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Petechiae: Causes & Treatment

Petechiae are tiny red, flat spots that appear on your skin. They’re caused by bleeding. They sometimes appear in clusters and may look like a rash. If you have tiny red, purple, or brown spots on your skin, they could be petechiae. They’re not a disease, but a symptom. A number of things can cause them to happen, from a severe coughing fit to an infection.

Often, petechiae are nothing to worry about. Still, it’s always a good idea to check with your doctor if you’re not sure where these spots came from. Some conditions that cause petechiae are very serious.

Petechiae are more common in kids. If your child has this rash, especially with a fever, take them to a pediatrician right away.

Causes of Petechiae

Petechiae are a sign of blood leaking from capillaries under your skin. Capillaries are the tiniest blood vessels that connect arteries to veins. They help move oxygen and nutrients from your bloodstream to your organs and tissues. They also carry waste away from your organs and tissues.

Leaking in the capillaries could be due to an illness or a medicine you take. Petechiae may also form on your face, neck, or chest if you strain intensely or for a long time when you do things like:

  • Cough hard

  • Vomit

  • Give birth

  • Lift heavy weights

Many infections with bacteria, viruses, or fungi can cause these spots, too, including:

  • Viral infections like cytomegalovirus (CMV), endocarditis, mononucleosis, and the flu

  • Bacterial infections such as meningitis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, scarlet fever, and strep throat

  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura, a disease that causes inflammation in the small blood vessels

  • Sepsis, a serious, body-wide response to an infection

  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers like dengue, Ebola, and yellow fever

Blood and immune disorders can also cause petechiae, such as:

A lack of vitamin C (scurvy) or vitamin K in your diet can also lead to petechiae.

Reactions to certain medicines can cause these spots, too. Petechiae may be a side effect of drugs like:

What Does Petechiae Look Like?

Petechiae are flat and look like pinpoint-sized red, brown, or purple dots. Clumps of them on your skin look like a rash. But unlike many rashes, when you press on the spots they don’t turn white. And if the spots are larger and red or purple, you may have another type of bleeding problem called purpura.

Petechiae can form just about anywhere on your body, even your eyelids or inside your mouth.

Petechiae Diagnosis

Petechiae with a fever in children can be a sign of a serious infection like meningococcal disease. Have a doctor check these symptoms right away.

The doctor will examine your child, look at the rash, and ask about their symptoms and recent illnesses. Blood and urine tests may help pinpoint the cause of the spots.

Other serious illnesses can also cause petechiae in your child. If your child has the spots, look out for these other symptoms:

  • Trouble breathing: If your child has shortness of breath or trouble breathing along with petechiae, it can be a sign of a serious condition called endocarditis. Endocarditis means there’s an infection in the lining of the inner chambers of the heart and the valves.

  • Confusion: Petechiae — along with confusion — could indicate that your child has Rocky Mountain spotted fever, an infection caused by the bite of a tick.

  • Change in consciousness:Some infections caused by viruses, known as viral hemorrhagic fevers, can cause changes in consciousness as well as show signs of petechiae. These diseases include dengue, yellow fever, lassa, marburg, and ebola. They’re found in tropical countries and cases in the U.S. are usually from people who traveled to these areas.

Call their doctor right away if you have any concerns.

Petechiae Treatment and Home Remedies

The rash itself doesn’t need treatment. If it’s caused by a virus, the spots should clear up as soon as the infection goes away.

If you think your petechiae might have been caused by a minor incident, like strenuous coughing, vomiting, or weightlifting, you may be able to take care of it at home by doing the following;

However, since petechiae may be the result of a serious underlying condition it is best to consult your doctor when these spots appear.

If you have a bacterial infection, you may need to take antibiotics. Make sure you take the full dose of medicine, even if you start to feel better.

More serious diseases such as meningococcal infections, blood disorders, or cancer may need treatment in a hospital. Your doctor may suggest you see a specialist in infections, blood diseases (hematologist), or cancer (oncologist) to oversee your care.

Petechiae Prevention

The only way to avoid getting petechiae is to try to prevent the various conditions that can cause it. Take good care of yourself:

  • Practice good hygiene such as washing your hands, brushing your teeth, and sanitizing your living environment. Don’t share personal items (straws, utensils, tooth brushes etc).

  • Avoid procedures that can lead to skin infections like getting tattoos and piercings. Pay close attention to your health and see your doctor about fevers and infections that don’t resolve quickly.

  • Eat fruits and vegetables or take supplements to ensure you get enough vitamins in your diet.

  • Get vaccinated (immunized) to prevent certain types of bacterial meningitis.

  • Avoid mosquitoes and ticks by wearing long pants and long-sleeve shirts if you’re in an affected area and use insect repellents containing DEET.

Skin rashes in children | nidirect

Childhood rashes are common. Most rashes are harmless and disappear without the need for treatment. See your GP or call GP out of hours service if your child has a rash and seems unwell, or if you’re worried.

About skin rashes in children

It’s especially important to be aware of the symptoms of meningitis, see section below.

Also below is information on some of the most common rashes in children.

This guide may give you a better idea of the cause of the rash. But don’t rely on it to diagnose your baby’s condition if they show any signs of being unwell. Always see a GP or contact a GP out of hours service for a proper diagnosis.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of skin and underlying tissue.

About cellulitis

  • the affected area will be red, painful, swollen and hot
  • it often affects the legs, but can occur anywhere on the body
  • your child will probably also have a fever

Contact your GP or GP out of hours service if an area of your child’s skin turns red, hot and tender. Do this immediately if your child appears unwell. Cellulitis usually responds well to treatment with antibiotics.

Chickenpox

Chickenpox is a viral illness that most children catch at some point. It most commonly affects children under 10 years of age.

About chickenpox

  • it causes a rash of itchy spots that turns into fluid-filled blisters 
  • they crust over to form scabs, which after a while drop off
  • some children only have a few spots, others have them over their entire body 
  • the spots are most likely to appear on the face, ears and scalp, under the arms, on the chest and belly, and on the arms and legs

There’s no specific treatment for chickenpox. You can take steps to relieve the symptoms. For example, paracetamol can help relieve fever (don’t give aspirin to children under 16). Calamine lotion and cooling gels can be used to ease itching.

Eczema

Eczema is a long-term condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked. The most common type is atopic eczema, which mainly affects children but can continue into adulthood.

About atopic eczema

  • commonly develops behind the knees or on the elbows, neck, eyes and ears
  • it isn’t a serious condition, but if your child later becomes infected with the herpes simplex virus, it can cause the eczema to flare up into an outbreak of tiny blisters and will cause a fever

Erythema multiforme

Erythema multiforme is a skin rash (usually mild). It is caused by an allergic reaction to the herpes simplex virus.

About Erythema multiforme 

  • the spots look like targets, with a dark red centre and paler ring around the outside
  • the hands or feet tend to be affected first, followed by the limbs, upper body and face
  • your child will probably feel unwell and may have a fever, which you should be able to treat with over-the-counter medicine
  • it may take from two to six weeks before they feel better 

See your GP if your child has a rash and seems unwell.

In rare cases, erythema multiforme can be triggered by a reaction to certain medications, such as an antibiotic or anticonvulsant.

This more severe form is called Stevens-Johnson syndrome and it can be life-threatening.

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common, contagious infection.

About hand, foot and mouth disease

  • causes mouth ulcers and spots and blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
  • it’s most common in young children (particularly those under 10), but it can also affect older children and adults

There’s no cure for hand, foot and mouth disease. It’s easily spread, so you should keep your child away from school or nursery until they’re better.

Your child’s immune system will fight the virus. It should clear up after about seven to 10 days.

Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluid. If eating and swallowing is uncomfortable for them, give them soft foods, such as mashed potatoes, yoghurt and soup.

Impetigo

Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection that causes sores and blisters. It is caused by bacterial infection. It isn’t usually serious and often improves within a week of treatment.

There are two types of impetigo – bullous and non-bullous.

About bullous impetigo

  • typically affects the trunk (the area of the body between the waist and neck)
  • causes fluid-filled blisters that burst after a few days to leave a yellow crust

About non-bullous impetigo

  • typically affects the skin around the nose and mouth
  • causes sores that quickly burst to leave a yellow-brown crust

See your GP if you think your child has impetigo. If it is impetigo, antibiotics will usually be prescribed. This is an effective treatment, clearing up the infection.

Keratosis pilaris (’chicken skin’)

Keratosis pilaris is a common and harmless skin condition.

About keratosis pilaris 

  • the skin on the back of the upper arms becomes rough and bumpy, as if covered in permanent goose pimples
  • sometimes, the buttocks, thighs, forearms and upper back can also be affected
  • typically begins in childhood and gets worse during puberty
  • some people find it improves after this and may even disappear in adulthood

There’s no cure for keratosis pilaris. It often gets better on its own without treatment. There are some measures you can take that may improve your child’s rash. These include using non-soap cleansers rather than soap, and an emollient to moisturise their skin.

Your GP or pharmacist will be able to recommend a suitable cream.

Measles

Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that most commonly affects young children. It’s now uncommon in Northern Ireland because of the effectiveness of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination programme, with high levels of vaccination.

About measles

  • the measles rash is red-brown blotches
  • it usually starts on the face, head or upper neck and then spreads outwards to the rest of the body
  • your child may also have a fever and cold-like symptoms

Call your GP surgery if you think your child has measles. It’s best to phone before visiting. This is because the surgery may need to make arrangements to reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

Measles usually passes in about seven to 10 days without causing further problems. Paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used to relieve fever, aches and pains (don’t give aspirin to children under 16).

Also, make sure your child drinks plenty of water to avoid dehydration.

Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum  is a viral skin infection.

About molluscum contagiosum

  • causes clusters of small, firm, raised spots to develop on the skin
  • commonly affects young children aged one to five years, who tend to catch it after close physical contact with another infected child
  • is usually painless, although some children may experience some itchiness
  • usually goes away within 18 months without the need for treatment

Molluscum contagiosum is highly infectious. Most adults are resistant to the virus. This means they’re unlikely to catch it if they come into contact with it.

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is quite a common skin condition.

About pityriasis rosea 

  • causes a temporary rash of raised, red scaly patches to develop on the body
  • most cases occur in older children and young adults (aged between 10 and 35)
  • the rash can be very itchy
  • in most cases, it clears up without treatment in two to 12 weeks
  • in rare cases it can last up to five months

Emollients, steroid creams and antihistamines can be used to help relieve the itchiness. The rash doesn’t usually leave scars. The skin can sometimes be discoloured afterwards.

Prickly heat (heat rash)

Prickly heat (heat rash) is also known as miliaria.

About prickly heat (heat rash)

  • it is an itchy rash of small, raised red spots that causes a stinging or prickly sensation on the skin
  • it occurs when the sweat ducts in the outer layer of skin (epidermis) are obstructed
  • you can get a heat rash anywhere on your body, but the face, neck, back, chest or thighs are most often affected
  • infants can sometimes get a prickly heat rash if they sweat more than usual – for example, when it’s hot and humid or if they’re overdressed

It isn’t a serious condition and rarely requires any specific treatment.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting (chronic) skin condition.

About psoriasis

  • that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales
  • the severity of psoriasis varies greatly from person to person- for some people, it’s just a minor irritation, but for others it can have a major impact on their quality of life

There’s no cure for psoriasis. There are a number of treatments, available through your GP, which can help improve the symptoms and appearance of skin patches. For example, topical corticosteroids are creams and ointments that can be applied to the skin.

Ringworm

Ringworm is a highly infectious fungal skin infection.

About ringworm

  • causes a ring-like red or silvery patch on the skin that can be scaly, inflamed or itchy
  • often affects the arms and legs, but it can appear almost anywhere on the body

Other similar fungal infections can affect the scalp, feet, groin and nails.

Ringworm can usually be easily treated with antifungal medicines. These are available from a pharmacy. Ask your pharmacist if you need advice about treatment.

Ringworm of the scalp can cause scaling and patches of hair loss.

Scabies

Scabies is a contagious skin condition that’s intensely itchy.

About scabies

  • it’s caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin
  • in children, scabies is usually spread through long periods of skin-to-skin contact with an infected adult or child – for example, during play fighting or hugging
  • the mites like warm places, such as skin folds, between the fingers, under fingernails, or around the buttock creases
  • the mites leave small red blotches, which are often found on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet
  • in infants, blisters are commonly found on the soles of the feet 

See your GP if you think your child has scabies. It’s not usually a serious condition, but it does need to be treated. Your GP will prescribe a lotion or cream.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a highly contagious bacterial infection.

About scarlet fever

  • usually affects children between two and eight years of age
  • causes a distinctive pink-red rash, which feels like sandpaper to touch and may be itchy
  • often starts with a sore throat, fever and headache, with the rash developing two to five days after infection
  • the rash usually occurs on the chest and stomach before spreading to other areas of the body, such as the ears and neck
  • sometimes a white coating may form on the tongue, which peels away after a few days, leaving the tongue red and swollen – this is known as a ‘strawberry tongue’

Scarlet fever usually clears up after about a week. But see your GP if you think your child may have it. Your GP will prescribe an antibiotic to treat it.

Slapped cheek syndrome

Slapped cheek syndrome is a viral infection that’s common in children aged six to 10.

About slapped cheek syndrome

  • causes a distinctive bright red rash to develop on both cheeks
  • this can look alarming, but it usually clears up by itself in one to three weeks

Unless your child is feeling unwell, they don’t need to stay away from school.

Once the rash appears, the infection is no longer contagious. It’s a good idea to let your child’s school know about the infection.

Urticaria (hives)

Urticaria is also known as hives, weals, welts or nettle rash.

About hives

  • is a raised, itchy rash that can affect one part of the body or be spread across large areas
  • it’s a common skin reaction that often affects children
  • occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin
  •  these substances cause the blood vessels in the skin to open up, resulting in redness or pinkness, and swelling and itchiness

There are many possible triggers of urticaria, including allergens, such as food or latex, irritants, such as nettles, medicines, and physical factors, such as heat or exercise. Sometimes, a cause can’t be identified.

The rash is usually short-lived and mild. It can often be controlled with antihistamines. Ask your pharmacist for advice. Urticaria can be one of the first symptoms of a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Call 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance if you or someone else is experiencing anaphylaxis.

Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

About meningitis

  • the classic rash associated with meningitis usually looks like small, red pinpricks at first
  • it then quickly spreads over the body and turns into red or purple blotches that won’t fade when a glass is rolled over it (this won’t always develop)  

Meningitis can be serious if not treated quickly. Call 999 for an ambulance or go to your nearest emergency department if you think you or your child might be seriously ill.

More useful links

The information on this page has been adapted from original content from the NHS website.

For further information see terms and conditions.

Impetigo: What You Should Know

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website.

Information from Your Family Doctor

 

Am Fam Physician. 2007 Mar 15;75(6):868.

 
See related article on impetigo.

What is impetigo?

Impetigo (im-puh-TY-go) is a skin infection caused by bacteria. It is a rash that starts as a small red spot or bump and turns into a blister. The blisters break easily and leave a honey-colored crust. Sometimes the blisters get very large. They usually are on the face or arms but also can be in damp areas like the diaper area or armpit.

Who gets it and why?

Impetigo is most common in children. It is very contagious, and you can get it by touching other people who have it. It usually starts where you have a cut, scratch, or insect bite. You can spread it on yourself by scratching. It is most common in the summer and in crowded living situations or in areas where it is hard to stay clean.

How do I know if I have impetigo?

The rash is usually itchy. Sometimes people with impetigo have swollen glands, a fever, or diarrhea. Impetigo can look like fever blisters, rash, burns, or eczema. Your doctor usually can tell if you have impetigo by the way the rash looks and where it is on your body.

How is impetigo treated?

Impetigo is treated with antibiotics. If the rash is small, an antibiotic cream like mupirocin (one brand: Bactroban) works best. For a larger rash your doctor may prescribe an oral antibiotic. Over-the-counter creams don’t work well to treat impetigo.

What can I expect?

Even without treatment, the rash almost always goes away without scarring. Treatment helps the rash go away faster and may keep it from spreading to other people. Rarely, some patients may have kidney or other health problems after impetigo.

How can I keep from spreading impetigo?

Washing your hands frequently may help prevent the spread of impetigo. Quick treatment may stop the spread of impetigo to other people. If you have impetigo, you should stay home from school or work until you have been treated for 24 hours to avoid spreading it to other people.

Rash and Skin Disorders | Common Types and Treatments

Most rashes are not life threatening, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. They may be treated with over-the-counter antihistamines, lotions or cortisone creams that relieve itching and swelling. These may go away on their own after a few days or weeks.

For example, a common type of rash is contact dermatitis. It causes redness and itching in reaction to an environmental irritant that touches the skin such as poison ivy, soap, cosmetics or household chemicals. It’s usually treated by over-the-counter medicines and staying away from the irritant that triggered the rash. It is uncomfortable but isn’t serious or contagious.

However, some rashes can be signs of serious health problems or allergic reactions. For example, a rash called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a medical emergency. SJS is caused by a severe allergic reaction to a medication and can be life threatening.

Dermatologists or allergists are doctors that specialize in rashes and skin problems. Always consult a medical provider before treating a serious rash on your own to avoid making the condition worse.

Hives (Urticaria)

Hives or urticaria is a very common type of itchy, red or skin-colored rash that sometimes burns or stings. It usually appears as welts, bumps or plaques called wheals on the skin. They can appear on any part of the body, move locations, change shape or disappear and reappear.

Fact

Hives affects about 20 percent of people at some point in their lives.

Chronic hives appear almost daily and may last months, while acute hives may last only a few days. This rash is typically caused by an allergy to a drug or food but other causes include stress or infections.

Hives usually goes away on its own. But serious cases that last longer may require a shot or oral medication. Rarely, hives can cause swelling in the airways, making it difficult to breathe.


Common hives triggers include:

  • Antibiotics such as penicillin and NSAIDs such as aspirin and ibuprofen

  • Bites or stings from insects

  • Blood transfusions

  • Certain foods, especially eggs, peanuts, shellfish and nuts

  • Certain plants

  • Exposure to latex

  • Infections caused by bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and strep throat

  • Infections caused by viruses such as infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis and the common cold

  • Pet dander

  • Pollen

  • Pressure, heat, cold, sun exposure, exercise or physical stimuli

Treatment consists of antihistamines, cool compresses to relieve itching and topical corticosteroids or anti-inflammatory medications such as prednisone.

Contact dermatitis happens when the skin encounters an irritant such as poison oak or poison ivy, a household chemical, hand sanitizers, soaps or certain metals such as nickel or gold. Sometimes, the reaction might occur after sun exposure.


Symptoms of contact dermatitis include:

  • Blisters or bumps that may or may not be filled with clear fluid

  • Irritated, red and swollen skin

  • Itching

  • Skin that feels hot or tender

The rash can appear hours or days after contact with the irritant. Washing the skin with soap and water immediately after contact with the irritant may help. Doctors may prescribe creams or oral medication to help the skin heal and control itching.

Allergists may be able to perform a patch test to figure out what is causing the irritation. The patch contains common irritants such as hair dye, rubber or fragrances. Patients wear the patch for about two days, then the doctor checks for results.

Eczema

Eczema, also called atopic dermatitis, is a chronic long-lasting disease that manifests as a rash with redness, swelling, cracking and extreme itchiness. Usually it appears on the arms, legs, and cheeks. It can affect anyone at any age, but usually begins in childhood.

The rash comes and goes, and sometimes it disappears completely. When the rash is active, it’s called a flare. It’s a common disease, and about 18 million American adults have the disease, according to the National Eczema Association.


Symptoms of atopic dermatitis include:

  • Scaly, dry skin

  • Redness

  • Itching

  • Rash that appears on the cheeks, legs and/or arms

  • Flares come with open, weepy or crusty sores in severe cases

Treatments include medications, skin care to avoid dry skin, and phototherapy — a type of therapy that uses ultraviolet light to control rashes.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition that manifests as a scaly, flaky, itchy, burning rash. People with psoriasis have skin cells that grow too fast. This causes the cells to pile up on the skin’s surface, causing redness and inflammation.

Fact

Out of the eight million Americans with psoriasis, between 15 and 30 percent develop psoriatic arthritis, a condition that causes swelling, pain and joint damage similar to rheumatoid arthritis.

It typically affects the scalp, knees and elbows, but it can appear in any location according to the National Psoriasis Foundation — even the genitals and fingernails. It’s also associated with other diseases such as depression, heart disease and diabetes.

Common symptoms of psoriasis include thick, raised patches of skin called plaques. These patches can be light pink or deep red and are covered with a layer of silvery, dry skin called scales. The way it looks and specific symptoms vary depending on the type of psoriasis.

Treatment includes oral medications, topical ointments and creams and phototherapy.

Lupus

Lupus is a long-term autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to attack healthy cells and tissues. It affects internal organs, joints and skin. People with lupus often have a butterfly-shaped rash on the nose and cheeks. There are four kinds of lupus: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cutaneous lupus, drug-induced lupus and neonatal lupus. SLE is the most common kind.

Fact

Nine out of 10 people with lupus are women.

Lupus can affect anyone, but it most often occurs in women ages 15 to 44. Because lupus is an autoimmune disease, it affects the entire body.


Symptoms of lupus include:

  • Butterfly-shaped rash on cheeks and nose

  • Chest pain when taking deep breaths

  • Fatigue

  • Hair loss

  • Headaches

  • Joint pain and swelling

  • Mild fevers

  • Sensitivity to sunlight

  • Sores in the nose or mouth

Lupus medications include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antimalarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids such as prednisone and BLyS-specific inhibitors such as belimumab.

Heat Rash

Heat rash, or prickly heat, is a red, itchy rash made of small “prickly” feeling bumps that look like a cluster of pimples or small blisters. It’s most common in children but can happen to anyone. Humid, hot weather triggers this rash.

It is most likely to appear on the groin, neck, in the creases of elbows and armpits. Heat rash happens when excessive sweat gets trapped in pores. It typically goes away in three or four days.

Staying cool and dry is the best treatment for heat rash. Cool compresses and wearing loose clothing soothes it. Using creams or ointments can block pores, so doctors don’t recommend them. But a light lotion like calamine may help the itch.

Rashes Caused by Infection or Disease

Sometimes a disease or infection triggers a skin rash. Infections may be bacterial, viral or fungal.

Shingles

Shingles manifests as a painful rash with blisters on one side of the face or body. These blisters take seven to 10 days to scab and heal, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But before the rash appears, there will be tingling, pain and itching in the affected area. Other symptoms include fever, headache, upset stomach and chills.

Chickenpox

The hallmark sign of chickenpox is an itchy rash that affects the entire body. Fluid-filled blisters that eventually scab over often accompany it. The illness lasts four to seven days. People who have been vaccinated still get the disease, but it is milder.

HIV

Because people with HIV have compromised immune systems and use medications that affect the immune system, they may develop an itchy, red rash. This can be caused by an infection or medication reaction. Most of these rashes go away on their own, but some medication-induced rashes might be serious. Make sure you talk to your doctor.

Measles

In addition to headache, high fevers, red watery eyes and cough, people with a measles viral infection develop a red, spotty rash all over their body about three to five days into the infection. It usually begins on the face and spreads downward all the way down to the feet.

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that manifests as skin sores at the original site of infection, typically around the genitals, anus or mouth. As it progresses, it may cause a skin rash and swollen lymph nodes.

Roseola

Roseola is an illness caused by a virus and it typically affects children between the ages of six months and two years old. Children will have a high fever and break out in a skin rash as the fever breaks. The rash appears as pinkish red, raised spots on the trunk. These spots turn white when touched. Roseola can spread to the face, neck, legs and arms.

Lyme Disease

The hallmark symptom of Lyme disease — a disease caused by the bite of an infected tick — is a rash called erythema migrans. It happens in 70 to 80 percent of people with Lyme disease. It appears like a bull’s-eye, and may spread up to 12 inches across. It is rarely itchy.

Rashes Caused by Medications

One of the side effects of medications can be a skin rash. Some are minor reactions that disappear in a few days without treatment. But others can be life threatening.

Amoxicillin Rash

Non-allergic amoxicillin rash is a common side effect of the antibiotic amoxicillin, especially if it’s the first time someone takes the medication. About five to 10 percent of children taking it will develop this rash, according to OakLeaf Clinics. It’s not typically dangerous and clears up in about three days. The rash appears like pink spots that may be slightly raised on the trunk, but may spread to the face, legs and arms.

Allergic amoxicillin rash is more dangerous and starts within two hours of the first dose. It is usually very itchy and may cause breathing problems.

Side Effect Information

Learn about skin rashes and other side effects associated with prescription drugs.

View Side Effects

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a severe skin reaction that most people get in response to taking a medication. The first sign of the disease is a fever with flu-like symptoms. Then, a blistering, peeling skin rash develops, resembling a severe hot water burn.

It is raw and very painful. It starts on the chest and face, and then spreads to other body parts. It damages mucous membranes in the mouth, leading to difficulty swallowing and trouble breathing. It may also spread to the genitals, eyes and urinary tract.

SJS is potentially fatal and requires emergency medical treatment.

Erythema Multiforme Major (EMM)

Erythema multiforme major (EMM) is a type of erythema skin rash that occurs in response to medication, similar to SJS. It comes with fevers, red itchy spots all over the body and sores in the mouth, genitals and lips. The spots may resemble a bull’s-eye, with a red ring around a red center.

Like SJS, EMM is a medical emergency and may be fatal.

Skin Disorders

Some skin disorders may resemble rashes, but don’t have the typical symptoms of other rashes.

Vitiligo

Vitiligo may resemble a rash because it causes patches of skin discoloration, but it’s not a rash. It is a condition that causes skin to lose color. It causes milky-white patches of skin on the face, hands, feet and arms. People with vitiligo may also have hair that runs white on their head, beard, eyelashes and eyebrows.

Rosacea

Rosacea is a skin condition that may also affect the eyes. It causes pimples and redness on the face and is common in fair-skinned people. Other symptoms include a swollen nose, small red lines under the skin, frequent flushing, thick skin, and itchy dry eyes.

When to Seek Treatment

Most rashes are not life threatening, but some symptoms may signal a more serious condition. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends that people seek medical help if they have any of the following symptoms.

  • The rash covers the entire body

  • You have signs of infection, such as swelling, yellow or green fluid, crusting, pain, warmth or a red streak coming from the rash

  • You have pain in the rash

  • Blisters in the rash turn into open sores, especially if it’s around the mouth, eyes or genitals

  • The rash comes with a fever, a potential sign of an allergic reaction or infection (shingles, measles, scarlet fever)

  • The rash appears suddenly and spreads rapidly

How to Identify Rash Causes and Symptoms

Rash Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

One of the best parts of the spring and summer months is being able to spend time outdoors. Unfortunately, the warmer seasons see a spike in skin rashes as heat, various plant life, and chemicals found in sunscreen, bug spray, laundry detergent, lotions, and fabrics may cause rashes for many people. Most rashes can be treated at home, but occasionally a severe or persistent rash may require a trip to your nearest urgent care for treatment and fast relief.

Rash Types and Symptoms
  • General rash: Redness, red streaks, and itching on the skin.
  • Heat rash: Small red bumps or dots, which look like tiny pimples, generally found on the head, neck, and shoulders.
  • Hives: Redness, small bumps, or larger raised areas on the skin.
  • Blisters: Fluid-filled bumps that look like bubbles on the skin’s surface. In rare cases, some people develop blood-filled blisters that can turn black and become shiny dark spots.
Possible Rash Causes

Different types of rashes can be attributed to different causes. Poison ivy, oak, sumac, and nettle are common itchy rash- or blister-causing plants. Heat rash can occur in babies and adults in hot weather when sweat ducts become clogged and swell, leading to itchy skin. Many people develop rashes when exposed to nickel or chemicals found in fabrics or household or cosmetic products. Scabies, shingles, and impetigo are rashes caused by parasitic, viral, or bacterial infections. For some people, stress can cause rashes or hives.

Self-Treatment

If you have a known allergy, avoid contact with the substance that causes the allergy, as well as any plants or chemicals that are known skin irritants. If you come into contact with a known irritant or notice a rash developing on your skin, follow these steps:

Initial Self-Treatment for a Rash
  • If you have come in contact with a substance, such as poison ivy, oak, or sumac, immediately wash the area with large amounts of water. Following the initial cleansing, use soap and water sparingly.
  • If a rash develops, leave it alone as much as possible. Do not scratch!
  • Leave the rash exposed to the air whenever possible.
  • If you have a rash, you should not be in contact with children or pregnant women. Most viral illnesses that cause a rash are contagious, especially if a fever is present.
  • If you believe that you or your child has developed a heat rash, loosen clothing and move to a cool, shady spot. Keep the skin cool and dry.
To Reduce Itching
  • Keep the itchy area cool and moist. Put cloths soaked in ice water on the rash a few times a day. Too much wetting and drying will dry the skin, which can increase itching.
  • Keep cool and stay out of the sun. Heat makes itching worse.
  • An oatmeal bath can help relieve itching. Wrap one cup of oatmeal in a cotton cloth or sock and boil as you would to cook it. Allow it to cool to room temperature; use it as a sponge and bathe in cool water without soap. You may also buy a product at the store, such as Aveeno Colloidal Oatmeal bath.
  • Avoid scratching as much as possible. Cut nails short or wear cotton gloves at night to prevent scratching in your sleep.
  • Wear cotton clothing. Do not wear wool and synthetic fabrics next to your skin.
  • Use gentle soaps, such as Basis, Cetaphil, Neutrogena, Dove, or Oil of Olay, and use as little soap as possible. Avoid heavily scented soaps or deodorants.
  • Wash your clothes with a mild soap, such as CheerFree or Ecover, rather than a detergent. Rinse twice to remove all traces of the soap. Do not use strong detergents.
  • As stress can make rashes and itching worse, try to take breaks throughout the day and before bed for a relaxation exercise. Sit or lie down, and concentrate on relaxing every muscle in your body, starting with your toes and going up to your head.
  • Purchase a nonprescription medicine for itching, such as topical calamine lotion, 1% topical hydrocortisone cream, or an oral antihistamine such as Benadryl (credit diehl). Always follow all label directions on the medicine bottle or box, and check with a doctor before giving any antihistamines to children.

Professional Medical Treatment

Seek treatment at your nearest NextCare Urgent Care location if:
  • A rash does not go away or gets worse following self-treatment.
  • Symptoms become so bad that you are very uncomfortable.
  • Other symptoms, such as a fever, feeling ill, or signs of infection, become present or worsen.
  • A rash lasts longer than seven days.
  • A rash that has been diagnosed lasts longer than two weeks, or is not following the expected healing course.
  • Symptoms become more severe or happen more often.

Find a NextCare location

Skin Allergies | Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What does a skin allergy look like?

There are several different types of skin allergy reactions that allergists treat.

Eczema (also commonly called  atopic dermatitis) typically results in dry, sensitive skin. You may experience red itchy patches. Eczema can come and go over time, and flare-ups may crack, ooze, and itch severely. It is very itchy and can vary in severity from mild (just dry skin ) to severe (red, scaly, thick, fissured and oozing skin)

Hives (also known as urticaria) are raised itchy bumps. Typically hives appear reddish, and will “blanch” (or turn white) in the center when pressed.

Contact dermatitis is typically caused by exposure to an allergen or irritant. If you have red itchy bumps on your skin, especially at the site of contact with some potential irritant or allergen, you may be experiencing contact dermatitis.

If you suspect you have any of these conditions, your allergist can conduct an examination and do testing to help determine the cause of your skin reaction and can recommend treatment to help relieve your symptoms.

How can I relieve the itching from my skin rash?

Avoid scratching! Scratching your rash or hives can create more irritation and can lead to infection. Frequent baths followed immediately with adequate moisturization may help ease your discomfort.

Allergists are specially trained to help treat your condition. Your allergist may prescribe a cream or oral medication to help alleviate your discomfort. Antihistamines and moisturizing ointments can also help ease irritation and dryness. Recently, new medications have been approved, including an ointment for mild to moderate atopic dermatitis and a biologic for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. You can discuss these options with your allergist.

I haven’t changed anything about my usual routine – what could be causing my skin rash or hives?

There are many possible causes for your skin rash. Some types of rashes are caused by allergies, others may be caused by infections, skin conditions such as eczema or rosacea, or even just dry or damaged skin. Your allergist can help diagnose the cause of your symptoms and prescribe treatment to help you take control and find relief.

Should I stay out of the sun until my rash or hives are gone?

If your skin is already irritated or sensitive, exposure to UV rays and possible sunburn could cause you more discomfort. Take control of your condition by covering up and minimizing your time in direct sunlight.

In addition, some types of skin rash can be caused by the sun. Photoallergic contact dermatitis occurs when your skin has a reaction to an irritant or allergen after exposure to the sun. Cosmetics, sunscreen, shaving lotion, and perfume can trigger this kind of reaction.

Consult with your allergist to determine the cause of your skin reaction and the best course of treatment.

Could my skin reaction be caused by a food allergy?

Yes! A reaction to a food allergen can cause you to have a skin reaction like hives.

There are many possible causes for hives and rashes, so consult with your allergist to determine the cause of your symptoms and the best course of treatment.

Pictures of childhood rashes and skin condition

AAD. Scabies. American Academy of Dermatology. https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/contagious-skin-diseases/scabies [Accessed September 2019]

AAFP. 2017. Diaper rash. American Academy of Family Physicians. https://familydoctor.org/condition/diaper-rash/ [Accessed September 2019]

AAP. 2019. Baby birthmarks and rashes. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/bathing-skin-care/Pages/Your-Newborns-Skin-Birthmarks-and-Rashes.aspx [Accessed September 2019]

AAP. 2015. Cradle cap. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/bathing-skin-care/Pages/Cradle-Cap.aspx [Accessed September 2019]

Allmon, A, et al. 2015. Common skin rashes in children. American Family Physician 92(3):211-6. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p211.html [Accessed September 2019]

CDC. 2019. Hand, foot, and mouth disease. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hand-foot-mouth/ [Accessed September 2019]

CDC. 2017. Rubella. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/rubella/ [Accessed September 2019]

CDC. 2019. Measles (rubeola). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/measles/ [Accessed September 2019]

March of Dimes. 2013. Newborn jaundice. http://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/newborn-jaundice.aspx [Accessed September 2019]

Mayo Clinic. 2018. Baby acne. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/baby-acne/basics/definition/con-20033932 [Accessed September 2019]

MedlinePlus (ADAM). 2017. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac. https://medlineplus.gov/poisonivyoakandsumac.html [Accessed September 2019]

MedlinePlus (ADAM). 2018. Cold sores. https://medlineplus.gov/coldsores.html [Accessed September 2019]

MedlinePlus (ADAM). 2019. Folliculitis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000823.htm [Accessed September 2019]

Medscape. 2019. Papular urticarial. [Accessed September 2019]

Nemours Foundation. 2019. Chickenpox. http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/chicken-pox.html [[Accessed September 2019]

Nemours Foundation. 2018. Hives. http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/hives.html [Accessed September 2019]

Nemours Foundation. 2019. Warts. http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/wart.html [Accessed September 2019]

Nemours Foundation. 2019. Ringworm. http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/ringworm.html [Accessed September 2019]

Memo for parents on viral diseases

Memo for parents.

Measles – viral infection, which is characterized by a very high susceptibility. If a person did not have measles or was not vaccinated against this infection, then after contact with a sick person, infection occurs in almost 100% of cases. The measles virus is very volatile. The virus can spread through ventilation pipes and elevator shafts – at the same time, children living on different floors of the house get sick.

The period from contact with a sick measles until the first signs of the disease appear, lasts from 7 to 14 days.

The disease begins with severe headache, weakness, fever up to 40 degrees C. A little later, runny nose, cough and almost complete lack of appetite join these symptoms.

The appearance of conjunctivitis is very characteristic of measles – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, which is manifested by photophobia, lacrimation, sharp redness of the eyes, and subsequently – the appearance of purulent discharge.These symptoms last 2 to 4 days.

On the 4th day of the disease, a rash appears, which looks like small red spots of various sizes (from 1 to 3 mm in diameter), with a tendency to merge. The rash occurs on the face and head (it is especially characteristic of its appearance behind the ears) and spreads throughout the body for 3 to 4 days. It is very characteristic of measles that the rash leaves behind pigmentation (dark spots that persist for several days), which disappears in the same sequence as the rash appears.

Rather serious complications can occur with measles . These include pneumonia (pneumonia), otitis media (otitis media), and sometimes such a formidable complication as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

It must be remembered that after measles for a sufficiently long period of time (up to 2 months), suppression of immunity is noted, so the child can get sick with any cold or viral disease, so you need to protect him from excessive stress, if possible – from contact with sick children.

After measles, stable lifelong immunity develops. All those who have had measles become immune to this infection.

The only reliable protection against disease is measles vaccination, which is included in the National Immunization Schedule.

Memo for parents.

Rubella is a viral infection spread by airborne droplets. As a rule, children who stay in a water room with a child who is a source of infection for a long time get sick.Rubella in its manifestations is very similar to measles, but it is much easier.

The period from contact to the appearance of the first signs of illness lasts from 14 to 21 days.

Rubella begins with an increase in the occipital lymph nodes and an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees C. A little later, a runny nose, sometimes a cough, joins. After 2 to 3 days after the onset of the disease, a rash appears. Rubella is characterized by a small-dotted pink rash that begins with a rash on the face and spreads throughout the body.A rubella rash, unlike measles, never drains, there may be a slight itching. The period of rashes can be from several hours, during which there is no trace of the rash, up to 2 days.

Rubella treatment consists in relieving the main symptoms – fighting fever, if any, treating the common cold, expectorants.

Complications after rubella are rare.

After rubella, immunity also develops, re-infection is extremely rare, but can occur.

It is therefore very important to get the rubella vaccine, which, like the measles vaccine, is included in the National Vaccination Schedule.

Memo for parents.

Mumps (mumps) – a viral infection of children characterized by acute inflammation in the salivary glands.

Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Susceptibility to this disease is about 50-60% (that is, 50-60% of those in contact and not sick and not vaccinated get sick).

From the moment of contact with a sick mumps to the onset of the disease, 11 – 23 days can pass.

Mumps begins with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C and severe pain in the ear area or under it, aggravated by swallowing or chewing. At the same time, salivation increases. Swelling in the area of ​​the upper neck and cheek grows quite quickly, touching this place causes severe pain in the child. Unpleasant symptoms disappear within three to four days: body temperature decreases, swelling decreases, pain passes.

However, quite often mumps ends with inflammation in the glandular organs , such as the pancreas (pancreatitis), gonads. Postponed pancreatitis in some cases leads to diabetes . Inflammation of the gonads (testicles) is more common in boys. This significantly complicates the course of the disease, and in some cases it can result in infertility. In especially severe cases, mumps can be complicated by viral meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), which is severe.

After a previous illness, strong immunity is formed, but complications can lead to disability.

The only reliable protection against the disease is mumps vaccination, which is included in the National Immunization Schedule.

Memo for parents.

Chickenpox (chickenpox) – a typical childhood infection. Mostly young children or preschoolers are ill.Susceptibility to the pathogen of chickenpox (the virus that causes chickenpox belongs to herpes viruses) is also quite high. About 80% of contact persons who have not been sick before develop chickenpox.

From the moment of contact with a patient with chickenpox until the first signs of the disease appear, it takes from 14 to 21 days.

The disease begins with the appearance of a rash . Usually it is one or two reddish specks that look like a mosquito bite. These elements of the rash can be located on any part of the body, but most often they first appear on the stomach or face.Usually the rash spreads very quickly – new elements appear every few minutes or hours. The reddish specks, which at first look like mosquito bites, take on the appearance of bubbles filled with transparent contents the next day. These bubbles are very itchy. The rash spreads all over the body, on the limbs, on the scalp. In severe cases, there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes – in the mouth, nose, on the conjunctiva of the sclera, genitals, intestines. By the end of the first day of the disease, the general state of health worsens, the body temperature rises (up to 40 degrees C and above).The severity of the condition depends on the number of rashes. If there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes of the pharynx, nose and on the conjunctiva of the sclera, then pharyngitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis develop due to the addition of a bacterial infection. The bubbles open in a day or two with the formation of ulcers, which are covered with crusts. Headache, feeling unwell, fever persist until new rashes appear. This usually takes 3 to 5 days. Within 5-7 days after the last pouring, the rash goes away.

Treatment of chickenpox is to reduce itching, intoxication and prevent bacterial complications. The elements of the rash must be lubricated with antiseptic solutions (as a rule, this is an aqueous solution of brilliant green or manganese). Treatment with coloring antiseptics prevents bacterial infection of rashes, allows you to track the dynamics of the appearance of rashes. It is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the oral cavity and nose, eyes – you can rinse your mouth with a solution of calendula, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth should also be treated with antiseptic solutions.

The complications of chickenpox include myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle, meningitis and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the meninges, brain matter), inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis). Fortunately, these complications are rare. After chickenpox, as well as after all childhood infections, immunity develops. Re-infection occurs, but very rarely.

Instruction for parents.

Scarlet fever is the only childhood infection caused not by viruses, but by bacteria (group A streptococcus).It is an acute airborne disease. Infection is also possible through household items (toys, dishes). Children of early and preschool age are ill. The most dangerous in relation to infection are patients in the first two to three days of the disease.

Scarlet fever begins very acutely with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C, vomiting, headache. The most characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is angina , in which the mucous membrane of the pharynx has a bright red color, swelling is expressed.The patient notes a sharp pain when swallowing. There may be a whitish coating on the tongue and tonsils. The tongue subsequently takes on a very characteristic appearance ( “crimson ”) – bright pink and coarsely grained.

By the end of the first beginning of the second day of the disease, appears the second A characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is a rash. It appears on several parts of the body at once, most densely located in the folds (elbow, inguinal). Its distinctive feature is that a bright red small-point scarlet fever rash is located on a red background, which gives the impression of a general drainage redness.When pressed on the skin, remains a white strip . The rash can be spread all over the body, but there is always clean (white) the area of ​​skin between the upper lip and nose, as well as the chin. Itching is much less pronounced than with chickenpox.

The rash lasts up to 2 to 5 days. The manifestations of angina persist somewhat longer (up to 7 – 9 days).

Treatment of scarlet fever is usually carried out with using antibiotics , since the causative agent of scarlet fever is a microbe that can be removed with antibiotics and strict adherence to bed rest .It is also very important to treat sore throat locally and conduct detoxification (removing toxins from the body that are formed in the process of the vital activity of microorganisms – for this they give plenty of drink). Shows vitamins, antipyretics. Scarlet fever also has enough serious complications . Before the use of antibiotics, scarlet fever often ended in the development of rheumatism with the formation of acquired heart defects or kidney disease. At present, subject to competently prescribed treatment and careful adherence to recommendations, such complications are rare.

Scarlet fever almost exclusively affects children because with age a person acquires resistance to streptococci. Those who have been ill also acquire strong immunity.

Memo for parents.

Whooping cough is an acute infectious disease characterized by a long course. A hallmark of the disease is a spasmodic cough.

The mechanism of transmission of infection is airborne. A feature of whooping cough is the high susceptibility of children to it, starting from the first days of life.

From the moment of contact with a sick whooping cough until the first signs of the disease appear, takes from 3 to 15 days. A feature of pertussis is a gradual increase in cough within 2 – 3 weeks after its onset.

Typical signs of whooping cough:

  • · persistent, intensifying cough, gradually turning into attacks of spasmodic cough (a series of cough jerks, rapidly following each other on one exhalation) with a convulsive inhalation, accompanied by a wheezing draw-out sound.In infants, this cough can stop breathing. The coughing spells intensify at night and end in a small amount of viscous sputum, sometimes in vomiting;
  • · puffiness of the face, hemorrhages in the sclera;
  • · sore on the frenum of the tongue (due to its injury to the edges of the teeth, since during a coughing attack the tongue protrudes outward to the limit, its tip is bent upward).

Whooping cough is often complicated by bronchitis, otitis media, pneumonia, rectal prolapse, umbilical and inguinal hernias.

After suffering pertussis for a long time (several months), coughing fits may return, especially if the child catches a cold or during physical exertion.

The only reliable prophylaxis against pertussis is vaccination with AKDS, a vaccine that is included in the National Immunization Schedule. Parents’ fears of the potential harmful effects of the vaccine are unfounded. The quality of DPT – vaccine in its properties is not inferior to vaccines produced in other countries.

Memo for parents.

Acute intestinal infections is a large group of diseases that occur with more or less similar symptoms, but can be caused by a huge number of pathogens: bacteria, viruses, protozoa.

In summer, the number of intestinal infections in children is inevitably growing. There are several reasons for this.

Firstly , in summer, a large number of raw vegetables, fruits and berries are consumed, on the unwashed surface of which a huge number of microbes live, incl.including potentially dangerous.

Secondly , in summer children spend a lot of time on the street, and even their parents do not always remember that food with clean hands is a mandatory rule .

The third reason : in the summer, getting into food (dairy products, meat, fish, broths), some pathogens multiply at a tremendous rate and quickly reach the amount that successfully breaks through the protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract.

From the moment the pathogen is introduced into the gastrointestinal tract to the onset of the disease, it can take from several hours to 7 days.

The disease begins with an increase in body temperature, malaise, weakness, lethargy. Appetite is sharply reduced, nausea and vomiting quickly join. The stool is loose, frequent with impurities. The consequence of fluid loss is dryness of the mucous membranes and skin, facial features sharpen, the child loses mass, urinates a little. The expression on the face is suffering.If your child has any of the above signs of illness, call the doctor immediately. Self-medication is not permissible .

Prevention of intestinal infections requires strict observance of general hygienic measures at home, while cooking and while eating.

In the summertime, all food should be protected from flies. Prepared food should be stored in the refrigerator: at low temperatures, even if microbes enter the food, they will not be able to multiply.Indiscriminate purchase of products eaten without heat treatment – from hands, outside markets where they do not undergo sanitary control – can also lead to illness. When swimming in open water, water should never be swallowed. If eating on the beach, wipe your hands with at least special wet wipes.

And remember that a parent’s example is the best way to teach a child.

Memo for parents .

Tuberculosis – a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacteria of human tuberculosis, affecting mostly the respiratory system, as well as all organs and systems of the body.

The source of infection is people with tuberculosis. The most common route of infection is air. Transmission factors are nasopharyngeal mucus, phlegm and dust containing bacteria.

Reproduction of tuberculosis bacteria in a child’s body leads to significant functional disorders with symptoms of intoxication: irritability appears or, conversely, lethargy, fatigue, headache, sweating.The body temperature rises to 37.2 – 37.3 about , sleep and appetite are disturbed. With a prolonged course of the disease, the child loses weight, the skin becomes pale, there is a tendency to inflammatory diseases. For children, a typical reaction from the lymph nodes: they increase in size, become dense. In the absence of treatment, the transition of the disease to more severe forms is possible.

For the diagnosis of tuberculous intoxication, it is important to determine the infection using tuberculin tests , and for children from 12 years old – also using fluorography.

For the prevention of tuberculosis, it is very important : to lead a healthy lifestyle, strictly observe sanitary and hygienic rules: wash your hands before eating, do not eat unwashed vegetables and fruits, as well as dairy products that have not passed sanitary control, eat well, play sports , pay attention to changes in health status.

An important point for the prevention of tuberculosis is the annual setting of the Mantoux test, which gives a positive result when pathogenic bacteria enter the child’s body.

What to do if red dots appear on the body

The most common cause of red spots on the trunk, arms, legs, neck and face is skin microtrauma. You can injure delicate skin with shaving and epilation, small cuts and abrasions.

Also, the lack of potassium and vitamin C affects the condition of the skin. Lack of these vitamins leads to increased fragility of blood vessels. Because of this, fragile capillaries can be injured, which leads to small subcutaneous hemorrhages.But mechanical external influence can also damage the capillaries. For example, a rubbing strap of a bag, an uncomfortable burnt-in seam, minor bruises.

One of the varieties of red dots is called angiomas or red moles. This benign disease is a small benign tumor. It develops due to damage to the blood and lymphatic vessels. These angiomas are completely harmless to human health and bring only aesthetic and cosmetological discomfort.
Angiomas are divided into: capillary, tricky, branched. Capillary angiomas are caused by dilated capillaries and are small red spots on the body and face that sometimes itch. Tricky angiomas are larger in size, represent large bluish cavities. And branched angiomas do not have a clear shape and localization, they are pulsating and swollen vessels.

If an angioma severely disfigures a person or brings him discomfort, then these defects can be removed in various ways.Large and medium-sized tumors are removed by laser or coagulant, as well as by standard surgery. The disadvantage of these methods is that after removal, post-traumatic scars can remain in this place.

Diseases of the foam and pancreas can cause rashes of red dots ranging in size from 0.2 to 2 centimeters. Such rashes are popularly called hepatic asterisks. If newer points appeared on the body, then this indicates a new aggravated attack of pancreatitis or hepatitis.

As strange as it may sound, red rashes on the body can cause rheumatic conditions, for example, systemic lupus erythematosus or arthritis. This is due to the interconnectedness of autoimmune processes.

synlab: Rash in children

If parents see rashes on their child’s skin, they begin to worry and look for the cause. Some call a doctor right away, others often give unnecessary medications or ignore the rash at all, especially if the child is well.Don’t go to extremes. It is enough just to navigate the main types and causes of the rash in order to make the right decision.

Rash in newborns

Almost half of all newborns on 2-3 days of life may have rashes, the so-called toxic erythema, in the form of white-yellow papules or pustules with a diameter of 1-2 mm, surrounded by a red rim, which pass on their own. From 3 weeks of age, 20% of babies on the face, less often on the scalp and on the neck, develop a rash in the form of inflamed papules and pustules, the so-called acne of newborns.The rash is caused by the activation of the sebaceous glands by maternal hormones. These rashes do not require treatment; they go away on their own for up to 6 months. Thorough hygiene and skin moisturizing with special means – emollients are required.

In the warm season, a rash in the form of bubbles, spots or pustules, the so-called diaper rash, may appear on the scalp, face and neck, in the perineal area. Their appearance is associated with increased skin moisture and with the difficult release of the contents of the sweat glands during overheating, if the child is warmly dressed.Diaper rash does not cause discomfort and goes away on its own with good care.

Infant atopic dermatitis

It often occurs in children of the first year of life, especially those with a hereditary predisposition to allergic diseases. More often, the rash appears on the face, extensor surfaces of the arms and legs. Disturbed by severe itching, aggravated at night and with temperature or chemical effects on the skin. In the acute stage, the rash looks like red papules with scratches and fluid discharge.Subsequently, peeling of the skin is characteristic, sometimes its thickening. This is due to the constant scratching of the affected areas.

Infectious rash

Infectious diseases occurring with the appearance of a rash include: chickenpox, measles, rubella, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, infectious erythema, sudden exanthema, meningococcal sepsis, impetigo. Some of them do not require treatment and go away on their own, and some threaten the health and life of the child.Therefore, it will be correct if the parents consult with a doctor and do not self-medicate.
It is imperative that if you have a fever or rash, see a doctor right away. this may indicate the presence of a bacterial infection. A feature of viral rashes is that the rash appears on the 1-2 day of illness. For example, with measles, rubella, rashes are staged (1 day – face, 2 day – trunk, 3 day – limbs). An infectious rash is not characterized by severe itching, unlike an allergic one.

Allergic rash

In case of individual intolerance to drugs and food, the child may develop allergic rashes. They come in various shapes and sizes, and the rash can spread all over the body. The main distinguishing feature of an allergic rash is its intensification under the action of an allergen and disappearance after the cancellation of the latter. Usually, severe itching is the only unpleasant sign of such rashes. Urticaria can also occur on medications and under the influence of temperature factors (cold or sun).

Insect bite rash

Most often, bite marks appear on open areas of the skin (arms, legs, face, neck). The rash is a reaction to insect toxins. After scratching, there may be microtrauma to the skin.

Situations in which it is necessary to call a doctor immediately:

· The rash is accompanied by a fever above 40 degrees;

· The rash has the appearance of stellate hemorrhages;

· The rash is associated with vomiting, headache and confusion;

· The rash covers the whole body, causing unbearable itching;

· The rash is accompanied by swelling and shortness of breath.

If your child has a skin rash, SINLAB pediatricians will make the correct diagnosis, select an individual treatment program and give competent recommendations for the prevention of other diseases.

COVID-19 rash | A rash can be a symptom of coronavirus

The onset of COVID-19 can be associated with the appearance of various types of skin lesions. They resemble papules, nodules, vesicles, excoriation (abrasions), scales, ulcers, some are in the form of spots, lumps or mesh.The rash can occur in people who are asymptomatic with COVID-19. In 21% of patients, dermatosis was the only symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection. At the same time, 17% of patients reported a skin rash as the first manifestation of the disease.

The incidence of COVID-19 skin symptoms is difficult to determine. The relationship between some skin symptoms and disease severity is also unknown. In addition, it cannot be ruled out that in some patients, skin lesions may be a manifestation of a reaction to numerous treatments for COVID-19.

Contents:

1 Covid-19 rash – where does it appear?

2. What does a rash look like in COVID-19?

3. Skin lesions and diagnosis of COVID-19

4. Coronavirus rash – when does it occur and how long does it last?

5. Rash as a manifestation of childhood inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) after COVID-19 in children

6. “Coronavirus fingers”

7. COVID-19 and chickenpox – what is the difference between a rash?

8.COVID-19 rash treatment

Covid-19 rash – where does it appear?

Skin lesions are often the body’s response to viral infections. However, in the case of COVID-19, doctors are surprised by the variety of skin rashes, the time of their appearance and their location.

Skin lesions associated with COVID-19 occur on various parts of the body such as around the mouth, trunk, limbs, legs and arms. They are not always itchy.

What does a rash look like with COVID-19?

The rashes associated with Covid-19 are diverse and similar to the skin lesions found in other viral diseases, according to a study conducted by experts in Spain.They noted that changes in the skin did not correlate with the severity of the infection: some were accompanied by asymptomatic COVID-19, others by severe forms of infection.

Five types of rash were noted:

• Irregular frostbite-like spots on the arms and legs, sometimes accompanied by soreness and itching. They mainly occurred in young patients with a mild course of the disease, appeared in the later stages and lasted for about 12 days. Registered in 19% of cases.

• Focal eruptions in the form of small blisters, which can cause itching, located on the body and upper and lower extremities. They occurred during the onset of any other symptoms and were noted in 9% of cases in middle-aged patients; persisted for 10 days.

• Focal hives-like rashes, white or pink in color, often with itching. They were noted in 19% of cases, mainly on the body, but also on the palms.

• Maculopapular eruptions in the form of small flat or convex blisters, which were observed in 47% of cases.These rashes persisted for about a week and appeared simultaneously with other symptoms, but most often they were accompanied by a severe course of the disease.

• The appearance on the skin of a vascular red-blue network or signs of skin necrosis was observed in 6% of patients, mainly elderly patients with a severe course of the disease.

At the same time, experts note that the rash can have various origins, and it is difficult to classify it without relevant experience and knowledge.

In the event of any skin symptoms, Medicover dermatologists with many years of experience and extensive experience in diagnosing various skin lesions are always ready to help you!

Skin lesions and diagnosis of COVID-19

Diagnosis of dermatological changes caused by COVID-19 is, first of all, in the exclusion of other possible causes of rashes, such as, for example, allergies.

This may require a number of studies to determine if the rash is associated with a SARS-CoV-2 infection, or if it is a reaction of the body to certain medications, or a manifestation of infection with other pathogens.

If pressing the purple-red skin lesions with your finger does not cause them to disappear, this is an alarm signaling the need to seek medical attention in order to rule out infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

In Medicover clinics you can get professional advice from a dermatologist and undergo all the necessary examinations to establish an accurate diagnosis, as well as receive advice on effective treatment in accordance with modern international clinical guidelines.

Coronavirus rash – when does it occur and how long does it last?

The first symptoms of COVID-19 can occur approximately 5-6 days after infection, sometimes this period extends to 14 days. However, a rash can be the first symptom and the only sign of COVID-19.

Depending on the type of skin lesions and their severity, they last from several days to several weeks.

Skin rash may be accompanied by other systemic symptoms characteristic of COVID-19.These include:

• fever

• persistent cough

• shortness of breath, breathing problems,

• fatigue

• chills

• dizziness

• loss of smell and taste.

Rash as a manifestation of childhood inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) after COVID-19 in children

Viral diseases are a common cause of skin damage in children. A rash caused by SARS-Cov-2 can appear on a baby’s skin up to 2-4 weeks after infection and indicate the development of childhood inflammatory multisystem syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2.

PIMS with multiforme inflammatory syndrome in children sometimes occurs after infection with COVID-19, sometimes even after its asymptomatic course. PIMS is most common in schoolchildren around the age of 9.

In the case of children, skin lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection may appear as reddish papules, resembling other viral exanthema. Papules can appear on the face and back, and within 3-5 days they disappear spontaneously.

A pediatrician should be consulted for any rash in children.Until an accurate diagnosis is established and a connection with COVID-19 is excluded, children should not come into contact with other people, especially the elderly, who have a tendency to severe coronavirus infection, even to death.

Coronavirus fingers

Skin lesions in the form of so-called “coronavirus fingers” are more often diagnosed in young people, adolescents and children. They are in the form of red spots, vesicles and even ulcers, accompanied by swelling of the skin of the fingers and interdigital spaces.

COVID-19 and chickenpox – how is the rash different?

Papulo-vesicular rashes in COVID-19 and chickenpox are very similar to each other. They differ in the age of patients and the localization of skin lesions.

With SARS-CoV-2 infection, skin lesions are more common in adults with an average age of 60 years. However, one of the main clinical features is the localization of lesions in the trunk area, the elements are diffuse in nature, they are characterized by the absence of itching.

The rash appears 3 days after the onset of symptoms of COVID-19 and spontaneously disappears after 8 days without leaving a trace, whereas with chickenpox, the rash can have a two-phase course and last up to 2 weeks.

Treatment of COVID-19 rash

SARS-CoV-2 infection rash does not require specific medical procedures. Clinical data show that it is sufficient to simply observe its course and apply symptomatic treatment if necessary. Antihistamines are helpful to relieve itching and swelling of the skin.Patients with a mild course can use them at home.

In the case of serious and significant skin lesions, systemic treatment with corticosteroids under the supervision of a physician is recommended.

90,000 Red moles: treatment, causes of appearance.

This type of growth is usually not a cause for concern. Provided they do not bleed or change in size, shape and color. Otherwise, it would be better to consult a doctor. Any changes in a mole may be the first signals of skin cancer, provided that there was no mechanical damage, from which they can also bleed and itch, which may serve as incorrect conclusions.

Causes of red moles

The exact reason why red moles appeared on the body is unknown, it may be a predisposition due to a genetic factor. But there are other reasons as well:

  • pregnancy;
  • exposure to chemicals;
  • some diseases, including infectious diseases;
  • unsuitable climate (too hot or cold)
  • Mechanical damage to the skin, such as a bite or cuts, in which the pieces of skin do not completely come off.

Their manifestations are also possible at a more mature age, this is due to a gradual decrease in immunity. Neoplasms appear in 75% of the population over the age of 60.

It is impossible to somehow influence the appearance or non-appearance of red moles on the body, since they are inherent in us at the genetic level, if one of the parents had a lot of them, it means that the children will have a similar situation, and even identical maps of the location of nevi are possible.

Localization locations

An increase in the growth of moles is observed in people aged 0 to 20 years, and then already from 45 years and older. The rest of the time they appear, but not as actively as in the first and last phase of life. Usually, red moles appear on the upper body, arms, legs, and shoulders. Also, their favorite place is the head, feet, hands. They can be located all over the body, and it is impossible to predict their subsequent locations. Their red color is given by the accumulation of small blood vessels at the base, which feed them with blood.

Types and classification

Moles are of two main types:

  1. Pigment. These include flat, often brown, nevi.
  2. Vascular, which are formed from changes in the structure of blood vessels.

They are also:

  1. Congenital – dividing by size: small, medium and large.
  2. Acquired, divided into three types depending on the location of melanocytes in the layers of the epidermis.
  3. Hanging, they are also called papillomas.

There are invisible nevi, which appear over time, changing color. Also wandering, who change their location, appearing in one place, then in another. It is advisable to follow the map of the location of your moles.

Are red moles dangerous?

Signs to look out for if small red moles appear:

  1. ColorIf it is uneven and begins to change, this is a reason for visiting a doctor.
  2. Inflammation around the mass, that is, redness in the form of a halo around the mole.
  3. An increase in the size of a mole or its induration.
  4. The appearance of cracks and ulcers on the body of a mole.
  5. Hair loss if it has grown from a mole.
  6. The appearance of itching, burning, or tingling in the place where the mole is located.
  7. Changes in the edges of the nevus also indicate that it is time to visit a specialist.

An accurate diagnosis can be made by a dermatologist or an oncologist, who can and should be contacted for help. Nevi are not dangerous as long as they are in a stable state, in which case you can wait with your doctor.

Red moles in children

In most people, the majority of moles appear in the first 20 years of life, then the formation of moles (nevi) subsides. They also have the ability to sometimes disappear on their own, and this is due to the fact that the blood vessels that feed the mole dry out or clog up.One in 100 newborns is already born with small red moles on the body, and they are considered more prone to changes and the transition to melanoma. This neoplasm of red color, slightly rising above the surface of the skin, is called Spitz’s nevus.

Children can also be born with large blue spots on the back, they are called Mongolian and are most often found in children with Asian roots. Any moles are often injured, especially in childhood.This can be the cause of complications, so it is advisable to see a doctor sometimes, and also try to protect children from such injuries.

Red moles during pregnancy

During pregnancy, the female body undergoes hormonal changes, and at this time new nevi may appear, or old ones may grow. In 85%, this may be the norm and the body’s usual reaction to pregnancy. These moles are most likely safe. In the remaining 15%, it is still better to consult with a specialist and find out why red moles appear on the body.

Do red moles need to be removed?

It is not only possible, but also necessary. If the hemangioma grows in size, changes shape or color – this, of course, is a direct indication as soon as possible to get an appointment with an oncologist for further research, if necessary and removed. Of course, not by handicraft or folk methods, but with the help of modern specialists. If the mole behaves calmly enough and does not change its shape and color, then most likely you should not be afraid and you can wait a little with the removal of moles.

Diagnostics

In medicine, there is a general method for diagnosing neoplasms on the skin. These include an initial examination and a record of all patient complaints (history). If a malignant tumor is suspected, an MRI or X-ray is prescribed. All the data obtained are analyzed and conclusions are drawn, on the basis of which a preliminary diagnosis is made. The main and final point in the diagnosis is the histological method (biopsy).It is a microscopic sampling of tissue from the body of a mole, and is done in order to identify the pathology of cells in a neoplasm.

Methods for removing red moles

If the mole does not bother you and is not in places of increased risk, that is, on the hands, feet or head and back, then it is quite possible not to remove it.

If the hemangioma is worried, then it can be removed only by specialists, a dermatologist or oncologist. It is not worth the risk of removing a nevus from a beautician and endangering the growth of an incorrectly removed hemangioma or the risk of infection.

There are several common procedures for removing them.

  1. Electrocauterization. The nevus is burned with an electric current supplied with a small instrument. The grounding block will be placed somewhere so that the rest of the body is not exposed to electricity.
  2. Cryosurgery. The mole is frozen with liquid nitrogen. It is destroyed by intense cold. Liquid nitrogen is sprayed within 10 seconds, the problem is solved in one session.This method is quick and relatively simple. The wound also does not require special care.
  3. Laser surgery. This procedure uses a concentrated yellow laser beam that emits enough heat to destroy the nevus from the inside out. This method is quick and applied on an outpatient basis, that is, it does not require subsequent hospitalization. Depending on how many moles are removed, one to three procedures may be required. Small scars are possible, which will go away within 10 days.
  4. Surgical method. This is the process of removing a nevus from the top of the skin by cutting the lesion and then suturing it. It is not a commonly used method, and after such an intervention, scars remain.

In any case, if there is concern and questions about what causes red moles, you need to consult a doctor, at least in order to reassure yourself with good analyzes. Because from unclear issues, stress appears, which in turn contributes to a decrease in immunity.Be healthy.

Why do they arise and how to treat?

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If an adult or a child has red dots on the palate in the mouth, this indicates the development of pathological processes. There can be several reasons for the appearance of a red rash: it is important to see a doctor on time to make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment.

What causes red dots in the sky?

Experts identify several factors that contribute to the appearance of red dots in the sky in a child or adult:

  1. Pathological processes in the circulatory system and blood vessels.

  2. Infectious diseases.

  3. Allergic reaction.

  4. Rare diseases.

Based on the reasons and individual characteristics of the body, a red rash can appear both once in a lifetime and quite often. If spots appear repeatedly, then we can talk about herpes viruses, thrush or enterovirus infections.

With an infectious effect, in addition to red dots in the palate, the child’s temperature rises, there is a sore throat and larynx, weakness, it becomes painful to swallow. The rash affects not only the palate, but also the tongue, as well as the inner side of the cheeks. Rash infections include:

Children in a milder form than adults tolerate chickenpox, rubella and scarlet fever, gaining immunity for life. In adults, these diseases are complicated.But it is much more difficult for children to cope with herpes sore throat and stomatitis. These diseases progress rapidly and greatly worsen the child’s condition.

Herpetic stomatitis

With stomatitis, spots in the throat range from light pink to red. Areas with a rash may merge or be far from each other. There are several types of stomatitis, among which herpetic is especially common.

This disease is accompanied by headache, high fever, red dots are formed on the upper palate, tongue, lips, cheeks.These points transform into bubbles and explode with the formation of red erosion. The herpes virus remains in the body for life. With strong immunity, it is in an inactive phase, and it will manifest itself in the following cases:

  • With exacerbation of chronic inflammatory processes.

  • After a course of corticosteroids.

  • With trauma to the mucous membrane.

  • During emotional upheavals, allergies, vitamin deficiency.

  • When the immune system is weakened.

Treatment for herpetic stomatitis should be prescribed by a qualified dentist.

Angina

Herpetic sore throat is also a fairly common cause of the formation of red spots in the throat on the palate.The disease is characterized by a high fever that lasts for several days, pain when swallowing, discomfort in the abdomen, and enlarged lymph nodes.

Streptococcal sore throat is accompanied by general malaise of the body, headache, high body temperature. The tonsils become loose and covered with plaque. In this case, antibiotic therapy is used, but the treatment regimen should be drawn up by a qualified specialist.

Allergic manifestations

If red dots in the palate of an adult and a child are the result of an allergic response of the body, then they are located symmetrically and do not cause discomfort (burning and itching).This can be a response to toothpaste, certain foods, and medications. Sometimes spots appear on the skin, and not only on the back of the pharynx and palate. A qualified allergist will help you choose the optimal antihistamine.

Other reasons for detecting red dots in the sky

Red dots in the upper sky can be due to the following rare diseases:

1. Pyogenic granuloma

Occurs in a place that is often prone to trauma.Excision of neoplasms under the root is necessary, after which electrocoagulation therapy is prescribed.

2. Kaposi’s sarcoma

It is a malignant neoplasm of a purple hue. Local chemotherapy is prescribed, and measures are taken to increase the patient’s immunity.

3. Patechiae in the sky

These are flat spots of small size, which often appear in mononucleosis. May be a manifestation of smallpox, thrombocytopenia, typhoid fever and endocarditis.

If a red rash occurs in the mouth, you do not need to independently diagnose and prescribe treatment. It is necessary to consult with a specialist, find out the cause of the stains and receive appropriate treatment. DentalGuru Dental Clinic employs experienced and professional dentists who guarantee painless and effective treatment of stomatitis and other dental diseases.

This article is for informational purposes only, please consult your doctor for details!

90,000 Manifestations of coronavirus: what skin rashes should alert :: Health :: RBC Style

Margarita Hecht ,
leading dermatologist of the Butterfly Children Foundation

Skin symptoms are manifested in different ways in people with coronavirus.Some point to a milder course of COVID-19, while others serve as a marker for a severe variant of the disease. Knowing the skin manifestations in COVID-19 will help diagnose the infection earlier and correctly assess the risks of each patient.

What is known about the skin symptoms of coronavirus

There is no final summarized data on the dermatological manifestations of COVID-19 from around the world yet, but there is information from China, Spain, England and the United States. In these countries, studies were carried out on the basis of national medical centers that treated patients with coronavirus – in total, doctors described more than 350 cases of COVID-19 with skin symptoms.

Early studies from central China indicated that skin conditions are rare in COVID-19 patients. Among the first 1,099 people infected in Wuhan, only two patients had skin symptoms (0.2%).

The first to notice skin lesions in patients of intensive care units, which is not surprising: they are riveted more close attention of doctors.

A special online register for the dermatology of the new coronavirus has now appeared, where all countries can share recorded cases of COVID-19 skin manifestations.Its main goal is to quickly and efficiently collect medical information that will help in the treatment of the disease.

How to distinguish between different types of rashes

In order to move on to the clinical forms of the cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus, you must first understand the dermatological terminology. Rashes differ from each other, but each of them means a certain morphological element that we see on the skin.

The morphological elements characteristic of COVID-19 include:

  • Spots or macula that only appear as a discoloration of the skin.Red, purple and bright pink appear when a vessel is injured. Brown ones show localized accumulations of melanin, for example after prolonged sun exposure without a sunscreen.
  • Spots on the body and face may resemble a small rash, form streaks, bruises and bruises, or ecchymosis in medical terms. The smallest spot, up to 15 mm, is called roseola, and more than 20 mm is called erythema. Usually this is not even one element, but a merger of several.
  • Papules are an element that rises above the level of the skin and can range in color from normal to bright red.
  • Vesicles and vesicles are similar to papules, but they contain fluid inside. Large rashes are called bullae and blisters.
  • Blisters (urticaria) are white, pale pink or even light red rashes. Blisters rise above the skin and are often itchy. They can be small, 2-3 cm, or large, 10-15 cm.They are round, oval or irregular in shape, with lace edges.

Frequent skin manifestations in COVID-19

The most common type of cutaneous manifestation of the new coronavirus is erythematous-edematous foci. These are spots of different diameters and all kinds of shades of red. They don’t itch, but the affected skin feels warm or even hot to the touch.

“Pink” rash – oval-shaped scaly patches are most often located on the lateral surfaces of the body and can cause discomfort due to itching.

Skin manifestations do not occur randomly: many of them are characteristic of a certain age group of patients or the severity of the course of the disease.

Severe COVID-19

Acro-ischemia affects the tips of the fingers, the balls of the feet, or the skin of the heel. A severe course of COVID-19 can lead to hypercoagulability – excessive blood clotting. It hardly passes through the blood vessels, especially the small ones – capillaries and venules, which leads to their damage, blood stasis and the formation of blood clots – thrombi.

The most severe and difficult patients are those who, in addition to the tips of the phalanges, have a bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes (the so-called cyanosis).

A rash like urticaria (urticaria) may appear before the “classic” symptoms of coronavirus in the form of cough and fever. In children, urticaria appeared in 19% of cases of the total number of people infected with coronavirus and was associated with a more severe course of the disease than in other peers. But not every urticarial rash is a manifestation of COVID-19.In this case, the virus may be indicated by an elevated temperature, which is not typical for ordinary urticaria.

Maculopapular or maculopapular rash is most common in patients with the new coronavirus. It lasts about nine days from the time of onset and mainly affects the thighs, forearms and shoulders.

Moderate COVID-19

A rash resembling chickenpox, researchers associate with an intermediate severity of the course of the coronavirus. Most often, this symptom manifests itself in middle-aged patients.

As in the case of chickenpox, the rash consists of small, uniform blisters that are strewn across the skin of the trunk. But true chickenpox and similar viral exanthema appear only after contact with someone who is already infected with these infections.

In the case of COVID-19, this rash lasts about ten days and disappears along with the rest of the symptoms, and sometimes even earlier.

Mild form of COVID-19

Rashes on fingers and toes, similar to frostbite, can appear with a mild course of coronavirus in children or young people.The average age of patients with frostbite-type rashes is 14 years. Doctors found this manifestation in 25 patients in Spain and 11 children in northern Italy. They had neither the symptoms typical of coronavirus, nor objective reasons for frostbite, and the test result for COVID-19 was positive.

With a rash of the type of frostbite, patches of bright red color with a pink-violet tinge appear above the skin surface. The affected areas, as a rule, are located asymmetrically, and after recovery, the symptoms disappear without any treatment, leaving no scars.

The rash with petechiae, small punctate hemorrhages, as well as with a purple rash, did not affect the skin of the palms and feet, and there was no manifestation on the oral mucosa. Such a symptom does not always indicate a coronavirus; it can also be caused by other infectious diseases or a reaction to medications. Biochemical blood tests and virological research will help to distinguish them.

Of 27 children with mild disease, two developed a targetoid (target or annular) lesion resembling erythema multiforme.In this case, the rounded spots have a red center with a vesicle, resembling a target. These rashes can be grouped together. This symptomatology is typical for herpes simplex, but none of the patients suffered from it.

Targetoid lesions have three color zones: a dark center with a blister or crust, a pale pink raised surface due to edema, and a bright red outer ring. Targetoid lesions appear anywhere on the body, including mucous membranes such as the lips.

Skin manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic are gaining increasing attention as they may be useful for early diagnosis, especially in children and the elderly.

If you notice a rash in yourself or your child, remember if you have come into contact with people who have chickenpox or other infections with a characteristic rash.