Puke symptoms: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Details
Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Details
What Is Ascites?
Ascites is the buildup of fluid in your belly, often due to severe liver disease. The extra fluid makes your belly swell.
Ascites Signs and Symptoms
Ascites is usually accompanied by a feeling of fullness, a ballooning belly, and fast weight gain. Other symptoms often include:
If you have a combination of these symptoms, see your doctor. If you have ascites, it’s often a sign of liver failure. It occurs most often with cirrhosis.
Ascites happens when pressure builds up in the veins of your liver and it doesn’t work as it should. These two problems usually are caused by another condition — cirrhosis, heart or kidney failure, cancer, or an infection.
The pressure blocks blood flow in the liver. Over time this keeps your kidneys from removing excess salt from your body. This, in turn, causes fluid to build up.
Ascites Risk Factors
Any disease that causes liver damage or scarring can make you more likely to get ascites. Common risk factors for ascites include:
- Viral infections like hepatitis B or hepatitis C
- Alcohol misuse
- Cancer in organs in the belly area
- Kidney failure
- Congestive heart failure
The doctor will give you a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. They may perform a variety of tests, including blood work, an ultrasound, or a CT scan.
If they think you have ascites, the doctor will use a needle to remove fluid from your belly for testing. This procedure is called a paracentesis. It’ll help the doctor find out what’s causing your condition so they can treat it properly.
In most cases of ascites, the doctor will refer you to a liver specialist, who may discuss a liver transplant.
The doctor may prescribe “water pills,” also called diuretics, to help flush the extra fluid from your body.
Two of the most common diuretics are:
They both help your kidneys remove more sodium and water.
If changes in your diet and prescription diuretics don’t help, or your symptoms are severe, your doctor may have to use paracentesis to remove large amounts of excess fluid through a needle inserted into your belly. When you have this done, you have to follow a low-salt, low-liquid diet, otherwise the fluid will come back.
If these treatments don’t work, you may need a surgery to place a shunt in your liver or replace it altogether.
Why Am I Feeling Nauseous?
On the flip side, it’s possible to feel nauseous because you suddenly ate a large amount of food.
3. You might need to drink some water.
Feeling nauseous might just be your unsettled stomach telling you to swig more H20. And we’re not talking about day-in-the-desert-without-water dehydrated. For some people, even mild dehydration could mess with your stomach, Dr. Wexler says.
You’ll probably know if dehydration is causing your nausea if you also feel, well, really thirsty. So if that’s the case, drink up. Usually, plain water is fine, says Dr. Wexler. But if you have signs of severe dehydration—like fatigue, dizziness, or confusion—seek medical attention right away.
Also worth noting: The dehydration and low blood sugar that can come along with hangovers may cause nausea too.
4. It might be your medications.
Plenty of medications—even supplements and over-the-counter meds—can leave you feeling nauseous. Sometimes, popping an over-the-counter pain reliever (like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or an NSAID) on an empty stomach can actually cause you to feel nauseous. Without some food in your belly to act as a buffer, the components of some pills can be irritating to the lining of the stomach, Dr. Wexler says. Supplements like vitamins C, E, and iron can have a similar effect.
If it’s been more than an hour or two since your last meal, you can keep discomfort at bay by eating something small. “Often, just a piece of bread or a few crackers will suffice,” Dr. Wexler says. Just be sure to have your snack before you take your vitamins or meds, so it can coat your stomach. Eating afterward won’t usually help, says Dr. Wexler.
5. It might be a migraine.
As if migraines weren’t bad enough, they can also cause some people to feel nauseous. Experts don’t fully understand why a migraine can leave you feeling like you have to puke. What they do know? Migraines can cause dizziness and blurry vision, which can make you nauseous.
If you feel a migraine coming on, taking an OTC pain reliever might help, says Dr. Arthur. (Just be sure to have it with a small snack like crackers. And drink plenty of water, since dehydration can make headaches and nausea worse.) And if OTC pain meds don’t work, talk with your doctor. They can prescribe prescription migraine meds that may be more helpful.
6. It might be an ear infection.
If you feel pressure in your ear along with nausea, it could be an infection. Good news: That’s totally treatable. The canals in your inner ears play an important role in helping you maintain your balance. But an infection can cause changes to the normal fluid levels in one ear, Dr. Arthur says. When that happens, your brain gets a signal that the pressure in your infected ear is different than the pressure in your healthy ear. And those mixed signals can leave you feeling nauseous and dizzy.
How can you tell if an ear infection is making your stomach hurt? “Typically, an ear infection causes ear pain, a feeling of pressure in the ear, changes in hearing, nasal congestion, headache, and fever,” Dr. Arthur says. If you notice these symptoms, see your doctor. They will prescribe antibiotics to fight the infection, and you’ll start feeling better within a couple of days.
In addition to the specific nausea treatments listed above, the Cleveland Clinic says you can try these general tips to try to tamp down on feeling nauseous:
Drink clear or ice-cold drinks.
Eat light, bland foods, like saltine crackers or plain bread.
Avoid fried, greasy, or sweet foods.
Eat slowly and have smaller, more frequent meals.
Don’t mix hot and cold foods.
Drink beverages slowly.
Avoid activity after eating.
Avoid brushing your teeth after eating.
Choose foods from all the food groups as you can tolerate them.
How to Prevent Nausea
There are a few things you can do to try to keep nausea from surfacing at all. The Cleveland specifically suggests these:
Vomiting blood (haematemesis) – NHS
Vomiting blood (haematemesis) could be a sign of a serious problem .
You should go to your GP surgery or nearest A&E department.
The amount and colour of blood can vary. For example:
- you may have vomited large amounts of bright red blood
- there may be streaks of blood in your vomit, mixed with food
- there may be what look like coffee grounds in your vomit, which means the blood has been in your stomach for a few hours
Keep a small sample of the vomit to show a GP or the doctor treating you. It will give them a better idea of what’s wrong.
What to expect when you see a doctor
Unless you’re generally well and the cause is obvious to a doctor – for example, you have swallowed blood from a nosebleed – you should be admitted to hospital straight away for tests.
These will include blood tests and an endoscopy. An endoscopy is where a long, thin, flexible tube that has a light and camera at one end is used to look inside your digestive tract.
It’s important to confirm whether the blood you’ve vomited has come from your stomach or food pipe (oesophagus) or if you have coughed it up from your airways or lungs.
Find out more about coughing up blood.
Common causes of vomiting blood
If you vomit blood, it means there may be bleeding somewhere in your food pipe, stomach or the first part of your small intestine (duodenum).
This is a summary of the most likely causes of blood in vomit. Do not use this list to diagnose yourself – always see a GP or go to A&E.
Stomach ulcer or severe gastritis
If you vomit blood and also have a burning or gnawing pain in your tummy (stomach), the most likely causes are a stomach ulcer or severe inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis).
Bleeding happens when the ulcer or inflammation damages an artery.
Oesophageal varices are enlarged veins in the lower part of the food pipe (oesophagus). They bleed, but do not usually cause any pain.
They’re often caused by alcoholic-related liver disease. If a GP or A&E doctor suspects oesophageal varices are the cause of blood in your vomit, you’ll need to be admitted to hospital immediately.
Severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is where acid leaks out of the stomach and up into your food pipe (oesophagus).
If you have severe GORD, the acid can irritate the lining of your oesophagus and cause bleeding.
Tear in the food pipe (oesophagus)
Prolonged retching can tear the lining of your oesophagus, which can also result in bleeding.
It’s possible to swallow blood in certain circumstances – for example, after a severe nosebleed.
These conditions may also cause you to have blood in your poo, which can make it look black and like tar.
Less common causes of vomiting blood
Less commonly, blood in your vomit may be caused by:
Page last reviewed: 04 October 2019
Next review due: 04 October 2022
Is Vomiting a Sign of Coronavirus?
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is primarily thought of as a respiratory infection. Some of the common symptoms that come to mind for respiratory diseases include cough, shortness of breath and, possibly, a sore throat. But what if you are experiencing some ailments that aren’t typical respiratory symptoms? Maybe you are experiencing some gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting, nausea or diarrhea. Should you be worried you have COVID-19?
According to the CDC, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are all considered symptoms of COVID-19. In addition to these symptoms, the CDC also list:
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Muscle or body aches
- New loss of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Congestion or runny nose
In a recent study performed by the American Journal of Gastroenterology, researchers found that 50.5% of the 204 patients they analyzed reported some sort of digestive symptom, including loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. The study also noted that as the severity of COVID-19 increased for the patient, digestive symptoms became more pronounced. Of the patients they studied, those with digestive symptoms had higher liver enzyme levels, lower white blood cell count and received more antimicrobial treatment compared to patients without digestive symptoms. Antimicrobial treatments kill or slow the spread of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi.
In some instances, patient may start to experience gastrointestinal symptoms and fever before they have some of the common respiratory ailments. Because of this, there are some people who may be out in the community not realizing they have COVID-19. Diarrhea and vomiting can be caused by many things, including stress or a minor stomach bug. However, the telltale sign that you may be experiencing something more than stress or a stomach bug is the presence of fever. If you are starting to experience these symptoms in combination, you should be mindful that you may have something more than your typical stomach bug or stress. You should contact your physician to discuss your symptoms and notify them if you have been in contact with anyone with COVID-19. Based on this information, your doctor will be able to provide you with best next steps.
Increased vomiting and diarrhea can also cause dehydration. You should be aware of your liquid intake. If you experience reduced urination, dizziness or a rapid heartbeat, contact your physician.
If you get tested for COVID-19 after experiencing digestive symptoms and you are waiting on your results, the best thing to do is self-isolate at home. If your symptoms worsen or you are continuing to vomit after 24-hours, contact your physician through MyOchsner. If your physician thinks you can self-treat at home, the CDC recommends getting rest, avoiding foods that may upset your stomach, staying hydrated and monitoring all other symptoms.
The information in this blog post is accurate at the time of publication. However, as the situation surrounding COVID-19 continues to change, it’s possible that information has changed since being published. While Ochsner Health is trying to keep our blog posts as up-to-date as possible, we also encourage readers to stay informed on news and recommendations by using the CDC website.
Why Is My Toddler Throwing Up?
Is your child throwing up several times a week but does not appear to be feeling ill otherwise? Surprisingly, this is a common occurrence in younger children. Some toddlers vomit when having a tantrum or just crying. Others vomit when they have too much food in their mouth. And some vomit for no known reason at all.
Persistent vomiting in young children can have many potential causes. Here are some of the most common:
- Appendicitis: Along with migrating abdominal pain, mild fever, and loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms of appendicitis.
- Carsickness: A common form of motion sickness, carsickness is sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, cold sweat, fatigue, and loss of appetite.
- Concussion: Concussions are serious brain injuries caused by a blow to the head and can be accompanied by vomiting.
- Food allergy or intolerance: Nausea, vomiting, cramping, and diarrhea are among some of the possible symptoms of a food allergy and intolerance.
- Food poisoning: Vomiting is a common symptom of food-borne illness and is usually accompanied by diarrhea and stomach pain.
- Gastroenteritis: Gastroenteritis is a stomach “flu” commonly caused by the rotavirus in children that causes vomiting and diarrhea that can last up to a week.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Though less common than symptoms like nausea, GERD can cause vomiting in some cases.
- Infections: Vomiting can also sometimes be associated with other types of infection including pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections (UTI).
- Intestinal obstruction: A blockage in the intestines can cause forceful vomiting.
- Medications: Certain medications are known to cause vomiting as an unpleasant side effect, especially on an empty stomach.
- Poison: Consumption of a toxic chemical or substance can induce vomiting.
- Pyloric stenosis: Pyloric stenosis is a condition that affects babies up to 6 months old in which a narrowing of the lower part of the stomach prevents food from passing through to the small intestine causing forceful vomiting.
- Sensitive gag reflex: A sensitive gag reflex can trigger retching and/or vomiting.
- Stress: Acute stress, such as during a tantrum, and anxiety can cause vomiting.
What You Can Do
It’s natural to feel uncertain and even panicked when your child vomits unexpectedly. Try to remain calm and remember these tips to keep your toddler safe, comfortable, and hydrated.
Check for Dehydration
Dehydration happens when you lose more liquids than you take in, depleting the body of the essential fluids it needs to function. Severe vomiting and diarrhea are the leading causes of dehydration in young children.
While drinking fluids is usually enough to reverse mild dehydration, severe dehydration is a serious problem that requires immediate medical treatment.
Signs of dehydration in young children include:
- No tears when crying
- No wet diapers for at least three hours
- Sunken cheeks or eyes
- Dry mouth and/or tongue
Rehydration is the replacement of lost fluids and electrolytes. To safely rehydrate young children ages 1 and up, start by giving small amounts of clear liquids every 15 minutes.
You can use small sips of water, ice chips, broth, and electrolyte drinks, but avoid sodas, juices, and sports drinks because they contain too much sugar. If vomiting continues, try smaller amounts of liquid.
After eight hours without vomiting, you can introduce small amounts of solid foods. Saltine crackers, mashed potatoes, and other bland foods are best. Once vomiting has stopped for 24 hours, your child can return to their regular diet.
Keep a Symptom Diary
After looking at the many possible causes of vomiting in toddlers, you may feel more confused than when you started. Consider keeping a symptom diary to help you and your child’s pediatrician zero in on the cause of your child’s vomiting.
A symptom diary is nothing more than a record of how and when your child’s vomiting occurred. Every time your child has a vomiting spell, write down:
- The date
- The time of day
- How long the episode lasted
- If the vomit contained solids, liquids, or both
- The last thing the child had to eat or drink
- Other symptoms like fever, belly pain, or diarrhea
Call the Pediatrician
Frequent, unexplained vomiting that can’t be attributed to a less serious cause always warrants a call to the doctor. Have your symptom diary ready when you make that call and bring it with you to your appointment as well.
If the cause isn’t immediately apparent, your pediatrician may order blood tests, urine tests, stool cultures, or X-rays to make a clear diagnosis.
If you are not comfortable with the pediatrician’s diagnosis or treatment, or your child’s vomiting continues, consider seeing a pediatric gastroenterologist for a second opinion and more advanced testing.
Signs Vomiting May Be an Emergency
While vomiting in young children is not usually serious, it is important to recognize the signs they need immediate medical attention.
Signs vomiting may be serious:
- Blood in the vomit
- Blood in urine
- Confusion and lethargy
- Headache and/or neck stiffness
- Intense stomach pain
- Pain while urinating
- Projectile or forceful vomiting
- Rapid pulse or breathing
- Vomiting accompanied by a fever
- Vomiting when your child resumes their normal diet
Always call poison control immediately if your child consumed a harmful substance, regardless of their symptoms. If you can trace vomiting back to a fall or impact to the head, take them to the emergency room right away.
A Word From Verywell
It’s natural to feel helpless when your child has a bout of frequent vomiting. But it’s important to stay calm so you can provide the proper care. Watch for signs of dehydration if they can’t stop throwing up or aren’t able to sip small amounts of water. Call your pediatrician to discuss your child’s symptoms and determine if a visit is necessary.
Frequently Asked Questions
What causes vomiting with no other symptoms?
Vomiting has many causes. If your child is throwing up with no other symptoms, they may be experiencing motion sickness, they could have worked themselves into a tantrum, or they may have triggered an especially sensitive gag reflex. Most other conditions associated with vomiting come with other symptoms such as belly pain, diarrhea, or fever.
How do I settle my toddler’s stomach after vomiting?
Gently introduce small amounts of clear liquids until your child can hold them down. Once they can tolerate clear liquids for at least eight hours without vomiting, you can add bland foods. Remember the acronym B.R.A.T. It stands for bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast—all gentle options after vomiting or diarrhea.
Children ages 2 and younger should avoid Pepto-Bismol (bismuth subsalicylate) and any products formulated for adults containing bismuth subsalicylate because of the risk of a rare but serious condition called Reye’s syndrome.
What causes it and how to treat it
Barf. Puke. Vomit. Call it what you will, but rest assured that as a parent, you’ll encounter kid vomit—and it won’t be fun. Even the most seasoned, BTDT parents can find themselves fully frazzled when their kid starts throwing up.
But the fact is, kid vomit happens. And when it does, you may have some questions. Here are the answers:
What can cause a child to vomit?
Here are some of the most common reasons kids throw up:
-Viral gastroenteritis, also known as “stomach flu,” is the most common culprit. This infection can last anywhere from a couple of days to more than a week.
-Motion sickness is a common reason for vomiting. About 50 percent of kids feel sick to their stomachs while moving in cars or planes, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
-Food poisoning. The symptoms mimic viral gastroenteritis, and begin anywhere from a few hours to a few days after eating contaminated food.
-Some kids are just a bit barfy by nature. They throw up when they cough, cry or get too excited, or if they see something that turns their stomach, if they eat or drink too much, or run around after eating, and so on.
-Vomiting can be caused other kinds of infections, some of which can be serious. If your child is vomiting repeatedly and has other symptoms such as fever, lethargy or pain, consult with your doctor.
-Some long-term illnesses or digestive issues, such as lactose intolerance or celiac disease, can cause chronic vomiting, off and on for months at a time.
Do I have to worry about my kid getting dehydrated if they’ve been vomiting?
Yep, dehydration is the top concern when a kid is vomiting. She’ll likely feel pretty thirsty afterwards (along with wanting that yucky taste out of her mouth). But that doesn’t mean you should give her a big glass of water, because it’s likely to come right back up.
What should I give my kid to drink after they’ve thrown up?
Try small but frequent sips of water or very watered-down juice.
You could also offer an oral rehydration solution, like Pedialyte, which contains just the right balance of sugar and salts to maximize fluid absorption. If you go this route, alternate it with water for the first six to 12 hours. You may need to spoon the fluid in every few minutes. Or try a Pedialyte freezer pop.
What about ginger ale? Although many swear it relieves nausea and some studies back that up, too much of the sugary pop can also exacerbate stomach problems. Warm ginger tea, sweetened with a bit of honey, is a better choice.
If your baby is breastfeeding, keep breastfeeding! Do so frequently, following your baby’s lead. This will help ensure that lost fluid is replaced.
Most importantly, keep a close eye on your kid for signs of dehydration. These include:
-Peeing less frequently than usual
-No tears when crying
-Lethargy and/or irritability
-Deep, rapid breathing
See your doctor if some or all of these signs are present.
Can I let my kid eat after he’s puked? He’s asking for food!
As gross as this sounds to adults, it’s pretty common for a kid to vomit the contents of her stomach and ask for a snack five minutes later. Should you let her?
Advice on this one goes both ways. Some doctors recommend waiting as many as eight hours before offering food if your child is vomiting because of gastroenteritis. But if she’s begging for food, eight hours is clearly a looong time for her to wait.
Other doctors say you can go ahead and offer small amounts of food if your kid says he’s hungry right after vomiting.
What kinds of foods? Again, experts have different views. Many recommend sticking to the “BRAT” diet: bananas, rice, applesauce and toast. But newer research suggests that sick kids can actually eat the same foods they always do. It probably makes sense to avoid fried, greasy foods, as well as dairy and excessive sugar. Ask your doctor for advice.
My kid seems to find throwing up quite traumatic. What can I do?
Try not to freak out; she’s taking her cues from you. Soothe your child, rub her back, acknowledge her feelings, and tell her it’s okay and that it will be over soon. If your kid has long hair, tie it back. Puke hair = terrible for everyone involved.
Can I send my kid to school after she’s been vomiting?
When deciding if your child is well enough to go to school, take her overall wellness and ability to manage symptoms into account.
Definitely keep her home from school if you suspect dehydration, or if diarrhea and vomiting are accompanied by pain or a fever of 38.5°C or higher. Send her back when the symptoms subside. If your child is feeling all better and doesn’t experience vomiting or loose stool within a half-hour after breakfast, she may actually be good to go.
And keep him home from school if he’s experiencing symptoms that will disrupt his day. Kids younger than five should stay home because they’re more prone to accidents and poor hand-washing, which can spread viral gastroenteritis. Older children, however, may be able to manage without incident provided they feel well enough. You’ll know best how well your child can cope.
Can I give my child Gravol to stop the vomiting?
The College of Family Physicians of Canada says that Gravol (Dimenhydrinate) appears to be safe for kids two years and older. If your child is younger, ask your doctor for advice.
Gravol is most effective for vomiting caused by motion sickness. Doctors generally do not recommend using it for gastroenteritis (“stomach flu”), since the virus will resolve on its own, and it’s more important to focus on staying hydrated.
My kid didn’t make it to the toilet. How can I make clean-up a bit less awful?
10 hacks to make puke cleanup easier to stomach
It’s okay to admit it: cleaning up kid vomit is among the most awful parenting jobs out there. Here are a few tips to make it just the tiniest bit better.
-Towels are your friend. Keep some around at all times when your kid is sick. It’s much easier to throw a towel in the washing machine (dumping the chunks into the toilet first—sorry!) than it is to scoop and wipe vomit off the floor, or worse, the carpet (ugh! The WORST).
-Keep spare sheets and a blanket in each child’s room—perhaps in the top drawer of his dresser, or stashed away in his closet. This prevents hunting through the linen closet in the dark trying to find a sheet that fits. Or, double-up on bed sheets so in middle of the night, you can just strip a layer off. (Place a waterproof sheet or mattress cover in between the sheets.)
-Keep a waterproof mattress cover on your kid’s bed at all times to avoid the puke stinking up and staining the mattress.
-In the middle of the night, gather up the mattress cover, sheets and blankets, and put them somewhere where the smell won’t bother anyone until the next day. (Outside or in a basement bathroom are options.) Use gloves when dealing with it the next morning.
-If you have a partner, one of you should take care of your kid (wiping him down or giving him a quick shower) while the other one deals with the mess. Divide and conquer!
-The toilet can seem really far away to a little kid who needs to throw up. Keep a bucket or garbage bin close to the bed and explain what it’s for.
I’m going to catch whatever my kid has, aren’t I?
Depends on why she’s vomiting. Viral gastroenteritis is very contagious, and if you’re the taking care of her or cleaning up, you’re definitely at risk. Wash your hands obsessively, and hers too. Clean anything that has vomit on it with very hot water. Some parents clean up vomit wearing rubber gloves, and that’s not a bad idea.
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Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment – American Kennel Club
If you’re like me, then the sight of your dog vomiting is a cause for immediate concern. I want to know why my dog is vomiting, and what I should do about it. The problem with trying to figure that out, of course, is that vomiting is listed as a possible symptom for a huge range of canine conditions, and sorting through pages and pages of Google articles is almost as bad as using WebMD’s symptom checker—I end up convinced that the worst case scenario is the most likely.
Sorting through all of that information is tricky, which is why we came up with this list of possible causes for dog vomiting, along with the steps you need to take to get your dog help.
Vomiting vs. Regurgitating
Before we get to the causes of vomiting, we need to distinguish between vomiting and regurgitation. When dogs vomit, they are forcefully ejecting the contents of their stomach and upper small intestine, bringing food, fluid, and debris onto your carpet. Prior to this unpleasant display, they usually exhibit signs of nausea, such as excessive drooling, retching, and contractions of the abdomen—rather like we do.
Regurgitation is different. Instead of ejecting the stomach contents by force, regurgitation is a passive motion that expels undigested food and fluids. Unlike vomiting, the signs of regurgitation are difficulty breathing and coughing. One way to tell if your dog has regurgitated instead of vomited is to look at what the dog has thrown up. Regurgitated substances are undigested and may keep the cylindrical shape of the esophagus.
When Is Dog Vomiting Normal?
Long-term dog owners know that vomiting is not uncommon. Occasionally, healthy dogs will get sick for no apparent reason and then continue with their day as if nothing happened. Your dog could have eaten too quickly, swallowed something disagreeable, or merely snacked on too much grass. This type of vomiting is usually nothing to worry about. So how do you tell when vomiting is a cause for concern?
Your dog is most likely fine if he vomits once without any other symptoms, according to veterinarians. If your dog’s vomiting can be described as any of the following, then it is time to start getting concerned:
- Continuous vomiting
- Chronic vomiting
- Vomiting a lot at one time
- Vomiting with other symptoms, like fever, weight loss, lethargy, anemia, etc.
- Vomiting blood
- Vomiting with nothing coming up
- Bloody diarrhea
- Suspected foreign body ingestion
It never hurts to play it safe when it comes to dog health. The best way to find out if your dog’s vomiting is normal or not is to call your vet.
What Causes Acute Vomiting in Dogs?
Acute vomiting, which can be defined as sudden or severe bouts of vomiting, is a serious symptom of quite a few diseases, disorders, and complications.
It is up to owners to help veterinarians narrow down the cause. For instance, if your dog vomits after being outside in the hot sun or trapped in a hot car, then heat stroke is a prime suspect. If your trash can displays evidence of canine exploration, then garbage, toxins, or a foreign body are more likely.
You know your dog’s behavior best, which is why it is up to you to fill your veterinarian in on anything that could have contributed to your dog’s condition, like access to human medications, toxins, a change in diet, and other possible causes.
If your dog is vomiting with diarrhea or vomiting and has a poor appetite, call your veterinarian.
Chronic Dog Vomiting
Chronic, frequent, or long-term vomiting is also a cause for concern, especially if it is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Abdominal pain
- Poor appetite
- Weight loss
- Other unusual symptoms
As with acute vomiting, there are a number of conditions that can cause frequent or chronic vomiting:
- Intestinal obstruction
- Liver disease
- Kidney or liver failure
- Systemic illness
- Intestinal inflammation
- Uterine infection
Most of these conditions are very treatable, especially if they are addressed as soon as possible. The majority of the issues caused by chronic or frequent vomiting will not go away on their own and require the intervention of a veterinarian.
Vomiting in Puppies
A dog vomiting is potentially serious, but puppy vomiting should always be treated as a potential emergency. After six weeks, puppies lose the immunity given to them by their mothers. Since young puppies only just begin receiving vaccinations, they are at an increased risk of contracting serious diseases like parvo or parasites. If your puppy is vomiting, don’t wait to see if it resolves on its own — call your vet.
Diagnosing Vomiting in Dogs
Determining the cause of a dog’s vomiting usually requires several steps. Your vet will ask you questions about your dog’s access to garbage, poisons, and toxins, about any recent dietary changes, and if your dog is exhibiting any other symptoms.
She or he will then perform a physical examination. If your vet feels it is necessary, she will run any additional tests, such as blood work, ultrasounds, x-rays, endoscopic evaluations, biopsies, and urine tests.
Treating Vomiting in Dogs
Once your vet determines the cause of your dog’s vomiting, she will tailor a treatment plan based on the cause and your dog’s condition. Vomiting itself can create issues like dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and acid-based disorders. Your vet will address these problems by treating the symptoms and in some cases prescribing anti-nausea medications.
When Should You Call a Vet About a Vomiting Dog?
As humans, most of us don’t call the doctor over an isolated bout of vomiting. If your dog vomits once and then resumes his normal activities and eats and poops normally, chances are it was a minor incident, although it never hurts to play it safe.
If your dog vomits more than once, or has recurring bouts of vomiting, you need to call your vet immediately. Vomiting is a symptom of many serious diseases, illnesses, and complications, and as owners we owe it to our dogs to take it seriously. Ignoring your dog’s vomiting could have serious, even fatal consequences.
90,000 Nausea. Symptoms, Treatment | Directory of the Kuntsevo treatment and rehabilitation center
What is nausea
Nausea is an unpleasant condition in the upper third of the abdomen and throat. It is not always a sign of poisoning and sometimes signals more serious pathologies, so this symptom cannot be ignored. Attacks of nausea and discomfort are common in diseases of the gallbladder, liver, stomach and other organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
Types and causes of occurrence
Nausea does not occur for no reason.Among the main provoking factors, it is necessary to note overeating, nervous overstrain, a side effect when taking certain medications, hormonal disorders, hyperthermia and diseases of the digestive system.
Based on practice, many visits to a specialist for persistent nausea are associated with the latent course of cholecystitis, gastrointestinal ulcers, gastritis, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction and individual intolerance to certain foods, colitis, Crohn’s disease, hepatitis, liver failure, biliary dyskinesia, etc. etc.
The bulk of visits to the doctor of the Kuntsevo Medical and Rehabilitation Center are associated with bouts of nausea, combined with the following symptoms:
- vomiting. Mild nausea and vomiting or urge to vomit – quite often present together,
- stomach pain,
- bad breath,
- chills, trembling and weakness,
- temperature rise,
- diarrhea and stool disorder,
- muscle weakness,
- discoloration of the skin.
Especially dangerous is nausea against the background of lack of air, changes in the color and structure of feces, drowsiness, fainting. In this case, the specialists of the Kuntsevo Medical and Rehabilitation Center are ready to provide medical assistance in a short time.
Which doctor treats nausea
With frequent exacerbations of nausea, consultation with a gastroenterologist is required. The doctor accepts by appointment. Anyone can choose the day and time of admission on the website, or by calling.
In order to make an appointment with a doctor, choose any method:
- call by the clinic’s phone +7 (495) 103-99-55,
- request a call back,
- leave a request for an appointment, through a convenient form on the website:
IMPORTANT! Nausea only seems to be a minor symptom that quickly passes and does not lead to serious consequences.This important signal from the body that alarming changes are occurring at some level of regulation should not be underestimated.
In order to understand the problem, determine the causes of the symptom and correct the problem correctly, contact our treatment and rehabilitation center to an experienced and qualified specialist! Our doctors guarantee an individual approach to each patient at reasonable prices. Make an appointment with our doctor and forget about the anxiety about the nausea that occurs!
On the basis of such a list of tests as the study of intestinal microflora, blood and feces, the doctor determines the inflammatory process. This list is supplemented by other examinations depending on the clinical picture.
Taking into account the patient’s age, test results, the patient’s condition, the diagnosis is determined and treatment is prescribed. The main goal of paid treatment for nausea is to eradicate its cause. For this, etiological and pathogenetic therapy involves taking medications.
If the symptoms do not dull within a few days, then the doctor adjusts the tactics of therapy and prescribes the use of anticholinergics, antipsychotics, H1-blockers, etc.e. As an additional recommendation, he recommends taking warm water with lemon, chewing mint candies to relieve symptoms at an unnecessary moment.
Why it is necessary to treat nausea with us
It is impossible to establish a diagnosis without a quality diagnosis. The clinic near the Molodezhnaya metro station has all the conditions for examination, treatment of nausea and subsequent recovery of patients. Thanks to the complete equipment of our center, there is no need to spend a lot of time on analyzes – in our own laboratory, the results are prepared in an hour. Without leaving the walls of the Kuntsevo treatment and rehabilitation center, the patient immediately consults with a gastroenterologist and receives a treatment regimen.
Vomiting, diagnosis of causes, treatment | Directory of the Kuntsevo treatment and rehabilitation center
What is vomiting
Vomiting is the process of removing stomach contents through the mouth. It is reflexive, so it is extremely difficult to contain the urge.
Types and causes of occurrence
Remnants of undigested food, gastric juice, mucus, bile, blood, pus are excreted.Vomiting is different in color, which is due to its contents, and it is for this factor that the doctor determines the preliminary cause.
The cause of an unpleasant condition may be:
- food allergy or individual intolerance to certain foods,
Sometimes vomiting appears on an ongoing basis and this is a formidable sign of diseases of the abdominal cavity, obstruction of the small or large intestine, liver disease or gallbladder disease.
Most often, the urge to vomit is predisposed by involuntary swallowing movements, profuse salivation, tearing, rapid breathing, an unpleasant taste in the mouth and nausea. Dry mouth and diarrhea may occur.
If the gag reflex or vomiting bothers you after each meal, does not stop within two days, or occurs several times a week, then you should not delay the visit to the doctor.
Which doctor treats vomiting
With this symptom, you urgently need to consult a gastroenterologist.
In order to make an appointment with a doctor, choose any method:
- call by the clinic’s phone +7 (495) 103-99-55,
- request a call back,
- leave a request for an appointment, through a convenient form on the website:
Depending on the identified cause of vomiting, the urge is eliminated with medication:
- antiemetic injections,
- antipsychotics for indomitable urge,
- antihistamines for allergic reactions to food,
- remedies for stomach cramps and mucous membrane pain relief,
- means for restoring water balance,
- dopamine antagonists to stimulate the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract,
- detoxification drugs with pronounced administration.
At the time of treatment, you need to follow a diet and not overload the digestive tract with heavy food. During the first days, you should completely abandon caffeine, legumes, fried and smoked food, dairy products. The use of lean chicken broth is allowed. The gastroenterologist advises to adhere to a diet number 1, 2, 4. You should drink more pure water without gas to replenish lost fluid and, if possible, rest.
Why it is necessary to treat vomiting with us
The Kuntsevo treatment and rehabilitation center, located in the west of Moscow, has everything you need to successfully treat any symptoms of pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract – experienced specialists, modern equipment, and the latest drugs.Patients note the friendly reception and the welcoming attitude of the entire team of our clinic.
Acute intestinal infections
Intestinal infections are rightfully called “diseases of dirty hands”, emphasizing their close relationship with non-observance of basic hygiene rules. Pathogenic microorganisms enter the gastrointestinal tract of a child with poor quality food, dirty hands, infected nipples, spoons and, multiplying rapidly in it, cause diseases, the main symptoms of which are abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting.The causative agents of intestinal infections are innumerable, as well as their clinical manifestations, which exist under different names: dyspepsia, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, gastroenterocolitis, etc.
Pathogenic E. coli, salmonella, dysentery microbes, staphylococci and various viruses (most often entero-, rota- and adenoviruses) can deliver the most troubles to the child.
Often, adult family members have erased forms of the disease or the carriage of pathogenic pathogens, which contributes to the spread of infections.
Ways of transmission have been known for a long time: pathogens are excreted from the body with the feces of a patient and get to a healthy person through the mouth with food, water, through household items (doorknobs, switches, dishes, linen, etc. ).
The baby, whose living space is limited by the bed, receives pathogens of intestinal infection from mother’s hands with a nipple, bottle, toy, contaminated with the mixture. Often the mother “disinfects” the nipple that has fallen to the floor, licking it with her tongue, adding her own from the nasopharynx to the microbes raised from the floor.And the absence of the habit of washing hands in adult family members after visiting the toilet threatens the baby with endless diarrhea.
The main symptoms of acute intestinal infectious disease (AID) are known to everyone: abdominal pain, repeated vomiting, frequent loose stools, often accompanied by an increase in temperature. Younger children (up to 3 years old) are more likely to get sick.
High morbidity at this age is facilitated by the lowered resistance of the body and the behavior of the child: mobility and curiosity, the desire to get to know the world, trying it “for a tooth”, neglect of the rules of personal hygiene.
The period from the moment of infection to the onset of the disease can be short (30-40 minutes), then we can confidently name the cause of the disease, or long (up to 7 days), when errors in nutrition and behavior have already been erased from memory.
Often, the disease proceeds so violently that dehydration of the body can develop within a few hours due to the loss of fluid and salts with vomit and loose stools.
Signs of dehydration are easy to detect: the child is lethargic, the skin is dry, its elasticity is reduced, there is little saliva, the tongue and lips are dry, the eyes are sunken, the voice becomes less voiced, urination is rare and scarce.
This is a serious condition that indicates a malfunction of all organs and systems of the body and requires immediate medical attention.
In the first hours of the disease, it does not matter which pathogen caused the digestive upset – the main thing is to prevent dehydration of the body, therefore, the child should receive a sufficient amount of fluid to restore the lost one. With vomiting and diarrhea, not only fluid is lost, but also trace elements such as potassium, sodium, chlorine, acid-base balance is disturbed, which further aggravates the condition, and seizures often occur against the background of dehydration.Therefore, the child should not receive plain water, but glucose-salt solutions.
In the pharmacy, mixtures of salts with glucose are freely sold: Glucosolan, Regidron, Tsitroglucosolan, Oralit, etc. The contents of the package are dissolved in one liter of boiled and chilled water, and the medicine is ready. Unfortunately, children do not like the salty taste of the drink, so do not expect that the child will be happy to use the healing solution. Glucose-salt solutions “Gidrovit” with a pleasant strawberry smell and taste and “Humana electrolyte” with the smell and taste of banana have been created especially for children.One packet for a glass of warm boiled water, and the tasty medicine is ready.
Now you need patience and persistence to drink a sick child. For the first hour, give him 2 teaspoons of the solution every two minutes. Even if the child drinks greedily, you should not increase the dose, because a large amount of liquid can provoke vomiting.
From the second hour, the dose can be increased, and the child should be given two tablespoons every 10-15 minutes.During the day, the amount of liquid injected should be from 50 to 150 ml of solution for each kilogram of weight, depending on the frequency of vomiting, diarrhea and the severity of the condition.
The glucose-saline solution should not be boiled and a fresh portion should be prepared after 12-24 hours.
In addition to glucose-salt solutions, the child can be given plain drinking water, tea, rosehip decoction, mineral water without gas.
If the child drinks a lot and willingly, do not limit him.Healthy kidneys will cope with the stress and remove excess water from the body along with toxic substances.
Much worse, if the patient refuses to drink, then you have to resort to various tricks to get the stubborn drunk. The solution can be instilled into the infant’s mouth with a pipette or introduced into the oral cavity using a syringe (without a needle) or a rubber bulb. Ask a two-three-year-old to remember how he was small and sucked from a bottle. Nothing that he has been drinking from a cup for a long time, give him a bottle with a healing solution, let him play “little”.
According to the law of meanness, the disease occurs unexpectedly at the most inopportune time (at night) and in the most inappropriate place (in the country, in the village), when there is no medicine at hand, and to the nearest pharmacy, as they say, “seven miles to heaven and everything in the forest”.
Savvy and ingenuity will come to the rescue. After all, what is, for example, “Glucosolan”? It is a mixture of salts, consisting of sodium chloride (salt) – 3.5 g, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) – 2.5 g, potassium chloride – 1.5 g and glucose – 20 g.
In any house there is salt and soda, and we get potassium and glucose (fructose) by boiling a handful of raisins or dried apricots in one liter of water. For 1 liter of raisin broth, add 1 teaspoon of salt (no top), half a teaspoon of soda, here’s a glucose-saline solution.
If there are no raisins or dried apricots, take several large carrots as a source of potassium, cut into pieces, after washing and peeling, and boil in the same amount of water. Then add 1 teaspoon of salt, half a teaspoon of baking soda and 4 teaspoons of sugar.
If neither raisins nor carrots were at hand, simple boiled water will become the basis of the solution, in one liter of which you dilute 1 teaspoon of salt, 1/2 teaspoon of soda and 8 teaspoons of sugar.
Very often mothers complain that the baby does not want to drink “tasteless water”. And in this situation, you can, showing ingenuity, turn the medicinal solution into a drink that tastes good. Just dissolve a packet of “Regidron” not in ordinary water, but in raisin broth (1300 ml).We have already noted that raisin broth is rich in potassium and glucose, so after dissolving a packet of “Regidron” in it, you will receive a glucose-salt solution enriched with an additional amount of mineral salts. And the baby will be grateful to you for the delicious medicine.
For all its seeming simplicity, drinking is one of the main points in the complex treatment of a child with intestinal infection. Remember this and do not neglect drinking, cherishing the hope of miraculous antibiotics, which should immediately stop the disease.
Vomiting and diarrhea are the body’s defensive reaction to a foreign agent entering the stomach. With their help, the body is freed from microbes and their toxins. It is necessary to help the body in this struggle. This is done by adsorbents – substances that bind microbes, viruses, toxins and remove them from the body.
The most famous adsorbent is activated carbon. Before use, the charcoal tablet should be crushed to increase the adsorption surface, diluted with a small amount of boiled water and given to the child to drink.A single dose of activated carbon is one tablet per 10 kg of the child’s weight.
For children, it is preferable to use “Smecta” – dilute one powder in 100 ml (half a glass) of boiled water and give the child from 2-4 teaspoons to 2-4 tablespoons per dose, depending on age.
Enterodesis – dilute one sachet in 100 ml of boiled water and give the child a few sips at a time. Enterodesis is especially effective for frequent loose, profuse stools.
Recently, the shelf of adsorbents has arrived: new effective drugs have appeared – enterosgel and polysorb.
It is necessary to take adsorbents 3-4 times a day. Do not despair if the adsorbent taken for the first time comes back soon after vomiting. During the few minutes that he was in the stomach, a significant part of the microbes managed to settle on it and leave the body. In the next reception, the adsorbent will be retained in the stomach and, having passed into the intestines, will continue to perform the function of a “cleaner” there.
It is not recommended to ingest a solution of potassium permanganate for the treatment of intestinal infections and food poisoning. After taking a pink solution of potassium permanganate, vomiting stops for a while. But this is an apparent and short-term improvement, after which the condition worsens and violent vomiting resumes. Why is this happening? The mucous membrane of the stomach is sensitive to the entry and reproduction of microbes, and, upon reaching a certain concentration, with the help of vomiting, removes the infectious agent from the body.
A solution of potassium permanganate has a tanning effect on the mucous membrane and reduces its sensitivity to microbes, which allows them to multiply and accumulate in the stomach in larger quantities and for a longer time. Consequently, more toxins are absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach, and more microbes will pass into the intestines.
The same negative effect is exerted by a solution of potassium permanganate introduced in an enema. It causes the formation of a fecal plug, which prevents the removal of loose stools, which contains a large number of pathogenic microorganisms, and the rapid multiplication of the latter in the intestine contributes to the absorption of toxins into the blood and the development of severe inflammatory processes in the intestines.
No medications without a doctor’s prescription! Especially do not try to give pills to a child with repeated vomiting. Your efforts will not be rewarded, as any attempt to swallow the medicine will induce vomiting. Only glucose-salt solutions and adsorbents.
When giving the child medications prescribed by the doctor, do not combine them in time with the intake of adsorbents. A significant part of the drug, being deposited on the sorbent, leaves the body, therefore, its effectiveness decreases.There should be a break of at least two hours between the intake of adsorbents and medications.
Do not force-feed a child who is worried about nausea and vomiting. This will not lead to anything good, but will only induce vomiting.
For the first 4 – 6 hours from the moment of illness, devote to the intake of glucose-salt solutions and other liquids, which we have already talked about. But do not delay fasting, so that later you do not fight its consequences. If a child asks for food, then you need to feed him, but often in small portions, so as not to provoke vomiting.
Lucky for the baby who receives mother’s milk, because it is not only food, but also a medicine, thanks to the presence of antibodies, lysozyme and enzymes in it. Attachments to the breast after a water-tea break should be short (3-5-7 minutes), but frequent – after 1.5-2 hours.
For the first meal of the “artificial”, offer children’s kefir, acidophilic “Baby”, “Bifidok” or any other fermented milk product. The lacto- and bifidobacteria contained in them have a beneficial effect on the inflamed intestines.A single dose should be halved, and the breaks between feedings should be halved. Then you can cook porridge, preferably oatmeal or rice, in diluted milk, mashed slimy soup, vegetable puree, omelet, curd soufflé, steam cutlets or meatballs, boiled fish. For several days, exclude fruit and vegetable juices, meat and fish broths, sweets from the diet.
It is advisable to accompany each meal with the intake of enzyme preparations that facilitate the digestion of food and help the digestive tract to cope with the disease.
If the disease is accompanied by an increase in temperature above 38 ° C, and the child continues to vomit, then taking antipyretic drugs through the mouth will be useless, since the medicine will not stay in the stomach and will immediately be released at
Start with physical methods of cooling: undress the patient, wipe him with 1 – 2% vinegar solution, or a mixture of equal parts water, vodka and 9% vinegar, create a “breeze” near him with a fan or fan.Use antipyretic drugs in the form of suppositories with paracetamol, nurofen for administration into the rectum.
If there is a threat of seizures (trembling of the hands and chin against the background of a rising temperature), call an ambulance, since the child’s condition requires immediate medical attention, especially since the continued loss of salts with vomiting and diarrhea contributes to the development of convulsive syndrome.
90,000 Scientists have figured out the order in which the symptoms of COVID-19 appear
Scientists from the United States have found out in what order the symptoms of COVID-19 appear.This will allow you to quickly distinguish it from other diseases, the infected – to self-isolate in time, and doctors – to start treatment as soon as possible.
Experts from the University of Southern California have determined the order in which symptoms of COVID-19 appear – fever, cough, muscle aches, followed by nausea or vomiting and diarrhea. They talked about this in an article in the journal Frontiers in Public Health . Scientists hope the new data will help distinguish COVID-19 cases from other diseases and localize disease outbreaks in time.
“COVID-19 is more contagious than influenza, which is why cluster outbreaks of the disease are often recorded,” the authors write. – If patients with symptoms are tested in time and their contacts are traced, outbreaks can be localized.
Unfortunately, the symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to those of other common illnesses.
Our goal was to determine the order in which symptoms occur so that patients and healthcare providers can quickly distinguish COVID-19 from other diseases. ”
90,033 Researchers have figured out the order of onset of symptoms based on more than 55,000 cases of COVID-19 in China, reported from February 16 to 24, 2020. They also looked at records of nearly 11,000 cases of other respiratory diseases reported from December 11, 2019 to January 29, 2020 in China and 2,470 cases in North America and Europe in 1994-1998.
This allowed us to establish the following order of development of symptoms of COVID-19: fever, cough, muscle pain, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea.
“This order is especially important for distinguishing between illnesses when patients with illnesses with similar symptoms, such as the flu, seek help,” says Professor Peter Kuhn, one of the authors of the paper. “Doctors can determine what steps need to be taken to care for a patient and stabilize his condition in time.”
“Given that there are currently quite effective approaches to the treatment of COVID-19, early identification of patients could reduce hospitalization time,” – said his colleague Joseph Larsen, lead author of the study.
Fever and cough have been associated with a variety of respiratory conditions, including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). But the timing of the onset of symptoms, as well as manifestations associated with the gastrointestinal tract, secrete COVID-19.
“Nausea and vomiting appear with COVID-19 before diarrhea, with SARS and MERS, the opposite happens,” the researchers explain.
“Our results support the idea that temperature rise can be used as a symptom for entry screening, as the COVID-19 outbreak in the spring of 2020 will reopen institutions and offices in countries.In addition, our results indicate that clinical practice should take into account the order in which symptoms of COVID-19 and other diseases occur. If this approach had been used for a long time, it might have been possible to avoid the transition from a local outbreak to a pandemic, ”the researchers write.
Researchers hope that new data will allow patients to seek help in time or understand that they should self-isolate. It will also allow doctors to rule out other illnesses and intervene early.
Previously, it was possible to establish why the sense of smell disappears with COVID-19. A number of past studies have shown that this symptom signals the presence of a disease better than others, such as fever and cough, but the biological mechanisms underlying this symptom remained unknown until recently.
International team of researchers identified the type of olfactory cells in the upper part of the nasal cavity that are most vulnerable to the SARS-COV-2 virus.
Sensitive neurons that detect and transmit odor signals to the brain, it turned out, were not among these cell types.
Scientists have found that olfactory sensory neurons (ORNs) do not express the gene encoding the ACE2 protein, which the coronavirus binds to, entering the cells of the body. In contrast, the ACE2 protein is expressed in cells that provide metabolic and structural support to ORNs, including certain types of stem cells and blood vessel cells.
Anosmia, usually temporary, occurs in most COVID-19 patients. Statistics show that this disease is accompanied by a loss of smell 27 times more often than in patients without COVID-19.In this case, the sense of smell returns within a few weeks, which is much faster than in cases of infection with viral infections that directly affect the olfactory neurons.
90,000 Rotavirus infection
Rotavirus infection is often called rotavirus gastroenteritis or intestinal flu, although rotavirus does not belong to the influenza family. The route of transmission of the pathogen is fecal-oral, i.e. through dirty hands, although airborne droplets are also possible.Can affect people of any age.
The danger of self-medication with rotavirus infections
Not all people infected with rotavirus have the same disease. Its severity and duration depend not only on age, but also on the general condition of the person. What to do if you get sick? It must be remembered that sometimes very serious diseases can be hidden under the mask of ARVI, so you need to be careful and at the first signs of illness (vomiting, loose stools, fever), immediately consult a doctor.And in case of severe abdominal pain, in no case take painkillers, and immediately call an ambulance.
Therapy for rotavirus infection requires an integrated approach, so you should not self-medicate. The doctor will be able to assess the patient’s condition, and, taking into account the severity of the disease, will select the necessary drugs, including antiviral ones (for example, ARBIDOL®).
Signs of rotavirus infection
This is a disease with a short incubation period (1–5 days) and an acute onset with symptoms of gastroenteritis (on average 3–7 days, and in severe cases, more than 7 days). Respiratory syndrome can often join the symptoms of gastroenteritis. The recovery period takes 4-5 days.
In children, this disease often manifests itself more acutely than in adults: a sharp, up to 39 degrees, rise in temperature, vomiting and profuse liquid watery stools. Vomit usually contains mucus, and nausea begins even from small portions of food and drink. With profuse vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration can develop, which is a real danger to the child (8% loss with fluid is life-threatening), and the possibility of replenishing fluid losses with drinking is complicated by an increased gag reflex.
In adults, nausea and vomiting are rare; manifestations of rotavirus infection are usually limited to moderate diarrhea, general weakness, and a slight increase in temperature.
In addition to the symptoms of enteritis, the disease is accompanied by manifestations inherent in ARVI: runny nose, pain and redness in the throat, weakness, lack or decrease in appetite.
Children are at high risk for severe and complicated ARVI and influenza.Their immune systems are still imperfect and cannot always adequately fight off infections. Therefore, the risk of severe course and complications even with a common cold in children is much higher than in adults, therefore, they often need treatment with antiviral agents. Antiviral drugs used in pediatric practice should be well studied in preclinical and clinical studies, and should also have high efficacy and a favorable safety profile.
ARBIDOL® powder for suspension and 50 mg tablets are recommended for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B, and other acute respiratory viral infections in young patients over 2 years old, as well as in the complex therapy of rotavirus infection.
90,000 Poisoning in a child – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of a child from food poisoning in Moscow in the children’s clinic “SM-Doctor”
Description of the disease
Types of poisoning
Prevention of poisoning
Poisoning is a digestive disorder arising from the ingestion of contaminated products, organic toxins, chemicals, and heavy metal salts into the body. Doctors deal with the treatment of the disease: pediatrician, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist, toxicologist (depending on the severity of the condition and the cause of the pathological condition).
About the disease
It is customary to include all pathological conditions that develop in response to the ingress of toxins into the body by the oral route (through the mouth) to the group of food poisoning. People of all ages are susceptible to intoxication, including children of the first year of life, younger preschool and school age. The condition can be dangerously formidable, up to and including death.The severity of complications for a small patient depends on the type and degree of intoxication, the state of immunity, and the quality of care.
In case of poisoning, you cannot self-medicate. It is difficult for parents to establish the nature and degree of danger of the disease, to choose the right treatment. This can only be done by a qualified doctor.
Types of poisoning
Depending on the type of toxins, poisoning is divided into the following categories:
- Infectious (toxicoinfections, intestinal infections). They develop when eating foods contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa (Salmonella, Klebsiella, Shigella, Escherichia coli). Poisoning can be caused not by the bacteria themselves, but by their waste products. For example, the causative agent of botulism secretes the strongest poison during reproduction, as well as some strains of staphylococci that can be ingested from the hands.
- Non-infectious. Such intoxication develops when using toxins of organic or inorganic origin.Common examples: poisoning with mushrooms, berries, green potatoes. Some types of fish can cause intoxication if they are not properly cooked. Chemical poisoning occurs after the use of poisons and heavy metals (nitrates, arsenic, etc.). In children, intoxication is often recorded due to the ingestion of household chemicals.
Symptoms of poisoning
The manifestations of poisoning depend on the type and amount of toxins that have entered the body, as well as on the initial level of health. In children, intoxication is much more difficult than in adults. Doctors associate this with a weak barrier function of the liver and filtration function of the kidneys, rapid absorption of toxins through the mucous membranes.
Signs of poisoning may appear 30 minutes after exposure to toxins or several hours later. It all depends on the strength of the poisons. Intoxication begins with an asymptomatic period. The child may experience weakness, general malaise, drowsiness, sweating. Then comes the period of the expanded clinical picture.It is accompanied by:
- abdominal cramps;
- repeated vomiting;
- temperature rise.
When neurotoxic poisons enter the body, disturbances in consciousness and respiration, a decrease or increase in muscle tone, headaches, and indomitable vomiting are observed. Such conditions are life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
It should be remembered that children lose a lot of water during vomiting and diarrhea. Dehydration develops. At a young age (up to 1 year), the loss of up to 10% of water from body weight is fraught with irreversible consequences. That is why poisoning cannot be treated on its own.
Causes of poisoning
Poisoning in children can develop due to the use of:
- unknown or stale mushrooms;
- preservation with long-term storage;
- low-quality water;
- household chemicals, etc.d.
90,011 meat and fish that have undergone low-quality heat treatment;
90,011 seeded dairy products;
90,011 cakes and pastries of dubious quality;
90,011 expired products;
The carriers of infections can be children themselves or adults who prepare food for them. Infection is possible when using dishes and toys together with sick children or parents.
Diagnosis of poisoning
Doctors “CM-Doctor” have extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of various food poisoning. The task of parents is to contact a specialist in time. The reason for going to the clinic is a single vomiting in an infant or three times in older children, disorders of general well-being (headache, convulsions, lack of appetite, hallucinations).
Diagnosis of poisoning begins with a visual examination of the patient and interviews with parents. It is important to find out what and when the baby was using, whether he could eat or drink dangerous liquids, whether there are cases of poisoning in the children’s team. Diagnosis is clinical. The doctor selects the optimal treatment. To clarify the diagnosis, blood, feces, and vomit tests are performed. Based on their results, the type of poisoning is established and the treatment is supplemented.
In case of poisoning in a child, help should be provided immediately.Parents should call an ambulance, but even before the doctors arrive, the first steps should be taken.
- In case of poisoning in children 1-2 years old, stop feeding, give oral rehydration solution in small portions every 5-10 minutes.
- If a child over 2 years old is poisoned, assistance begins with the removal of the toxic product. If the child has not vomited himself, you can give him a glass of clean boiled water at room temperature, and then induce vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue.Further, the patient needs to be provided with rest, given a sorbent (Enterosgel, Smecta), given solutions for rehydration. An antipyretic can be given at high temperatures.
Upon arrival, the doctor must be informed of the names and quantities of all drugs that the parents gave to the child. Further treatment is prescribed by a specialist.
It is also important to know what not to do:
- force-feed the child;
- rinse the stomach with potassium permanganate;
- Give pain relievers, antiemetics, antidiarrheals.
Treatment of poisoning
Children of the first year of life, as well as older patients in moderate and severe condition, are subject to hospitalization. A child is urgently hospitalized with suspected botulism, mushroom poisoning, heavy metals, and chemicals. Antidotes (antidotes) are administered to this category of children.
The list of medicines in the complex therapy depends entirely on the type of intoxication, the age and condition of the little patient.Prescription of sorbents, antibiotics, gastroprotectors, antidiarrheal drugs, probiotics is possible.
For mild poisoning, outpatient treatment is possible.
Nutrition after poisoning
If the baby is poisoned, breastfeeding is temporarily stopped (until the condition improves), clean water is given. Then the feeding is restored as usual. In case of poisoning of a child on artificial feeding, feeding is stopped for 8-12 hours (in agreement with the doctor), and water is also given.Then they are fed with fermented milk mixtures, rice broth. Complementary feeding is resumed after complete recovery.
Older children are shown hunger during the acute period. As the condition improves, light food is allowed (broth, jelly, rice broth, slimy cereals, mashed potatoes). The diet is expanded with meat and fish soufflés, boiled vegetables. Raw vegetables, dairy products and bread are the last to be added to the menu.
Prevention of poisoning
In order to prevent poisoning in a child, you should:
- provide high-quality heat treatment of meat, fish, eggs;
- to exclude the use of expired products;
- choose only high-quality purchased dairy products or cook it yourself;
- refuse to cook food for future use;
- Do not allow children under the age of 12 to eat mushrooms;
- to exclude the use of unknown fruits and berries;
- keep household chemicals, medicines in inaccessible places;
- to exclude contact with people who have recently had a foodborne infection.
It is important to teach your child to wash their hands often (before eating, after using the toilet), to eat only washed vegetables and fruits. It is important to keep an eye on your baby when swimming in open water. Raw water contains a large number of pathogens of intestinal infections and even one sip can cause poisoning.
Specialists “CM-Doctor” will help to cope with intoxication as soon as possible. An individual approach to each patient and high-tech equipment of the clinic allow you to quickly establish the correct diagnosis and start treatment.Do not risk the health of children, seek help from qualified specialists!
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90,000 Dehydration in children: how to prevent and recognize
Why are children at risk and more susceptible to dehydration?
Children, along with the elderly, are at risk and more than are susceptible to dehydration , due to a combination of several factors:
Firstly , because they are a group of people who are due to their of age are more likely to suffer from infections , which can cause fever and gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea, which lead to loss of body fluids. However, dehydration can occur not only with gastroenteritis, but with other infections such as respiratory (colds, sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis) or urinary tract infections.
Secondly , because in a child’s body has a higher percentage of water . In a newborn, for example, about 70% of its body weight is water. This percentage gradually decreases as the child grows up, until in adulthood it reaches 50-60%, depending on age and gender.
Thirdly , because with a smaller body volume, the ratio between body surface and weight is higher than . This means that in children, moisture loss through the skin and mucous membranes by evaporation is proportionally greater than in adults.
It should also be added that mechanisms of compensation, that the body starts when it starts to lose moisture, are still underdeveloped at an early age of life. The ability to concentrate urine and thereby reduce moisture loss in a newborn is less than that of a school-age child or adult, making young children more vulnerable in these situations.
Finally, in the case of young children, they have limited access to fluids because they are unable to drink on their own and are dependent on adults to give them water to drink in situations of dehydration due to illness or hot weather.
Thus, newborns and babies are at greatest risk of dehydration.
Dehydration and medication for chronic conditions
Although it is not uncommon for children to take medication for chronic conditions, it should be borne in mind that some of them can worsen the symptoms of dehydration .An obvious example of this type of medication is diuretics (furosemide, spironolactone …), which leads to increased water loss through urine to compensate for heart, kidney, etc. problems.
It should also be borne in mind that if a child is taking any medications for chronic diseases, their blood level, as well as their therapeutic effects (both beneficial and side), may temporarily change when a situation of dehydration occurs. This does not mean that we should be alarmed, but we should take this into account, for example, in the case of children receiving antiepileptic drugs , because in a situation of dehydration, the drugs will stop working and the epilepsy may temporarily decompensate.
What are the symptoms of dehydration?
On the one hand, symptoms are associated with the loss of fluid and electrolytes (mineral salts), and on the other, with compensation mechanisms that the body triggers to restore the loss of moisture. Some of the symptoms of dehydration are:
- Poor general well-being
- Dry mouth, lack of saliva, or whitish foamy saliva
- Sunken eyes
- Abnormal breathing
- Crying without tears
- Increased thirst
These symptoms, along with other clinical signs, are graded on various scales used to assess the degree of dehydration of a child (Gorelik scale, American Academy of Pediatrics scale, clinical dehydration scale. ..). If a child has one or more symptoms, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible .
How can dehydration be prevented?
In situations where the symptoms of illness described above (fever, vomiting, diarrhea) occur, it is very important to offer the child plenty of fluids to maintain a normal state of hydration. In addition to water, the liquid you offer your child should contain glucose (sugar) and mineral salts , because vomiting and diarrhea not only loses water, but also sugar and minerals such as sodium, potassium and chlorine.These substances are vital for maintaining the functioning of the organs and systems of our body. Often their levels change in situations of dehydration (hyper or hyponatremia, hypoglycemia …), which can aggravate the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, is recommended to replace fluid loss with Oral Rehydration Serum available from pharmacies.
In other situations where moisture loss in the body increases due to sweating, for example, in summer and with prolonged physical activity, it is recommended to use water as the main rehydrator , accompanied by foods that contain carbohydrates, minerals and water, such as like fruit.