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Pus filled bumps on foot: The request could not be satisfied


Pustular Psoriasis Picture, Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, and More

Pustular psoriasis is a skin disease. You’ll see white bumps filled with pus near or inside red skin blotches. These are called pustules. They can hurt and be scaly, flaky, or itchy.

It’s most likely to affect:

  • The palms of your hands
  • The soles of your feet
  • Your fingers and toes

Even though you see pus on your bumps, it’s not an infection. You can’t catch pustular psoriasis from someone else or give it to others.

Pustular psoriasis usually happens to adults. It’s rare for kids to have it. But it can run in families.

You can get pustular psoriasis on its own or with another kind of psoriasis called plaque psoriasis.

Pustular psoriasis. Note the clearly defined, raised bumps on the skin that are filled with pus (pustules). The skin under and around these bumps is red.

Types and Symptoms

There are three types of pustular psoriasis, based on where the blister outbreaks are or how fast they popped up.

  • Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP):Blisters form on small areas of your body, usually your palms or the soles of your feet. These pus-filled spots can turn brown, peel off, or crust over. Your skin can crack, too. This type of psoriasis may come and go. People who smoke are more likely to get this form.
  • Acropustulosis: Small, very painful lesions pop up on your fingertips or toes. The pain can make it hard to use your fingers or toes. In rare cases, it can cause nail or even bone damage.
  • Generalized or Von Zumbusch: Red, painful, tender skin blotches show up over a wide area of your body, and pus-filled blisters pop up soon after. Your skin may be very itchy. You also might be very tired or have fever, chills, dehydration, nausea, weak muscles, headache, joint pain, a fast pulse, or weight loss. This is a rare, serious disease. See your doctor right away if you have these symptoms.

Causes and Triggers

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. Your immune system usually sends white blood cells to fight off disease in your body. But in this case, they attack your own skin by mistake.

A few things can trigger psoriasis flares:

A mutation, or change, in one of two specific genes (IL36RN or CARD14) may make you more likely to get pustular psoriasis. If you have one of these gene mutations, one of those triggers could set off a flare.


You’ll see a dermatologist (skin doctor) who will ask about your symptoms, your medical history, and any family history of psoriasis.

They may need to take a small sample of your inflamed skin to look at under a microscope. That’s called a biopsy.

If you have a severe flare, they may also test your blood for signs of high white blood cell counts; signs that your kidney and liver are working the way they should; and whether you have healthy levels of electrolytes, calcium, and phosphate.


The goal of treatment is to ease your symptoms and control outbreaks. What you take may depend on your type of pustular psoriasis.

Small, local outbreak: Your doctor may try a topical steroid cream first to treat the sores. Coal tar or salicylic acid creams can help with scaly skin. You’ll slather on lotions, creams, or ointments to soothe and prevent cracked skin. Then you’ll slip on cotton gloves or socks to hold the moisture in.  You might get relief from a cool compress on spots that bother you or from an oatmeal bath.

PPP and acropustulosis outbreaks can be stubborn. Your doctor may try ultraviolet light treatments on the inflamed skin. This is called phototherapy.

Oral drugs like methotrexate or cyclosporine may help calm down your immune system. Acitretin (Soriatane) is another drug that can slow skin outbreaks. It’s a retinoid, or a synthetic form of vitamin A.

All these drugs can have serious side effects, so you may need to switch treatments from time to time.

If you smoke, try to quit. Smoking makes your psoriasis harder to treat. Try to do things to lower your stress levels, like exercise, yoga, tai chi, or meditation. Some people feel better, although no studies have proven this.

Widespread outbreak: If you have generalized or Von Zumbusch psoriasis, get medical care right away. You’ll need fluids along with treatments to prevent infection, ease your fever, and calm inflamed, broken skin. While you’re in the hospital, you need to rest, stay hydrated, and keep cool.

Your doctor may try acitretin, methotrexate, cyclosporine, steroids, or biologics (drugs made from living cells) like infliximab or etanercept to get your flare under control. Once your skin redness and pustule outbreaks have calmed down, you can also try PUVA, where you take a drug called psoralen and then beam ultraviolet light at the affected area of your skin.

Sometimes, one treatment doesn’t do the trick. You may need to combine one or more to feel better.

Family Foot and Ankle Center of South Jersey: Podiatry

A blister that develops on the foot can be painful and uncomfortable. It is most likely caused by excessive friction that occurs in one area of the skin. The outer layer of the skin disintegrates, and a small pocket of fluid forms over the raw skin. This is the body’s natural defense mechanism to protect the damaged skin. There may be other reasons why blisters may develop. These may include an allergic reaction to a bee sting or insect bite. Additionally, if the skin is burned by flames or frostbite, blisters may form to possibly prevent infection. There may be existing medical conditions that can lead to the formation of blisters, including contact dermatitis, or eczema. It is important to leave the blister alone, and it may drain on its own when the raw skin has healed. If you have a blister on your foot that has become discolored or does not heal, it is suggested to speak to a podiatrist who can prescribe medication, if necessary.

Blisters may appear as a single bubble or in a cluster. They can cause a lot of pain and may be filled with pus, blood, or watery serum. If your feet are hurting, contact one of our podiatrists of Family Foot and Ankle Center of South Jersey. Our doctors can provide the care you need to keep you pain-free and on your feet.

Foot Blisters

Foot blisters are often the result of friction. This happens due to the constant rubbing from shoes, which can lead to pain.

What Are Foot Blisters?

A foot blister is a small fluid-filled pocket that forms on the upper-most layer of the skin. Blisters are filled with clear fluid and can lead to blood drainage or pus if the area becomes infected.


(Blister symptoms may vary depending on what is causing them)

  • Bubble of skin filled with fluid
  • Redness
  • Moderate to severe pain
  • Itching

Prevention & Treatment

In order to prevent blisters, you should be sure to wear comfortable shoes with socks that cushion your feet and absorb sweat. Breaking a blister open may increase your chances of developing an infection. However, if your blister breaks, you should wash the area with soap and water immediately and then apply a bandage to the affected area. If your blisters cause severe pain it is important that you call your podiatrist right away.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact our office located in Cherry Hill, NJ. We offer the newest diagnostic and treatment technologies for all your foot care needs.

Abscesses Between the Toes (Interdigital Furunculosis) in Dogs – Dog Owners

An abscess, or localized infection of the skin, between the toes is also called an interdigital furuncle. It is similar to a severely infected pimple or boil on the face. These painful, pus-filled blisters often occur in the webbing between a dog’s toes.

The most common cause of furuncles between the toes is a deep bacterial infection. Many dog breeds (for example, Chinese Shar-Peis, Labrador Retrievers, and English Bulldogs) are predisposed to the condition because they have short, bristly hairs on the webbing between the toes and/or prominent amounts of webbing. The short hair shafts are easily forced backward into the hair follicles while the dog is walking. Ingrown hairs are very inflammatory in the skin, and secondary bacterial infections are common. Less commonly, a hair shaft can become infected if foreign material, such as a splinter or burr, becomes embedded in the skin.

Early signs of infected hair follicles that could become furuncles are rash-like redness and small bumps in one spot or over the entire webbing between the toes. If left untreated, the bumps will rapidly develop into shiny, reddish purple boils 0.4 to 0.8 inches (1 to 2 centimeters) in diameter. The boils may rupture when pressed and leak bloody fluid. Furuncles are usually painful, and the dog may be obviously lame on the affected foot (or feet) and lick and bite at them. Furuncles caused by a foreign object are usually solitary and often occur on a front foot. Recurrence is not common. If a bacterial infection is causing the problem, there may be several furuncles with new ones developing as others heal.

Diagnosis is often based on signs alone. Tests to confirm the presence of inflammation and to look for parasites are often helpful. Bacterial cultures may be done to choose an appropriate antibiotic. Any abnormal growths may need to be biopsied. The furuncles can be lanced to find and remove any foreign objects. Furuncles between the toes respond best to a combination of treatment at the site and system-wide (oral) drugs. Antibiotics are frequently prescribed for an initial course lasting 4 to 6 weeks. However, because it may be difficult for antibiotics to penetrate these furuncles, more than 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment may be needed. Additional treatment for secondary fungal infections may be required. Other commonly recommended treatments include soaking the foot in warm water (with or without an antibiotic solution added to the bath) and applying antibiotic ointment. Some dogs may benefit from antibiotic wraps and bandaging. Pain medication may be needed in some dogs.

Using antibiotics improperly, such as not finishing the entire prescription, can lead to longterm, recurring furuncles between the toes. Furuncles can also recur if the bacteria are not susceptible to the antibiotic prescribed. If furuncles recur in spite of proper treatment, it may be a sign of an underlying disease (such as parasites, hypothyroidism, or fungal infection). Furuncles in confined dogs are likely to recur unless the dog is removed from wire or concrete surfaces. In some longterm cases, surgical excision or surgical correction of the webbing may be needed. The most common causes of recurrent furuncles in dogs are atopy and demodicosis.

Cysts (pockets of fluid or other material under the skin) or comedones (clogged hair follicles) also occur on the webbing between toes. Affected dogs may limp and have draining sores between their toes. Multiple clogged follicles may be seen, along with hair loss and thickened skin. Biopsy is necessary to diagnose interdigital cysts or comedones. Laser therapy can be used to successfully treat this condition. Antibiotics may be necessary to treat bacterial infections that also develop. Frequent bandage changes or other treatments may also be required.

Pompholyx (dyshidrotic eczema) | nidirect

Pompholyx (dyshidrotic eczema) is a type of eczema. It causes tiny blisters to develop across the fingers, palms of the hands and sometimes the soles of the feet. You should see your GP if you have any sort of blistering skin condition.

About pompholyx

Pompholyx can affect people of any age, but it’s most often seen in adults under 40.

It can sometimes be confused with similar-looking conditions.

Signs and symptoms of pompholyx

Pompholyx usually starts as intense itching and burning of the skin on the hands and fingers. The palms and sides of the fingers (and sometimes the soles of the feet) then erupt into tiny itchy blisters that may weep (leak) fluid.

In severe cases, the blisters may be quite large and may spread to the backs of the hands, feet and limbs.

The skin can sometimes become infected. Signs of an infection can include the blisters becoming very painful and oozing pus or becoming covered in a golden crust.

The blisters will usually heal within a few weeks. The skin tends to become dry and crack or peel as it starts to heal.

Causes of pompholyx

It’s not clear exactly what causes pompholyx, but it may be triggered or made worse by:

  • a fungal skin infection – this may be on the hands or at a distant site from the blisters (such as in between the toes) and will need treating
  • a reaction to something that has touched your skin – such as certain metals (particularly nickel), detergents, household chemicals, soap, shampoo, cosmetic products or perfume
  • stress
  • sweating – pompholyx is more common in spring and summer, in warmer climates, and in people with hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)

How long pompholyx lasts

In many cases, pompholyx will clear up on its own within a few weeks. The treatments below may help relieve your symptoms in the meantime.

Sometimes pompholyx may just occur once and never come back. But it often comes and goes over several months or years. Any of the triggers mentioned above can cause it to flare up again.

Occasionally, pompholyx can be more continuous and difficult to treat.

Treatments for pompholyx

Protecting your skin

You should try to avoid contact with anything that might irritate your skin, including soaps, shampoos and other household chemicals.

Use an emollient as a soap substitute (see below). You should wear cotton-lined gloves when you’re at risk of contact with other potentially irritating substances, such as when washing your hair or doing housework.

Don’t burst the blisters – let them heal on their own. If they’re particularly big, your GP may be able to drain them.

Treating the symptoms

You should see your GP if you have any sort of blistering skin condition.

The main treatments your GP may recommend to treat the symptoms of pompholyx are similar to those used when treating atopic eczema, including:

  • emollients (moisturisers) – use these all the time and instead of soap to stop your skin becoming dry
  • steroid cream – this reduces the inflammation and irritation and helps the skin to heal

If your GP prescribes a steroid cream, it will probably be for a short period of time, to minimise risk of steroid side effects. You may be advised to wear cotton gloves at night to help the cream sink into the skin.

You can also try:

  • soaking your hands in a dilute solution of potassium permanganate (1:10,000) for 10-15 minutes once or twice a day for up to five days
  • antihistamines to relieve the itching and help you sleep if the itchiness is keeping you awake at night

These treatments are available from pharmacies without a prescription. Your pharmacist can advise you whether they’re suitable for you and how you should use them.

Antibiotics may be prescribed if your skin becomes infected.

Specialist treatments

If your pompholyx keeps returning or is severe and doesn’t get better with the above treatments, your GP may refer you to a specialist in treating skin conditions (dermatologist).

The dermatologist will discuss with you the most appropriate treatment options for your condition. These may include phototherapy and more potent medication, such as immunosuppressants.

Similar skin conditions

Conditions that can have a similar appearance to pompholyx include:

  • bullous impetigo – a contagious skin infection that mainly affects children and causes sores and blisters
  • bullous pemphigoid – a blistering skin condition that tends to affect the elderly
  • contact dermatitis – a type of eczema caused by skin contact with a substance that causes irritation or an allergic reaction
  • hand, foot and mouth disease – a viral infection that mainly affects young children, which can cause small blisters to develop on the fingers and palms of the hands
  • herpetic whitlow (whitlow finger) – an abscess (collection of pus) at the end of the finger that can cause it to become suddenly red, swollen, painful and blistered
  • pustular psoriasis – an uncommon type of psoriasis that causes pus-filled blisters to appear on your skin

More useful links

The information on this page has been adapted from original content from the NHS website.

For further information see terms and conditions.

11 Most Common Foot Lumps and Bumps Explained

A surprisingly wide variety of lumps, bumps, nodules, and protrusions can afflict our feet. If you’ve got a bump on your foot, you may be wondering what the heck it is and how it got there.

So we’ve put together an overview of the most common and interesting bumps (we’re foot doctors, so bumps on your feet are a big deal to us) together with the appropriate treatment for each.

What are calluses and how do you prevent them?

Your foot and ankle specialist can shave down the thick layers of a callus using a scalpel blade.

Calluses are created by friction applied to the skin of the foot, often by misfitting shoes. Calluses are also formed when the metatarsals (the long bones in the foot) become misaligned. This displacement causes uneven distribution of weight across the ball of the foot when walking.

Over-the-counter callus pads and orthotics are available to reduce the friction between your feet and your shoes. If those remedies don’t work, and your calluses are making life difficult, see a podiatrist and let a pro check your feet and take care of them for you. And if you’re in Southern California, we know some great people you can see! 🙂

What is accessory navicular syndrome?

If you have a bump on the inner side of the foot, just above the arch, you may have what is known as an accessory navicular. It’s an extra bone or sometimes a piece of cartilage. This condition is congenital. As the name suggests, it’s not part of our standard skeletal equipment.

The extra bone often remains dormant and causes no problems. But the accessory navicular is incorporated within the posterior tibial tendon, and it can sometimes interfere with the function of that tendon.

What are the symptoms of an accessory navicular?

The symptoms of accessory navicular syndrome include a visible bony protrusion on the inner side of the foot, pain or throbbing (usually after significant physical activity), and redness and swelling where the protrusion rubs against footwear.

What treatment options are available for accessory navicular syndrome?

For relief of moderate navicular symptoms, ice and anti-inflammatory drugs may be sufficient. Physical therapy, designed to strengthen and enlarge the muscles around the navicular and decrease inflammation, is often helpful, as are custom orthotic devices that accommodate the extra bone. As is usually the case, surgery remains the remedy of last resort.

What are bunions?

Bunions are one of the most common of the more serious foot conditions. A bunion is a bony protrusion that usually forms at the base of the big toe joint. It occurs when the joint between the big toe and the long metatarsal bones becomes misaligned, or additional bone structure appears. The enlarged joint can become inflamed and painful.

Bunions may also be present at the base of the fifth toe and are known as Tailor’s bunion or bunionette.

Why do some people get bunions and others don’t?

Bunions can form for several reasons and are often, though not always, hereditary (thanks, Mom)! Other causes of bunions aside from genetics are:

Structural abnormalities such as missing bones, flattened arches, or a short first metatarsal. If you have one leg longer than the other and an uneven gait, you may be prone to develop bunions.

Pregnancy can result in the development of bunions. Relaxin, the hormone that helps widen the pelvis during pregnancy, can also soften the ligaments in the foot. This can cause the bones in the feet to spread out and arches to fall.

Wearing high heels on a regular basis. Balancing and walking with high heels can tighten calf muscles and force load-bearing to the front of the foot. Gradually the arch can collapse. Many high heels have a narrow, pointed toe that reshapes the foot into an unnatural position.

How are bunions treated?

Treatment usually starts with switching to shoes with a more capacious toe-box, inserting padding, or using arch supports. Again, surgery is the last resort when conservative treatment doesn’t resolve the problem.

What are plantar fibromas and how are they treated?

A plantar fibroma is a clump of fibrous tissue that appears in the arch of the foot. Fibromas are benign, but they can cause significant pain and discomfort as they grow. Men are more often affected by plantar fibromas than are women, and the condition generally begins during or after middle age.

The precise cause of plantar fibromas is unknown, but genetics may be a factor. These bumps on the foot are more common among folks of northern European descent, and those of Asian ancestry are rarely affected. Repetitive trauma may also play a role; such recurrent injuries prevent healing of the fascia in the arch.

Small plantar fibromas without any symptoms usually don’t require any treatment. But when symptoms become problematic there are several courses of action.

  • A corticosteroid shot can reduce inflammation and consequent foot pain, but it won’t halt the growth of the fibroma, so it’s a temporary solution at best
  • Orthotic appliances can redistribute body weight throughout the foot and help to reduce pressure on the fibroma.
  • Physical therapy will stretch and strengthen the arch, reduce inflammation, increase circulation in the foot, and promote the growth of new cells.
  • For intractable cases, surgery is once again the appropriate remedy of last resort.

What’s a lipoma?

A lipoma is a benign slow-growing mass composed of fatty tissue, which commonly occurs on the bottom of the foot. Like fibromas, which they resemble, lipomas don’t need treatment if they are not causing problems. However, they can grow large enough to impinge on the surrounding nerves, tendons, and ligaments. When they cause a problem, they can be readily excised.

What is Morton’s neuroma?

A neuroma is a lump of scar tissue that has developed around a nerve. The type of neuroma that most commonly affects the feet is known as Morton’s neuroma. It usually occurs in the area just below the junction of the third and fourth toes.

How does one get Morton’s neuroma and what does it feel like?

The cause is repetitive trauma. Morton’s neuroma is incurred more often by women than by men, and the recurrent trauma which causes it is often linked to high-heeled shoes.

The symptoms include the sensation that you’re standing on a piece of gravel and burning pain in the ball of your foot that may radiate into your toes. Change up your footwear and reduce or modify activities that cramp your toes together. If this doesn’t work, it’s time to consult a podiatrist.

What are plantar warts and how are they treated?

Plantar warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus can enter your feet through cuts or areas where the skin has become thin.

Plantar warts are generally small and rough to the touch. They can be tender or painful when you walk or run.

They will usually disappear on their own, but you may need to seek medical attention if warts bleed, cause continuing disruptive pain or change color. Be sure to see your podiatrist if you have either type II diabetes or a weakened immune system.

What is bursitis in the feet and how is it treated?

Bursas (or bursae) are small fluid-filled sacs that act as shock absorbers around and between your bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The painful condition is known as bursitis generally occurs after a trauma or repetitive stress causes inflammation of the bursae. When it occurs in your feet, bursitis usually appears in or around your big toe, the side of your feet, or your heel.

The first step in treating bursitis in the feet is, logically enough, avoiding the trauma or repetitive stress that caused it in the first place. Rest, ice and elevation will help, as will anti-inflammatory agents such as ibuprofen. If the condition persists, see your podiatrist, who may administer corticosteroids, provide physical therapy, or, in extreme cases, perform surgery.

What is Haglund’s deformity?

This condition involves the growth of a bony protrusion from the back of the heel, underneath the Achilles tendon. The symptoms of Haglund’s deformity are akin to Achilles tendinosis, which can make it difficult to diagnose. Symptoms include pain, both internal and external abrasion when the bump rubs against your footwear.

What’s the treatment for Haglund’s deformity?

Nonsurgical treatment includes wearing open-back shoes, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and icing. If these home treatments don’t work, ultrasound treatments, orthotics, and immobilizing boots may help. Your podiatrist can perform surgical excision of the excess bone in extreme cases.

What are cysts?

A cyst is a small sac filled with fluid. Think of a tiny water balloon, linked to a tendon or embedded in the soft tissue surrounding a joint in your foot. The two types of cysts most commonly found in the foot are synovial and ganglion. Both are benign, and they can exist without causing symptoms, but cysts can grow into problems when they press on a nerve or tendon.

How are cysts on the feet treated?

Persistent or increasingly troublesome cysts, such as ganglion cysts, can be treated by aspiration. The precise location of the cyst is determined by ultrasound, the area is numbed by a local anesthetic, and the gelatinous fluid is withdrawn via syringe. Cysts do recur, and sometimes surgical removal is required for a permanent solution.

What is dyshidrotic eczema?

If small itchy bumps filled with liquid appear on the bottom of your foot, this is probably what you’ve got. The cause of dyshidrotic eczema is uncertain; the condition may be allergic and/or stress-related. Corticosteroid ointments and antihistamines are helpful, as is stress reduction.

If you are suffering from painful lumps and bumps on your feet, please don’t hesitate to make an appointment with UFAI. The doctors at University Foot and Ankle Institute are here to help. Our nationally recognized podiatrists offer the most advanced foot and ankle care together with the highest success rates in the nation. We are leaders in the field of research and treatment of all foot and ankle conditions.

For more information or to schedule a consultation, please call (877) 736-6001 or visit us at www.footankleinstitute.com.

At University Foot and Ankle Institute, we take our patients’ safety seriously. Our facility’s Covid-19 patient safety procedures exceed all CDC recommendations. Masks are required in our offices at all times.

As co-founder and co-director of University Foot and Ankle Institute, board-certified Dr. Gary Briskin began his medical training by serving a residency at Flint General Hospital in Michigan. Once completed, he established a practice in Century City Hospital, where he soon became chief of podiatric surgery.

Dr. Briskin is a Diplomat of the American Board of Podiatric Surgery and a Fellow of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. He also serves as an assistant clinical professor at the UCLA School of Medicine.

Latest posts by Dr. Gary B. Briskin, DPM, FACFAS (see all)
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Blisters – causes and treatment

A blister is a pocket of fluid in the upper layers of the skin, commonly caused by repeated rubbing or burning. Most blisters should not be burst or popped but, rather, left to heal on their own. However, blisters that become infected, or that are caused by an underlying medical condition, may require treatment.

Blisters are one of the body’s responses to injury, friction, or an underlying medical condition. The damaged upper layer of skin tears or peels away from the layers beneath. A clear fluid then collects in the space to create a blister to protect the underlying layers and promote its repair. If a blood vessel in the skin is damaged, the blister is filled with blood rather than clear fluid and forms a blood blister.


Most blisters are caused by friction, i.e. when the skin is repeatedly rubbed for a long period of time or when it is subjected to intense rubbing over shorter periods. Friction blisters most commonly occur on the feet and hands when they rub against footwear and handheld equipment such as tools or sports gear.

Blisters can also develop when the skin is exposed to heat (e. g. sunburn or boiling water), freezing cold (e.g. frostbite), or irritating chemicals or substances (e.g. detergents, solvents). They can also develop due to an allergic reaction, including in response to an insect bite or sting.

Blisters can also be caused by certain medical conditions, including:

In addition, some types of medication can cause mild blistering skin reactions while other types of medication can increase the risk of blistering due to sunburn by increasing the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight.

Signs and symptoms

In general, blisters are round or oval bubbles of clear fluid under the skin that may be painful or itchy. Blood blisters are red or black and filled with blood instead of clear fluid.

Specific symptoms will vary depending on the cause. For example, blisters caused by friction or burns are usually painful while blisters resulting from eczema may be accompanied by redness, itching, and small bumps on the affected skin.

Infected blisters are red, hot, and filled with green or yellow pus. An infected blister should not be ignored. Without treatment, an infected blister can lead to a skin infection (including impetigo), cellulitis, or even a life-threatening blood infection (sepsis).


Friction blisters are easily self-diagnosed. If the cause of your blisters is not obvious, your GP can diagnose the cause by the appearance of the blister and your personal and family medical history, including any allergies you have and medications you take. Your GP may also ask about any recent exposure to irritating chemicals or allergens. 

If your GP suspects an allergic reaction, they may recommend patch tests to identify the cause of the reaction. Some blistering diseases are diagnosed with a skin biopsy, which involves a small piece of tissue being taken and examined in a laboratory.


It is usually best not to burst a blister, and to leave them alone. Blisters themselves should be protected with a plaster or other sterile dressing and kept covered until they have healed.

Bursting a blister increases the risk of it becoming infected and may hinder the healing process. 

Friction blisters heal within a week and don’t usually require medical attention unless they are severe, recurrent, or occur in people who have circulation problems or diabetes.

Self-care measures for blisters include:

  • Applying an ice pack wrapped in a tea-towel to a blister to help relieve any pain
  • Covering a blister with a soft plaster or dressing, especially if it is likely to burst
  • Not breaking or popping a blister yourself
  • Washing your hands before touching a burst blister
  • Allowing the fluid in a burst blister to drain before covering it with a sterile dressing
  • Not peeling the skin off a burst blister or picking at the edges of any remaining skin (the skin covering the blister helps to protect it from infection)
  • Not wearing the shoes or using the equipment that caused the blister until it has healed.

However, you should see a GP if:

  • You think a blister is infected
  • A blister is extremely painful or keeps coming back
  • A blister is in an unusual place, e.g. eyelids, mouth, or genitals
  • Several blisters have appeared for no apparent reason
  • A blister was caused by a burn or scald, sunburn, an allergic reaction, or chemicals or other substances.

Your GP might burst a large or painful blister under sterile conditions. If a blister is infected, they may prescribe antibiotics.

A pharmacist can recommend a suitable plaster or dressing to protect your blister from becoming infected while it heals.

Blisters caused by a medical condition, such as chickenpox, genital herpes, diabetes or impetigo should be seen by a GP who will be able to treat the blister and advise on managing the underlying condition.


Taking the following precautions will help to minimise the chances of developing blisters caused by friction:

  • Wear comfortable shoes that fit properly
  • Break new shoes in gradually
  • Keep feet as dry as possible and dust talcum powder into your socks
  • Wear thicker sports or wool socks when exercising or playing sports
  • Lubricate friction areas in new sports shoes/boots (such as around the heel) with petroleum jelly
  • Wear protective gloves when gardening or using tools at work
  • If you feel a localised friction spot on a hand or foot during sport or other physical activity, immediately stop and apply protection such as plasters or tape to the area.

If you are especially susceptible to friction blisters, it may be worthwhile visiting a podiatrist (someone who diagnoses and treats foot disorders). They are able to advise on appropriate footwear, protective dressings, and other prevention measures.

Precautions should also be taken to prevent blisters from other causes:

  • Before going out in the sun, apply sunscreen, keep skin covered, and wear a sun hat
  • Take care around household sources of heat such as ovens, hot water jugs, and heaters
  • Use appropriate safety equipment when working in environments involving heat or chemicals
  • Wear protective gloves (and eye protection) when using harsh detergents, cleaning products, solvents, and other chemicals
  • Avoid as much as possible, irritants and allergens that can trigger eczema.


Cleveland Clinic (Date no stated). Diseases & conditions: Blisters (Web Page). Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16787-blisters [Accessed: 10/10/18]
Mayo Clinic (2018). Blisters: First aid (Web Page). Rochester, NY: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-blisters/basics/art-20056691 [Accessed: 10/10/18]
MedlinePlus (2016). Blisters (Web Page). Bethesda, MD: US National Library of Medicine (NIH). https://medlineplus.gov/blisters.html [Accessed: 10/10/18]
NHS (2017). Blisters (Web Page). Redditch: National Health Service (NHS) 
England. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/blisters/ [Accessed: 10/10/18]
NHS inform (2018). Blisters (Web Page). Glasgow: National Health Information Service, National Health Service (NHS) Scotland. https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/injuries/skin-injuries/blisters [10/10/18]

Created: October 2018



Mouth sores

Mouth sores can be caused by infection, injury or oral cancer. This fact sheet explains some common mouth sores, their symptoms and treatment.

Mouth infections and ulcerations

Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis
Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis is a highly contagious viral infection. It causes fever, irritability, headache, pain on swallowing and swelling of the lymph glands. Within a few days, the mouth and gums become painful and very inflamed. The lips, tongue, inside the cheeks, palate, and throat may become sore. Yellow fluid-filled sores then develop, burst and form shallow, ragged and extremely painful ulcers covered by a greyish skin. Consult your dental or medical professional for advice and treatment.

Cold sores
Cold sores, or herpes simplex, usually occur on the lips and tongue, although they can also occur on the eyes, nose and hands. Take care not to infect another person while the sores are open and weeping. Cold sore ointments available over the counter from pharmacies may relieve some discomfort.

Thrush, or candidiasis, is a fungal infection that initially presents as red areas of tissue in the mouth. As thrush progresses, a white flaky layer may appear on the tongue, gums or inside the cheeks. Although the white flaky layer can be easily wiped away, the tissues underneath often look ‘raw’. To avoid transmitting the infection, practice good hygiene by washing your hands and not sharing utensils. Consult your dental or medical professional for advice and treatment.

Hand foot and mouth disease
Hand foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, but not serious. It is relatively common in children, and is unrelated to the animal diseases with similar names. Symptoms include blisters inside the cheeks, gums and on the side of the tongue, as well as hands and feet. Children with hand foot and mouth disease may have a fever, be listless and may not eat well for a day or two. The blisters usually persist for seven to 10 days, and are contagious while they contain fluid. Consult your dental or medical professional for advice and treatment.

The best form of protection is good hygiene:

  • wash hands with soap and water for at least 15 seconds and dry thoroughly before handling food, after going to the toilet and changing nappies
  • implement good cleaning procedures
  • allow blisters to dry naturally and do not deliberately pierce blisters as the fluid is infectious.

Practical Advice

Dental abscesses are pus-filled swellings caused by infection inside a tooth, infection of the gum and/or injury to the tooth. Abscesses are often painful, but not always. Dental abscesses can cause facial swelling and/or enlarged lymph glands. In rare cases, dental abscesses can cause more widespread infection and may be life threatening.

To treat dental abscesses:

  • Control moderate pain using over the counter pain medication.
  • Use cold compresses to help control swelling.
  • Take antibiotics if prescribed to reduce infection.
  • Seek prompt dental treatment – an abscess will not heal itself, and antibiotics will not fix the problem.

Angular chelitis
Angular chelitis can be caused by fungal and/or bacterial infection, poor nutrition or immune deficiencies. Angular chelitis appears as cracked, red crusting at the corners of the mouth, which often bleeds when the mouth is opened. To prevent the infection, keep lips moist with lip balm, practice good oral hygiene and keep hydrated by drinking lots of water. Consult your dental or medical professional for advice and treatment.

Trench mouth
Trench mouth, or acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis, is extremely painful. It appears as yellow-white ulcers that bleed easily. The infection is caused by poor oral hygiene, but stress and smoking often contribute. Patients often report a metallic taste in their mouth and the sensation of their teeth being wedged apart. In some cases, patients also have swollen lymph glands, fever and fatigue. Consult your dental or medical professional for advice and treatment.

Mouth injuries

Mouth injuries can cause bleeding, ulcers and sore spots. If you injure your mouth:

  • Apply a clean bandage or folded handkerchief to the wound and apply firm pressure.
  • Sit down and maintain the pressure for at least ten minutes. Don’t lie down flat.
  • If the bleeding cannot be controlled, seek immediate medical attention.
  • Apply a cold compress to relieve swelling and pain.
  • Seek dental or medical advice so your teeth and mouth can be checked for serious injury.

The mouth cannot be sterilised so there is always a risk of infection to a mouth wound. Warm saltwater used as a mouth rinse may aid healing.

Bitten lip or cheek
A bitten lip or cheek can occur during eating or as a result of a fall. More serious bites are sometimes seen after a patient has a local anaesthetic. If the patient sucks, bites or rubs the numb area, they can damage the tissue without realising it. The traumatised area often looks like a chemical burn. When feeling returns, this injury may be very sore and look unsightly. Swelling and infection may also occur. Warm salt water used as a mouth rinse may aid healing. If an infection occurs, consult your dental professional.

Traumatic ulcers and sore spots
Ulcers and sore spots can be caused by damage to skin, and can occur anywhere in the mouth. Dentures, braces, plates, toothbrushes, chemicals, allergies, poor nutrition, infection and hormones can all cause ulcers. Ulcers can be very painful. Warm saltwater used as mouth rinse may aid healing and provide relief. Over the counter products from the pharmacy may provide temporary relief. If ulcers are persistent, consult a dental professional for advice and treatment.

Oral cancer

The majority of ulcers and swelling in the mouth and neck are not cancer, and early examination and treatment will heal most conditions. In the early stages, most oral cancers are not painful. The first symptom is usually discomfort produced by the mass of tumour tissue. If you experience any of the following warning signs, seek urgent medical advice:

  • any sore or ulcer on the tongue, cheek or gums that does not heal within two weeks
  • red or white patches in the mouth or on the lips
  • a swelling or lump anywhere in the mouth or neck
  • difficulty swallowing and speaking
  • repeated bleeding in the mouth, and/or
  • numbness or loss of feeling in any area of the mouth.

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Dental emergencies
Wearing braces or a plate

90,000 Purulent diseases, symptoms and treatment

Purulent diseases are widespread enough.

Such diseases are dangerous because in case of untimely treatment, the likelihood of complications is very high, among which there may be even partial, and in rare severe cases, complete disability.


With this pathology, an inflammatory reaction occurs with the development of general and local changes.

The severity of the disease depends on the extent of the inflammatory process and the general reactivity of the body.

At the same time, there is a universal rule according to which any purulent process is an indication for surgical treatment of a disease.

Symptoms that are characteristic of such diseases:

  • An increase in body temperature (sometimes up to febrile values),

  • Symptoms of purulent intoxication – headache, weakness, deterioration in performance, apathy, weakness, loss of appetite, drowsiness, or, conversely, sleep disturbance.

  • Pain at the site of inflammation.

  • Hyperemia of the skin in the area of ​​inflammation

  • Local increase in temperature over the inflammation focus, smoothness of the contours of furrows and lines

All these symptoms are nonspecific and can be observed in any clinical form of pyoinflammatory diseases.

In addition, there are specific signs for each individual disease.

Depending on the location, it is possible to determine the involvement of certain areas in the pathological process and the likelihood of complications.

Forms of purulent diseases and their signs:

  • A boil is an acute purulent-necrotic inflammation of the hair follicle, sebaceous gland and surrounding subcutaneous tissue.

  • Panaritium is an accumulation of a discharge, predominantly purulent, under the skin in the phalanx area.In this case, general symptoms of the disease may be noted, but most often they are not significantly expressed. When viewed on one of the phalanges of the fingers, mainly the proximal, a zone of swelling, hyperemia is determined.

  • Furunculosis is the presence of several boils in different areas with a recurrent course. With furunculosis, patients must be examined to identify metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, vitamin deficiency).The treatment is complex, including immunotherapy.

  • A carbuncle is an acute diffuse purulent-necrotic inflammation of several nearby hair follicles and sebaceous glands with the formation of necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, accompanied by signs of purulent intoxication. Localization of carbuncles is most often observed on the back of the neck, interscapular region. Usually, the carbuncle is accompanied by lymphadenitis, and when localized on the extremities, lymphangitis.

  • Phlegmon is an acute purulent diffuse inflammation of cell spaces that does not tend to delimit. This disease is caused most often by staphylococcus, as well as any other pyogenic microflora. The infection can penetrate into tissues through damage to the skin and mucous membranes, after various injections (the so-called post-injection phlegmon), by the lymphogenous and hematogenous route, during the transition of inflammation from the lymph nodes, carbuncle, boil, etc.on the surrounding fiber.

  • An abscess is a limited collection of pus in various tissues or organs, surrounded by a pyogenic capsule. Pathogens and ways of penetration of infection into tissues are the same as with phlegmon, although the percentage of anaerobic pathogens is much higher.

  • Hydradenitis is a purulent inflammation of the sweat glands. The infection gets through non-compliance with the rules of hygiene and excessive sweating.

  • Mastitis is an acute inflammation of the breast. Mastitis mainly develops in the postpartum period during lactation (lactation mastitis). The infection enters the gland tissue through microcracks in the nipple, as well as through the milk ducts during lactostasis.

  • Erysipelas. Erysipelas is called acute serous-exudative inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes. The infection gets through microcracks, wounds on the skin.


Local therapy of the disease includes conservative and surgical methods.

Conservative methods of treatment are used in the early stages of the disease before the formation of an abscess, as well as in combination with surgical treatment for faster and more effective treatment.

Local treatment in the stage of infiltration includes the impact on it with the help of physiotherapy techniques.

It is imperative to use ointments, which include an antibiotic and antimicrobial substances.


Depending on the size of the purulent focus, anesthesia may be used during treatment.

After opening the abscess during the surgical treatment of the disease, it is purified from purulent exudate.

Then it is washed with an antiseptic substance, antibiotic solutions.

After the end of the operation, the wound is never sutured tightly, for the best drainage.

Dressings consist in removing drains and replacing them with new ones, washing the wound with an antiseptic solution, filling the wound with an antibiotic ointment, applying a dressing to prevent wound infection.

Prevention of purulent diseases:

In the prevention of many purulent diseases, it is of great importance to improve the external environment in which a person lives and works, that is, to improve working and living conditions.

So, for example, in the prevention of a number of purulent diseases (furunculosis, pyoderma, etc.)an important role is played by measures of a general hygienic nature and skin care (especially for hands), etc.

Surgeon, Sarapultsev German Petrovich.

A bump on the leg, pus squeezed out a bit, I feel the hard under the skin – Question to the dermatologist

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Halus valgus: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow

Halus valgus is a pathological deformity of the big toes, as a result of which a bump appears on the side of the inside of the foot. It causes a lot of inconvenience and unbearable pain. Chalus valgus disease belongs to a number of age-related diseases. It does not appear suddenly; it takes several years to develop.The main category of patients is female. Ligaments are weaker in women than in men. This is also due to the curvature of the foot, due to walking in high heels and the use of uncomfortable shoes. This ailment is hereditary, but more and more medical studies are establishing a number of other reasons for the manifestation.

The disease reaches its peak in patients over the age of 50. As a result of walking, bone tissue damages the joint in which the fluid is located, thereby forming a build-up.The friction created shifts the phalanx of the thumb to the side. Statistics show that an untimely visit to an orthopedic surgeon leads to immediate surgical intervention.

Disease degree

There are three degrees of deviation and curvature of the thumb. The degree depends on the angle of deviation of the phalanx of the toe from the metatarsal bone.

1. The first is referred to as the minimum stage of growth. The angle is about 12 degrees, and the deflection of the thumb is up to 25 degrees.At the same time, no visual or tangible symptoms may appear.

2. The second degree is due to an increase in the angle to 18, and the slope is more than 25 degrees. If there is such a degree, there is discomfort when walking in ordinary shoes and pain. At the same time, the lump is constantly filled with blood, which provokes the appearance of a callus. This edema indicates the onset of the inflammatory process.

3. The last degree is the most painful. Deviations from the metatarsal bone exceed 18 degrees, and the finger rests on the adjacent toe, forming a cross.The top is bright red, very sore when touched. Wearing shoes becomes a painful and unrealistic process. Lameness and severe pain syndrome appear.

Causes of

Consider the main causes of this pathology:

§ Flat feet. Caused by the curvature of the foot, in which the transverse arch becomes flat.

§ Congenital defect of the legs. For example: clubfoot.

§ Shoes.Wearing tight, small and uncomfortable shoes. The material of manufacture also affects.

§ Excessive loading. Prolonged standing, frequent walking or standing work.

§ Obesity. Strengthening the load on bones and joints.

§ Diabetes. The disease leads to impaired blood circulation, physiological or pathological atrophy of tendons, tissues and muscles.

§ The period of pregnancy in women.Due to the hormonal imbalance, weight is rapidly gaining, and the growing belly increases the load on the forefoot.

§ Trauma. Severe bruises or fractures of the limb provoke the development of the disease.

The main symptoms of hallus valgus are pain in the legs when walking, namely in the metatarsophalangeal region. At rest, pain does not bother. After prolonged exertion, during sleep, the feeling of fatigue in the foot increases. The pain can be both moderate and sharp, burning.Changes in the visualization of the legs are observed. Loss of the usual shape is due to an increase in the usual size of the leg and the presence of constant chafing. Palpation is painless or not pronounced.

Often, thumb movement is limited and the limbs swell, especially the affected area. Bone-cartilaginous growth prevents the phalanx from bending or unbending. If these symptoms are present, you should immediately seek medical help.

Diagnostic process

The diagnosis is made after examination by a therapist, orthopedist, surgeon and the mandatory delivery of general urine and blood tests.If the inflammatory process in the blood is not observed, then the diagnosis continues. An x-ray of the foot is done. The position for the image is selected at a special angle to view the space between the 1st and 2nd metatarsal bones.

After examining the X-ray photograph, the degree of arthritic changes is determined. The subchondral bone plate is deformed, the joint space is narrowed. For a more detailed examination, an MRI scan is additionally prescribed to study muscle tissue and subcutaneous tissue.CT – to assess the condition of the bones. If there is a violation of the supply of nerve impulses to the muscles, consultation with a neurologist is definitely needed. The usual list of studies can be supplemented with an analysis of the level of hormones and the exclusion of the appearance of a malignant tumor or oncology.

Program and types of treatment

The purpose of the surgical treatment of hallus valgus depends on the degree of the disease. In the first and second stages, you can get by with medicines, splints and retainers.The third requires immediate hospitalization to prevent complications.

To begin with, you should normalize your lifestyle and nutrition plan. The pathological factor is excluded – completeness. Diet, special nutritional supplements and missing vitamins are prescribed. The movement and load on the joint lump is limited. Treatment with splints, insoles, a bandage and a brace is of a confrontational nature. They allow you to maintain immobility and secure the joint in the desired healthy state.

Bandage. It is a locking mechanism that attaches to the inside of the big toe and foot. Pulling the elastic bands guides the finger in the desired direction, like a lever. Thereby providing a correction of the chalice.

Tires and retainers. They are used on an ongoing basis, even while sleeping. During application, the movement of the joints is limited. Silicone retainers fit on one or all fingers. Its soft structure allows it to be worn even in shoes.

Insoles. The special surface allows you to avoid the development of flat feet. Relieves stress on the metatarsophalangeal joint by evenly distributing the load on the sole.

Shoes. Orthopedic footwear ensures the correct positioning of the foot, eliminates dangling of the foot. The instep supports reduce pressure on the ligaments. A dense, snug and flexible base will facilitate movement. The breathable structure and quality material will keep you from debate.

Preparation and course of operation

Orthopedists advise to treat hallux valgus only surgically.The main stream of patients seek help when therapy is already powerless.

Indications for surgery:

  • prolonged continuation of symptoms.

  • increased pain syndrome.

  • Strong visual curvature.

  • ulcers, suppuration, deterioration of the skin.

  • severe lameness.

  • restriction of movements.

  • ineffectiveness of conservative methods.

There are a huge number of methods of surgery to remove hallux valgus. About three hundred types of operations can be classified into three subtypes: operations on bone, soft and bone-soft tissues. Operation on soft tissues is performed in the first case of the development of a deviation.Treatment of second and third degree chalus, mainly with scarf and chevron surgical bone fracture.

During chevron surgery, a V-cut is made and the desired portion of the metatarsal bone is removed. The callus is removed with a saw or chisel. The phalanx is attached with titanium screws and wire. It is removed three months after the intervention, the screws are not removed.

Scarf osteotomy consists of a zigzag cut. The fragments are shifted to eliminate the angle degree.Having reached the permissible norm of the position of the finger, the broken off parts are connected with screws. This versatile technique has several advantages:

  • when the joint is tilted, the bone elements can be moved;

  • Achievement of the result is achieved due to the rotation of the metatarsal head during the operation;

  • can adjust the length of the bone;

  • the doctor has the ability to remove an unnecessary area;

  • The balance of the load on the foot is adjusted by moving the bone down and to the side.

It is performed under spinal anesthesia. Installed screws are not removed unless they cause discomfort. Throughout the recovery, the splint is worn and the load is limited, gradually pacing for 3 to 6 weeks.


Invasion is prohibited for any infectious disease of any severity. A list of the following diseases is also a contraindication:

  • diabetes mellitus.

  • vegetative-vascular dystonia.

  • Thrombophlebitis.

  • varicose veins.

  • lesions of peripheral vessels.

  • hypocoagulation.

Techniques for performing operations

Seri.Surgeon Foldini discovered this technique in the late 90s. One of the world’s most popular techniques. Effective at the initial stage of the development of the disease. It proceeds under local anesthesia. With a special chisel or hammer, they penetrate through the incision into the articular part and artificially remove the interfering parts. A spoke is inserted and the desired angle is manually set from the first finger. The period of wearing the plaster is from two weeks. The wire is removed as it heals.

McBride. The aesthetic appearance of the foot is achieved by an incision in the area of ​​the first metatarsal bone and tendon.The tendon is sutured with absorbable synthetic suture. Further, through an incision in the foot, the doctor gets to the sesamoid bone. A nerve is branched from it and taken out to the side. The articular capsule is crushed. They remove excess growths so that in the future they do not cause pain and discomfort while walking. The wound is tightened and sutured. The method was invented 80 years ago, but today it is widely used in orthopedic centers.

Laser. A gentle surgical method that is useful in the early stages.Treatment comes through a small incision in the center of the bump, after healing, the scar remains almost invisible. The use of a laser severely limits the process of surgical intervention. Laser removal of valgus chalus is carried out in specially equipped clinics. The recovery process is fast, patients return to their normal life after a couple of weeks. The position of the bone and phalanx of the finger does not change, only the protruding joint is ground, so relapses may occur.



Surgical interventions are performed in the department of orthopedics or surgery.A staff of experienced specialists in their field will provide high-quality diagnostics and accurate diagnosis. Thanks to a serious approach to therapy and combining various methods of world medicine, careful work is carried out on the result. A speedy recovery and patient safety is the main task of the medical center team.

A visit to the clinic guarantees an individual and effective treatment program. All external factors and characteristics of the human body are taken into account. Compliance with medical prescriptions will help you achieve success with minimal financial investment.

The clinic is provided with all the necessary and modern equipment. The whole range of medical practice from classical treatment to unique technologies that are little known on the Russian market. Cooperation with honored professors has been established. The center also creates prostheses and orthopedic insoles. How much does the operation of hallus valgus cost you can find out on the official website of the clinic or by phone number.

The period of rehabilitation and recovery

The deformity of the thumb, if not hereditary, has developed over time.Also, its complete cure requires complex care and therapy. Rehabilitation includes slowing down the development of a relapse.

Full completion takes place after six months. Active walking, sports and usual footwear are allowed. The process is always accompanied by x-rays and tests for metal rejection and complications.

At an early stage of healing, the leg is kept in a horizontal position while lying on the bed. It is allowed to slightly move the limb, if it does not cause pain.With the help of the support, the leg is kept in a raised state.

Massage is prescribed for 4-6 weeks. Dynamic movements are contraindicated. To tone the muscles and stretch the tendons, circular movements of the feet are made. Walking is accompanied by lameness. The instep supports are required at this stage.

After 7 weeks, physiotherapy exercises are allowed. If the painful sensations due to the implanted implants have completely disappeared, cycling or jogging is allowed.Wearing only orthopedic shoes. With the help of a tennis ball, you can do exercises to wrap the foot around the ball and transfer from foot to foot. Self-massage will restore blood circulation and sensitivity to the first finger. Exercising on a stationary bike and visiting the pool will speed up the healing process.

Preventive Procedures

By following a number of rules, the risk of hallus valgus disease is significantly reduced. Prevention is the prevention and progression of the disease.

Healthy eating. Normalization of weight, relieve the load from the feet. It is recommended to go on a diet. Eliminate all fatty, fried, salty, and sugary foods from your intake. Normalize your vitamin levels. Provide fiber to your body. Drink your daily requirement of clean water.

Rest your legs. When standing for a long time, do a little warm-up. Better to take a horizontal position for 15 minutes. Raising your legs above your head while lying down will help reduce swelling.Replaceable lightweight shoes will also relieve discomfort and fatigue.

Strengthening the foot. Thanks to the development of orthopedists, there is a huge selection of special equipment, insoles, prostheses for maintaining the arch of the foot. The pads will protect you from corns. For sport, choose good athletic shoes that protect your feet from injury and that fit snugly around the ankle.

Insoles. Customized interchangeable insoles relieve toes. Innovative technologies allow you to scan the sole and disassemble all problem areas for the doctor.

Shoes. Avoid wearing high-heeled or platform shoes frequently. Shoes that are tight, tight and uncomfortable should not be used in everyday life. A healthy heel should not exceed 5 centimeters. Shoes should be flexible. Made from natural fabrics or leather.

Gymnastics. Doing it daily for 5 minutes will ensure strong muscles and healthy ligaments. Roll a ball or water bottle with your feet. Pick up small objects from the floor with your toes.Walk on your toes, then on your heels. Walk barefoot on the massaging surface more often. These podiatrists’ recommendations will keep your legs in good shape and beauty.

Massage. If it is not possible to visit the massage room, learn the technique, and knead this area yourself. Start massaging from your fingertips towards your heel. Pay attention to the side bumps, toes, and the dimple in the foot. You should first warm up the limb. Hands should be clean and dry. If you perform such massaging and stroking movements before bedtime, then fatigue and tension will instantly pass.

Toning baths. Don’t overcool your feet. Toning salt baths with the addition of oils will give your legs relaxation and tone the skin of the legs. Get rid of rough heels and side chafing with special hygiene products (pumice stone). Add sea salt, baking soda, or a variety of herbs. Quench. Alternate hot and cold water to maintain vascular tone and prevent varicose veins.

More than 70% of women suffer from hallux valgus.Every year the disease is getting younger and is observed even in children. MMC “Sinai” is proud of its new equipment and its orthopedics center. At the slightest symptom, seek immediate help from the clinic. The best podiatrists and surgeons will take care of the optimal treatment. You will also receive answers to all your questions.

🧬 How to treat bumps from injections on the buttocks

Scientifically, “bumps” from injections are called post-injection infiltrates of the buttocks. “They are seals that appear some time after an intramuscular injection,” says the head of the outpatient surgery department of one of the Moscow medical clinics.”They are the body’s pathological response to drug administration, regardless of its type.”

There are several types of “bumps” on the buttocks after an injection. “The first option is an infiltrate, that is, a local reaction, which is characterized by the response of the tissues at the injection site – edema,” explains the surgeon, postgraduate student of the Department of Surgery, Department of Surgical Endocrinology of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute named after M.F. Vladimirsky. – The second option is a hematoma. It appears from the hemorrhage of a damaged vessel after injection, unfortunately, it is impossible to predict this in advance ”.

The third option (and the most dangerous) is an abscess. “Abscesses are very painful formations with purulent contents and a vivid clinical picture, they are treated only surgically,” the doctor adds.

In fact, “bumps” are a local reaction of the body to a puncture and intramuscular injection of the drug. If left untreated, infiltrates can become abscesses, posing a serious health threat. “In most cases, in relatively healthy people, they disappear within a week, but there are exceptions,” the doctor notes.

Why do lumps from injections appear on the buttocks?

Several factors can cause swelling after injections.

  • Injection technique. Have you heard that after the injections of a nurse with a “light” hand “bumps” do not appear? There is some truth in this. “An incorrect intramuscular injection site, a too fast injection of a drug, or a needle hitting a nerve or vessel can cause bumps after injections,” says the specialist.“Seals can also appear as a reaction to the simultaneous injection of a large volume of the drug, frequent injections in the same place,” adds Bulat Yunusov, surgeon at GMS Clinic.
  • Allergic reaction. “It can develop due to an overreaction of the immune response to a drug,” the doctor adds. Or – a mixture of drugs.
  • “Many patients, making injections on their own, sin by mixing several different drugs in one syringe, which is strictly prohibited.This can cause irreversible complications and serious allergic reactions, ”says the doctor.
  • Consistency of the medicinal product. “Oily solutions most often cause swelling and edema,” says Bulat Yunusov. – These are drugs that are administered only intramuscularly. Such injections are characterized by a longer resorption time, and, therefore, an increased risk of complications. ”
  • Incorrectly fitted needle. “A needle that is too long or too short causes the drug to enter either very deep muscle layers or subcutaneous fat, that is, does not reach the muscle layer,” the doctor notes.
  • Excessive muscle tension during the injection. Intramuscular injections should be performed with the muscle relaxed and preferably in the prone position.
  • Patient body weight. “Body type and weight are also factors that must be taken into account when administering injections,” adds Bulat Yunusov.- Obese patients have a lot of subcutaneous fat. If a drug gets into it, it will inevitably lead to the formation of inflammatory changes (infiltrates, abscesses). ”

To prevent bumps from injections from appearing, experts advise to injections, observing certain rules. “It is important to use needles of a suitable length and diameter, the choice depends on the patient’s age, the injection site, the volume of fluid, the amount of muscle and adipose tissue and the viscosity of the solution,” says Bulat Yunusov.- It is necessary to strictly follow the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. It is preferable to perform injections while lying on a couch or bed. ”

How to treat bumps on the buttocks

Regardless of the reason why you have painful seals after injections, you still need to treat them. “Self-medication, especially with“ fresh ”infiltrates, is definitely not worth it, since any infiltration can both dissolve and fester. Let me explain right away what a “fresh” infiltrate is.This is a seal that you find immediately after the injection, or it is not older than 14 days. If the infiltration is 1-2 months or more, then the probability of its suppuration is rather small, but the likelihood of its complete resorption also tends to zero, ”the specialist notes.

If it does not come to an abscess, then you can get by with fairly simple means – the use of gels, ointments and compresses. “What kind of specific drug you need, the frequency and duration of its use, is determined by the doctor at an in-person appointment after examination and the necessary examination methods (ultrasound of soft tissues),” says the doctor.

At home, hematomas and infiltrates can be treated safely. “Moderate massaging of the injection site, doing squats and applying cold compresses to the site of edema in the first 1-2 days after its appearance is acceptable,” recalls Bulat Yunusov.

“Lumps after injections can be treated with an iodine mesh, but it is better to go to an appointment with a surgeon to prescribe physiotherapy,” the therapist recommends.

Physiotherapy is prescribed as an addition to the main treatment, which makes it possible to shorten its duration.Among the most effective methods are:

  • Electrophoresis – penetration of medicinal preparations into the skin and soft tissues under the influence of an electric field.
  • UHF. “This is the treatment of infiltrate with continuous or pulsed ultra-high-frequency electric field”, – comments a doctor of one Moscow clinic.
  • Phototherapy. Irradiation of problem areas with ultraviolet light in a narrow or wide range.

Lumps after injections on the buttocks: when to sound the alarm

If the injection is done correctly and you are not allergic to the drug, there will most likely be no swelling in your buttocks. “A person may experience slight discomfort after an injection, which disappears within a few minutes – after intense walking, squats,” warns Bulat Yunusov.

However, if you experience any of the following symptoms after the injections, you should see your doctor:

  • persistent severe pain at the injection site;
  • Prolonged tingling or numbness;
  • prolonged bleeding from the injection site;
  • signs of an allergic reaction, such as shortness of breath or swelling of the face;
  • skin redness, edema, local hyperthermia, pain, fever and other symptoms of a systemic inflammatory reaction;
  • if the seal does not last more than 2 months.

Do not delay seeing your doctor as it can have serious health consequences.

Diabetic foot ulcers

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication in diabetes mellitus

From 2 to 10% of people with diabetes mellitus suffer from a complication such as a foot ulcer. The risk of developing an ulcer with a diabetic foot increases over time. Controlling blood glucose levels is one of the most important tasks for the patient.Patients who do not monitor blood glucose well enough often have complications. Unfortunately, most leg and shin amputations are performed on patients with diabetes mellitus. The main goal in the treatment of diabetic foot syndrome is the prevention of major amputations.

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk of developing ulcers in diabetic foot due to peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, as well as macro- and microangiopathy

Peripheral neuropathy (sensory and motor) is the most common cause of ulcers in diabetic feet.Due to the fact that many patients with sensory neuropathy suffer from changes or complete loss of sensation in the legs, any cuts or injuries to the legs can go completely unnoticed for several days, and sometimes weeks. Motor neuropathy can cause muscle atrophy, which leads to deformity of the foot and improper weight distribution. All this is the cause of ischemia and necrosis with subsequent ulceration. In addition, autonomic neuropathy is associated with decreased sweating due to denervation of the dermal structures: the skin dries up, cracks appear, increasing the risk of infection.

Diabetic angiopathy is another factor that increases the risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers and infections, since damage to larger arterial calcifications (macroangiopathy) and damage to small blood vessels (microangiopathy) can lead to impaired microcirculation.

There are many variations in the classification of this disease. Wegner’s classification system for diabetic foot ulcers is the most popular and successful among physicians.

90,000 Skin growths – from warts to melanoma. Looking for the reason in Angio Line

In medical practice, the term “growth” is used instead of the term “neoplasm”.

Neoplasms are divided into benign and malignant.

Benign grows slowly without destroying the surrounding cells. Often their growth stops completely.
Malignant neoplasms deform adjacent tissues, grow chaotically and irregularly, causing complications.

Benign growths:


The growths are caused by the human papillomavirus as a result of immune diseases or metabolic disorders. Most of them are harmless, only warts larger than 0.5 cm are dangerous, flat or without clear contours and ovoid.


Formations that have arisen due to excess in the skin of the coloring substance – melanin. Some of them can transform into malignant neoplasms – melanomas.To do this, the mole should look like a knot, dry, hairless, or bleeding.


Formations that look like a nodule that has grown deep into the skin and protrudes from it. The surface of the fibroids is smooth and even, sometimes they turn into a malignant tumor – fibrosarcoma.


Tumors of the fatty layer that do not change skin color. They are transferred painlessly and easily slide to the side with a finger. Formed on areas of the body that are poor in adipose tissue: thighs, shoulder blades, on the upper back.


Formations resulting from blockage of the sebaceous gland duct.
Painful to the touch, inflamed atheromas secrete purulent contents.
Occur in areas of increased sweating.


Cysts that appear in the area of ​​joints and tendons. Hygromas do not change skin color, protrude strongly above the level of the body.
They are usually harmless and painless.


Formations from cells of capillary or venous vessels of red and blue-black color.

Malignant growths:


Tumors formed due to diseases of the lymphatic tissue. They are characterized by enlarged lymph nodes. On the skin they appear in the form of fungal mycosis, Sesari’s syndrome, primary anaplastic form, lymphomatoid papulosis.


Formations arising from blood plasma cells. They are initially formed in the ribs, spine and bones of turtles.
Secondary multiple myeloma can occur on the skin.


Cancers from epithelial tissue. Carcinomas grow rapidly, metastasizing to cells and organs.
A type of carcinoma develops on the skin – basilioma . The swelling appears on the neck or face, forming ulcerating nodules. Basilioma most often does not metastasize, but during development it destroys the surrounding tissues.
Another variety, squamous cell carcinoma , forms nodules, cracks, ulcers, plaques on the skin and rapidly increases, metastatic.
A common cause of carcinoma is an abundance of ultraviolet radiation.


Dangerous tumors arising from an excess of melanin. They develop rapidly, metastasizing and affecting internal organs.
Melanoma is itchy, enlarges, hair falls out, ulcerates and bleeds.
Initially, it looks like a mole.

In appearance, only a dermatologist can distinguish the nature of the neoplasm. Do not postpone the trip to him and conduct a diagnosis.

Be healthy with Angio Line.

Which doctor to treat with a lump on the skin – doctors treating the disease

Moscow surgeons – latest reviews

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