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Rash under folds of stomach: Causes, symptoms, pictures, and treatment


Causes, symptoms, pictures, and treatment

Intertrigo is a skin condition that causes a rash in folds of the skin, such as under the breasts, in the groin, or under the tummy fold.

It happens when areas of moist skin rub together. Bacteria and yeast can grow in this environment, leading to an infection.

In this article, we describe what intertrigo is, what it looks like, and what causes it. We also cover diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Intertrigo is a skin condition that happens when folds of skin chafe against each other.

It usually develops in the inner thighs or armpits, or under the breasts or tummy fold.

Some people may experience yeast or bacterial infections in the folds of skin.

Areas of moist skin rubbing together cause intertrigo. The warm, damp environment makes the skin conducive to irritation and the growth of yeast and bacteria, which can lead to an infection.

While it can happen at any age, intertrigo tends to affect infants, older people, and those with a reduced ability to move around. In babies, it is often called diaper rash. Most cases occur in hot or humid environments and during the summer.

Intertrigo is also more common in adults with incontinence, obesity, diabetes, or a weakened immune system.

Specific health conditions that can contribute to the development of intertrigo include:

Inverse psoriasis

Also known as intertriginous psoriasis, this form of psoriasis develops in the folds of the skin. It can look red and shiny.

Hailey-Hailey disease

Hailey-Hailey disease is a rare genetic disorder that causes skin cells to stick together and breaks down the layers of the skin.

People with Hailey-Hailey disease usually experience blisters and irritations on the neck, armpits, and genitals and in the folds of the skin.


There are different types of pemphigus, but they all happen when the body’s immune system attacks the healthy cells in the top layer of the skin.

It typically causes blisters in the mouth, nose, throat, eyes, or genitals.

Bullous pemphigoid

A fault in the immune system causes bullous pemphigoid. People with the condition can develop mild, itchy welts or more severe blisters on the skin. These tend to appear on areas of the skin that flex or move.

Intertrigo looks like a red, raw rash on the skin. It may feel sore or itchy, and it can sometimes ooze.

It can develop in any fold of the skin. The most commonly affected areas of the body include:

  • the inner thighs
  • under the breasts
  • in the fold of skin underneath a protruding belly
  • the groin
  • between the buttocks
  • in the webs of the fingers
  • in the webs of the toes

Intertrigo may develop in one or more of these places.

It will often be a specialist skin doctor, or dermatologist, who diagnoses intertrigo. They will do this by inspecting the skin and asking a series of questions about the person’s symptoms.

If the dermatologist suspects that a yeast or bacterial infection has developed in the skin fold, they may take a swab and send it to a laboratory for analysis.

An article in the Journal of the Dermatology Nurses’ Association offers the following advice on treating intertrigo:

  • Wash the affected area with ketoconazole 1% shampoo, which is available from most drugstores. People should leave it on for 2–5 minutes and then rinse it off.
  • Use a hairdryer on a low setting to ensure that the area is completely dry.
  • Mix equal amounts of clotrimazole 1% cream (or miconazole 1% cream) and hydrocortisone 1% cream and apply a thin layer to the affected area. People should do this twice a day until the rash is clear, which may take 3–8 weeks.
  • Once the rash has cleared, continue to use the ketoconazole 1% shampoo as soap in the affected area at least once a week.
  • Dry the skin with a hairdryer after every bath or shower, or whenever it feels particularly damp.

The best way to prevent intertrigo is to keep the area dry. People who experience the condition due to obesity can speak to a doctor about ways to lose weight and reduce the risk of skin complications.

The American Osteopathic College of Dermatology suggest that people prevent intertrigo by:

  • placing a wad of absorbent material, such as cotton, in the affected fold to absorb sweat
  • using antiperspirants
  • washing daily with an antibacterial soap
  • dusting the affected area with an absorbent antifungal powder once it is clean and dry

Anyone who finds that the problem keeps coming back should speak to a doctor.

Intertrigo is a skin condition that happens when areas of moist skin rub against each other. It causes a red, raw-looking rash and can lead to yeast and bacterial infections.

It can happen to anyone, but it is most common in babies, older people, individuals with mobility problems, and those with obesity.

People can easily treat the rash at home with over-the-counter creams and lotions. They can also prevent it from coming back by keeping the area clean and dry.

Anyone who experiences multiple incidences of intertrigo should speak to a doctor.

Risk Factors, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Intertrigo is a fancy name for a rash that shows up between the folds of skin. It is a very common skin rash that can crop up throughout life.

The most common areas affected include larger skin-fold areas such as:

Symptoms of Intertrigo

What does intertrigo look like? It may cause:

  • Red or reddish-brown rash
  • Raw, itchy, or oozing skin
  • Foul odor
  • Cracked or crusty skin

Intertrigo may appear in any skin folds that rub together and trap moisture. In infants, intertrigo often shows up as diaper rash.

Intertrigo can occur:

  • Between toes and fingers
  • In armpits
  • In the inner thighs
  • In the groin and at the scrotum
  • On the underside of your breasts or belly
  • In the crease of your neck
  • Between the buttocks

If you have any symptoms of intertrigo, be sure to see your doctor. Your doctor can check for the presence of infection as well.

Causes of Intertrigo

Intertrigo is an inflammatory skin condition that can be caused and worsened by many factors. These include:

  • Moisture
  • Heat
  • Lack of air circulation
  • Friction between skin folds

Sweat, urine, and feces can contribute to the skin problem.

Intertrigo is often accompanied by an infection caused by:

  • Yeast
  • Other types of fungus
  • Bacteria

You are more likely to get these infections in skin folds because these are areas that are warm and tend to stay moist. This creates a welcome environment for the growth of germs.

Risk Factors for Intertrigo

You are more likely to develop intertrigo if you:

  • Are obese
  • Have diabetes
  • Have a splint, brace, or artificial limb
  • Are exposed to high heat and humidity

Other possible risk factors include:

Infants — with their chubbiness, shorter necks, and flexed posture — are also at greater risk for intertrigo.

Certain skin diseases such as psoriasis may also prompt the development of intertrigo. So it’s a good idea to have a dermatologist check it out.

Prevention and Treatment of Intertrigo

If you or your child has intertrigo, your doctor may suggest simply keeping the affected area dry and exposed to the air. You may control oozing with moist compresses of an astringent called Burow’s solution. Then air-dry with a hair dryer set on “cool.”


A barrier cream may be recommended to help protect skin from irritants.

To treat intertrigo, your doctor may recommend short-term use of a topical steroid to reduce inflammation in the area. If the area is also infected, your doctor may prescribe an antifungal or antibiotic cream or ointment. Sometimes you need an oral medication.

Some simple steps may help lower your risk in the future, such as:

  • Shower and dry off thoroughly each day. Keep your skin as dry and cool as you can.
  • Avoid wearing tight shoes or clothing.
  • Wear a bra with good support.
  • If the areas between the toes are affected, consider wearing open-toed shoes.
  • For infants with diaper rash, change diapers more frequently.
  • If you are overweight, do what you can to lose weight.

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment of Intertrigo

Intertrigo (intertriginous dermatitis) is an inflammatory rash that occurs between skin folds—areas of the body where skin touches skin, such as the armpits, the groin, under breasts, or within fat folds—as a result of friction, moisture, and lack of airflow.

Because these folds are warm and moist, they provide ideal conditions for Candida albicans (yeast), other fungi, or bacteria to take hold, infecting the rash and worsening symptoms.

Intertrigo Symptoms

Intertrigo is characterized by an intensely red, macerated, glistening rash with scaling on the edges. The rash extends just beyond the limits of the opposing skin folds. The rash can cause itching, burning, and stinging.

Intertrigo manifests itself as diaper rash in babies and incontinent adults; urine and feces can aggravate an existing rash and make healing difficult.

Satellite lesions (small areas of the same rash that are close to the main one) are characteristic of intertrigo and Candida skin infections, though intertrigo is not directly caused by Candida.


While intertrigo itself is not a yeast infection, worsening symptoms suggest that the area has become infected with yeast or bacteria, and crusting, erosions, and other complications can occur as a result. In severe cases, infected areas may ooze or emit a foul odor.

In people with diabetes, infectious intertrigo may result in cellulitis, a potentially serious infection that can cause red streaks, fever, nausea, and vomiting.

Intertrigo due to candida infection.
Waikato District Health Board / DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND


You are at risk of getting intertrigo if you:

  • Are overweight or obese
  • Have diabetes
  • Have psoriasis
  • Are incontinent and wear diapers
  • Have a suppressed immune system due to chemotherapy or HIV
  • Wear a splint, brace, or prosthetic limb 

Hot, humid weather can cause intertrigo, especially in those who have other risk factors. Skin that is exposed to urine or feces is also more vulnerable to infection.

Wearing tight, abrasive underclothing or dirty or sweaty clothing, in general, increases your risk, as does poor hygiene or not showering or bathing daily, especially after exercise.

Intertrigo may be a side effect of certain medications, so talk to your doctor about making adjustments if you think any drug you’re taking may be a factor. If you have psoriasis, speak to your doctor about how to better manage that condition to prevent intertrigo from developing.


The majority of cases of intertrigo can be diagnosed based on the rash’s characteristic appearance and consideration of your risk profile.

If there is any question about the diagnosis, a KOH test—in which dead skin cells are scraped on to a slide, mixed with a potassium hydroxide solution, and heated before being examined under a microscope—can be performed to detect the presence of yeast (this is a painless procedure).

A bacterial culture can help diagnose a secondary bacterial infection if present.


Uncomplicated, uninfected intertrigo can be treated with barrier ointments, such as petrolatum (Vaseline) and zinc oxide (Desitin). Applying cotton compresses saturated with drying solution such as Burow’s solution to the skin folds for 20 to 30 minutes several times a day can also help the rash heal.

For Candida and other fungal infections, topical creams are used; some come in both over-the-counter and prescription strengths.  These include:

  • Ecoza, Spectazole (econazole)
  • Extina, Nizoral A-D (ketoconazole)
  • Lotrimin AF (clotrimazole)
  • Micostatin Topical, NyStop (nystatin)
  • Oxistat (oxiconazole)
  • Zeabsorb AF (miconazole)

Antibiotic ointments, available by prescription, are typically used for bacterial infections. These include:

  • Bactroban (mupirocin)
  • Erymax, Romycin (erythromycin)

Your doctor may also prescribe a topical steroid cream, such as hydrocortisone, to reduce itching. In some cases, oral antifungals and antibiotics are necessary to cure the infection.


Prevention is key. Once intertrigo sets in, it can be difficult to cure unless the root causes (such as obesity) are addressed. To prevent infection, take the following measures:

  • Keep the skin folds as dry as possible.
  • Change out of sweaty clothes as soon as possible after exercising.
  • Use an antiperspirant to keep armpits dry.
  • Wash daily with an antibacterial soap.
  • Apply antifungal powder to susceptible areas.
  • Dry off well after bathing or showering.
  • Reduce skin-to-skin contact.
  • Wear loose, soft underclothing instead of tight bras and underwear.
  • Wear a supportive bra if the skin under the breasts is infected.
  • Change diapers frequently and clean the area well.
  • If you have diabetes, make sure your blood sugar is well-controlled.

A Word From Verywell

Intertrigo can be uncomfortable and stubborn, so try to be vigilant about taking preventive measures and doing what you can to eliminate the risk factors that are within your control. Even if you’re certain that the skin condition is the culprit for your discomfort, it’s best to consult a physician to get a proper diagnosis and an effective treatment plan.

What to Do for Intertrigo

Many people have experienced intertrigo, which is the medical term for a skin rash that occurs whenever a moist skin fold chafes and becomes infected. Women with large breasts often experience this rash beneath the bra band, and overweight people might develop intertrigo in abdominal skin folds or those of the groin. Intertrigo tends to be more common in people who are overweight, bed-bound, use artificial limbs, or live in hot, humid climates, but the condition can occur in anyone. The key to intertrigo treatment lies in drying out the rash and eliminating the skin infection.

Signs and Symptoms of Intertrigo

Because intertrigo is so common, you probably can identify it yourself. Intertrigo occurs due to chafing—when two areas of skin rub together. Intertrigo most commonly occurs in skin folds of the neck, armpits, elbows, breasts, knees, abdomen, groin or between the toes. Other common signs and symptoms of intertrigo include:

  • Burning, itching or pain within the irritated skin fold

  • Raw-looking skin within a fold

  • Well-defined red rash that may also be weepy (oozing)

  • Yeast-like or putrid odor from the rash

Other types of skin rashes, such as allergic contact dermatitis or eczema can resemble intertrigo, so if you’ve never experienced intertrigo before you should see your primary care provider or a dermatologist for a diagnosis. Once you’ve been diagnosed with intertrigo, you will recognize it each time it occurs and intervene quickly with home treatments.

Home Remedies for Intertrigo

Intertrigo home treatment has two main goals: dry out the skin fold and treat the skin infection causing the rash. To dry the skin fold and keep it dry, try these home remedies:

  • Place an absorbent dressing (such as a telfa pad, menstrual pad, or gauze) against the rash and changing it regularly.

  • Use a fan or blow dryer on the cool setting to air out the skin fold.

  • Use a soft towel to gently dry the area several times a day.

  • Wear clothing made of moisture-wicking fabric.

  • Wear loose clothing to avoid trapping moisture against the skin.

Once the rash has cleared up, apply powder to skin folds after every shower. Be sure to cleanse skin folds regularly (and gently) to reduce the risk of fungal or bacterial growth.
Some people find relief with a vinegar treatment for intertrigo. Mix one tablespoon of vinegar into one quart of lukewarm water. Soak a soft cloth in this solution and apply to the rash twice daily for up to 10 minutes. Dry thoroughly.

For weeping rashes, an over-the-counter Burow solution (water and aluminum acetate) can help dry out the area too, preventing irritation and reinfection.

While you are taking steps to dry out the affected skin folds, you also must treat the underlying fungal or bacterial infection causing the rash. Over-the-counter intertrigo treatments include antifungal powders (preferred over creams, which keep the skin fold moist), topical corticosteroid creams, and antibacterial ointments. Do not overuse antibacterial ointments, as this can cause a different type of rash to develop.

Intertrigo can lead to a serious infection left untreated, so if a home remedy doesn’t work you should see a doctor for treatment. Prescription powders and creams offer more alternatives for eliminating this painful rash quickly.

Intertrigo | DermNet NZ

Author: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 1998. Revised and updated August 2015. Updated by Janet Dennis, November 2018. Technical Editor: Mary Elaine Luther, Medical Student, Ross University, Barbados. DermNet Editor in Chief: Adjunct A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand. Copy edited by Gus Mitchell. January 2020.

What is intertrigo?

Intertrigo describes a rash in the flexures, such as behind the ears, in the folds of the neck, under the arms, under a protruding abdomen, in the groin, between the buttocks, in the finger webs, or in the toe spaces. Although intertrigo can affect only one skin fold, intertrigo commonly involves multiple sites. Intertrigo is a sign of inflammation or infection.

Who gets intertrigo?

Intertrigo can affect males or females of any age. Intertrigo is particularly common in people who are overweight or obese (see metabolic syndrome).

Other contributing factors are:

In infants, napkin dermatitis is a type of intertrigo that primarily occurs due to skin exposure to sweat, urine, and faeces in the diaper area.

Toe-web intertrigo is associated with closed-toe or tight-fitting shoes. Lymphoedema is also a cause for toe-web intertrigo.

What are the clinical features of intertrigo?

Intertrigo can be acute (recent onset), relapsing (recurrent), or chronic (present for more than six weeks). The exact appearance and behaviour depend on the underlying cause(s).

The skin affected by intertrigo is inflamed, reddened, and uncomfortable. The affected skin can become moist and macerated, leading to fissuring (cracks) and peeling.

Intertrigo with secondary bacterial infection (eg, pseudomonas) can cause a foul odour.

What causes intertrigo?

Intertrigo is due to genetic and environmental factors.

  • Flexural skin has a relatively high surface temperature.
  • Moisture from insensible water loss and sweating cannot evaporate due to occlusion.
  • Friction from the movement of adjacent skin results in chafing.
  • Intertrigo occurs more easily in environments that are hot and humid.
  • Diabetes, alcohol, and smoking increase the likelihood of intertrigo, especially the infectious form.

The microbiome (microorganisms normally resident on the skin) on flexural skin includes Corynebacterium, other bacteria, and yeasts. Microbiome overgrowth in warm moist environments can cause intertrigo.

Intertrigo is classified into infectious and inflammatory origins, but they often overlap.

  • Infections tend to be unilateral and asymmetrical.
  • Atopic dermatitis is usually bilateral and symmetrical, affecting the flexures of the neck, knees and elbows.
  • Other inflammatory disorders also tend to be symmetrical affecting the armpits, groins, under the breasts, and the abdominal folds.

Infections causing intertrigo

Thrush: Candida albicans

  • Characterised by its rapid development
  • Itchy, moist, peeling, red and white skin
  • Small superficial papules and pustules

Candida albicans

Erythrasma: Corynebacterium minutissimum

  • Persistent brown patches
  • Minimal scale
  • Asymptomatic (painless and non-itchy)


Tinea: Trichophyton rubrum + T. interdigitale

  • Tinea cruris (groin) and athletes foot (between toes)
  • Slowly spreads over weeks to months
  • Irregular annular plaques
  • Peeling, scaling

Tinea cruris

Impetigo: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

  • Rapid development
  • Moist blisters and crusts on a red base
  • Contagious, so other family members may also be affected


Boils: Staphylococcus aureus

  • Rapid development
  • Very painful follicular papules and nodules
  • Central pustule or abscess


Folliculitis: Staphylococcus aureus

  • Acute or chronic
  • Superficial tender red papules
  • Pustules centred on hair follicles
  • Can be provoked by shaving, waxing, epilation.


Skin inflammations causing intertrigo

Flexural psoriasis

  • Well-defined, smooth or shiny red patches
  • Very persistent
  • Common in submammary and groin creases
  • Symmetrical involvement
  • May fissure (crack) in the crease
  • Red patches on other sites are scaly

Flexural psoriasis

Seborrhoeic dermatitis

  • Ill-defined salmon-pink thin patches
  • Common in axilla and groin creases
  • Fluctuates in severity
  • May be asymmetrical
  • Often unnoticed
  • Red patches on the face and scalp tend to be flaky.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis

  • First occurs in infancy
  • Common in elbow and knee creases
  • Characterised by flares
  • Very itchy
  • Acute eczema is red, blistered, swollen
  • Chronic eczema is dry, thickened, lined (lichenified).

Atopic dermatitis

Contact irritant dermatitis

  • Acute, relapsing or chronic

Irritants include:

  • Body fluids: sweat, urine
  • Friction due to movement and clothing
  • Dryness due to antiperspirant
  • Soap
  • Excessive washing.

Irritant contact dermatitis

Contact allergic dermatitis

  • Acute or relapsing
  • The allergen may be:
    • Fragrance, preservative or medicament in deodorant, wet-wipe or other product
    • Component of underwear (rubber in elastic, nickel in bra wire).

Allergic contact dermatitis

Hidradenitis suppurativa

  • Chronic disorder
  • Boil-like follicular papules and nodules
  • Discharging sinuses and scars

Hidradenitis suppurativa 

Hailey-Hailey disease

  • Intermittent painful shallow blisters that quickly break down
  • Rare inherited condition
  • Often starts age 20–40 years
  • Most troublesome during summer months

Hailey-Hailey disease

Granular parakeratosis

  • Red-brown scaly rash
  • Can be itchy
  • Rare
  • A biopsy is essential for diagnosis.

Granular parakeratosis

Fox-Fordyce disease

  • Dome-shaped follicular papules in armpits
  • Often persistent
  • Asymptomatic or itchy
  • Reduced sweating
  • Excoriations and lichenification eventually occur as a result of scratching.

Fox-Fordyce disease

Toe-web intertrigo

  • Common in persons wearing tight-fitting shoes
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common organism
  • Mild toe-web intertrigo presents with erythema and scaling (athlete’s foot)
  • Chronic intertrigo (longer than six months) causes burning pain, exudation, maceration, and inability to move the toes
  • A serious complication is cellulitis, often spreading to ankles and knees.

Toe-web intertrigo

What investigations should be done?

Investigations may be necessary to determine the cause of intertrigo.

What is the treatment for intertrigo?

Intertrigo: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology


Intertrigo (intertriginous dermatitis) is an inflammatory condition of skin folds, induced or aggravated by heat, moisture, maceration, friction, and lack of air circulation.

Intertrigo frequently is worsened by infection, which most commonly is with Candida species. Bacterial, viral, or other fungal infection may also occur.

Intertrigo commonly affects the axilla, perineum, inframammary creases, and abdominal folds. Uncommonly, it can also affect the neck creases and interdigital areas.

Signs and symptoms of intertrigo

Intertrigo usually is chronic with an insidious onset of itching, burning, pain, and stinging in the skin folds.

Intertrigo initially presents as mild erythematous patches on both sides of the skinfold. The erythematous lesions may progress to weeping, erosions, fissures, maceration, or crusting.

Worsening erythema or inflammation could suggest the development of a secondary cutaneous infection.

Etiology of intertrigo

Intertrigo develops from mechanical factors and secondary infection. Heat and maceration are central to the process. Opposing skin surfaces rub against each other, at times causing erosions that become inflamed.

Secondary cutaneous infections can be caused by a variety of gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria or fungi, including various yeasts and dermatophytes.

Diagnosis of intertrigo

Basic microbiologic diagnostic studies can be performed to identify a potential causative agent of intertrigo and guide antimicrobial therapy.

Potassium hydroxide (KOH) test, Gram stain, or culture is useful to exclude primary or secondary infection and to guide intertrigo therapy.

A skin biopsy generally is not required unless the intertrigo is refractory to medical treatment.

Treatment of intertrigo

Simple intertrigo may be treated with drying agents

Infected intertrigo should be treated with a combination of an appropriate antimicrobial agent (antifungal or antibacterial) and low-potency topical steroid. 

Prevention of intertrigo

During patient instruction, emphasize topics such as weight loss, glucose control (in patients with diabetes), good hygiene, and the need for daily care and monitoring. Additionally, preventative measures to reduce skin-on-skin friction and moisture can help in the management of current intertrigo and prevent future episodes.


Since intertrigo frequently is colonized or secondarily infected, secondary cutaneous infections and acute cellulitis can occur.

Intertrigo is a red rash of the skin folds

Intertrigo is a red rash of the skin folds that is fairly common. It’s very uncomfortable. With simple treatment and some changes in how you care for the folds of your skin you will be able to heal and prevent intertrigo.

Do You Have Intertrigo?

Everybody has areas where their skin folds over on itself. When skin is warm and sweaty, the conditions are perfect for intertrigo, the common skin fold rash.

The skin folds most affected by this rash are those under the breasts, under the stomach and in the arm pits. The deeper the folds, the more likely the chance for intertrigo.

What makes the skin folds susceptible to this annoying red skin fold rash?

  1. Moisture from sweat
  2. Rubbing together of folded skin, causing the dead skin cells to rub off and accumulate
  3. Irritation caused by normal skin germs which thrive in this environment
  4. Growth of a yeast germ called Candida, which occasionally also “dog piles” on the problem making a real mess of the skin

Who gets intertrigo?

Anyone with sweaty skin can get this. In my practice, I mostly see adults with intertrigo. People with large breasts or a fold under their belly fat are especially prone to it. It may show up as a red line under the abdomen apron. Babies can also develop intertrigo in their little skin folds.

Because the skin germs thrive in a sweet and sugary environment, diabetics are particularly prone to intertrigo; they often also get the Candida yeast infection in the folds making their rash particularly severe.

The common risk factor is prolonged moist and warm skin from sweating. I see patients with this skin fold rash all year long. During the summer, it’s due to the hot weather. In the winter, it’s caused from the layers of thick clothing worn to keep warm.

Dermatologist’s Recommendations for Care and Prevention for Intertrigo Prone Skin

These are the recommendations that I give my patients. I’ve found that the trick to treating and preventing intertrigo is to try to keep the skin folds dry and sweat-free. Using anti-yeast skin care products also helps. For really irritated skin, I add a short course of nonprescription cortisone cream.

Preventative care for intertrigo

  • Wash your skin folds with Dial soap. Yep, Dial soap. I’m not a fan of Dial soap except for this one application. The anti-bacterial ingredient in Dial will decrease the skin germs. Dial also has an ingredient that acts like an antiperspirant and will block your sweat ducts, decreasing sweat in your folds. I don’t recommend using Dial soap elsewhere on your body because it’s simply too drying. And frankly, you don’t need antibacterial ingredients and clogged sweat ducts on the rest of your skin.
  • After bathing, towel-dry your skin and then blow dry your folds until they are totally dry.
  • Apply Zeasorb AF powder to your dry skin folds. Zeasorb AF contains an anti-yeast medicine. Never ever apply corn starch based-powders to your skin folds because the starch feeds yeast. Zeasorb AF is the best powder for skin folds!
  • Wear breezy, loose cotton or linen clothing that breathes and allows sweat to air dry quickly.
  • Separate your folds with absorbent cotton cloth during sweaty conditions. Avoid synthetic and thick fabrics that don’t allow your sweat to air dry.
  • Stay cool to decrease sweating.

Treatment of Intertrigo

If the red, painful and sometimes even smelly rash of intertrigo flairs up in the skin folds in spite of following the skin care outlined above, then medicine is needed to control it. Luckily, there are effective medicines over the counter.

In addition to my care instructions above, I have my patients stop applying the Zeasorb AF powder after blow drying their folds, and instead, apply the following medicine to the affected area twice a day:

  • Clotrimazole cream (e.g. Lotrimin Cream). Clotrimazole Cream needs to be used for at least two weeks because it takes two weeks to fully treat a yeast infection.
  • If clotrimazole cream alone does not start to decrease the redness within a few days, I then have patients add a thin layer of 1% hydrocortisone cream after the clotrimazole cream. I tell them to stop the hydrocortisone as soon as possible because it can thin the skin. (If you chose to use hydrocortisone, don’t use it or more than two weeks without seeing your doctor and having them supervise your treatment.)

Important precautions with intertrigo treatment:

  • All cream products have ingredients that can sting damaged skin, including the rash of intertrigo. Of course, severe stinging is a sign you need to see your doctor and have your diagnosis confirmed and treatment supervised by them.
  • Don’t use clotrimazole or hydrocortisone creams with other active ingredients like anti-itch medicines (Benadryl, “cains,” etc.) because you can become allergic to them, and this will make the rash even worse. 
  • Severe intertrigo can be weepy and very tender. You will need to see your doctor if your rash has gotten really bad.
  • Not every skin fold rash is intertrigo. Anyone whose rash is not responding within a week needs to see their doctor to confirm their diagnosis.
  • Babies’ skin is so delicate that treatment should always start with a doctor’s exam and should be supervised by their doctor as well.
  • Diabetics are much more prone to intertrigo than everyone else and so anyone who is continuously troubled by this annoying red skin fold rash needs to be seen by their doctor and tested for diabetes.

Lastly, I recommend that even non-diabetics who are prone to intertrigo consider avoiding foods that raise their blood sugar. This includes high glycemic foods like sweets, refined flour foods and sugary drinks.

To learn more about the diet I recommend for people suffering from skin problems such as intertrigo, download my FREE Healthy Eating Guide eBook – written by a dermatologist who has helped patients overcome skin problems for over 35 years. 

My Healthy Eating Guide eBook included recipes and simple recommendations to transform your daily menu into one that supports healthy skin.  


Memo for parents on viral diseases

Memo for parents.

Measles – viral infection, which is characterized by a very high susceptibility. If a person did not have measles or was not vaccinated against this infection, then after contact with a sick person, infection occurs in almost 100% of cases. The measles virus is very volatile. The virus can spread through ventilation pipes and elevator shafts – at the same time, children living on different floors of the house get sick.

The period from contact with a sick measles until the first signs of the disease appear, lasts from 7 to 14 days.

The disease begins with severe headache, weakness, fever up to 40 degrees C. A little later, a runny nose, cough and an almost complete lack of appetite join these symptoms.

The appearance of conjunctivitis is very characteristic of measles – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, which is manifested by photophobia, lacrimation, sharp redness of the eyes, and subsequently – the appearance of purulent discharge.These symptoms last 2 to 4 days.

On the 4th day of the disease, a rash appears, which looks like small red spots of various sizes (from 1 to 3 mm in diameter), with a tendency to merge. The rash occurs on the face and head (it is especially characteristic of its appearance behind the ears) and spreads throughout the body for 3 to 4 days. It is very characteristic of measles that the rash leaves behind pigmentation (dark spots that persist for several days), which disappears in the same sequence as the rash appears.

Rather serious complications can occur with measles . These include pneumonia (pneumonia), otitis media (otitis media), and sometimes such a formidable complication as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

It must be remembered that after measles for a sufficiently long period of time (up to 2 months), suppression of immunity is noted, so the child can get sick with any cold or viral disease, so you need to protect him from excessive stress, if possible – from contact with sick children.

After measles, stable lifelong immunity develops. All those who have had measles become immune to this infection.

The only reliable protection against the disease is measles vaccination, which is included in the National Immunization Schedule.

Memo for parents.

Rubella is a viral infection spread by airborne droplets. As a rule, children who stay in a water room with a child who is a source of infection for a long time get sick.Rubella in its manifestations is very similar to measles, but it is much easier.

The period from contact to the appearance of the first signs of illness lasts from 14 to 21 days.

Rubella begins with an increase in the occipital lymph nodes and an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees C. A little later, a runny nose, sometimes a cough, joins. After 2 to 3 days after the onset of the disease, a rash appears. Rubella is characterized by a small-dotted pink rash that begins with a rash on the face and spreads throughout the body.A rubella rash, unlike measles, never drains, there may be a slight itching. The period of rashes can be from several hours, during which there is no trace of the rash, up to 2 days.

Rubella treatment consists in relieving the main symptoms – fighting fever, if any, treating the common cold, expectorants.

Complications after rubella are rare.

After rubella, immunity also develops, re-infection is extremely rare, but can occur.

It is therefore very important to get the rubella vaccine, which, like the measles vaccine, is included in the National Vaccination Schedule.

Memo for parents.

Mumps (mumps) – a viral infection of children characterized by acute inflammation in the salivary glands.

Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Susceptibility to this disease is about 50-60% (that is, 50-60% of those in contact and not sick and not vaccinated get sick).

From the moment of contact with a sick mumps to the onset of the disease, 11 – 23 days can pass.

Mumps begins with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C and severe pain in the ear area or under it, aggravated by swallowing or chewing. At the same time, salivation increases. Swelling in the area of ​​the upper neck and cheek grows quite quickly, touching this place causes severe pain in the child. Unpleasant symptoms disappear within three to four days: body temperature decreases, swelling decreases, pain passes.

However, quite often mumps ends with inflammation in the glandular organs , such as the pancreas (pancreatitis), gonads. Postponed pancreatitis in some cases leads to diabetes . Inflammation of the gonads (testicles) is more common in boys. This significantly complicates the course of the disease, and in some cases it can result in infertility. In especially severe cases, mumps can be complicated by viral meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), which is severe.

After a previous illness, strong immunity is formed, but complications can lead to disability.

The only reliable protection against the disease is mumps vaccination, which is included in the National Immunization Schedule.

Memo for parents.

Chickenpox (chickenpox) – a typical childhood infection. Mostly young children or preschoolers are ill.Susceptibility to the pathogen of chickenpox (the virus that causes chickenpox belongs to herpes viruses) is also quite high. About 80% of contact persons who have not been sick before develop chickenpox.

From the moment of contact with a patient with chickenpox until the first signs of the disease appear, it takes from 14 to 21 days.

The disease begins with the appearance of a rash. Usually it is one or two reddish specks that look like a mosquito bite. These elements of the rash can be located on any part of the body, but most often they first appear on the stomach or face.The rash usually spreads very quickly – new elements appear every few minutes or hours. The reddish spots, which at first look like mosquito bites, take on the appearance of bubbles filled with transparent contents the next day. These bubbles are very itchy. The rash spreads all over the body, on the limbs, on the scalp. In severe cases, there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes – in the mouth, nose, on the conjunctiva of the sclera, genitals, intestines. By the end of the first day of the disease, the general state of health worsens, the body temperature rises (up to 40 degrees C and above).The severity of the condition depends on the number of rashes. If there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes of the pharynx, nose and on the conjunctiva of the sclera, then pharyngitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis develop due to the addition of a bacterial infection. The bubbles open in a day or two with the formation of ulcers, which are covered with crusts. Headache, feeling unwell, fever persist until new rashes appear. This usually takes 3 to 5 days. Within 5-7 days after the last pouring, the rash goes away.

Treatment of chickenpox consists in reducing itching, intoxication and prevention of bacterial complications. The elements of the rash must be lubricated with antiseptic solutions (as a rule, this is an aqueous solution of brilliant green or manganese). Treatment with coloring antiseptics prevents bacterial infection of rashes, allows you to track the dynamics of the appearance of rashes. It is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the oral cavity and nose, eyes – you can rinse your mouth with a solution of calendula, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth should also be treated with antiseptic solutions.

The complications of chickenpox include myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle, meningitis and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the meninges, brain matter), inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis). Fortunately, these complications are quite rare. After chickenpox, as well as after all childhood infections, immunity develops. Re-infection occurs, but very rarely.

Instruction for parents.

Scarlet fever is the only childhood infection caused not by viruses, but by bacteria (group A streptococcus).It is an acute airborne disease. Infection is also possible through household items (toys, dishes). Children of early and preschool age are ill. The most dangerous in relation to infection are patients in the first two to three days of the disease.

Scarlet fever begins very acutely with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C, vomiting, headache. The most characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is angina , in which the mucous membrane of the pharynx has a bright red color, swelling is expressed.The patient notes a sharp pain when swallowing. There may be a whitish coating on the tongue and tonsils. The tongue subsequently takes on a very characteristic appearance ( “crimson ”) – bright pink and coarsely grained.

By the end of the first beginning of the second day of the disease, appears the second A characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is a rash. It appears on several parts of the body at once, most densely located in the folds (elbow, inguinal). Its distinctive feature is that a bright red small-point scarlet fever rash is located on a red background, which gives the impression of a general drainage redness.When pressed on the skin, remains a white strip . The rash can be spread all over the body, but there is always clean (white) the area of ​​skin between the upper lip and nose, as well as the chin. Itching is much less pronounced than with chickenpox.

The rash lasts up to 2 to 5 days. The manifestations of angina persist somewhat longer (up to 7 – 9 days).

Treatment of scarlet fever is usually carried out with using antibiotics , since the causative agent of scarlet fever is a microbe that can be removed with antibiotics and strict adherence to bed rest .It is also very important to treat sore throat locally and conduct detoxification (removing toxins from the body that are formed during the life of microorganisms – for this they give plenty of drink). Shows vitamins, antipyretics. Scarlet fever also has enough serious complications . Before the use of antibiotics, scarlet fever often ended in the development of rheumatism with the formation of acquired heart defects or kidney disease. At present, subject to competently prescribed treatment and careful adherence to recommendations, such complications are rare.

Scarlet fever almost exclusively affects children because with age a person acquires resistance to streptococci. Those who have been ill also acquire strong immunity.

Memo for parents.

Whooping cough is an acute infectious disease characterized by a long course. A hallmark of the disease is a spasmodic cough.

The mechanism of transmission of infection is airborne. A feature of whooping cough is the high susceptibility of children to it, starting from the first days of life.

From the moment of contact with a sick whooping cough until the first signs of the disease appear, takes from 3 to 15 days. A feature of pertussis is a gradual increase in cough within 2 – 3 weeks after its onset.

Typical signs of whooping cough:

  • · persistent, intensifying cough, gradually turning into attacks of spasmodic cough (a series of cough jerks, rapidly following each other on one exhalation) with a convulsive inhalation, accompanied by a wheezing draw-out sound.In infants, this cough can stop breathing. The coughing fits intensify at night and end in a small amount of viscous sputum, sometimes vomiting;
  • · puffiness of the face, hemorrhages in the sclera;
  • · sore on the frenum of the tongue (due to its injury to the edges of the teeth, since during a coughing attack the tongue protrudes outward to the limit, its tip is bent upward).

Whooping cough is often complicated by bronchitis, otitis media, pneumonia, rectal prolapse, umbilical and inguinal hernias.

After suffering pertussis for a long time (several months), coughing fits may return, especially if the child catches a cold or during physical exertion.

The only reliable prophylaxis against pertussis is vaccination with AKDS, a vaccine that is included in the National Immunization Schedule. Parents’ fears of the potential harmful effects of the vaccine are unfounded. The quality of DPT – vaccine in its properties is not inferior to vaccines produced in other countries.

Memo for parents.

Acute intestinal infections is a large group of diseases that occur with more or less similar symptoms, but can be caused by a huge number of pathogens: bacteria, viruses, protozoa.

In summer, the number of intestinal infections in children is inevitably increasing. There are several reasons for this.

Firstly , in summer, a large number of raw vegetables, fruits and berries are eaten, on the unwashed surface of which a huge number of microbes live, incl.including potentially dangerous.

Secondly , in summer children spend a lot of time on the street, and even their parents do not always remember that food with clean hands is a mandatory rule .

The third reason : in the summer, getting into food (dairy products, meat, fish, broths), some pathogens multiply at a tremendous rate and quickly reach the amount that successfully breaks through the protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract.

From the moment of introduction of the pathogen into the gastrointestinal tract to the onset of the disease, it can take from several hours to 7 days.

The disease begins with an increase in body temperature, malaise, weakness, lethargy. Appetite is sharply reduced, nausea and vomiting quickly join. The stool is loose, frequent with impurities. The result of fluid loss is dryness of the mucous membranes and skin, facial features sharpen, the child loses mass, urinates a little. The expression on the face is suffering.If your child has any of the above signs of illness, call the doctor immediately. Self-medication is not permissible .

Prevention of intestinal infections requires strict observance of general hygienic measures in everyday life, when preparing food and while eating.

In the summertime, all food should be protected from flies. Prepared food should be stored in the refrigerator: at low temperatures, even if microbes enter the food, they will not be able to multiply.Indiscriminate purchase of products eaten without heat treatment – from hands, outside markets where they do not undergo sanitary control – can also lead to illness. When swimming in open water, water should never be swallowed. If eating on the beach, wipe your hands with at least special wet wipes.

And remember that a parent’s example is the best way to teach a child.

Memo for parents .

Tuberculosis – a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacteria of human tuberculosis, affecting to a greater extent the respiratory organs, as well as all organs and systems of the body.

The source of infection is people with tuberculosis. The most common route of infection is air. Transmission factors are nasopharyngeal mucus, phlegm and dust containing bacteria.

Reproduction of tuberculosis bacteria in a child’s body leads to significant functional disorders with symptoms of intoxication: irritability appears or, conversely, lethargy, fatigue, headache, sweating.The body temperature rises to 37.2 – 37.3 about , sleep and appetite are disturbed. With a prolonged course of the disease, the child loses weight, the skin becomes pale, there is a tendency to inflammatory diseases. For children, a typical reaction from the lymph nodes: they increase in size, become dense. In the absence of treatment, the transition of the disease to more severe forms is possible.

For the diagnosis of tuberculous intoxication, it is important to determine the infection using tuberculin tests , and for children from 12 years old – also using fluorography.

For the prevention of tuberculosis, it is very important : to lead a healthy lifestyle, strictly observe sanitary and hygienic rules: wash your hands before eating, do not eat unwashed vegetables and fruits, as well as dairy products that have not passed sanitary control, eat well, play sports , pay attention to changes in health status.

An important point for the prevention of tuberculosis is the annual setting of the Mantoux test, which gives a positive result when pathogenic bacteria enter the child’s body.

Rash and sweat irritation: how to prevent

What causes rash and skin irritation from sweat? Symptoms of prickly heat

Rash and skin irritation in the armpit area from sweat is a very common condition that can start at any time. The naturally occurring microscopic yeast-like Candida on your skin causes irritation and rashes if the natural balance of the skin is disturbed. This can happen when sweat from the sebaceous glands stays on the skin without completely evaporating.

Itching of the skin begins, irritation, a red rash appears; there may be a burning sensation in the armpits or the skin may become damaged. A rash from sweat can appear with prickly heat, excessive sweating, changing body care products (shower gel, soap, deodorant), wearing synthetic fabrics, wearing too tight clothes, or rubbing the straps of a backpack or bag on the armpits.

In some people, the skin is very sensitive and reacts instantly to odors and fragrances. Allergies can also occur to ingredients in body and skin care products such as alcohol and aluminum salts.

Where does sweat irritation occur?

Sweat rashes and irritation tend to occur where skin surfaces rub against each other, such as the armpits, the back of the knees, between the legs, groin, and the chest and under the chest. Also, irritation can begin where clothing rubs against the skin and sweat is released (for example, when wearing sleeveless jackets, the fabric rubs against the skin of the armpits).

How to deal with irritation and rash in the armpit area?

Most types of rash and sweat irritation occur as a natural reaction to the irritant.If you are sensitive to perfume or fragrances, or prone to eczema, use antiperspirants and unscented body care products. For example, antiperspirant Rexona Odorless, which is suitable even for sensitive skin. Also try using an emollient or moisturizer along with an antiperspirant or deodorant to help maintain the natural balance of your skin.

Follow these simple guidelines to combat irritation and skin rashes in your armpits:

  • When exercising, wear loose-fitting clothing and choose natural fabrics that absorb perspiration, such as cotton and linen.
  • In hot weather, if your skin becomes irritated, stay hydrated and take cool showers and baths.
  • Discontinue use if new skin care product irritates.
  • If rash develops further, wear lightweight clothing made from natural fabrics and avoid synthetic fabrics – these can irritate the skin.
  • Antiperspirants containing aluminum salts may help fight perspiration. This will help keep your skin fresh and clear throughout the day and fight off one of the causes of rashes and irritation – sweat.If your underarms get irritated and rash, use a moisturizer along with an antiperspirant, and also try antiperspirants that contain care and moisturizers for sensitive skin and deodorant creams.

If all of the above does not help, and the rash and irritation in the armpit area persists, seek medical attention.

90,000 Skin rashes in babies – contraindications for vaccination. – “Mother and Child

In the presence of skin rashes, vaccination is most often delayed, as this is a contraindication for the administration of most vaccines.

Dear Parents! On the day of vaccination, your baby must be examined by a pediatrician . Of course, the child must be healthy , he needs to measure his body temperature the night before and in the morning before leaving the house and examine the skin. In the presence of skin rashes, vaccination is most often delayed, as this is a contraindication for the administration of most vaccines .Therefore, we recommend that parents be careful about skin rashes in their baby and always discuss the cause of their appearance with health workers.

Due to the frequent occurrence at appointments before vaccination of situations when parents of babies do not pay attention to skin manifestations in a child and come to an appointment on the day of vaccination, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the causes of skin rashes in children.

Since the most intensive vaccination schedule is in children in the first year of life, we will consider the causes of the appearance of a rash in young children (under 3 years of age).But even at an older age, parents must not neglect the rule – we give the vaccination to children against the background of complete health, the absence of acute manifestations of the disease, if indicated, against the background of the necessary drug preparation, in most cases, against the background of adherence to a hypoallergenic diet.

So, the causes of skin rashes in young children:

  • Allergic rash
  • Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis)
  • Prickly heat
  • Skin rash with parasitic invasions
  • Rash in case of infectious diseases
  • Hemorrhagic eruptions in diseases of the blood and blood vessels
  • Insect bites

Allergic rash

The most common cause of rashes in children of the first year of life is food allergy, the manifestations of which are manifold:

  • rash of various shapes and brightness on the body, more often on the cheeks,
  • redness, peeling of the skin, accompanied by itching,
  • persistent diaper rash,
  • gneiss on the scalp and eyebrows, persisting after 3-4 months of the baby’s life,
  • profuse prickly heat with slight overheating,
  • blistering on the skin like a nettle burn (urticaria),
  • the appearance of swelling of the skin, subcutaneous fat and mucous membranes (Quincke’s edema).

In recent years, the number of children with skin allergies has been increasing. There is an increased risk of food allergy in children who have had a history of allergy in their families. In the presence of allergic diseases on the part of both parents, the risk of allergies in the child is approximately 70-80%, in the presence of allergic pathology on the part of the mother – 60%, on the part of the father – 30%, in the absence of allergic problems on the part of the parents – from 10 to 18 %.In addition to hereditary factors, allergic reactions in an infant can result from fetal hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) during pregnancy and childbirth, a rapid transition to artificial feeding, acute respiratory viral and intestinal infections suffered by the baby, followed by a violation of the composition of the intestinal microflora.

The occurrence of food allergies in children of the first year of life is associated with the functional characteristics of their digestive tract: low enzyme activity, low level of production of IgA – protective antibodies located on the surface of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.They provide local protection of the intestinal mucous membranes from foreign agents. As complementary foods are introduced (individually for each child – from 4-6 months of age), further maturation of enzyme systems occurs. If the terms and rules for the introduction of complementary foods are violated, fermentopathy, imbalance of microflora in the intestine, the appearance of skin rashes associated with an inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall, requiring correction and treatment, may occur.

And of course, allergic reactions in breastfed babies are associated with nutritional disorders of the nursing mother, with her excessive consumption of highly allergenic foods.

The so-called food diary helps to identify the causative allergen, in which the mother regularly (at least 14 days) notes all types of food and drink received by her or the baby during the day, indicates the composition of the dishes, the features of their culinary processing, the time of feeding and the appearance of unwanted reactions ( loose stools, regurgitation, skin rashes, etc. ). After a year, children develop rashes on the introduction of such foods as sweets, chocolate, cakes, muffins and other industrial culinary products containing a large amount of dyes and preservatives, which often cause allergic skin manifestations, even in adults.Given the immaturity of the enzymatic systems of the digestive tract in young children, the immaturity of the immune system, these products are not recommended to be introduced into the diet of children under 3 years of age.

If your baby periodically has manifestations of food allergies on the skin, vaccination is postponed until the rash fade away and is carried out while taking antihistamines prescribed by a pediatrician or allergist-immunologist a few days before and after vaccination.It is necessary to follow a hypoallergenic diet for a nursing mother and child at least 7-10 days before and after the intended vaccination. According to the doctor’s prescription, it will probably be necessary to use external agents to treat the skin to stabilize the skin process, so that vaccination does not serve as a factor that provoked an exacerbation.

Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis)

Diaper rash usually appears in large folds of skin, especially where baby’s skin comes in contact with urine, feces, and diapers.Most often, diaper rash appears on the buttocks, in the groin-femoral folds, but sometimes the skin can turn red in a similar way in the axillary and cervical folds and even behind the ears. In advanced cases, cracks, erosion and sores may appear on the surface.

Prevention of diaper rash is a timely change of diapers and diapers, air baths. In case of diaper rash, the pediatrician, in accordance with the type of skin, will prescribe baths with decoctions of certain herbs, as well as a product for application after bathing in the folds of the skin.

Prickly heat

Sweat heat is associated with the structural and functional features of the sweat glands. Usually occurs in hot weather, when the child overheats due to fever, high temperatures, or excessive wrapping.

Miliaria appears on the skin with multiple small (1-2 mm) bright red spots. Rashes in babies often appear on the neck, chest and abdomen.The baby’s prickly heat practically does not bother, and if the rules of skin care are followed, it quickly disappears. Small manifestations of prickly heat are not a reason for medical withdrawal from vaccination, if there are no infected elements.

Skin rashes with parasitic invasions

In infants, more often from 6 months of age, infection with various parasites is very likely – pinworms, lamblia, ascaris. Toxins, waste products of parasites, helminths are absorbed into the bloodstream and are an allergenic factor, in most cases they can cause rashes on the child’s skin.

Only a pediatrician can identify this type of rash after an examination and the necessary examinations, after which treatment is individually prescribed.

Rash in case of infectious diseases

If a rash on the skin is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, chills, runny nose, general malaise, loss of appetite, if there has been contact with patients in the family or in a public place for 7-14 days, it is likely that the child has manifestations of infection.

Rashes occur in infectious diseases such as: chickenpox, measles, rubella, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, meningococcal infection, enterovirus infection and other viral diseases. To make a diagnosis, a child’s examination by a pediatrician must be carried out at home or in a special box at a children’s clinic.

Hemorrhagic eruptions in diseases of the blood and blood vessels

In addition to infections, a rash occurs in diseases of the blood and blood vessels.Hemorrhagic rashes appear as red or dark spots (bruises) that do not disappear with pressure. In the presence of a hemorrhagic rash, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician, a hematologist and conduct additional research methods.

Insect bites

Young children often suffer from mosquito and midge bites. Parents notice skin rashes in the morning, after the child wakes up or after walking in the forest-park area.The appearance of pink or reddish spots is characteristic mainly on open areas of the body, and the presence of elements on the face or on one half of it is mandatory (in the event that the child slept on his side).

Most often, this rash is accompanied by itching, but not very severe. The general condition of the child does not suffer. It is recommended to apply antihistamine gels prescribed by a doctor to the rash. Special gels reduce the inflammatory response of the skin at the site of the insect bite and have an antipruritic effect.

If you find a rash on the skin of a child, you should consult a pediatrician. To clarify the diagnosis, the pediatrician may prescribe an additional examination, recommend treatment, and, if necessary, refer the child to a consultation with an allergist-immunologist, infectious disease specialist, hematologist or dermatologist.

Be healthy!

Center for Immunoprophylaxis “Mother and Child-IDK”

g.Samara, st. Gagarina, 30 / Mitireva, 16
Togliatti, st. Voroshilov, 73
Unified information telephone: 8 800 250 24 24

90,000 Burning skin – from urticaria to impetigo. Looking for the reason in Angio Line

Skin burning is a possible reaction of the body to mechanical irritation, sunlight or allergens. A burning sensation, coupled with itching, redness, swelling or soreness, is a symptom of skin diseases or diseases of internal organs.

Dermatological diseases causing burning of the skin:

Alopecia areata

Burning in the affected area along with itching and pain.

Polymorphic dermal vasculitis

Blisters appear at the site of inflammation, irritation is accompanied by burning and pain in the joints. The form of the course resembles chronic urticaria.


Spontaneous blisters cause itching and burning.

Contact dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin under the influence of irritants: cosmetic, household or allergenic.
In the simple and allergic form, burning is an accompanying symptom along with skin soreness and itching.


Acute or chronic rash inflammation of the skin due to allergenic exposure, leading to itching, skin irritation and burning.

Polymorphic photodermatosis

Itchy skin rashes appear after sun exposure. The rash is accompanied by burning and irritation in the neck, chest, shoulders, legs.


A disease that affects the skin and nervous tissue, arises under the influence of the herpes virus.Leads to pain and hypersensitivity. Itching, burning and tingling are possible, but not necessary symptoms of the disease.
In the early stages of the disease, the disease is difficult to diagnose due to the similarity of symptoms with pleurisy, heart attack, appendicitis and other diseases.


Lesions of feet and interdigital skin folds. It is accompanied by swelling, itching, burning and painful sensations.

Perioral dermatitis

Inflammatory processes in the skin of the mouth and chin cause burning and itching.The disease is common in women between the ages of 15 and 45 or adolescents during puberty.


Psoriasis plaques spread rapidly, engulfing large areas, causing profuse scaling and flaking of the epidermis.
In generalized or erythrodermic forms, burning is a concomitant symptom along with malaise and fever.


Bubbles in the lips or genitals caused by streptococcus bacteria fill with fluid. The disease is accompanied by itching and burning.


With severe redness of the skin of the face and neck caused by the expansion of capillaries, tingling and burning are felt. Feelings intensify after stress or alcohol consumption.

If the burning sensation continues for several days, complicated by other symptoms, consult a dermatologist immediately.

Infant rashes | Clinic Rassvet

Babies are generous with various rashes. According to the “good” tradition, most of them are considered allergic with all that it implies – a strict diet for a nursing mother, transfer to artificial feeding, the appointment of medicinal mixtures, etc.In fact, true allergic rashes in infants are not that common. Allergic diseases affecting the skin in infants include: atopic dermatitis, acute urticaria, and Quincke’s edema. Acute urticaria is extremely rare in babies – it is an acute allergic reaction in the form of a kind of rash of the type of blisters (as with a nettle burn, hence the name), which suddenly appear on the skin and just as suddenly disappear without leaving any trace behind, usually do not exist on the skin for longer than a day and are accompanied by severe itching, which manifests itself in the general anxiety of the child.The most common causes are dietary proteins (such as cow’s milk), viral infections, insect bites, and medications (such as antibiotics). In severe cases, it can be accompanied by swelling and redness of the soft tissues of the face, neck, larynx, arms, legs, genitals or abdominal cavity – Quincke’s edema, which requires immediate medical attention.

Let’s figure out what is most often undeservedly called an allergy:

Toxic erythema newborns – a transient benign rash, the exact cause of the appearance is unknown (possibly due to skin irritation by environmental factors).

Appears at birth or in the first 24–48 hours of life. Localization – face, trunk, limbs, except for palms and soles. Disappears on its own within 5-7 days, sometimes 3 weeks. No treatment required.

Acne of newborns (infantile acne, neonatal pustulosis) – caused by the stimulation of the baby’s sebaceous glands by androgens.

The peak of rashes occurs in the 3rd week of life. It is localized more often on the face, sometimes spreads to the scalp, less often to the collar zone.Are allowed spontaneously. The skin requires cleansing and moisturizing, in some cases, it may be necessary to apply
medicated creams.

Miliaria rash , which occurs in poorly “ventilated” areas as a result of blockage of the sweat glands. It can occur at any age.

Localization – folds of the skin, buttocks and the back of the body, sometimes the face (after sleep). Depending on the depth of the lesion, it happens – crystalline prickly heat, red prickly heat, deep prickly heat (superficial).

Duration of the rash – from several hours to several days.

Treatment – cool water baths, air baths, prevention of overheating. For some cases of red and deep prickly heat, lotions containing calamine and creams with corticosteroids and antibiotics can be used.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin disorder that forms on sebum-rich areas. The exact cause is unknown (a certain role is assigned to the cutaneous saprophyte – the malassezia fungus, which grows and multiplies well in the sebaceous secretion).

There are lesions or widespread, dermatitis with pityriasis scales, which can form a crust on the scalp (“cap”, gneiss).

Favorite localization – scalp, face, folds (!).

May begin from the 1st – 2nd week of life or later, resolves spontaneously over several weeks or months.

Treatment consists of softening the crusts with oil or cream and then removing them, moisturizing the skin and, in some cases, applying antifungal and anti-inflammatory creams.

Simple contact dermatitis is a non-specific damage to the skin due to prolonged or repeated exposure to a number of substances – saliva, fruit juices, foaming bath products, detergents (residues on the walls of the bath), etc. In babies, saliva often causes dermatitis in the area of ​​contact with the nipple and in the folds of the neck.

As a rule, elimination of the damaging agent and short-term administration of anti-inflammatory creams quickly lead to recovery, but some children are so sensitive that it is almost impossible to identify the causative factor.

Diaper dermatitis (prototype contact dermatitis) is a skin lesion that occurs under the influence of physical (overheating), chemical, enzymatic (contact with sweat, urine and feces) and microbial factors. Localization – the area of ​​the diaper or diaper fit.

Treatment is carried out using the abbreviation ABCDE (air, barrier, cleansing, diaper, education) – air, barrier, cleansing, diaper and parent training. Frequent diaper changes, washing the skin and drying it thoroughly helps.Effectively prevents dermatitis by applying products that completely cover it (petroleum jelly, zinc paste) on clean skin. In stubborn cases, medicated creams containing corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antifungal agents may be recommended.

And now a few words about HELL:

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic allergic inflammation of the skin, genetically determined, associated with the loss of the skin barrier and, therefore, accompanied by dryness, itching and various rashes.In a third (!) Of cases, it is combined with food allergies (the most frequent culprits are cow’s milk, chicken eggs, wheat, fish, soybeans, nuts).

Starts more often not earlier than 3 months of life.

The most frequent localization up to 2–3 years of age is the face (cheeks, forehead, chin), convex parts of the limbs (extensor surfaces) and the trunk, never in babies in folds (!).

Exacerbations are provoked by various factors – stress, dry air, sweat, food (histaminoliberators), infections, contact with tobacco smoke, animal hair, coarse cloth, detergent residues on clothes, etc.d.

It is treated with careful skin care and the use of anti-inflammatory creams.

There are also:

Pseudo-allergic reactions are reactions that are outwardly similar to allergic ones (for example, various rashes), but are not such, due to the non-immune mechanism of their development.

The reason is an increased content of histamine (tyramine, serotonin) in foods, or the ability of foods to increase the release of these substances in the body, or their increased absorption, due to the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (fermentopathy, inflammation in the intestinal wall, etc.).etc.). Such products include – chocolate, cocoa, strawberries, citrus fruits, honey, sauerkraut, pickles and spices, seafood, fish, caviar, pork, mushrooms, cheeses, nuts, smoked meats, preservatives, dyes and flavor enhancers.

Treatment includes dietary advice, skin care, and in some cases antihistamines and anti-inflammatory creams.

Clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis, simple contact dermatitis in highly sensitive children and the manifestation of pseudo-allergic reactions are very similar to each other, therefore, the main task remains to create a “skin barrier” by constantly moisturizing the skin with emollients, stopping exacerbation with anti-inflammatory creams and excluding exacerbating factors.

And last:

Skin infections – herpesvirus, staphylococcal pemphigus, candidiasis also occurs in babies, do not forget about them. You should consult a doctor immediately if the child is lethargic, feverish, refuses to breast or bottle, rashes on the skin are accompanied by the discharge of pus or are covered with purulent crusts, there are bubbles or a group of bubbles, erosion (violation of the integrity of the skin), pronounced swelling and redness of the skin.

90,000 Sores, rash on the abdomen in a dog: causes, diagnosis and treatment

Contents of article

A rash on the body of an animal is a symptom of a disease or disorder, the causes of which can be very different.However, acne, scratching and especially sores with crusts will never go away on their own, but can cause serious complications. Therefore, the dog needs professional treatment, which can only be prescribed by an experienced veterinarian. Contacting a specialist when a disease is detected at an early stage will save the pet from suffering.

Causes of a rash on the abdomen in a dog

Such signs are not always a symptom of a serious illness, but may indicate the presence of disorders in the body.

Most often, rash and other skin defects appear in the following cases:

  1. Allergy. Unfortunately, animals are also subject to this “scourge” of the 21st century. Rashes can be provoked by both external factors (aerosols, household chemicals, unsuitable means for washing a dog, etc.), and internal (food, medication, accidentally eaten plant). With an allergic reaction, the dog suffers not only from rashes, but also from severe itching. Often it is the abdomen and groin area that is affected, especially in puppies, because the skin here is the thinnest, most delicate and sensitive.
  2. Ectoparasites (fleas, lice, lice, mites and scabies). All these creatures settle on or under the skin, bite an animal or gnaw through painful passages. They provoke severe itching and pain. The dog is actively combing the skin, especially on the belly, where it is very tender.
  3. Diaper rash. As strange as it sounds, some dog breeds suffer from them in the same way as small children. In dogs, this is caused by sweating or ingress of moisture, dirt into extensive skin folds, so the rash is more typical for breeds such as pugs, sharpei, mastiffs, bulldogs.Pimples can be located in any fold, but they spread especially strongly on the abdomen and in the genital area, anus. The condition intensifies at elevated air temperatures and when the animal is overweight, with insufficient care for it.
  4. Skin diseases – dermatitis, eczema and others. They can be caused by external stimuli or internal pathologies, including nervous shocks. Sometimes sensitive dogs react with rashes to changes in diet, moving, participating in exhibitions and even the arrival of a new family member, be it a child, puppy or other pet.
  5. Bacterial infections. They are more often secondary, joining the underlying disease. If the dog scratches too vigorously or otherwise injures the skin on the abdomen, infection can lead to suppuration, inflammation, and the formation of painful rough crusts. Increased itching and pain leads to further scratching, which even more actively spreads the infection and aggravates the disease.
  6. Fungus. Lichens and other types of fungal infections sometimes affect dogs.Young animals with fragile immunity, as well as old and chronically sick dogs, suffer more often. Fungi are dangerous to humans and spread easily, especially if the animal is actively in contact with fellow or other pets, family members. Lichen can “settle” on any part of the dog’s body, damaging not only the skin, but also causing focal or total baldness. This condition can leave rounded pinkish scaly patches on the body, visible on the belly, where the coat is light, short and sparse in most puppies.

Poor hygiene or, conversely, a manic desire for cleanliness of the pet can lead to a deterioration in the condition of the coat, dry skin, flaking and cracks. If you do not take action in time, the condition may worsen due to a secondary infection of a bacterial or fungal nature.

Do not wash a dog with preparations intended for humans, let alone use household chemicals, “coarse” alkaline soap. Launching an animal in the hope that it will cleanse itself is reckless, especially if the dog lives in the yard or in inappropriate conditions. But washing more often than once a month is not beneficial, as it removes the lipid layer, leaving the dog’s skin and coat defenseless against external influences.


It is impossible to determine the nature of the disease by the appearance of the rashes, therefore, to receive the correct full-fledged treatment, a diagnosis by a veterinarian is necessary. He will conduct an examination, take samples that will indicate the causative agent of the disease. The prescribed treatment will be specialized and complex, which means that it will help to quickly cope with the problem and avoid the development of complications.

Treatment methods

First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the cause of the disease. If it is an allergy, then you need to eliminate the allergen – the wrong food, medicine, chemical, and so on. If there are parasites, you need to remove them, and then treat the rash, otherwise there will be no positive result.

If a dog suffers from dirt or diaper rash, then it must be washed with a special therapeutic shampoo, and the wounds should be treated with a disinfectant drying agent. With proper care, these symptoms disappear quickly.

It is much more difficult to cope with skin diseases caused by internal problems of the body. Hormonal and endocrine pathologies, improper digestion, and disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system can provoke rashes on the abdomen. Accurate diagnosis and comprehensive treatment will be required, including getting rid of the underlying disease and impact on damaged skin and hair.

In case of a bacterial infection, antibiotic-based ointments are prescribed, in severe conditions – taking drugs by mouth.It is forbidden to use “human” medicines for dogs, since it is impossible to accurately calculate a safe dosage for a particular animal. You need to follow the advice of your veterinarian.

Treatment of a fungal infection consists in isolating the animal from other pets and children, prescribing special antifungal and disinfectants. The dog is prescribed antihistamines to relieve itching, making sure that it does not scratch.

The earlier complex professional treatment is started, the lower the risk of complications and the transition of the disease into a protracted, chronic course, weakening the dog and dangerous to his health.

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90,000 CAUTION! Infectious SKIN DISEASES! – BSMP Grodno

The summer time is coming to an end, the townspeople are returning after vacations, summer vacations, spent away from home. Every year in late August and early September, there is an increase in the incidence of infectious skin diseases (scabies and microsporia), which often become infected outside the city of Grodno.

In order to timely identify patients with scabies and microsporia, mass preventive medical examinations are carried out in preschool, general secondary education, secondary specialized and higher educational institutions at the beginning of the school year.

The main goal of preventive medical examinations is the timely identification of patients with infectious skin diseases and prevention of their spread in organized children’s groups.

Scabies The most common infectious skin disease. The disease is caused by a special type of mite that parasitizes human skin.

Infection with scabies occurs through direct contact with a sick person, as well as through his underwear and bedding, clothing, towel, washcloth, gloves and other personal items.

The disease usually develops 7-14 days after infection. The characteristic symptoms of scabies are intense itching, worse at night, paired-nodular elements of the rash on the skin.

The rash is located on the flexion surfaces of the upper and lower extremities, in the interdigital folds of the hands, on the trunk, especially in the belt, abdomen, axillary, groin area.

At present, erased forms of scabies are often found, in which only minor rashes appear on the skin of the abdomen and buttocks.There are patients with scabies with mild itching or without it at all.

How to protect yourself from scabies?

  • regularly, at least once a week, wash in a bath, shower or bath with a change of underwear and bed linen;
  • do not use someone else’s towel, bed linen, clothing, washcloth, gloves, toys and other personal belongings;
  • keep your hands and nails clean at all times;
  • to regularly clean living quarters.

All family members of the sick person, as well as persons living in the same room (dormitory block), must be examined by a dermatologist and preventive treatment for scabies.

Microsporia is the most common fungal skin disease.

Sources of the disease are sick animals, mainly cats.

In most cats, foci of microsporia are defined as patches of baldness on the skin of the face, around the mouth and nose, on the outer surfaces of the auricles, front and hind legs, and on the tail.Dogs, hamsters and guinea pigs can also become a source of human infection.

Infection with microsporia occurs from sick animals, as well as through direct contact of a healthy person with a sick person (through clothing, bedding, hats, combs).

On the skin at the site of the introduction of the fungus, peeling rounded-oval spots of pink-red color appear with edges sharply delimited from healthy skin, which quickly increase in size. More often, foci of microsporia are located on the face, neck, chest, upper and lower extremities

If the causative agent of the disease gets on the scalp, the hair becomes brittle and breaks off at the same level, giving the impression of being trimmed with scissors.

How to protect yourself from microsporia infection?

  • if you stroked a pet kitten or puppy, played with him, you should immediately wash your hands with soap and water;
  • to exclude contact with stray animals; explain to children that contact with stray animals is dangerous for their health;
  • before animals are sheltered in an apartment, they must be examined in a veterinary clinic;
  • when buying an animal from private individuals, ask for a certificate of examination of the animal by a veterinarian;
  • at the first signs of a disease in an animal, you should immediately contact a veterinarian, and in case of family members’ illness – a dermatovenerologist.