy.The most common reason is that you took the test too early, when there is not enough hCG in the body to be detected.
If you are sure of pregnancy, wait three days and then repeat the procedure again.
It happens that tests are wrong in the “other direction”
A false positive means you are not pregnant, but the test indicates otherwise. Yes, sometimes this happens, although very rarely.
Experts point out that the result can be false positive if you are taking fertility drugs, have recently had a miscarriage or abortion, or have certain medical conditions (for example, a urinary tract infection or ovarian cyst).
A false positive result can also be obtained in the case of a biochemical pregnancy (when an egg is fertilized but cannot implant) or an ectopic pregnancy (when an egg is implanted outside the main uterine cavity).
Ectopic pregnancy is considered a gynecological emergency that can lead to serious internal damage and even death. Symptoms include acute attacks of abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, dizziness, and a feeling of pressure on the rectum.If you suspect an ectopic pregnancy, you should immediately seek medical attention.
Check expiration date
Like most items in the medicine cabinet, pregnancy tests have their own expiration date. If you do not use the test by the specified date, the chemical contained in the test may not be very accurate in determining your hCG level. To obtain the correct result, we recommend using freshly acquired tests, and not keeping them in the first-aid kit “just in case”.
Doubt? Go to the doctor
If you need to determine pregnancy as early as possible for medical reasons, or you just can’t wait – do a blood test. This procedure can detect pregnancy as early as seven days after conception. In addition, the analysis of the level of hCG in the blood will help determine exactly when you got pregnant. It is worth remembering that blood tests are more expensive than urine tests and take longer to get results.
The pregnancy test is perhaps one of the most important tests you will have to take.Even if this is not your first experience. All tests, from the cheapest to the most expensive, do their job well – they’re specifically designed to be easy to use at home. If you suddenly have doubts, read our recommendations again or consult your doctor.