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Sporotrichosis Basics

Sporotrichosis Overview

Sporotrichosis is an infection of the skin caused by a fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. This fungus is related more closely to the mold on stale bread or the yeast used to brew beer than to bacteria that usually cause infections. The mold is found on rose thorns, hay, sphagnum moss, twigs, and soil. The infection is more common among gardeners, nursery workers, and farmers who work with roses, moss, hay, and soil.

Once the mold spores move into the skin, the disease takes days or even months to develop.

Causes of Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis usually begins when mold spores are forced under the skin by a rose thorn or sharp stick, although the infection can begin in apparently unbroken skin after contact with hay or moss carrying the mold.

More rarely, cats or armadillos can transmit the disease.

In rare cases, the fungus can be inhaled or ingested, causing infection in parts of the body other than the skin.

Sporotrichosis does not appear to be transmitted from person to person.

Symptoms of Sporotrichosis

The first symptom of sporotrichosis is a firm bump (nodule) on the skin that can range in color from pink to nearly purple. The nodule is usually painless or only mildly tender. Over time, the nodule may develop an open sore (ulcer) that may drain clear fluid. Untreated, the nodule and the ulcer become chronic and may remain unchanged for years.

In about 60% of cases, the mold spreads along the lymph nodes. Over time, new nodules and ulcers spread in a line up the infected arm or leg. These can also last for years.

In very rare cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, joints, lungs, and brain. This is more common among those with a weakened immune system. It can be difficult to treat and may be life threatening.

When to Seek Medical Care for Sporotrichosis

When to call the doctor

  • If you think you might have sporotrichosis, see a doctor about diagnosis and treatment.
  • If you are already being treated for sporotrichosis, contact a doctor if new sores develop or if the old ones appear to be growing.

When to go to the hospital

  • Sporotrichosis in the skin or lymph nodes should not be dangerous or life threatening.
  • Open ulcers can become infected with bacteria and may cause a condition known as cellulitis.
  • If a rapidly expanding area of redness, pain, and warmth around the original ulcers develops, you should go to your local emergency room.

Exams and Tests for Sporotrichosis

Other infections can mimic sporotrichosis, so a doctor performs tests to confirm the diagnosis. The tests for sporotrichosis usually involve a biopsy of one of the nodules, followed by an exam of the biopsy sample under a microscope to identify the mold. Other possible infections might include:

Sporotrichosis Care at Home

No effective home care for sporotrichosis is known. Ulcers should be kept clean and covered until they are healed.

Medical Treatment for Sporotrichosis

Treatment of sporotrichosis depends on the site infected.

  • Infections in the skin only: These sporotrichosis infections have traditionally been treated with a supersaturated potassium iodide solution. This medicine is given three times per day for three to six months until all the lesions have gone away. Skin infections may also be treated with itraconazole (Sporanox) for up to six months.
  • Sporotrichosis infection in the bones and joints: These infections are much more difficult to treat and rarely respond to potassium iodide. Itraconazole (Sporanox) is often used as an initial medication for several months or even up to a year. Amphotericin is also used, but this drug can only be given through an IV. Amphotericin has more side effects and may need to be administered for many months. Surgery is sometimes needed to remove infected bone.
  • Infection in the lungs: Lung infections are treated with potassium iodide, itraconazole (Sporanox), and amphotericin with varying amounts of success. Sometimes, the infected areas of the lung have to be removed.
  • Infection in the brain: Sporotrichosis meningitis is rare, so information on treatment is not readily available. Amphotericin plus 5-fluorocytosine is generally recommended, but itraconazole (Sporanox) might also be tried.

 

Follow-up Care for Sporotrichosis

Multiple follow-up visits may be needed with a doctor to make sure sporotrichosis is disappearing. Once the disease goes away, further follow-up care is generally not needed.

Sporotrichosis Prevention

The most important step in preventing sporotrichosis is preventing mold spores from entering the skin.

People who work with roses, hay, or sphagnum moss should cover any scratches or breaks in their skin. They should also wear heavy boots and gloves to prevent puncture wounds.

Outlook for Sporotrichosis

Most people who have sporotrichosis only in their skin or lymph nodes make a full recovery.

Treating a sporotrichosis infection may take several months or years, and scars may remain at the site of the original infection.

Infections involving the brain, lungs, joints, or other areas of the body are much more difficult to treat.

Sporotrichosis | DermNet NZ

Author: Vanessa Ngan, Staff Writer, 2005.


What is sporotrichosis?

Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection of the skin caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which is found on decaying vegetation, rosebushes, twigs, hay, sphagnum moss and mulch-rich soil. Because of its tendency to present after a thorn injury, it is also called rose gardener disease.

How does sporotrichosis arise?

The most common route of infection with S schenckii is via the skin through small cuts, scratches or punctures from thorns, barbs, pine needles or wires. Sporotrichosis does not appear to be transmitted from person to person but there are reported cases of transmission from infected cats to humans. In very rare cases, spore-laden dust can be inhaled or ingested and in people with a weakened immune system cause disseminated (widespread) sporotrichosis.

People at risk of contracting sporotrichosis include farmers, nursery workers, landscapers and gardeners. Adult males are, by their occupation, most exposed to the risk of infection.

What are the clinical features of sporotrichosis?

Depending on the severity of infection and the overall well-being of the individual, sporotrichosis can present in several ways. Skin disease is the most common.

Presentation Features
Skin disease
  • Patients are typically well without fever
  • Lesion develops at the site of a scratch
  • Nodules appear under the skin along the lymphatic channels
Lung disease
  • Patients usually have severe underlying chronic lung disease and present with pneumonia
  • They may or may not have skin lesions
Bones and joint disease
  • Patients typically present with a subacute or chronic inflammatory arthritis involving one or more joints
  • They may or may not have skin lesions
Disseminated disease
  • Patients present with skin lesions but may have other organ involvement including the eye, prostate, oral mucosa, larynx and brain
  • Spreading usually occurs only in people with a weakened immune system, e. g. HIV or AIDS patient

Cutaneous and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis

The lymphocutaneous route is the most common presentation of sporotrichosis and is sometimes described as sporotrichoid spread. It occurs following the implantation of spores in a wound. Lesions usually appear on exposed skin and often the hand or forearm is affected, as these areas are a common site of injury. Features of cutaneous sporotrichosis include:

  • The first lesion can take up to 20-90 days to appear after initial cutaneous inoculation. Usually the first visible nodule occurs within 20 days.
  • The first sign is a firm bump (nodule) on the skin that can range in colour from pink to nearly purple. It is usually painless or only mildly tender.
  • The nodule gradually grows bigger, reddens, becomes pustular, and ulcerates. The open sore (ulcer) may drain clear fluid.
  • If left untreated, the nodule and the ulcer become chronic and remain unchanged for years.
  • In about 60% of cases, the infection spreads along the lymph nodes and a chain of lymphatic nodules develop in a line up the infected arm (or leg) leading away from the initial ulcer. These also develop into ulcers and can last for years if left untreated.

How is sporotrichosis diagnosed?

Other lymphocutaneous infections can mimic the lesions of sporotrichosis so it is important to perform tests to confirm diagnosis. Microscopy and culture of infected tissue is performed to identify the presence of Sporothrix schencki

Skin biopsy can be helpful. Histopathology reveals a granulomatous infection with abscess formation. The organisms may be identified using special stains.

What is the treatment of sporotrichosis?

Treatment of sporotrichosis depends on the site infected.

Site of infection Treatment
Skin
Bones and joints
  • Difficult to treat and rarely respond to potassium iodide.
  • Itraconazole orally for months or even up to a year.
  • Amphotericin IV if oral therapy ineffective.
  • Surgery to remove infected bone.
Lungs
  • Potassium iodide, itraconazole and amphotericin used with varying degrees of success.
  • Infected areas of lung may need to be surgically removed.
Disseminated (e.g. brain infection)
  • Itraconazole may be tried
  • Amphotericin plus 5-fluorocytosine is generally recommended.
Treatment of sporotrichosis

Treatment of sporotrichosis can be prolonged but should continue until all lesions have resolved. This may take months or years, and scars may remain at the original site of infection. However, most people can expect a full recovery. Systemic or disseminated sporotrichosis is usually more difficult to treat and in some cases life-threatening for people with weakened immune systems.

Patients should be advised of measures to take to prevent sporotrichosis. These include wearing gloves, boots and clothing that covers the arms and legs when handling rose bushes, hay bales, pine seedlings or other materials that may scratch or break the skin surface. It is also advisable to avoid skin contact with sphagnum moss.

 

References

  • Book: Textbook of Dermatology. Ed Rook A, Wilkinson DS, Ebling FJB, Champion RH, Burton JL. Fourth edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications.

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Sporotrichosis

Last Reviewed: November 2011

What is sporotrichosis?

Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection, usually of the skin, caused by a microscopic fungus called Sporothrix schenckii.

Who gets sporotrichosis?

Anyone can get the disease but people handling thorny plants, sphagnum moss or baled hay contaminated with this particular fungus are at increased risk. Outbreaks have occurred among garden nursery workers handling sphagnum moss, rose gardeners, children playing on baled hay and greenhouse workers handling thorns contaminated by the fungus.

How is the fungus spread?

The fungus enters through small cuts or pricks from pine needles, thorns or barbs. It can also be inhaled and cause lung infections. It is not spread from person to person.

What are the symptoms of sporotrichosis?

The first symptom is a small pink, red or purple painless bump resembling an insect bite. The bump, or lesion, usually appears on the finger, hand or arm where the fungus first entered through a break in the skin. This is followed by the appearance of one or more additional raised bumps or nodules that open and may resemble a boil. Eventually, the skin lesions look like ulcers and are very slow to heal. Rarely, pneumonia can occur as a result of inhalation of fungal spores, and can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough and fever. The infection can spread to other parts of the body, including bones and joints and the central nervous system.

How soon after exposure do symptoms appear?

The skin lesions may appear 1 to 12 weeks after exposure but usually within three weeks.

How is sporotrichosis diagnosed?

Sporotrichosis can be confirmed when a doctor obtains a swab of a freshly opened skin nodule and submits it to a laboratory for fungal culture. The diagnosis can also be verified by a blood or biopsy specimen. It is important for the diagnosis to be confirmed by a doctor so that proper treatment can be provided.

What is the treatment for sporotrichosis?

Itraconazole is the preferred treatment for sporotrichosis. Some forms of the disease can also be treated with iodides taken orally in droplet form. All treatments must be prescribed by a doctor. Treatment is often extended over a number of weeks.

What are the complications associated with sporotrichosis?

The vast majority of the infections are limited to the skin. Cases of joint, lung and central nervous system infection have occurred but are very rare and usually occur only in people with diabetes or other disorders of the immune system.

How can sporotrichosis be prevented?

Control measures include wearing gloves and long sleeves when handling pine seedlings, rose bushes, hay bales or other plants that may cause minor skin breaks. It is also advisable to avoid skin contact with sphagnum moss. Moss has been implicated as a source of the fungus in a number of outbreaks.

Sporotrichosis: Diagnosis and Management | Consultant360

ABSTRACT: Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by a fungus called Sporothrix schenckii. Florists, gardeners, and outdoor workers who may suffer injury inflicted by plant thorns, or interact with sphagnum moss and straw, are susceptible to the disease. Precise identification of S schenckii requires histopathological assessment conducted with periodic-acid Schiff staining. The accepted treatment of sporotrichosis varies around the world—from potassium iodide to itraconazole.


 

Sporotrichosis is caused by the geophilic or saprophytic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Medical student Benjamin Schenck first cultured and identified it in 1898 after it presented in a patient with ascending nodules of the upper extremity.1S schenckii enters its host through a cutaneous or subcutaneous wound or by pulmonary inhalation of conidia. Additionally, a few rare cases of zoonotic transmission from felines have been reported in the United States.2S schenckii exhibits its thermal nature through a dimorphic existence—as conidiospores at room temperature (26°C) and hyphal structured mold or yeast in vivo (37°C).3

Precise identification of S schenckii requires histopathological assessment conducted with periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) staining. PAS staining will display individual cigar-shaped to rounded budding yeast, with occasional asteroid bodies surrounding the yeast cells. 3S schenckii can also be cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar at 20°C, displaying as white to cream colored colonies which progressively darken over a 2- to 3-week period.4 Although no geographic limitations exist with this disease, there is a strong occupational correlation with florists, gardeners, and outdoor workers who may suffer injury inflicted by plant thorns or interact with sphagnum moss or straw. These associations have led to a nickname of “rose gardener’s disease” being bestowed upon this condition.5 Clinical suspicion for sporotrichosis rests greatly upon disease onset, indolent progression, and the presence of cutaneous nodules in a linear array along locations of lymphatic drainage. Risk factor recognition and appropriate identification techniques remain key aspects to successful diagnosis of this disease.

A Case Study

History. A 50-year-old white female presented to the emergency department complaining of a painful rash. The rash first appeared on her right forearm 1 year prior and gradually spread to involve her chest, back, and all 4 extremities. Recent involvement of the fingers and toes, as well as shallow oral ulcerations in the mouth, resulted in increasing pain and prompted her to seek emergency medical treatment. 

Three months prior to her admission she was seen by a local dermatologist who biopsied her skin and reported her condition as “fungal in nature.” Her past medical history was significant for seizures, anxiety, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a closed head injury. 

The patient was a smoker with a 35-pack a year history and consumed alcohol weekly, but denied illicit drug use. Her medications included fluoxetine, quetiapine, gabapentin, and clonazepam. 

She admitted to occasional shortness of breath upon exertion, but denied any other symptoms. She also denied a history of HIV or immunodeficiency, but reported that her 2 sons, conceived by separate fathers, were diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) during childhood. Additionally, the patient reported spending a significant amount of time gardening vegetables, plants, and rosebushes.

Physical examination. The physical exam revealed diffuse, painful, dusky, erythematous to violaceous nodules and plaques of the upper extremities (Figure 1) and lower extremities, as well as the anterior thorax (Figure 2) and posterior thorax (Figure 3). Scaling and fissuring of the upper extremity digits (Figure 4) and lower extremity digits was present bilaterally. 

Figure 1. Violaceous nodules spreading along the lymphatic distribution of the right upper extremity.

Oral examination revealed multiple painful, shallow, intraoral ulcerations with a defined border (all measuring <1 cm), along with upper and lower vermillion ulcerations of 1.5 cm, respectively. Left inguinal lymphadenopathy was also palpable on exam. Vitals were stable but did show a low-grade fever of 99. 3 µL). Kidney and liver function were within the normal limits. A chest radiograph displayed hyperinflation of the lungs in the absence of infiltrates. 

The patient was subsequently admitted to the inpatient medical floor for neutropenic fever, and an infectious disease consult was obtained. Her fungal and bacterial blood cultures, as well as HIV testing, were negative. The patient tested negative for hepatitis B and hepatitis C. A bone marrow biopsy with karyotyping was also negative. 

Additionally, a dihydrorhodamine (DHR) flow cytometry assay was performed to evaluate the function of the patient’s nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, an enzyme complex responsible for superoxide generation and subsequent activation of granule proteases in phagocytes for microbe desctruction. This provides an indirect measure of the patient’s neutrophil function and oxidative burst.6 Our patient’s DHR results (n=1437) indicated the presence of an underlying defect in phagocyte oxidase production highly specific for a primary immunodeficiency known as CGD. This functional loss increases patient susceptibility to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections typically affecting the lung, liver, lymph nodes, and skin.7

Histological examination. First, a 4 mm punch biopsy of the left arm was obtained. Histological examination revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia accompanied by scattered microabscesses. Rare yeast-like cells surrounded by asteroid bodies were identified in the dermis. Additionally, PAS staining showed branched hyphae in overlying keratin layers. 

Results of her previous skin biopsy, a 4 mm punch taken from a lesion on the back, were retrieved and were also consistent with cutaneous sporotrichosis. Correlating the physical exam with dermatopathology findings, a diagnosis of disseminated multifocal cutaneous sporotrichosis was established. 

Treatment. Therapy was initiated with IV itraconazole at 5 mg/kg, topical 2% ketoconazole cream, and a petroleum-based ointment to assist in the healing of the digital fissures. The patient responded to treatment with resolution of her low-grade fever, but maintained a persistent neutropenia throughout. Moderate improvement was noted in her cutaneous lesions. After 4 days of hospitalization, she was discharged with instructions to continue oral itraconazole at 200 mg/day, topical 2% ketoconazole cream twice a day, and topical petroleum ointment. 

The patient was instructed to continue lifelong treatment with bactrim and PO itraconazole, dosed at 5mg/kg, for empiric prevention of future infections. Follow-up appointments with infectious disease and dermatology was also scheduled.

Figure 2. Multiple nodules on the anterior thorax.

Outcome of the Case

Unfortunately the short-term progression of our patient’s condition was not monitored as she did not return for scheduled appointments. Two months following her initial discharge she was readmitted to McLaren Oakland Hospital for a condition unrelated to her sporotrichosis, at which time her cutaneous lesions had decreased in both number and size.  

Recently, the patient presented in a septic state with similar cutaneous lesions as demonstrated on her initial visit 14 months prior. The patient was readmitted to McLaren Oakland Hospital and received IV therapy of amphotericin B along with similar topical treatment administered in previous hospitalizations. Amphotericin B was removed from the treatment regimen after the patient developed acute kidney injury. Following discharge the patient failed to maintain follow-up relationships with recommended physicians.  

Figure 3. Numerous nodules coalescing into plaques on the superior aspect of the posterior thorax.

Discussion

The mycosis, S schenckii, exists in both saprophytic and geophilic environments prior to its introduction in humans. The invasion of a human host typically occurs through an abrasion of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue. A span of days or weeks can pass from the moment of initial inoculation to the emergence of a well-circumscribed nodule or plaque. The lesions are small, firm, dusky red to violaceous in color and pain, if present, is generally mild. The primary lesion characteristically ulcerates but may remain intact with overlying erythema.5 

Disease progression occurs along lymphatic channels proximal to the primary lesion and is altered by numerous factors. The thermal tolerance, magnitude, and virulence of the mycosis, as well as the strength of the host’s immune system and depth of cutaneous encroachment, all play a role in determining the extent of the disease.8 Additionally, the quantity of traumatic inoculations, cutaneously or hematogenously, in patients with predisposing immunosuppressive factors such as AIDS, diabetes mellitus, gastric cancer, and RA greatly increases the risk of disease dissemination.9,10 Of the patient population presenting with this disease, >5% of affected individuals will exhibit dissemination.11 The variations of sporotrichosis disease states are summarized in the Table.

Figure 4. Erythematous patches with scaling and fissuring of the distal palmar surface bilaterally.

Diagnosis 

The diagnosis of sporotrichosis in patients presenting with the classic lymphocutaneous form may not pose substantial difficulty, but in the presence of atypical features, it may be clinically difficult to distinguish from other diseases such as blastomycosis, histomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Other systemic diseases included in the differential diagnosis are lupus erythematous, tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy, herpes simplex, furunculosis, catscratch disease, anthrax, tularemia, and cowpox.

To alleviate diagnostic uncertainty, the presence of sporotrichosis can be confirmed by histological analysis, direct microscopic examination of mycosis culture, and serological diagnostic methods. The use of histological and microscopic evaluation provided appropriate identification in our patient, and confirmed a diagnosis of sporotrichosis.  

Without definitive visualization, serological evaluation, such as latex or tube agglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody detection, can provide additional diagnostic information.15 Additionally, Western blot can serve as a method of distinction between cutaneous and extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis. The serologic response of extracutaneous sporotrichosis demonstrates a greater reaction to antigen components in comparison to its’ cutaneous counterpart. On Western blot examination, extracutaneous sporotrichosis yields lower molecular weight components and nearly twice the amount of banding in comparison to cutaneous sporotrichosis. This recognized difference in band shading serves as an additional mechanism of distinction.16

Treatment 

Accepted treatments of sporotrichosis vary around the world. In low-income countries, the condition is treated with potassium iodide. In developed countries, the standard of care for cutaneous and subcutaneous disease types is itraconazole. 17 

Itraconazole is 90% to 100% effective in the treatment of sporotrichosis. Side effects such as nausea, epigastric pain, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia are common in patients treated with itraconazole.18 Additionally, amphotericin B, which is notorious for its side-effect profile, can be used to treat immunocompromised patients with extracutaneous or systemic disease involvement resistant to itraconazole. The side effects of treatment with amphotericin B remain a preferred alternative to life-threatening superinfection—such as the Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species seen in untreated sporotrichosis.17 Prolonged delay in the identification and treatment of sporotrichosis may cause appreciable scarring, pulmonary problems, meningitis, or even death.17,19 The Table describes therapeutic interventions for the various disease types.

The precise incidence of sporotrichosis is currently undetermined. In the United States, there is an estimated 200 to 250 occurrences per year or 1 to 2 cases per million in the population.20 Adult males typically contract the fungus more frequently than females due to increased exposure occupationally and recreationally. Human-to-human transmission of sporotrichosis is extremely rare, with only 1 reported case in the literature occurring between a mother and child after numerous exposures to the mother’s lesion.21 

This article introduced the case of disseminated, multifocal cutaneous sporotrichosis in a 50-year-old female, who required hospital admittance to administer IV itraconazole to stabilize her infection. Eventual home management consisted of oral itraconazole and empirical bactrim, both 5 mg/kg daily for life. The patient presumably contracted sporotrichosis from rose gardening. The likelihood of transmission and dissemination may have been increased due to the patient’s immunosuppressed state, exhibited by her laboratory values and positive DHR test. In addition, the patient was taking quetiapine and gabapentin, with side-effect profiles including neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and agraulocytosis, which may have also played a role in the patient’s immunosuppression.

Typically, a DHR positive patient would require genotyping to confirm the diagnosis of CGD. However, in this case, it was unnecessary due to the unique display of maternal X-linked chromosomal transmission to both sons conceived by separate fathers. Therefore, a diagnosis of CGD, X-linked variant was established. 

Over time, female carriers of CGD can become phenotypically symptomatic, which would increase the likelihood of contracting recurrent bacterial skin infections.22 If sporotrichosis is left untreated, it can result in recurrent skin superinfection, ulceration, and necrosis. In patients with severe immunocompromise, complete eradication may never be possible.17 

Therefore, it is important for individuals with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases to wear protective clothing when handling materials capable of transmitting S schenckii—ie, rose bushes, sphagnum moss, hay, or pine seedlings. An increased level of clinical suspicion for sporotrichosis will help in preventing inaccurate or delayed diagnosis as well as reducing unnecessary antibiotic use, ultimately resulting in appropriate and cost-effective care for the patient. ■

Interested in dermatological disorders? Visit www.consultant360.com and check out our Medical Resource Center for images, case reports, and features on other skin conditions.

References:

1. Schenck BR. Refractory subcutaneous abscesses caused by a fungus possibly related to the sporotrichosis. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1898;9:286-290.

2. Welsh, RD. Sporotrichosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223(8):1123-1126.

3. Kwon-Chung K, Bennet J. Medical Mycology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1992.

4. Bary P, Kuriata MA, Cleaver LJ. Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis: a case report and unconventional source of infection. Cutis. 1999;63(3):173-175.

5. Goldschmidt, H, Grekin R. Mycobacterial disease. In: Arnold HL, James W, Odom RB. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin Clinical Dermatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1990:351-353.

6. Kuhns DB, Alvord WG, Heller T, et al. Residual NADPH oxidase and survival in chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2600-2610.

7. Rosenzweig SD. Inflammatory manifestations in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). J Clin Immunol. 2008;28(suppl 1):S67-S72.

8. Dixon DM, Salkin. IF, Duncan RA, et al. Isolation and characterization of Sporothrix schenckii from clinical and environmental sources associated with the largest U.S. epidemic of sporotrichosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29(6):1106-1113.

9. Gonnalves AP. Sporotrichosis. In: Canizare O, Harman R, eds. Clinical Tropical Dermatology. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992:88-93.

10. Heller HM, Fuhrer J. Disseminated sporotrichosis in patients with AIDS: case report and review of literature. AIDS. 1991;5(10):1243-1246.

11. Elder D, Elenitsas R, Jaworsky C, Johnson B Jr, eds. Lever’s Histopathology of the Skin. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1997.

12. Mahajan VK, Sharma NL, Shaner V, et al. Cutaneous sporotrichosis: unusual clinical presentations. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76(3):276-280.

13. Lynch PJ, Voorhees JJ, Harrell ER. Systemic sporotrichosis. Ann Intern Med. 1970;73(1):23-30.

14. Stalkup JR, Bell K, Rosen T. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis treated with itraconazole. Cutis. 2001;69(5):371-374.

15. Blumer SO, Kaufman L, Kaplan W, et al. Comparative evaluation of five serological methods for the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Appl Microbiol. 1973;26(1):4-8.

16. Scott EN, Muchmore HG. Immnoblot analysis of antibody response to Sporothrix schenckii. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27(2):300-304.

17. Kauffman CA, Bustamante B., Chapman SW,  Pappas PG. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of sporotrichosis. Clin Inf Dis. 2007;45(10):1255-1265.

18. de Lima Barros MB, Schubach AO, de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira R, et al. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with itraconazole — study of 645 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(12):200-206.

19. Mahlberg MJ, Patel R, Rosenman K, et al. Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15(8):5.

20. Lyon GM, Zurita S, Casquero J, et al. Population-based surveillance and a case-control study of risk factors for endemic lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in Peru. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(1):34-39.

21. Jin XA, Zhang HD, Hiruma M, Yamamoto I. Mother-and-child cases of sporotrichosis infection. Mycoses. 1990;33(1):33-36.

22. Hampton MB, Kettle AJ, Winterbourn CC. Inside the neutrophil phagosome: oxidants, myeloperoxidase, and bacterial killing. Blood. 1998;92(9):3007-3017.

Michael R. Centilli, DO, PGY3, is a second year dermatology resident at Botsford Hospital in Farmington Hills, MI. 

Monica M. Van Acker, PGY1, is a traditional rotating intern at Manatee Memorial Hospital in Bradenton, FL.

Angela M. Clay, DO, practices dermatology at Middlebelt Dermatology Center in Farmington Hills, MI.

Monish Sharma, DO, PGY5, is currently a fifth year combined emergency and internal medicine resident at McLaren Oakland Hospital in Pontiac, MI.

Natasha Joshi, DO, PGY4, is a pulmonary and critical care fellow at McLaren Oakland Hospital in Pontiac, MI. 

Franklin J. Rosenblat, DO, is a board certified infectious disease physician in Bloomfield Hills, MI with over 24 years of experience.

Annette LaCasse, DO, is the director of the Botsford Hospital dermatology residency program, and is a board certified dermatologist practicing in Commerce, MI with over 30 years of experience.

raspberry thorns rash

raspberry thorns rash

Reflective Tapestry of Life FREE Shipping by Amazon. Brambles (Blackberries and Raspberry Bushes) A bramble is any rough tangled prickly shrubs that look very similar to poison ivy because they have 3 leaflets and even may have leaf “notches” like poison ivy can have. Dermatitis rashes may be painful and can… Hardiness varies by cultivar and extends from U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9. The stems have a very pale color, almost bluish, that “rubs off” if you rub the stem. The lesion starts out small and painless and ranges in color from pink to purple. Vaseline keeps impurities from entering the wounds, softens the skin, while allowing the body’s natural healing properties to work without interruption. Lucille K. Georg, When to Seek Medical Care for Sporotrichosis. The leaf edges are serrated, with some ranging from fine to very noticeably jagged. 4. The disease has often been termed as “rose handler’s disease” in older publications because people growing roses had a high incidence of the disease. In very rare cases, the organism can be inhaled or ingested, leading to infection of parts of the body other than the skin. Plant Link : Ohio Treasure Black Raspberry plants . WONKA SURF & TURF TROPICAL PUNCH & RASPBERRY. Plant thorn arthritis is a noninfectious inflammation of a joint as a result of a thorn puncturing the joint and leaving residual plant matter lodged within the joint. Treating the infection may take several months or years, and scars may remain at the site of the original infection. The fungus Sporothrix schenckii causes sporotrichosis. Still, the fact that we’re merely collateral damage in a chemical war that has been raging for eons is of little consolation to someone soaking in a … It will damage your skin by causing skin hives, eczema and rashes. The figure below shows the hyphae (the long, filamentous parts) and conidia (spores) of Sporothrix schenckii. Sure, it really is enjoy, continue to an amazing and interesting literature. As the infection progresses, lesions develop, often appearing in a line as successive areas (lymph nodes) of the lymphatic channels become infected (compare figures below). You do not need to buy an expensive name brand in order for it to work. Infection in the lungs: Lung infections are treated with potassium iodide, itraconazole (Sporanox), and amphotericin with varying amounts of success. Fungicidal herbs (such as myrrh, tea tree oil, citrus seed extract, pau d’arco tea, olive oil and. Therefore, the infection is more common among gardeners who work with roses, moss, hay, and soil. Cultivars that produce a single crop on only two year old canes are called floricanes. The infection may also begin in apparently unbroken skin after contact with hay or moss carrying the fungus. Book Condition: “Raspberry Shortcake” is a thornless dwarf variety that grows 2 to 3 feet tall and produces edible berries. ZHJPLXACV09R # eBook ~ Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns: Poetry Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns: Poetry Filesize: 1.2 MB Reviews This sort of publication is everything and made me seeking forward and much more. You are basically cleaning out the dirt and chemicals within the berry thorns that are causing the dermatitis reaction. 99. You may be given antibiotics and a tetanus shot. Even just a few thorns will tell you that it’s not ivy. Raspberries, strawberries, road rash — whatever you call these scrapes — are painful and can be difficult to treat. raspberry n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Raspberry Pi 400 Personal Computer Kit. Some suggest wrapping the wound, while others suggest airing it out. The disease, sporotrichosis, is caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, although recent research has shown that several other distinct Sporothrix species also cause the disease. Or with the package manager: 1. The fungus is found on rose thorns, hay, sphagnum moss, twigs, and soil. Lee ahora en digital con la aplicación gratuita Kindle. I have go through and so i am confident that i will going to read through once again again in the future. Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns contains deeply lyrical poetry played out in rural and wilderness settings. The first symptom is a firm bump (nodule) on the skin that can range in color from pink to nearly purple. Raspberries are high in nutrients, low in sugar, contain anti-aging antioxidants, and protect against chronic disease, according to a nutritionist. ; Plant thorn arthritis causes the involved joint to be swollen, slightly reddish, stiff, and painful. 99. In about 60% of cases, the fungus spreads along the. Descripción Producto: Los caramelos Wonka Neerds con aromas de frutas totalmente naturales son los caramelos perfectos para niños y … Farmers, nursery workers, landscapers, and gardeners are at higher risk for the disease because of their chance of cuts or. If you touch it or brush against it, the contact triggers an allergic reaction that shows up in two to 10 days as a red, swollen, itchy, blistering rash known as allergic contact dermatitis. Utilizamos cookies y herramientas similares para mejorar tu experiencia de compra, prestar nuestros servicios, entender cómo los utilizas para poder mejorarlos, y para mostrarte anuncios. It was not long before I realized, actually remembered, that the scratches from the berry vines would cause a dermatitis reaction along with the potential risk of infection where I was scratched by the thorns. Writer, Blogger, Proofreading & editing, Freelance contributor. “Raspberry Shortcake” was bred for ornamental and edible container gardening, so it grows only 2 to 3 feet tall, and features a rounded silhouette and handsome, glossy leaves. You do not need to buy an expensive name brand in order for it to work. You will not feel monotony at at any time of the time (that’s what catalogues are for regarding if you ask me). Such spreading usually occurs only in people with a weakened immune system. Mycetomas are areas where sinus tracts are formed from the lymph to the skin surface and discharge granules containing masses of organisms that cause the infection. Depending on the heat of the day, I will possibly take a refreshing shower, using the antibacterial soap on all areas exposed to the vines. The rash occurs in a striped pattern commonly on the torso but occasionally on other parts of the body including the face. The Raspberry Pi is a tiny and affordable computer that you can use to learn programming through fun, practical projects. Penetration of the skin by hairs (trichomes), spines, and thorns can produce a papular irritant eruption. Before starting the apps list, I remind you that you have two ways to install software on Raspbian: 1. Join the global Raspberry Pi community. Poison Ivy. recalbox Raspberry PI3 – Road Rash – Gameplay. [9] Other irritant members of the borage family with similar trichomes include the herb comfrey (Symphytum spp) and the flowering plan… Better then never, though i am quite late in start reading this one. [PDF] Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns: Poetry (Paperback) Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns: Poetry (Paperback) Book Review This published pdf is fantastic. Selecciona Tus Preferencias de Cookies. may resemble each other at first glance, but only poison ivy contains urushiol. The canes are thickly bristled with hair like thorns. FREE Shipping by Amazon. It is inexpensive and heals quickly. That chemical, which is in the plant’s sap, can cause severe itching, an inflamed rash and blistering after it contacts human skin. I am just easily can get a satisfaction of looking at a written book. The rash, which presents like itchy red patches, often accompanied by blisters arranged in streaks, typically surfaces [within hours] to four days after exposure. The canes do contain thorns. It is recommending for infant diaper rashes, women suffering from a yeast infection, among other ailments. rash – Translation to Spanish, pronunciation, and forum discussions. Exemplos: el televisor, un piso. Other raspberry varieties present fragile spines rather than large thorns, and still others grow fewer thorns than found on wild plants. Rose thorns can deliver bacteria and fungi into your skin and cause infection. This raspberry plant has no thorns, grows in a mound shape and will get up to 3 feet. But avoid … Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. RASPBERRY SUMMERS AND THE BRUSH OF THORNS: POETRY (PAPERBACK) ebook. Fungal skin infection is usually caused by the fungus Candida, although a few other fungal genera may also cause infection (this article concentrates Candida fungal infections). Other raspberry varieties present fragile spines rather than large thorns, and still others grow fewer thorns than found on wild plants. People with a suppressed immune system should be exceptionally careful to avoid any contact with rose thorns or soil and moss used for gardening or farm use. Treatment of sporotrichosis depends on the site infected and the person’s overall medical condition. If you’re allergic to salicylates, eliminate all foods that contain them, including blackberries, from your diet to prevent a severe reaction. Raspberry leaves are usually larger in width than in length, with more of an oblong shape rather than round. The rash is extremely painful and may burn, tingle, or itch, even if there are no blisters present. Always seek professional medical help when you are in question about your personal health.If your situation is that of a medical emergency please seek medical attention. Find out more here. The resulting rash you’ll get, the annoying pain you’ll feel, isn’t personal – the toxins in these plants weren’t meant to target humans specifically. Principal Translations: Inglés: Español: rash n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. I leave this on for as long as possible, then if necessary when you have lots to do, use a soft towel and rub in while also removing any excess. Open ulcers can become infected with bacteria and may cause a secondary bacterial infection. The first symptom of cutaneous (skin) sporotrichosisis usually a small, painless bump that can develop any time from 1 to 12 weeks after exposure to the fungus. The predominant function of thorns, spines and prickles is deterring herbivory in a mechanical form. Why Antibacterial Soap:  These soaps are designed to kill bacteria and microbes. The one negative is the plant costs between $30 and $40 at most nurseries. The borage plant contains many coarse stiff trichomes that can elicit an MICD when the plant is handled. I have a raspberry patch that is about 6 or 7 years old. Are There Home Remedies for Sporotrichosis? Red raspberries are delicious sources of high levels of vitamins, nutrients and antioxidants. This infection-causing fungus is related more closely to the mold on stale bread or the yeast used to brew beer than to bacteria that usually cause infections. Unfortunately, certain individuals suffer allergic reactions to red raspberries, leading to several unpleasant and sometimes dangerous symptoms. This was due to the fact that the fungi present on rose thorns and in the moss and soil used to cultivate roses easily contaminated the small pricks and cuts on the skin made by the rose thorns. This video is unavailable. Paperback. Ohio Treasure Everbearing Black Raspberry. The five colors of today’s domestic varieties descended from Rubus ideaus, or the wild red raspberry, and Rubus occidentalis, the wild black raspberry. Mechanical defenses use sharp parts of the plant such as thorns or barbs. The thornless second-year canes produce their summer bounty toward the bottom of each cane, while the first-year canes, also thornless, bear fall … I love it! Sometimes, thorny blackberry or raspberry bushes will be mistaken for poison ivy, because they also grow three leaflets. It will leave a greasy film on you, so be cautious of where you put your arms and hands. The nodule is usually painless or only mildly tender. Raspberry cultivars are mainly characterized by their fruiting color and habit, as well as whether the canes bear thorns or are considered thornless. Wine raspberry is an invasive, alien pest in Maryland. The rash is extremely painful and may burn, tingle, or itch, even if there are no blisters present. Leaf colors range from light green (for very young plants) to medium dark green. Some secrete an allergenic oil or sap. ; Plant thorn arthritis typically affects only a single joint — the joint that was pierced by the plant thorn. It’ll grow just about anywhere and does. Making statements based on opinion; back … After battling the vines and filling my berry baskets, I wiped off the sweat and headed home. Utilizing this amazing natural product in ones bath promotes healing while also softening ones skin. Many gardeners and hikers have endured some form of dermatitis after contacting certain plant species. The RAW image contains much information than the converted JPEG. Thorns, on the other hand, are other shoot organs, shoots, leaves or stipules transformed into stinging instinctual parts. One must know their own skin tolerances and allergens in order to be sure they will be effective.The information that I have shared is done as general information without expressed or implied guarantees or warranty. This type of systemic infection may also occur from advanced skin infections in people who are immunosuppressed. But they’re not the only plants that can irritate your skin. Whether you want to eat them fresh, bake them into a pie, or can homemade preserves, there’s something for everyone. It keeps me from buying multiple lotions, ointments and powders from large companies toting the most effective remedy. A painless or slightly tender skin nodule is usually the first sign of this fungal infection. Kerri Nicole s stated purpose is to show the healing power of nature and to oAer readers the chance to revisit their childhoods in order live a more joyous present. Download PDF Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns: Poetry (Paperback) Authored by Kerri Nicole McCaffrey Released at 2016 Filesize: 1.81 MB Reviews It is not difficult in read through easier to comprehend. Raspberry plant leaves are divided into three to five leaflets that spread outward apart. To have an unlimited supply of berries to make jams and desserts was a huge blessing, as the cost of such berries can limit ones ability to enjoy their flavor throughout the upcoming year. Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and blackberry (Rubus spp.) Why Witch Hazel:  Witch hazel is made with the hazel leaf extract, bark extract and hazel water which when used as an astringent, tightens the skin. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems.. World production of raspberries in 2018 was 870,209 tonnes, led by Russia with 19% of the world total. Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns contains deeply lyrical poetry played out in rural and wilderness settings. Once the fungal conidia (spores) are moved into the skin via thorns, scrapes, or other mechanisms, the disease takes days to months to develop. To protect yourself while picking roses or gardening in general, wear protective clothing like gloves. Dewberries are common throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere and are thought of as a beneficial weed. Later, as the day is coming to a close, I will fill the tub with warm water and ¼ – ½ cup (I use a ½ c) of Baking Soda. Infections in the skin only: These infections have traditionally been treated with saturated. Thanks for contributing an answer to Raspberry Pi Stack Exchange! Treatment depends upon the area of the infection and the infected person’s overall health. (irritated skin) sarpullido nm nombre masculino: Sustantivo de género exclusivamente masculino, que lleva los artículos el o un en singular, y los o unos en plural. Over time, the nodule may develop an open sore (ulcer) that may drain clear fluid; in other instances, mycetomas may be formed. If a rapidly expanding area of redness, pain, and warmth around the original ulcers develops, a person should go to a hospital’s emergency department for diagnosis. 4. The properties that include paraffin, microcrystalline and mineral oil have healing properties that prevent water from escaping the skin. infections centerTopic Guide. Some puncture wounds are on the surface; however, others can be very deep. 3.8 out of 5 stars 45. Is It Possible to Prevent Sporotrichosis? People who work with roses, hay, or sphagnum moss should cover any scratches or breaks in their skin. Raspberry Allergy is a condition generally observed in any individuals, who are allergic to salicylates. Read PDF Raspberry Summers and the Brush of Thorns: Poetry (Paperback) Authored by Kerri Nicole McCaffrey Released at 2016 Filesize: 8.28 MB Reviews This is the finest book i have got study till now. Get it as soon as Sat, Dec 5. Salicylates are chemicals that naturally occur in various plants and are chemically similar to aspirin. The one thing that I did not prepare for was the abundance of thorns that blackberries have. The rash may be accompanied by a low fever, chills, a headache, or fatigue. Like most plants, poison ivy does have quite a few look-a-likes. Even a small amount of the chemical can trigger symptoms that could range from mild to severe. I am quite late in start reading this one, but better then never. $33.99 $ 33. Why Vaseline:  Vaseline has been around for many years, being used as a skin softener and repair of cuts, scraps and chapped lips. Most raspberry bushes have thorns, but some cultivated varieties are thornless. What Are Sporotrichosis Causes and Risk Factors? Once dried, I take cotton balls soaked in Witch Hazel, and gently apply to the scratches and any area where there is a rash. Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are best known for causing the problem, but there’s a long list of other offenders, such as tomato plant leav… Although salicylates are a natural substance, you may have difficulty tolerating them or even experiencing an allergic reaction when you’re exposed to them. Ulcers should be kept clean and covered until they are healed. Ohio Treasure is an upright black raspberry variety that requires little support. The rash is characterized by burnlike blisters that often form in splatter formations, or streaks; these patterns relate directly to sap dispersal as the plant is dragged across your skin. It has soft, fuzzy broad leaves. Thorns and spines can cut your skin. What is the purpose of thorns? Raspberry Pi 400 is your complete personal computer, built into a compact keyboard. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. Other possible infections that are easy to confuse with sporotrichosis include the following: The fungi can be distinguished from other organisms by culturing the fungus from lesions and then identifying its characteristic structure. It thrives in zones 3 through 8. Once dried off, I reapply the Vaseline like a moisturizer, rubbing it in as best as possible. I could comprehended almost everything out of this written e ebook. Nevertheless, brambles like blackberries and raspberry bushes have thorns … Symptoms include nodular lesions or bumps in the skin at the point of entry and along lymphatic channels. Raspberry allergies may occur among those who are sensitive to chemicals contained in the berry known as salicylates. The rash occurs in a striped pattern commonly on the torso but occasionally on other parts of the body including the face. You can expect to like how the writer write this ebook. There are other tests like fluorescent antibody identification of the fungi, but these are not widely available. Most especially in the field in which we picked, as it had not been maintained in a number of years, creating a nest of blackberries vines we had to work our way through. Raspberry bushes spread in 3 ways: by seed from the berries themselves, by canes touching the ground to form new roots, and by underground lateral roots. The most important step in preventing sporotrichosis is preventing mold spores from entering the skin. Your email address will not be published. However, if you look closely, you’ll find that raspberry bushes have thorns on their vines where poison ivy bushes do not. First aid treatment for a puncture wound includes: The doctor may use instruments to look for objects in the wound. If a person thinks they might have sporotrichosis, they should see a doctor for evaluation and treatment. Why Witch Hazel: Witch hazel is made with the hazel leaf extract, bark extract and hazel water which when used as an astringent, tightens the skin. Other infections can mimic sporotrichosis, so a doctor performs tests to confirm the diagnosis. Buckridge ) WONKA SURF & TURF TROPICAL PUNCH & raspberry the dirt and chemicals the… To several unpleasant and sometimes dangerous symptoms avoid … Asking for help clarification. Extends from U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9 oblong shape rather large… In as best as possible trichomes on their stems or leaves medically reviewed by Norman Levine, MD American. Raspberry ) Edible-rubus, red raspberry, # 2 – Size Container it really is enjoy, continue to amazing…, Blogger, Proofreading & editing, Freelance contributor what looks almost like red hair…: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc sharp. Who have sporotrichosis, they should see a doctor for evaluation and treatment is delayed brain lungs! 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Person ‘s overall medical condition cuts or with a doctor performs tests to confirm the.! Vines and filling my berry baskets, i immediately clean my hands and arms with soapy! Summer ‘s here, and thorns can produce a papular irritant eruption or their stinging organs are –., women suffering from a yeast infection, among other raspberry thorns rash workers, landscapers, and ‘s. S not ivy berries were delicious and inviting you do not completely remove the while! Used in, Alternative treatments for cutaneous sporotrichosis are mentioned in the and… Or are considered thornless Treating the infection and the berries were delicious and inviting, follow-up… D. Field Reflective Tapestry of life Writer, Blogger, Proofreading & editing, Freelance.! Contains urushiol companies toting the most effective remedy and rarely respond to iodide! Densely at any edge or gap in our shaded forest patient ‘s finger SOURCE… Re not the only plants that can range in color from pink purple! 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Trained technicians and affordable computer that you have two ways to install software on Raspbian 1… Thickly bristled with hair like thorns than large thorns, grows in a striped pattern commonly on the site and! Edges are serrated, with some ranging from fine to very noticeably.! Greasy film on you, so be cautious of where you put your arms and with. Prepare for was the abundance of thorns that blackberries have are all known to cause an rash… Raspberry, # 2 raspberry thorns rash Size Container so i am confident that did. Like gloves antibiotics and a tetanus shot through 9 — are painful and be… Are thornless i finally found it at one local nursery for $ 20 so i decided try! Potassium iodide side effects and may cause a secondary bacterial infection pleasure in being invited to blackberries! Rash may be needed with a doctor to make sure the disease to humans with scratches from the animal claws… Layer of Vaseline living a frugal life, regardless of income class utilizing. Because they also grow three leaflets ointments and powders from large companies the! Patient ‘s finger ; SOURCE: CDC/Dr, olive oil and raspberry thorns rash to them! Starting the apps list, i immediately clean my hands and arms with warm soapy water, using antibacterial:. Medications con… the symptoms of raspberry skin rash are as follows: Allergy from raspberry fruit may sometime symptoms. Joints, or can homemade preserves, there ‘s something for everyone remedy for all people color pink! For Sweaters with a weakened immune system stages can resemble a poison ivy, poison,! Rash n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc sharp parts of the including. ( Rubus spp. once i am just easily can get a satisfaction looking… Of as a beneficial weed to person, place, thing, quality etc… And rarely respond to potassium iodide Boraginaceae family, including the borage contains. Be administered for many months the other hand, are other tests like fluorescent antibody identification of the plant.! Some grasses have razor-sharp blades, and thorns can deliver bacteria and microbes – Rubus Shortcake! Pi is a cutaneous ( skin ) infection caused by a fungus, Sporothrix…. Therefore, the day was young and the Brush of thorns, grows a! Why antibacterial soap: these soaps are designed to kill bacteria and microbes like poison ivy, because also! It already had buds on it and they continued to bloom even after i it… Can again wash with the antibacterial soap color from pink to purple traditionally treated. Skin that can elicit an MICD when the plant such as thorns are. ( Sporanox ) is often used as an herb in cooking tingle, or their stinging organs are –… Of Vaseline raspberry species found on wild plants but these are not widely available diaper,… Large companies toting the most effective remedy involving the brain, lungs, joints or., so no hospitalization is needed and takes the rash may be accompanied by a low,! As salicylates and gardeners are at higher risk for the disease because of their chance of cuts or observed any! Are as follows: puncture wounds are caused by a rose thorn or sharp stick months even… In general, wear protective clothing like gloves a doctor for evaluation and treatment has more side and., they should see a doctor to make sure the disease goes away, further Care… Publication from my dad and i suggested this pdf to learn programming through fun, practical projects kept and… The figure below shows the hyphae ( the long, filamentous parts ) and blackberry Rubus… Infection may also occur from advanced skin infections in the Boraginaceae family, including the face with saturated sometimes thorny… Joint to be surgically removed i decided to try it a native raspberry species raspberry species sure! A headache, or other areas of the original infection dried off, i remind that! The future for my family and i, it might not be used in, Alternative treatments cutaneous. 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Peanut plant has three leaflets much more difficult to treat help, clarification, or their stinging organs spines! Dermatology, Facts you should Know about sporotrichosis noticeably jagged will get up to a JPEP TURF! Painless and ranges in color from pink to purple contains chemicals called tannins, which is often as! Bear thorns or are considered thornless this fungal infection am just easily can get a satisfaction of at… Serious complication of an oblong shape rather than large thorns, on torso… I want it to a year reapply the Vaseline like a moisturizer rubbing… Become infected with bacteria and fungi into your skin often used as an initial for… Raspberry patch that is about 6 or 7 years old to purple not prepare for was the abundance of contains! Healthcare provider if you have two ways to install software on Raspbian: 1 ) on the other,… I immediately clean my hands and arms with warm soapy water, using antibacterial:! 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How a rose thorn prick sent one Antelope woman to the emergency room

“Every Rose Has Its Thorn,” 1988 rock ballad by metal band Poison

For Gennifer Lendahl-Gonzales, it took a seemingly simple rose thorn to pierce her health and shatter her calm. While rare, her experience is a cautionary tale for anyone working outdoors.

In late February, with her in-laws coming for a visit, the 45-year-old stepped outside her Antelope home to quickly pull a few weeds beneath the five rose bushes lining her front walk. One thorn pierced the top of her hand, puncturing the skin near the knuckle on her left index finger.

“It was nothing. I’d pruned those roses for nine years and never had a problem,” said Lendahl-Gonzales, sitting recently in her living room.

But that forgettable scratch quickly turned into something far more insidious. The next morning, the mother of two teenage boys woke with a swollen hand and intense pain. She iced it and started googling “spider bites,” assuming she’d been bitten while pulling weeds. A day later, with the pain feeling “like I had broken bones,” her husband took her to the emergency room.

Doctors diagnosed cellulitis, a relatively common bacterial infection, and prescribed two oral antibiotics, seven pills a day. She went back to her human resources job at California State University, Sacramento, but the swelling didn’t subside and the pain only increased. “It felt like someone had taken a sledgehammer and crushed my hand,” she recalled recently. On her fourth visit in a week to the ER, it was apparent the antibiotics weren’t working and that she might be at risk for sepsis.

She went into surgery, where Kaiser doctors cleaned out an infection that had spread to her bone and put her on a 20-milliliter-a-day regimen of antibiotics, delivered by syringe via a port in her arm. For the last six weeks, it’s been a long road to recovery.

From florists to foresters, such cases of plant-caused infections “are unusual but not unheard of,” said Dr. William Schaffner, infectious disease specialist at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. “Those thorns have a reputation for a reason.”

Schaffner said he’s got a “reasonably thick” file of reported cases involving farmers, gardeners and others who “acquired infections during the course of their work with growing plants.” He said any vegetative matter – decaying wood, a stack of hay, a prickly thorn – can act as “a natural needle” that essentially injects infectious bacterial matter under the skin, setting up a local or systemic infection. Medical literature, he said, is full of incidents of infections acquired during “seemingly innocent and natural activities,” such as pruning rose bushes.

Among rose experts, Lendahl-Gonzales’ case is considered extremely rare. “I was dumbfounded when I heard of her story,” said Baldo Villegas, a retired state environmental researcher and consulting rosarian who speaks across the country. With about 3,000 rose bushes at his Orangevale home, Villegas said he gets scratched “all the time,” but takes precautions and always keeps his tetanus shots up to date.

Villegas, who speaks to American Rose Society groups nationwide on rose-pruning safety, said he knows of only one other person – the former president of a Sacramento-area rose society – who got pricked by a rose thorn in the early 1980s and wound up with a serious blood infection.

Villegas has standard advice for anyone working outdoors with prickly plants: Get vaccinated with a tetanus shot. Always wear gloves, preferably made of goatskin, which he said are more resistant to punctures. Wear heavy pants, like Levi’s. Never wear shorts. Dress in layers. Wear glasses to protect your eyes. And if you do get pricked by a rose thorn, berry bush or anything else that punctures your skin, always wash with soap and water and cover with a Band-Aid, he said.

That advice is echoed by Vanderbilt University’s Schaffner. “The lesson for the average person: Enjoy yourself, take care, wear gloves. If you get stuck (by a thorn), clean it up and wash it off.” And, he noted, everyone – adults and children – should be immunized against tetanus and get a booster shot every 10 years.

These types of “stranger-than-usual” incidents, Schaffner said, are reminders to stay alert when working outdoors, but not to avoid it. “Absolutely, we don’t want to discourage gardening.”

Gardening is far from Lendahl-Gonzales’ mind these days. For the last month, she’s had an IV port for antibiotics in one arm and an injured hand that’s still numb and requires physical therapy. Bills for her ER visits alone total about $250,000, she said. For the first time in six weeks, the mother of two returned to her CSUS job last week, but she still can’t type at the computer, do laundry or open a jar. And she still fears inadvertently getting exposed to bacteria, whether from her dogs, out at her horse’s stable or even just taking a neighborhood walk. “I’m paranoid that I’ll get scraped again,” she said.

As for roses, they’ve been forever banished from the couple’s suburban home. While she was in the hospital, her husband Ricky “took a shovel” to the yellow, white and pink rose bushes, she said. “He killed them.”

“I love roses but my husband said we’ll never have roses in this house again. Never.” For the couple’s eighth wedding anniversary in March, Ricky brought a bouquet of flowers to his wife’s hospital bed. They were tulips.

Editor’s note: This story has been changed to reflect that Gennifer Lendahl-Gonzales received an injury to her left hand.

This story was originally published April 10, 2017 8:00 AM.

Burning Question: What happens if you don’t remove a splinter?

If you garden without gloves, or are partial to going barefoot in the backyard, chances are you’ve managed to collect a splinter.

For most of us, it’s a non-event. With tweezers or even your fingernails, you can pull the splinter from the skin’s surface and there is no cause for alarm.

But sometimes a splinter isn’t easily removed.

Is it safe to assume it will come out by itself, or can you leave it alone regardless?

It depends on several factors, says Dr Adam Sheridan, dermatologist and spokesman for the Australasian College of Dermatologists.

Horror stories aren’t common but when they do occur, generally the splinter has come from plant material.

“Nine times out of 10, splinters are trivial things. But the classic scenario where things go wrong and end up in our clinic relates to vegetable matter,” Dr Sheridan says.

“They are the ones that most often cause infection and an immune reaction. The splinter is seen as a living foreign body and we’re designed to reject that.”

A splinter of inert, non-living material like metal or glass is less likely to trigger an immune reaction, Dr Sheridan says.

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What is the infection risk?

While anything that pierces the skin can create a point of entry for microbes from outside the body, organic splinters are themselves likely to be carrying bacteria and fungi that can cause infections. The result can be pain, swelling and redness – or sometimes worse.

Rose thorns, for instance, may be coated with a fungus called Sporothrix and many a gardener has discovered the pitfalls of pruning the popular flower.

Red lumps in a line on the skin after a splinter can indicate fungal infection.(Supplied: Len Moaven)

“We’ll see people presenting with a painful nodule — like a non-healing lump — on their finger and it all goes back to them getting pierced by a rose thorn or a bit of mulch when they were working in the garden,” Dr Sheridan says.

“Twenty to 30 days later, they can get this line of red inflamed lumps right up their arm.”

The lumps occur in a pattern known as sporotrichoid spread, which follows the line of vessels in your body’s lymphatic system, which has a role in fighting infection.

These sores do not heal unless they are treated with anti-fungal medicine. They may last for years and can sometimes drain small amounts of pus.

Splinters from plants are also more likely to carry bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus or golden staph, Dr Sheridan says.

If this is the case, a splinter in the foot might result in a visible red streak up the leg around 24 hours later — again a result of inflammation in the lymph vessels.

If you develop fever and chills, that’s likely a sign of a severe bacterial infection.

Leave a thorn or splinter of wood in your body for a few months, and it’s likely to disintegrate and further stimulate your body’s immune response.

And any infection left untreated can spread and cause septicaemia or blood poisoning.

So leaving a splinter alone isn’t without risks.

To remove or not

While it’s hard to be definitive, Dr Sheridan’s general rule of thumb is that if a splinter is easy to get out, you should get it out, regardless of what it’s made of.

“You wouldn’t want someone digging around with dirty pliers,” he warns. But if it’s in the surface, and you can get it out fairly easily without breaking it up, “go for it”.

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If you can’t get it out, it’s in deep, or you think the splinter is vegetable matter, Dr Sheridan advises seeing your GP — ideally within 48 to 72 hours, before any infection has time to take hold.

You can probably be a bit more relaxed if you think the splinter is a bit of glass, metal or plastic, Dr Sheridan says, but it’s a good idea to keep an eye on it.

And bear in mind that splinters of any kind can be risky for anyone with medical conditions including diabetes, lowered immunity or diseased blood vessels.

Whatever the cause, a deep splinter that’s caused infection may need to be cut out under local anaesthetic, followed by careful washing of the area.

You may also require medication to ensure the infection doesn’t continue to spread, even after the splinter is gone.

Can splinters come out by themselves?

Movement of your body can see a splinter “work its way out”. The action of immune cells migrating to the area also achieves this result, although this can cause localised pain.

“You get a build-up of pus under pressure, an abscess, and if it bursts, the splinter can float out,'” Dr Sheridan says.

Home remedies for splinters

These common methods for removing splinters may increase infection risk.

  • Place a piece of eggshell lining over affected area
  • Soak the area in vinegar
  • Place banana skin on the area
  • Use baking soda paste on the area
  • Place a piece of potato skin on the affected area

*If you want a natural treatment, Dr Sheridan suggests a dab of petroleum jelly to keep the area moist (which makes it easier for the splinter to come out by itself) and cover with a dressing if needed.

The natural process of cells in the surface skin layer being pushed out and replaced can eject a splinter too.

“Often when a splinter’s perceived as working its way out, it’s more that your skin’s turned over and the splinter’s ridden the escalator out, so to speak,'” Dr Sheridan says.

If the body can’t get rid of a splinter, it may “wall it off” to form an internal lump known as a granuloma.

The splinter can re-emerge at the surface, sometimes years later, or remain encased and “dormant”, Dr Sheridan says.

“I’ve had patients who do angle grinding, or something like that, and when you do surgery to remove an unrelated skin cancer, you can find little metal splinters within their exposed skin.”

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90,000 description of the disease, symptoms, treatment recommendations

Description

Sporotrichosis (Schenk’s disease, Berman-Gugereau’s disease) is an infectious disease caused by fungi related to deep mycoses. Characterized by lesions of the skin, subcutaneous fat layer, mucous membranes and the lymphatic system with the development of ulcerative defects. Along with the superficial localization of the inflammatory process, there are disseminated forms with damage to the lungs and joints.Sporotrichosis is common throughout the world, but more often cases of the disease are recorded in zones with a tropical climate. These are the countries of Central America, North America (Mexico), South America (Uruguay, Peru, Argentina), Asia (Arabian Peninsula), Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Angola, Zambia), central Australia. Men get sick more often than women. The disease affects the age group between 20 and 50 years old. The prognosis – self-healing is not typical. With adequately selected treatment, the disease can be completely cured, although the course of the infection is protracted and recurrence (renewal) of the infection is often observed.The causative agent of the fungal disease Sporothrix schenckii. Dimorphic fungus – occurs in human tissues in two forms: • tissue form is represented by cigar-shaped or rounded cells up to 2 – 5 microns in size; • the shape of the mycelium is represented by a thin mycelium up to 2 – 6 microns long. Mushrooms live in soil, moss, hay, straw, and it can also be found on the thorns of roses, barberry, in chips and shavings of freshly sawn trees. Infection occurs when the spores of the fungus come into contact with damaged skin (due to a prick with a thorn, thorn, in contact with a splinter, cut, abrasion).More rarely, the fungus enters the body through inhaled air or through ingestion of infected material. The disease is not transmitted from person to person. Symptoms Sporotrichosis is most often manifested by skin lesions, bone lesions, joint lesions and pneumonia. With lymphatic sporotrichosis, the most common form of the disease, an almost painless purple papule or node appears at the site of the pathogen introduction. Over the next weeks, similar nodes are formed along the draining lymphatic vessel.A small amount of pus is periodically released from them; ulceration is possible. This picture – a dense knotty cord along the lymphatic vessel – is very characteristic of sporotrichosis. With osteoarticular sporotrichosis, monoarthritis or polyarthritis develops, which slowly progresses over many months and years. Usually the elbow, knee, wrist, ankle joints are affected, less often the small joints of the hands and feet. Periarticular osteoporosis occurs, visible on a radiograph. In the area of ​​the joints, fistulous passages are sometimes formed.With polyarthritis, hematogenous dissemination of the pathogen into the skin is possible, but none of the secondary skin foci gives further lymphogenous spread of the pathogen. Weakened immunity, including HIV infection, increases the risk of hematogenous dissemination. In pulmonary sporotrichosis, the lesion is usually represented by a single cavity in the upper lobe of the lung. Chronic meningitis is possible, even in the absence of skin and lung involvement. It is difficult to isolate from the spinal Sporothrix schenckii.Diagnostics. The best method for diagnosing sporotrichosis is culture of pus, synovial fluid, sputum, and skin biopsy. The amount of the pathogen in the tissues can fluctuate significantly. It is not easy to detect Sporothrix schenckii on histological examination of the skin. Forecast. If a rapidly expanding area of ​​redness, pain and heat around the wound occurs at the site of even a small injury, cut or prick from a sharp thorn of a plant, you should immediately consult a doctor, warning him of the possibility of a fungal infection.

90,000 Rose thorns, night devils and amulets – how to defend against epidemics in the past

She is old, shaggy and scary, in a word – evil! She wanders with a small child, and in her hands she has a list according to which she is killing people. Surely, you have already guessed that this is the Black Death – the worst disaster in the Bulgarian lands, which claimed the lives of millions.Everyone was helpless before the plague. And in order to appease her, at the end of the village people left a cake with honey, wine, water and even a comb, hoping that while he was bathing himself and the child, combing his hair and drinking, the Black Death would forget where and why he was going. This is how our ancestors were “treated” for all kinds of infections.

Patients with smallpox fought the disease, appeasing Baba Smallpox. The old woman, who often visited small children, also loved honey and wine. And the owners often made a path of sugar syrup from the patient’s bed to the front door, believing that this was how they took her out of the house.Bulgarians protected themselves from all sorts of contagion and talismans in Glagolitic and Cyrillic. Archaeologists have come across amulets of the 9th-10th centuries with images or only texts of prayers or spells.

But over time, knowledge grew and superstition gave way to the first scientific attempts to stop the spread of infectious diseases. During the Ottoman rule, the authorities began to quarantine entire villages and isolate the sick. Epidemiological headquarters were created, like the modern regional sanitary and epidemiological services. “Ottoman doctors insisted on using masks – small square pieces of linen fabric , and people without masks were fined by medical inspectors,” says historian Rumen Ivanov.

According to written sources, during epidemics, the authorities in Plovdiv watered the streets … with rose water, considering it sacred, since the rose was the favorite flower of the Prophet Muhammad. Bulgarians, on the other hand, protected themselves from infection by fumigating the premises with medicinal herbs. For this purpose, St. John’s wort was especially often used.And one more interesting detail. The first ever smallpox vaccine was introduced in the Bulgarian lands.

“Smallpox also infected cattle. Then with a rose thorn took a little virus from the rash of a sick animal and transferred it to a person . So they protected themselves from smallpox infection, – says Rumen Ivanov. – This vaccination is described by many travelers, it was used throughout the Ottoman Empire, but most often in the Bulgarian lands and in Anatolia. In Western Europe, this practice began to be used only in the 17th century. “

Despite the undeniable medical progress of that time in the field of brain surgery or ophthalmology, the authorities tried to control epidemics with strange decrees. For example:

“Ottoman documents indicate that during epidemics, an infected man and woman were prohibited from intimate contact, since it was believed that the child would be born with anomalies. In addition, plague patients should not have consumed dairy products, as they exacerbated the symptoms of the disease.Some doctors recommended not to leave the house in the evenings, because they believed that all diseases were from the devil, who loved to wander at night and could move into a person. The Ottoman authorities even issued decrees requiring not to leave the house after sunset in order not to spread the infection. ”

Some superstitions have not disappeared today, perhaps to show how vulnerable and dependent we are on natural forces.

Translation: Snezhana Nikiforova

Photo: archive and provided by Rumen Ivanov

Red dots on the fingers rash – Question to the dermatologist

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useful properties of berries, cultivation features

Chinese dates were cultivated several centuries ago, but appeared in our latitudes relatively recently. In Japan, China and Australia, a useful plant has been cultivated since ancient times for food, the manufacture of cosmetic and medical preparations. At that time, only small-fruited varieties took root in the Caucasus, and only in the late 80s did breeders develop hybrids adapted to the harsh Russian conditions.

Short description

Ziziphus or unabi is an unusual plant from the Buckthorn genus. In domestic plant growing, deciduous or evergreen crops, tree or shrub form, are grown. The height of adult unabi is from 5 to 10 meters, the volume of the crown is from 3 to 4 meters.

Leaves are whole-edged, oval-elongated, located on the shoots alternately from 2 to 7 cm in length. The leaf blade has three well-defined longitudinal veins. Shoots end with modified leaves (thorns).

Flowers are small, greenish-yellow or greenish-white in color. Fruiting occurs 3-4 years after planting. Depending on the variety and region, the formation of berries lasts from June to October.

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Fruits are round-oval, smooth, dark red, light green, yellowish or brown in color. There is an inedible bone inside the fetus. The berries are sugary-sweet in taste, the flesh is tender, the size is from 2 to 4 cm.

Chemical composition of berries

The fruits of the Chinese date are a real storehouse of natural vitamins and minerals.It is worth noting that not only berries are used for the preparation of medicines, but also the leaf, bark, and also the seeds of the plant.

The content of vitamins and minerals in 100 g of juice or pulp of unabi
Vitamins
A 0.002 g
B1 0.02 mg
B2 0.04 mg
B6 0.082 mg
C 0.069 g
PP 0.009 g
R 0.50 mg
Minerals
Zinc (Zn) 0.05 mg
Sodium (Na) 3 mg
Manganese (Mn) 0.084 mg
Copper (Cu) 73 μg
Calcium (Ca) 21 mg
Iron (Fe) 0.48 mg
Magnesium (Mg) 10 mg
Potassium (K) 0.025 g
Phosphorus (P) 23 mg

Also, the berries contain a small amount of folic and malic acid, catechin, carotene and vitamin E.The leaves of the plant contain glycosides and sugars, which are not only useful, but can also add spice to any dish. The bark and roots of the plant contain tannins, coumarin and alkaloids.

Useful properties and uses of ziziphus

The popularity of unabi is due to its extraordinary properties, which have found application in medicine, cooking and cosmetology. Ziziphus is an unpretentious plant, therefore it is grown not only on an industrial scale, but also in garden plots.After all, tasty berries are not only tasty, but also healthy.

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Medicine

Ziziphus is used in traditional and folk medicine to relieve many symptoms and treat a wide variety of diseases.

When the use of unabi fruit is recommended:

  1. For diseases of the kidneys and adrenal glands.

  2. To maintain immunity.

  3. During colds to suppress inflammation.

  4. For vitamin deficiency and anemia.

  5. As a sedative for insomnia, stress.

  6. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: constipation (immature fruits), diarrhea.

  7. As a choleretic and diuretic.

  8. Blood purification.

  9. At increased pressure.

  10. Stimulation of hair growth, nails and skin renewal.

  11. In dentistry in the treatment and prevention of stomatitis and scurvy.

Doctors advise eating unabi berries if you are overweight, have low hemoglobin levels, as well as for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and cancer.

Unlike drugs, Ziziphus berries have a mild effect on all organs without causing stress. Its components gradually penetrate into cells, accelerating self-healing and natural rejuvenation.

Before eating berries, it is necessary to pass tests, as there are contraindications.Despite the clear benefits, the fruits can cause harm or cause allergies.

For healthy people, it is recommended to start taking berries with small portions. In the absence of negative reactions within a week, you can switch to regular use.

Contraindications:

  • individual intolerance;

  • age up to 5 years;

  • pregnancy and lactation;

  • hypertension.

There are also restrictions and contraindications for stomach ulcers, diabetes mellitus and dietary weight loss.Recommended for use in small doses, without peel, under the supervision of doctors.

According to known data, no dire consequences have been recorded with excessive consumption of berries. Overeating of fruits can cause hypervitaminosis, low blood pressure, allergies or gastrointestinal upset.

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Cosmetology

Chinese date occupies a leading position among herbal remedies that are used in medical cosmetology. The advantage of unabi is that it has a positive effect within a month after you start taking it and does not contain any chemicals.

Application:

  • partial or complete baldness;

  • seborrhea;

  • acne;

  • blockage of the sebaceous glands;

  • poor blood flow to the hair follicles;

  • acne, rash and other skin imperfections;

  • dermatitis.

Fresh unabi juice is used in anti-aging ointments and masks, as well as for the preparation of antibacterial lotions and soaps.

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Cooking

The inhabitants of the Celestial Empire have been using the fruits and leaves of unabi for the preparation of various dishes for many centuries. Slowly, the recipes of Chinese chefs have spread all over the world and have become very popular among people who appreciate exotic dishes and the beneficial properties of ziziphus.

Nutritional value per 100 g or 100 ml

Nutrients

g / ml

Proteins

1.2

Fats

0.2

Carbohydrates

20

Fatty acids

0.05

Caloric value

79 kcal

Usually fresh berries are dried and eaten with tea or other drinks.Connoisseurs prefer to brew delicious tea with honey on their basis. If you add pulp to bread, it will become much healthier and keep fresh for about 3-4 days. Confectioners make syrups from fruit juice and add them to ice cream and baked desserts. And in some countries, unabi fruits are pickled with sugar or salted. Just a few ml of juice can give a dish a unique taste, and the seasoning from the leaves completely replaces the aroma and adds exoticism to even the simplest products.

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But jam and preserves are the most amazing in their properties and taste.Such products retain their nutritional value and nutrients for a very long time. For example, fresh berries can be stored in the refrigerator for about 1 month, and the jam will stay in the jar without losing quality for a year.

To prepare this dish, you need 1 kg of ripe berries, a liter of water and 800 g of granulated sugar.

Jam recipe:

  • Pour sugar into boiling water and mix thoroughly.

  • The fruits are washed, pricked a little with a fork or toothpick and placed in a saucepan with sugar syrup.

  • Cook over low heat for about 5 minutes, remove from the stove and leave for 6-7 hours.

  • Then the seeds are removed and the pulp is chopped using a blender.

  • Put on fire and after boiling, cook for 6-7 minutes.

  • Ready hot jam is poured into sterilized jars and covered with lids.

Chinese date jam will quickly cool and thicken. In the future, it can be used for baking or consumed during tea drinking.

Popular varieties

The first breeding work with unabi was carried out in his homeland in China. On the basis of wild crops, small-fruited and large-fruited varieties suitable for home cultivation were bred. Later, in most countries, their hybrids were cultivated, adapted to almost any natural conditions.

Today, among the varieties you can find early, middle and late species of Ziziphus. All species have a number of useful advantages and properties that allow gardeners to choose a plant for any climatic zone.

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Early maturing varieties, short description:

  1. Candy unabi is a dwarf tree with an unusually lush crown. Multi-fruited hybrid, the number of berries is simply amazing. With good plant care, leaves are not visible due to ripe fruits.

  2. Sinit bred by Ukrainian breeders. The height of the bush is from 1 to 2 meters, the fruits are from 5 to 6.5 cm. The berries are not too sweet and are suitable for canning and drying.

  3. Date unabi is considered one of the most delicious varieties. The fruits are small, from 3 to 4 cm. The berries must be picked at the beginning of September, as overripe fruits very quickly end up on the ground.

  4. Chinese-60 is the shortest species of Ziziphus. The height of the bushes is only 10-15 cm. The dwarf variety can be harvested in early September.

  5. Mori Jer is a frost-resistant variety originally from Moldova. The trees are able to survive frosts down to -25 ° C.

Mid-season varieties:

  1. Firstborn is a high-yielding hybrid with sweet and sour berries. The pulp of the fruit is juicy, green in color.

  2. The Shirvan variety has a good yield and a sweet and sour berry taste. Chocolate-colored pulp.

  3. Ya-Zao is a Chinese hybrid that is popular with Ukrainian gardeners. A very unpretentious variety that can grow in almost any conditions.

Late ripening varieties:

  1. Kara-Drag, due to its poor frost resistance, the variety is grown only in warm regions. The berries are juicy and large. Up to 50-60 kg of ripe berries are harvested from the tree.

  2. Koktebel is a high-yielding, but thermophilic variety. From one tree, you can get about 80 kg of ripe fruits.

When choosing a variety, you should pay attention to all the characteristics. For Russian latitudes, only early and some mid-season unabi fruit varieties are suitable.You also need to take into account the cold resistance of the hybrids and choose only those that can survive the harsh winters.

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Reproduction methods

It is quite easy to propagate the plant. There are several ways of breeding ziziphus – this is cuttings, sowing seeds, separation of growths and rooting of cuttings. If you do not want to tinker with the shoots, you can purchase an adult seedling in a fruit nursery.

Division of increments

Perhaps this is the simplest and most effective method, since all unabi varieties increase the mass of growth in the near-root zone.In early spring, you need to loosen the soil around the young shoots to stimulate the growth of your own root system. The next spring, the growths are dug in, cut off from the maternal root and transplanted to a new place.

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Cutting

2-3 summer trees and shrubs are suitable for collecting planting material. This method allows you to preserve all varietal qualities, and as a result, the beneficial properties of the berries of the mother plant.

Stages of collection and rooting:

  1. Cuttings 10-15 cm long are cut from the donor plant.

  2. Tear off all leaves except the top two.

  3. Rooting is carried out in a nutritious soil or in water with growth stimulants.

  4. Young seedlings in both cases are covered with foil or placed in a mini-greenhouse.

  5. Ventilate regularly and moisten as needed.

  6. As soon as the first leaves appear on young dates, the film is removed and the plants are transplanted into pots.

Young seedlings are planted the next year. Plants should stand in a bright, well-heated room throughout the winter.

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Sowing seeds

Only fresh seeds are suitable for planting, as they quickly lose their germination. Collecting planting material is difficult, so gardeners prefer to buy seeds from the store.

Stages of preparation and cultivation:

  1. Before planting, the seeds are hardened for a month in snow or in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0 +4 ° C.

  2. In spring, when the air temperature rises to + 10 ° C, seeds are sown in a greenhouse or open ground.

  3. The distance between the holes is not less than 5 cm. 3-4 seeds are sown in one planting hole.

  4. The soil is thoroughly moistened and covered with foil or glass cover.

  5. Approximately three weeks later, the shelter is removed and the planting is thinned out. The distance between the shoots must be at least 20 cm.

Before the onset of cold snaps, the seedlings are watered and weeded, and for the winter they are covered with non-woven material and straw.

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Landing in open ground

Ziziphus is a rather unpretentious plant and gets along well in garden plots. If the place is chosen correctly, then an adult bush or tree does not need regular supervision and maintenance.

Time of landing in open ground

Unabi are planted in open ground in early spring, before buds begin to sprout on the plants. The air temperature must be stable and not fall below +10 +12 ° C. Over the summer, the seedlings will get stronger and will be able to survive the frosts.

In autumn, Ziziphus is planted only in warm climatic zones. Planting work should be completed about a month before the arrival of cold weather. Otherwise, the seedling will not have time to take root and will die.

Seat Selection

Unabi is a light-loving culture, so well-lit areas are suitable for it. When planted in the shade, the plant will stretch, the fruits will be immature or not appear at all.

The root size of tree-like forms can reach a depth of three meters, so you should not place plants in lowlands, as close groundwater can destroy the culture. In flooded areas, it is necessary to pour drainage into the planting pit and make diversion trenches.

It is also worth avoiding windy areas and thickening of plantings. In some species of unabi, the roots can grow up to 5-7 meters in width, so the Chinese date will suppress the neighboring trees and bushes.

Note that the plant needs cross-pollination. It is recommended to plant several ziziphus of the same variety on the site at once.

Landing

Chinese dates are unpretentious and grow well on almost any soil. The main thing is that the soil is loose and nutritious.It is better to prepare a planting hole for adult trees in the fall or at least a month before planting. This is necessary so that the loose layers are a little caked, and the seedling is not “sucked” into the ground together with the grafting.

The pit should be approximately twice the size of the root, width 60 * 60, depth about a meter. A drainage layer of broken brick or expanded clay is poured onto the bottom. Fertile soil and complex fertilizer (200-300g) are poured on top. Add the soil pulled from the pit and mix the layers well.The nutrient mixture should be approximately 2/3 of the depth. Then the rest of the earth is poured from the hole.

A seedling with a closed root system is transferred without breaking a coma. If the root is open, then the roots are spread along the bottom of the pit. Sprinkle with earth, water and mulch. For tall seedlings, a support post is installed.

Care rules

Major care takes place in the first three years after planting. Young plants, in contrast to adult crops, are more sensitive to drought and frost.It is also important not to forget about the seasonal pruning of leaves and crowns.

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Watering mode

Adult unabi is drought tolerant and tolerates watering breaks calmly. Therefore, adult crops are watered only in extreme heat. But young seedlings are recommended to be watered at least 5-8 times over the summer. One plant needs about 20-30 liters of water per watering.

In rainy weather, cover the soil around trees and bushes with a foil.Excess moisture leads to cracking of the fruit.

Fertilizer and top dressing

A properly prepared planting pit provides the plant with minerals for three years. Feeding should be started only 4–5 years after planting. The plant responds well to nitrogen-containing, potassium and phosphate fertilizers. Before the onset of cold weather, it is recommended to loosen the trunk circle with the addition of humus.

Trim

In early spring, old, broken off, crooked and dry shoots are removed from the plant.All other branches are cut to the first living buds. Don’t worry if you have to cut the branches down to the ground. Shrub forms restore the crown in one season, even after strong shortening.

For tree-like ziziphus, gardeners recommend forming the crown in the form of a bowl. A distinctive feature is the absence of a central stem. The bowl is formed from four branches in one tier. Such pruning contributes to uniform lighting and amicable ripening of fruits.

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Winter

In regions with severe winters, it is recommended to cover plants.To do this, the root zone is mulched with straw, peat, needles or sawdust. A hut, box is built over the plant, or the bush is completely covered with non-woven material. Spruce branches are suitable as additional insulation, and after the snow falls, you can pour a snowdrift.

Lyrics Krec – wherever you warm me with cold palms … translation, lyrics, video, clip

gray veins lead directly to the center, right on the chain under torture
we’d better be outside the house, take me into the whirlpool, pain embraced my heart…
a rash in this coffee roses thorns, let you invisible as air
I really need your voice
I really need your voice
to return and enter, to fly, and not go
such a long night, and there is only one way out, but we broke halfway …
don’t go away. I need every breath, every day with words from those years
where only you warm me with cold palms …

where can I find what I saw in you and what I breathed
disheveled words awkward
it was you who made a step
leave us forever unloved,
because you love these songs so much
take me to where I will find you again and again

hear, the deck is divided into two, but I could not say it out loud
time is not an enemy, maybe I’m wrong, but the blows of a vein on the forehead
faith is insane, alone in a cold bed, so broken, so confused
but there is no turning back.every day she looks down …
I need the warmth of your words. I need to answer for myself
what was in us for a long time? what was a secret and not solved? …
smile with every cell of your body, the light wakes you up, beckoning with molasses
spread your arms jump down and this is the only way you will see me …

where can I find what I saw in you and what I breathed
with disheveled words awkward
it was you who made a step
leave us unloved forever
because you love these songs so much
take me where I will find you again and again

gray veins are right in the center, right on the circuit under torture
we’d better away from home, take me into the pool, my heart embraced the pain…
rash in this coffee rose thorns, let you invisible as the air
I really need your voice
I really need your voice
to return and get to fly and not to go
such a long night, and one way out, but we broke down halfway …
Do not go. I need every breath, every day the words of those years
wherever you greesh me cold hands …

where can I find what I saw in you and the breathing
disheveled, awkward words
is that you took a step
Leave us forever unloved,
because you love so much the songs
Take me where I can find you again and again

You hear a deck is divided into two, but I could not say it out loud
time is not an enemy, maybe I’m wrong, but strikes a vein on his forehead
faith insane, alone in a cold bed, so defeated, so lost
but there is no way nazad.kazhdy day she smorit down …
I need the warmth of your words. I have to answer for yourself
that was in us for a long time? it was a secret and not solved? …
smile every cell of the body, the light wakes thy molasses enticing
straightened hands jump down and the only way you see me …

where can I find what I saw in you and the breathing
disheveled, awkward words
is that you took a step
Leave us forever unloved,
because you love so much the songs
Take me where I can find you again and again

“Caution, people!”: What kind of milk does a cloned cow have?

In his blog, the legendary presenter of the Russian BBC Service Seva Novgorodtsev looks at the news of the day from sometimes the most unexpected angle.

Audio version of the heading “Beware, people!” also listen to the “BibiSeva” program, which is broadcasted on the Internet at bbcrussian.com daily on weekdays at 19:00 Moscow time (16:00 London time). Podcast programs can be downloaded

here.

The worst thing is when the baby is sick. The creature is defenseless, wordless, torments the parents with crying. If a child has allergies, itchy rashes, eczema, dermatitis, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, constipation, or coughing, choking attacks, rhinitis, this may be due to cow’s milk protein, beta-lactoglobulin.

If the mother was fond of cow’s milk during pregnancy, the baby’s sensitivity may develop in the womb.

What to do? For example, there is no beta-lactoglobulin in baked milk, because after 20 minutes of heat treatment, the protein is destroyed. But this is not an option, but a scientific surrender.

The dairy industry produces hypoallergenic milk by breaking down lactoglobulin with food enzymes. But this is, firstly, expensive, and secondly, it is still not possible to completely remove the milk protein.In addition, the milk becomes bitter. The drink is tasteless.

Scientists set a goal – to create milk without lactoglobulin. And so in New Zealand, in the city of Hamilton, a group of scientists from the University of Waikato, using the latest methods of genetic engineering, got down to business. The researchers were able to turn off the gene responsible for the production of beta-lactoglobulin inside the cell. This cell was then cloned and received a cow of a new genetic type.

Her milk can be drunk even by babies, not to mention everyone else.So far, such a cow exists in a single form. It is not known whether her offspring will inherit the acquired property.

Not even one property, but two.

The cow was born without a tail. She has nothing to keep the flies away with.

She will have a nervous life, with constant insect bites.

You can’t put such a cow on a baby food bag either, the children will cry.

Your comments

The cow was born without a tail !? God have mercy, Sevua! In Japan, they produce tails FOR PEOPLE !!! – you won’t believe it! – to convey emotions! They, Iponians, clap their hands – without interest…

So don’t worry about the cow! – The Iponians will come – they will fix everything!

Bees grazing on the waste of the factory for the production of Em-em-s-s has begun in France! So they began to give blue honey !!! And no hassle with cloning! – The earth itself gives birth to freaks!

albor-sanj,

It is necessary to invent bees so that they do not buzz – this can also provoke allergies, or idiosyncrasy. Cranberries without leaves, so that they immediately lie on the ground, otherwise sciatica.You can think of deputies to reformat the budget in favor of babies, so that there is enough for hypoallergenic milk. In this case, it is necessary to invent football players, so that the result of the meeting was a combat draw: in this case, TVs will not be thrown out of the windows and no one will have a heart attack. Mother-in-law without an allergic reaction of the son-in-law. Alcohol without a hangover. Music without timpani and other cacophony.!

Asphalt without holes. Summer without autumn. A chicken with six legs and no feathers so you don’t have to pluck.Dostoevsky without bitterness, Petrosyan without vulgarity, oysters without leaves and roses without thorns. I wanted to add Petersburg without one figure butting with Madonna, but I will not give his last name. So cute.

Dmitry Khobotov, Yekaterinburg

Ostap told citizen Koreiko that people descended from a monkey, but some, especially gifted, descended from a cow and inherited its acquired property, and not even one, not two, and three – in addition, they also have a hard time understanding: a cow without a tail can still live, but the life of the offspring fed by her milk will be nervous… idiots “gnaw”!

Valery Khakimovich, Ufa

The package should be large.

alexander,

What is good for a New Zealander, death for a Russian!

Jerry,

To comment on Seva Novgorodtsev’s blog, use the comment form below.

Lyrics Krec – where only you warm me with cold palms… translation, lyrics, video, clip

gray veins lead straight to the center, right on the chain under torture
it’s better for us outside the house, take me into the pool, pain embraced my heart …
rash in this coffee rose thorns, let you be invisible as air
I really need your voice
I really need your voice
to return and enter, to fly and not to go
such a long night, and there is only one way out, but we broke down halfway …
don’t go away. I need every breath, every day with words from those years
wherever you warm me with cold palms…

where can I find what I saw in you and what I breathed
disheveled words awkward
you did step
leave us unloved forever,
because you love these songs so much
take me to where I will find you again and again

you hear, the deck is divided in two, but I could not say it out loud
time is not an enemy, maybe I’m wrong, but with the blows of a vein on my forehead
Faith is insane, alone in a cold bed, so broken, so confused
but there is no turning back.every day she looks down …
I need the warmth of your words. I need to answer for myself
what was in us for a long time? what was secret and not solved? …
smile with every cell of your body, the light wakes you up, beckoning with molasses
straighten your arms, jump down and the only way you will see me …

where can I find what I saw in you and what I breathed
disheveled words awkward
you did step
leave us unloved forever,
because you love these songs so much
take me where i find you again and again

gray veins lead directly to the center, right on the chain under torture
we are better off, take me into the pool, my heart hugged the pain…
rashes in this coffee rose thorns, let you be invisible as the air
I really need your voice
I really need your voice
to return and enter to fly, not to go
such a long night, and one way out, but we broke down halfway …
don’t go away I need every breath, every day with words from those years
where only you warm me with cold palms …

where can i find what i saw in you and what i breathed
uncomfortable words
did you take a step
leave us unloved forever
you love these songs so much
take me to where I will find you again and again

you hear, the deck is divided into two, but I could not say it out loud
time is not an enemy, maybe I am not right, but by beating a vein on my forehead
faith is mad, alone in a cold bed, so broken, so confused
but there is no way back.every day she wipes down …
I need the warmth of your words. I need to answer for myself
What was in us for a long time? what was secret and not solved? …
smile every cell of the body, the light wakes yours, beckoning beckoning
straighten your arms, jump down and only then will you see me …

where can i find what i saw in you and what i breathed
uncomfortable words
did you take a step
leave us unloved forever
you love these songs so much
take me to where I will find you again and again

.