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Reason behind hiccups: How to Get Rid of Hiccups, Causes & Symptoms

Get the Facts About Bottle Feeding and Infant Formula

Glass or Plastic Bottles?

Your baby may give you clues about which he likes better. Some things to consider: Plastic bottles are lighter than glass and are shatterproof. But they may not last as long as glass. In the past, some parents chose glass to avoid a chemical called bisphenol A (BPA) that is used in some plastic bottles. Now, all plastic bottles sold in the U.S. are BPA-free.

What to Know About Nipples

Most are made of silicone or latex, and they come in various shapes. They sometimes have different “flow rates,” based on the size of the nipple’s hole. You may want to try several types to see what your baby likes and can drink easily from. Check nipples often for signs of wear or cracking. Replace any that are worn or discolored.

Wash Bottles and Nipples

You can wash them with detergent and hot water, by hand or in the dishwasher. Do it each time you use them. You may prefer to wash plastic bottles by hand, since some studies show that chemicals leak from plastic when it’s exposed to hot temperatures. Most experts feel there’s no need to boil bottles.

Stick to Breast Milk or Formula

Give your newborn only pumped breast milk or formula in the bottle — no water or juice. Mix formula exactly as it says on the label. Adding too much water thins the formula, skimping on nutrition. And it may cause low salt in the baby, which can lead to seizures. Too little water may be hard for your little one’s stomach and kidneys.

How to Choose a Formula

Most parents start with one made from cow’s milk. You can also buy soy and hypoallergenic kinds. Make sure you use one that’s iron-fortified. You can buy formula in powdered, concentrated, or ready-to-use forms. By 6 months, your baby should be drinking between 6 and 8 ounces per feeding.

Warm or Room Temperature?

It’s fine to give your baby a cool or room-temperature bottle. If he prefers warm formula, put the filled bottle in warm water or run hot tap water over it for 1-2 minutes. Or you could use a bottle warmer. Don’t use the microwave. It can cause hot spots that could burn your baby’s mouth. Shake the formula and put a drop on the top of your hand to test the temperature. Don’t test it on your wrist — it’s less sensitive to heat.

How to Hold Your Baby

Put a bib on him, and have a cloth ready to clean any spit-up breast milk or formula. Now, cradle him with his head a bit higher than the rest of his body. Hold the bottle and watch him eat. Watching your baby will help you know when he’s finished. Try to burp him halfway through the feed to help limit spit-up.

Keep a Grip on the Bottle

When you’re tired, it can be tempting to prop up the bottle on a pillow and let your baby feed herself. But there are lots of perks if you hold the bottle while she eats. It’s great for bonding, and it’s safer. Leaving your baby with a propped-up bottle makes choking and tooth decay more likely. It can also cause ear infections. So enjoy your bottle time!

How Do You Know When Baby’s Done?

Your little one will let you know when she’s finished feeding. She may stop sucking, turn away from the bottle, or, if she’s old enough, push the bottle away. Give her a chance to change her mind, but don’t make her finish what’s in the bottle. If your baby tends to spit up after feeds, you may need to give her less.

How to Burp Her

If your baby needs a burp during or after feeding, hold her on your lap or rest her on your shoulder. Gently pat or rub her back. You can also lay her tummy-down on your lap, supporting her head, while you pat her back. She may spit up some milk, so have a cloth handy. If she doesn’t burp after a few minutes but seems content, don’t worry. Not every baby burps after every feeding.

Cut Down on Spit Up

If your baby spits up a lot, burp her every few minutes during feedings. Don’t lay her down or play with her for 45 minutes after she eats. Hold her upright or prop her up in a car seat after the meal. Spitting up often gets better when a baby starts sitting up. If you’re worried about how much she spits up, talk to her pediatrician.

Should You Switch Formulas?

If your baby spits up a lot or is fussy, you might blame the formula. Sometimes, babies can have allergies that can cause things like diarrhea, vomiting, or dry, red skin. If you see this, talk to your little one’s doctor. He’ll tell you if you need to change formulas — and if so, how to do it best. Don’t make a change before you talk to the doctor.

How Long Can You Store Milk?

Make formula as needed. Don’t mix big batches. Always throw out formula that’s left over in the bottle. Refrigerate opened packages of liquid formula right away, and use them within 48 hours. If you have mixed formula from powder, you can store it for 24 hours in the fridge. If formula is left out more than 2 hours, throw it out. Refrigerate breast milk for use within 7 days. Or freeze it. Breast milk can last 3 months in a regular freezer that’s kept at 0o F, or 6 months in a deep freezer.

Drug Facts, Side Effects and Dosing

Migraine vs. Headache: Differences and Similarities

Headaches are the most common reason why a person goes to the doctor or other healthcare professional for treatment. There are different types of headaches, for example, migraine, tension, and cluster headaches. The most common type of headache is tension headache. Migraine is much less common. There are few similarities between migraine and other headaches, for example, the severity of the pain can be the same, mild, moderate, or severe; and they can occur on one side or both sides of the head. However, there are many differences between migraine and other types of headaches. Migraine headaches also have different names, for example, migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.
Symptoms of migraine that usually aren’t experienced by a person with another type of headache include nausea, vomiting, worsens with mild exercise, debilitating pain, eye pain, throbbing head pain.
Migraine trigger include light, mild exercise, strong smells, certain foods like red wine, aged cheese, smoked meats, artificial sweeteners, chocolate, alcohol, and dairy products, menstrual period, stress, oversleeping, and changes in barometric pressure.
Untreated migraine attacks usually last from 4 to 72 hours, but may last for weeks. Most headaches resolve within 24-48 hours. Doctors don’t know exactly what causes migraine headaches; however, other headaches like tension headaches have more specific triggers and causes. Additional tests usually are required to diagnose migraine from other types of headaches, diseases, or other medical problems. Most headaches can be treated and cured with home remedies like essential oils, massage, and over-the-counter pain medication like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn) or ibuprofen (Advil, Midol, Motrin). Most headaches resolve with OTC and home remedy treatment, while your doctor may need to prescribe medication to treat your migraines. If you have the “worst headache of your life,” seek medical care immediately.

Hiccups: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

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  • What causes hiccups?| Healthy You

    Everyone hiccups from time to time. But why? 

    Hiccups happen when your diaphragm – a muscle at the base of your chest involved in respiration – spasms. The spasm causes you to suck in air quickly, but at the same time also forces your glottis – the space between your vocal cords – to close. The result is the characteristic, involuntary “hic” sound of the hiccup.

    “Hiccups are not harmful, and they typically go away quickly on their own,” says Melanie Ames, FNP, Family Nurse Practitioner at Riverside Primary Care Kiln Creek.

    How to get rid of hiccups

    There’s no shortage of supposed techniques for getting rid of hiccups, from drinking water to holding your breath to asking someone to “scare” you.  

    Other frequently cited tips include swallowing a spoonful of sugar or breathing into a paper bag.

    While these techniques may not be scientifically proven, they may work for some people.

    “In most cases, hiccups are short-lived,” says Ames. “But there’s no harm in trying simple strategies, such as drinking water or holding your breath, if you’re in a hurry to get past the hiccupping episode.”

    Hiccup triggers

    Hiccups can happen at any time, but certain activities or events may trigger them, including:

    • Stress or excitement
    • Overeating
    • Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol or carbonated beverages
    • Sudden temperature changes

    When hiccups could be something more

    If you experience frequent, prolonged bouts of hiccups – those that last 48 hours or more – your hiccups could be a symptom of an underlying health condition, including kidney or gastro-intestinal disease.

    If your hiccups are so severe that they interfere with your ability to eat, breathe or sleep normally, speak to your health care provider.

    “Hiccups are something everyone experiences. In the vast majority of cases, they’re of no medical concern whatsoever,” says Ames. “But if you’re experiencing chronic, reoccurring hiccups that last days at a time, you’ll want to be sure to mention that to your doctor.”

    Why Do We Hiccup? – The New York Times

    One of the most common causes of hiccups, he said, is a distended stomach, which sits just under the diaphragm. If your stomach gets too full, either with food or gas bubbles, it can stimulate the vagus or phrenic nerves and prompt hiccups. This poses a problem for those who have switched from sugary sodas to healthier sparkling water because the latter tends to have sharper and more insistent bubbles, which can lead to more hiccuping. Fizzy drinks can also provoke acid reflux, another hiccup trigger.

    But really, anything that upsets or aggravates your digestive or respiratory tracts can induce hiccups. Things like eating very hot or spicy foods. Or, maybe eating too fast and gulping in air at the same time. You can get hiccups from drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, vaping and taking recreational drugs or prescription opiates. Laughing really hard, talking excitedly and shaving or stroking your throat can also set your diaphragm spasming. So can stress and anxiety, lack of sleep, mineral deficiencies, electrolyte imbalances and poor posture.

    Rarer causes are pneumonia and tumors in the brain, stomach, lungs or diaphragm. People with neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis may have more frequent bouts of hiccups. The same is true of people with diabetes and kidney disease. The hiccuping can be caused by the diseases themselves, or it can be a side effect of the drugs used to treat the diseases.

    When it comes to treating persistent or troubling hiccups, Dr. Scott Gabbard, a gastroenterologist at the Cleveland Clinic, said it’s best to take care of the underlying cause, if you can identify it. Examples might be drinking still instead of sparkling water, avoiding spicy foods, eating several small meals throughout the day or breathing in a controlled manner when you’re feeling overwhelmed. Taking medication to control gastrointestinal reflux can also be helpful if heartburn is the issue.

    But with a lot of patients, Dr. Gabbard said, the cause is unclear: “There’s irritation somewhere, but we don’t know where or why.” That’s when people, if they are bothered enough, start to try therapies, some quite odd, that the scientific literature or anecdote suggest might work. Most people know about holding their breath on the exhale or breathing into a paper bag, which are both based on the idea that increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood will stop hiccuping.

    Other remedies are meant to essentially goose your vagus or phrenic nerves to break the hiccup cycle. These include having someone scare you or swallowing dry bread, crushed ice or peanut butter. You can also pull on your tongue, suck on a lemon wedge, make yourself gag or press on your eyes. One study, awarded the Ig Nobel Prize, reported cessation of hiccups following digital rectal massage, and another case study suggests an orgasm might do the trick.

    For the most extreme cases, sedatives, muscle relaxants or anti-seizure medications might be prescribed. Some patients have numbing agents injected along their phrenic or vagus nerves or get a neuromodulation device implanted that stimulates the vagus nerve. But these invasive therapies are last resort, and the adverse side effects can sometimes be worse than the hiccups.

    Hiccups – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

    There is no cure for hiccups, though there are many anecdotal treatments and cures. In nearly all cases, hiccups disappear and require no treatment. In the case of hiccups caused by another condition, such as a lung infection irritating the phrenic nerve (the nerve that controls the diaphragm), treatment of the underlying condition may prevent the hiccups from continuing.

    When hiccups persist for a long time or are severe, a variety of treatments are available, including muscle relaxants and surgical options.

    Medical treatment of chronic hiccups

    If hiccups last longer than a few days or come back frequently, certain medications may help control the symptoms or decrease the occurrence of the condition including:

    • Antinausea drugs such as metoclopramide (Reglan), which can help reduce the duration of hiccups
    • Antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), which can help decrease chronic hiccups
    • Antiseizure medications such as phenytoin (Dilantin), which can be used to treat hiccups
    • Muscle relaxants such as baclofen (Lioresal), which can calm the diaphragm and reduce spasm

    Surgical treatment of chronic hiccups

    A variety of surgical options are available for chronic hiccups. These can be used to decrease the frequency or severity of hiccups. They include:

    • Implanting a small device into the vagus nerve, a treatment usually used in patients with epilepsy, which has been shown to improve chronic hiccups

    • Injecting a nerve block into the phrenic nerve, which can to relieve hiccups

    • Inserting a nasogastric tube, which may help to relieve chronic hiccups for reasons that are not known

    Some complementary treatments may help some people to better deal with chronic hiccups. The current medical literature suggests that acupuncture works as well, or better than, conventional medical therapy. These treatments, sometimes referred to as alternative therapies, are used in conjunction with traditional medical treatments.

    Complementary treatments are not meant to substitute for traditional medical care. Be sure to notify your doctor if you are consuming nutritional supplements or homeopathic (nonprescription) remedies as they may interact with the prescribed medical therapy.

    Complementary treatments may include:

    • Acupuncture

    • Massage therapy

    • Nutritional dietary supplements, herbal remedies, tea beverages, and similar products

    • Yoga

    What you can do to improve your hiccups

    Though many remedies claim to cure hiccups, there is no effective method of self-care that has been proven or is guaranteed to work. There are some common things you can do to limit hiccups in some circumstances including:

    What are the potential complications of hiccups?

    Hiccups by themselves usually present only mild complications, such as embarrassment, difficulty communicating, and discomfort.

    Complications of hiccups include:

    • Difficulty sleeping

    • Difficulty speaking

    • Discomfort

    • Embarrassment

    Hiccup – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    What To Do:

    For a bout of hiccups, stimulate the patient’s soft palate by rubbing it with a swab, spoon, catheter tip, or finger, just short of stimulating a gag reflex, and, if necessary, repeat this several times. Alternatively, stimulate the same general area by depositing a tablespoon of granulated sugar at the base of the tongue, in the area of the lingual tonsils, and letting it dissolve. Such maneuvers (or their placebo effect) may abolish simple cases of hiccups. Other simple measures include having the individual bite on a lemon or inhale a noxious agent (e.g., ammonia). You can also have them perform a Valsalva maneuver, breath hold, or pull their knees up to their chest and lean forward.

    With persistent and protracted hiccups, look for an underlying cause and ask about precipitating factors or previous episodes. Drugs that are known to cause hiccups include benzodiazepines, short-acting barbiturates, and dexamethasone. Persistence of hiccups during sleep suggests an organic cause; conversely, if a patient is unable to sleep or if the hiccups stop during sleep and recur promptly on awakening, a psychogenic or idiopathic cause is indicated.

    Perform a complete physical examination. Look in the ears. (Foreign bodies such as a hair against the tympanic membrane can cause hiccups.) Examine the neck, chest, and abdomen, perhaps including an upright chest radiograph, to look for neoplastic, inflammatory, or infectious processes irritating the phrenic nerve or diaphragm. Pericarditis and aberrant cardiac pacemaker electrode placement are potential sources of persistent hiccups, as well as acute and chronic alcohol intoxication and gastroesophageal reflux. Perform a neurologic examination, looking for evidence of partial continuous seizures or brain stem lesions. Early multiple sclerosis is thought to be one of the most frequent neurologic causes of intractable hiccups in young adults.

    Routine laboratory evaluation may include a CBC with differential (looking for infection or neoplasm) and a basic metabolic panel. (Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and uremia can cause persistent hiccups.)

    If hiccups persist after using simple measures, try chlorpromazine (Thorazine), 25 to 50 mg PO tid or qid. (The same dose may be given IV or IM.) To avoid or minimize hypotension, consider giving a 500- to 1000-mL bolus of IV normal saline. Alternatively, haloperidol (Haldol), 2 to 5 mg IM, followed by 1 to 4 mg PO tid for 2 days may be equally effective, with less potential for hypotension. Another approach is to use metoclopramide (Reglan), 10 mg IV or IM, followed by a maintenance regimen of 10 to 20 mg PO tid to qid for 10 days. Another choice is nifedipine (Procardia), 10 to 20 mg PO tid or qid.

    For intractable hiccups, phenytoin (Dilantin), valproic acid (Depakote), or carbamazepine (Tegretol) can be given in typical anticonvulsant doses. Alternatively, baclofen (a centrally acting muscle relaxant) can be prescribed at 10 mg qid with gabapentin (Neurontin) as an “add-on,” if necessary, especially in patients with solid malignancies.

    Other aggressive measures include IV lidocaine (Xylocaine) in a loading dose of 1 mg/kg, followed by an infusion of 2 mg/min and low-dose ketamine (Ketalar) at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg slow IV push.

    Arrange for follow-up and additional evaluation if the hiccups recur or persist.


    The medical term singultus apparently originates from the Latin, singult, which is very descriptive and roughly translates as “the act of catching one’s breath while sobbing.

    Hiccups result from an involuntary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles with ensuing quick inspiration. This is followed by a rapid closure of the glottis, which prevents overinflation of the lungs.

    Hiccups are mediated by a reflex arch consisting of the afferent and efferent limbs and supraspinal central connection, which are thought to be independent of the respiratory center in the brain stem. The exact cause remains unclear. When there is an organic cause, irritation of the various branches of the vagus nerve are often involved. Despite a long list of possible causes, in most cases no organic cause can be identified, and a diagnosis of idiopathic chronic hiccups is made.

    Although unlikely, there are potentially serious complications, such as dehydration and weight loss, resulting from the inability to tolerate fluids and food.

    Patients who experience syncope with the hiccups should be hospitalized and evaluated for possible life-threatening arrhythmias, which have been reported as both the cause and the effect of hiccups.

    Hiccups in general are a common malady, and fortunately most bouts are usually transient and benign. Persistent or intractable episodes are more likely to result from serious pathophysiologic processes that affect a component of the hiccup reflex mechanism.

    The common denominator among various hiccup cures for brief episodes seems to be stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve, but as for every self-limiting disease, there are always many effective cures.

    … hold your breath, and if after you have done so for some time the hiccup is no better, then gargle with a little water, and if it still continues, tickle your nose with something and sneeze, and if you sneeze once or twice, even the most violent hiccup is sure to go.

    —Eryximachus, the physician to Aristophanes, in Plato’s Symposium.

    90,000 15 tips to get rid of hiccups

    Every person has encountered hiccups at least once in his life: as if according to the law of meanness, at the most inopportune moment, incessant hiccups begin, interfering with eating, talking, sleeping and doing anything in general. At times like these, good advice on how to get rid of hiccups will be absolutely invaluable. The main thing is that these tips really help, because hiccups are a very persistent phenomenon.

    Briefly about the causes of hiccups

    The immediate cause of hiccups is jerky involuntary convulsive contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

    In turn, a variety of factors can lead to involuntary contractions of the diaphragm: nervous stress, overeating, alcohol intoxication, hypothermia, sudden inhalation, sleep or sitting in an uncomfortable position, and so on.

    Much less often, with prolonged endless hours of hiccupping, the cause should be sought in lesions of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal or pulmonary diseases (including oncology), intervertebral hernias, myocardial infarction, etc.

    Analysis of the main ways to get rid of hiccups

    Severe fright

    The easiest way to abruptly stop hiccups is to sharply scare the patient, for example, jumping out at him from around the corner shouting “Life or wallet!”. That is, it should be just a sharp fright, and not a strong stress from some shocking news (someone’s death, dismissal, etc.).

    Evaluation of effectiveness: very effective, but also very risky method. With a successful startle, the hiccups really stop instantly, but sometimes it stops at the same time as the heart.


    Standing straight, you need to put your hand behind your back so that your hand is between the shoulder blades, then, keeping your back straight, swallow 1-2 times.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: This method very well helps to stop hiccups, but, unfortunately, not everyone is able to move their hand high between the shoulder blades, especially if the person is not young.

    Drinking water: 2 tips

    Usually a patient with hiccups is advised to drink 1-2 glasses of water. In some cases, this helps, but for most hiccups, advice turns out to be useless. The reason for this is simple: water should be drunk for a reason, but in a special position.

    Method number 1 : the patient, standing straight, must bend at the lower back, as if for a bow, so that his body is parallel to the ground, and the whole body resembles a right angle. Hands should be placed behind the back. Someone else at this time should give the patient a drink of water from a glass. You need to drink without stopping or taking a break, although it will be very inconvenient to do this. If there is no assistant, then you can not drink water, but simply draw in air, often this is enough.

    Method # 2 : Drink a glass of water with your ears closed. Here, too, you will need an assistant who will hold the glass, although dexterous people can try to drink water, holding the glass in their teeth.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: if water is drunk in the described positions, then the hiccups stop instantly.

    Vomiting urge

    Putting two fingers into your mouth, you need to irritate the root of the tongue, supposedly provoking vomiting.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: This method requires great care, because if you overdo it with tickling the root of the tongue and cause real vomiting, the hiccups can even get worse.

    “Sleepy” breathing

    You need to lie down or sit down, relax, and then breathe for 1-2 minutes as it happens during sleep – long, drawn out and relaxed.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: This method is recommended for frequent hiccups, as it also has a therapeutic and prophylactic effect, preventing the recurrence of hiccups.

    Breathe in bag

    Take a paper bag, put it to your mouth and take the deepest possible inhalation and exhalation.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: method helps, but only with mild hiccups.

    Lemon tongue

    Some hiccups are helped by a slice of simple lemon, which must be held on the root of the tongue.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: does not save everyone from hiccups, and small children also strive to spit out “muck”.

    Dissolve honey, sugar, candy

    Put a teaspoon of honey, sugar or lollipop on your tongue and dissolve slowly.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: is a method of average efficiency, which, moreover, is completely unsuitable for diabetics (because of sugar) and children (they simply cannot slowly dissolve sweets).

    Pull out tongue

    You need to stretch your tongue forward as much as possible and sit there until the hiccups pass.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: does not help everyone, and besides, with severe hiccups there is a risk of biting your tongue.

    Singing or reading tongue twisters

    Start loudly, at the top of your voice, sing songs, or read tongue twisters just as loudly.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: helps provided that chanting / reading is done really loud, at full lung capacity. Weak whispering “so the neighbors don’t hear” is practically useless.

    Hot tub

    Immerse yourself in a hot bath up to your neck and lie there until the hiccups stop.You just need a bath, a shower is not suitable.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: excellent method, excellent in eliminating hiccups, but very limited in use.

    Burning agents on tongue

    The essence of the method: grease the root of the tongue with hot mustard or pepper.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: a savage method, which often causes burns and spasm of the larynx, which only aggravates the hiccups or even makes it lingering.


    A patient with hiccups is tickled to such an extent that he becomes short of breath.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: helps little children well, but with adults it is more difficult – not everyone can be tickled, and it is not always appropriate due to the social status of the hiccup.


    Get good abs, do push-ups, do a lot of squats, or do a headstand (birch).

    Evaluation of effectiveness: helps those who, for health reasons, are able to withstand intense physical activity.


    You need to completely switch your attention to something else in order to completely forget about the hiccups.

    Evaluation of effectiveness: The method really helps a lot, but in order to escape from the tiresome hiccups, you need either the help of some very interesting storyteller, or the highest level of self-control.

    And good advice in the end

    If home treatments for hiccups do not work, and it persists for 2-3 hours, you should go to the hospital for a more detailed examination and establish the cause of such a prolonged hiccup.

    The dog has hiccups! What to do?

    Hiccups in dogs

    Strange, rhythmic contraction of your pet’s diaphragm is most likely caused by nothing more than hiccups. There are several reasons for hiccups, but it usually lasts a few minutes and is not a cause for concern.

    Most often puppies hiccup, but even adult pets have respiratory problems. Hiccups lasting more than an hour is a reason to seek help from a veterinarian.

    Causes of hiccups in dogs

    The most common cause is the ingestion of air that enters the stomach and lungs in large quantities, causing diaphragm spasm and abrupt involuntary sounds.Air can get in if the animal quickly absorbs food or drinks water greedily.

    Excitement, nervousness, stressful situations also cause hiccups in dogs.

    Puppies usually hiccup after waking up and eating, some babies can hiccup even in their sleep. Veterinarians have their own opinion on this, due to the fact that babies still retain a rudimentary reflex, which was developed when the puppies were in the womb. The reflex allows babies to strengthen the lungs and muscles of the esophagus.

    As a result of drying out of the mucous membranes during long and active walks in animals, an uncontrolled contraction of the diaphragm may occur.

    There are other causes of hiccups in dogs that are associated with medical conditions in the pet. In such cases, a number of signs appear, if found, you should immediately contact your veterinarian. Such reasons include damage to the nervous system, which can be a complication after a previous plague, helminthic invasion, asthma, stroke, allergies, and gastrointestinal diseases.

    Other reasons leading to a convulsive contraction of the diaphragm include the ingress of a foreign body into the stomach, inhalation of air containing irritating substances.

    How to stop a dog’s hiccups

    The goal is to change the breathing rhythm. There are several methods that are effective if the contraction of the diaphragm is not one of the signs of disease.

    You can offer your dog water, as drinking water is known to help stop the convulsive contraction of the diaphragm, or to give the pet something to eat.Drinking or eating food will change the respiratory process and stop the contraction of the diaphragm, but you cannot force the animal to drink or eat.

    You can play with an animal, because the breathing rate changes during the game. Another way is to take the pet by the front legs and raise them for three minutes.
    Distracting activities can help stop a dog’s hiccups. To do this, you need to create the effect of surprise, to distract the animal with a thundering, squeaking toy.Unexpected sounds act as a fright on a person, having experienced that hiccuping stops.

    You can stop hiccups in a dog by light massaging movements in the chest and abdomen. A light massage will relax your muscles and normalize your breathing. Agitated or stressed dogs should be tried to calm down by talking to the animal in a calm tone, stroking, and eliminating the source of stress.

    For regular and severe hiccups without symptoms of illness, the veterinarian may prescribe medications to stop the diaphragm spasms.

    90,000 reasons for the appearance and how to get rid of

    November 11, 2021, 17:59

    Everyone faced this – how to win, not accept – in this article

    “Hiccups, hiccups, go to Fedot, from Fedot to Yakov, from Yakov to everyone!” – this most powerful “spell” is known to everyone. But this is not the only way to stop hiccupping.There are effective methods that are not scientifically determined. And the effect of some of them is quite understandable, because it turns out to be on human physiology, and it is in it that the reasons for such a state lie.


    Causes of hiccups

    Physicians explain this physiological process in professional language, and speak about it this way. The phenomenon seems to be a nonspecific, involuntary breathing disorder, manifested as a result of jerky diaphragmatic contractions caused by various provoking factors.It manifests itself as convulsive, intense, short respiratory movements, unpleasant for a person.

    Formulating a definition of what a hiccup is, it is possible and somewhat simpler. These are short inhalations and exhalations caused by convulsive diaphragmatic contraction. In this case, the glottis is closed.

    Under what circumstances do hiccups occur?

    There are different reasons for hiccups, why a person hiccups, as a rule, this is due to human physiology. What can provoke irritation of the vagus nerve followed by diaphragmatic contractions? Most often it is:

    • Drinking alcohol. The more a person consumes alcoholic beverages, the more likely it is that it will be taken in large sips and air masses enter the stomach. From them, it swells, its walls stretch, begin to press on the diaphragm. And if a person develops alcohol dependence, the work of nerve tissues is disrupted, they cease to perform their functions correctly, and from this a person can often hiccup;
    • Overeating, fast food intake, excess fluid intake.
    • Confused, fast, or too deep breathing. Air masses can irritate the vagus nerve, causing a person to hiccup;
    • Pregnancy. The growing uterus can pinch a nerve located in the diaphragm, causing the muscle to contract. Increasingly, a woman can experience this condition when the fetus is already moving, provoking new muscle contractions;
    • Hypothermia. If smooth muscles freeze, they try to protect themselves from the cold by contracting, and thereby irritating the vagus nerve;
    • Laughter, crying, hysteria.With a bright manifestation of emotions, which we sometimes express, as they say, “avidly”, you can also swallow an excessive amount of air, which will make you hiccup.

    How to get rid of hiccups quickly?

    Effective ways to get rid of hiccups:

    • They say that in order to help a person stop hiccuping, they need to be scared. A sudden fright helps a person to quickly distract from the problem, the body switches to this emotion, and muscle contractions stop;
    • Shifting attention away from a given problem is considered one of the most effective ways to combat this phenomenon.Come up with some kind of entertainment that really captivates you. For example, place an object in a glass of water and examine every millimeter of it, how air bubbles appear around it, etc. Most likely, for the same purpose – to distract attention – the inhabitants of southern Texas tie a hiccuping red thread, which grabs his head and passes in the region of the bridge of the nose. Unwittingly, a person (you can use this method for children) pays attention to it, thus distracting from the trouble;
    • Breathe out of the plastic bag (just briefly).In this case, it will become harder to breathe, to which the body will be distracted, and carbon dioxide will have a relaxing effect on the diaphragm, forcing it to stop contracting;
    • You can try and force yourself to stop hiccuping with an effort of will. But this will most likely require some kind of powerful incentive. For example, you might argue with someone that you won’t hiccup for a minute. By focusing on self-control, it is highly likely that you will be able to defeat this nuisance.

    Eat something unusual

    The effectiveness of this method is high. It consists in eating food that has a sharp, pronounced taste. It can be something salty (you can even eat a little salt), sweet (by analogy with salt, you can even taste a little sugar), bitter (and even a piece of onion), sour (the classic version is a slice of lemon).

    Press on the root of the tongue

    Gently touch the base of the tongue with your fingers, but the movement should be pressing, as if you are causing vomiting. A spasm will form in the esophagus, due to which the contractions of the diaphragm will stop.This procedure is unlikely to deliver pleasant sensations, but getting rid of hiccups at home should quickly and effectively help.

    Stick out tongue

    Look at the famous portrait of Einstein and repeat after him. You need to stick out your tongue as far as possible and hold it in this position – as long as possible. To enhance the effect, you need to push or pull on it with your fingers. Be careful with this method to avoid damaging your tongue and mouth in general.

    Drink water with closed ears

    In a large vessel, you need to take cold water in an amount of about 400 ml, pinch your ears so that you do not hear anything, and drink the liquid through a straw. If there is someone nearby who is ready to help, he can hold a vessel of water in front of you, and then you can do without a straw.

    This is not the only way to get rid of hiccups, because there is a similar option. It also provides for drinking water, but not with closed ears, but with arms crossed behind the back, and the body should be in a bent position.You need to take liquid in small sips. For the procedure, a tube or a friend’s help is also useful. In the process, the diaphragm stops contracting due to the bent state and the rapid displacement of air masses from it.

    Hold breath

    This method will help no matter what the reasons why the person began to hiccup. To stop the hiccups, you need to hold your breath, having previously covered your ears with your fingers. The nose also needs to be closed, pressing its wings with the little fingers.You need to close your eyes, and now hold your breath, and spend in this position as much time as possible – as much as you can. When you start breathing again, breathing will be heavy, frequent, due to which the diaphragm will open, and the unpleasant phenomenon will recede.

    90,000 From indigestion to cancer. What problems can hiccups talk about? | Healthy life | Health

    Why on earth does this trouble happen to us, how dangerous is it and how, in the end, can we get rid of the obsessive “hic-hik”? Let’s try to figure it out.

    Unknown reasons

    Until now, no one knows for certain why we all of a sudden begin to hiccup. Another rhetorical question: how long will this trouble last. And, finally, the third and main riddle: why does our body need this?

    Scientists claim that this phenomenon occurs as a result of irritation of the nerve endings passing through the diaphragm, but why this irritation occurs is still a mystery. Some believe that hiccups are a type of nerve tic, while others suggest that there is a hiccups center in the brain that causes esophageal spasm, and that this mechanism supposedly protects us from harmful excesses in food and drink.But most doctors do not recognize anything useful for hiccups, unlike a cough that rid the body of phlegm, this phenomenon does not bring with it any deliverance.

    Physiologically, hiccups are a nonspecific respiratory disorder. The characteristic sound accompanying this strange phenomenon is the result of a sharp slamming of the glottis, which occurs due to sharper than usual convulsive contractions of the diaphragm (a muscle barrier that separates the chest and abdominal cavities).The time between the contraction of the diaphragm and the appearance of sound is only 35 thousandths of a second. At this time, the person does not breathe.

    There are many reasons for the occurrence of such sudden convulsive sounds: hypothermia (especially in young children), excessive distension of the stomach (associated with excessive appetite), excessive haste when absorbing food or water, in which air is swallowed, nervous shock and other

    Functional, or nervous, hiccups usually occur in people with a weak nervous system, such hiccups disappear after calming down.Indomitable hiccups can overtake a person while drinking alcohol. The same reaction can be given by general intoxication caused by the intake of certain medications – for example, sulfonamides.

    Unusual symptom

    Hiccups resulting from external causes are absolutely safe. It goes away by itself. But prolonged, painful hiccups can be a symptom of certain medical conditions. For example, inflammation in the abdomen or pneumonia often irritates the diaphragm, resulting in excruciating, persistent hiccups.

    The same symptom sometimes testifies to such terrible ailments as a malignant tumor of the lungs or liver. Spasms of the diaphragm, accompanied by obscene sounds, as well as rapid heartbeat, may indicate the presence of a hiatal hernia. People who have had stomach or spine surgery often experience breathing problems, which also lead to hiccups. Hiccups can also occur with some diseases of the brain and spinal cord, as well as with myocardial infarction, infectious diseases, and very often – with mental agitation.

    In case of prolonged (more than two days) or even more prolonged hiccups (more than 1 month), it is imperative to consult a doctor. Prolonged, persistent hiccups, accompanied by abdominal pain and nausea, can be a manifestation of a peptic ulcer or stomach tumor, as well as diseases of the liver, gallbladder or pancreas. With a prolonged attack of hiccups, it is shown to consult a doctor, and if vomiting has joined the hiccups, especially with traces of blood, you must immediately call an ambulance.If you have hiccups very often or it lasts too long, then it does not hurt to take an X-ray after taking a barium mixture – this will help to find out if there is any mechanical obstruction in the esophagus. To eliminate hiccups that have arisen for other reasons, the doctor may prescribe certain medications, depending on what the disorder is associated with.

    Methods of struggle

    If hiccups are not associated with an illness, you can try to get rid of it in different ways.

    ● For example, Hippocrates in such cases advised to try to sneeze. Another method is to hold your breath for a long time and try to mentally distract yourself from your problem, switching to something more worthy of attention. If you find it difficult to hold your breath for a long time, put a plastic bag over your head – this will help increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and, accordingly, relieve the spasm.

    ● If a newborn baby has hiccups after a meal, rub the baby in a column, stroking his back.The air will come out and the hiccups will stop.

    ● Sometimes the cause of hiccups at such a young age is hypothermia. Check if the baby is cold – if so, wrap him up warmly, and the convulsive sounds will soon stop.

    ● If an older child has hiccups, give him a drink of water – he may have eaten too much or was in too much of a hurry to eat.

    ● Among the quick methods of getting rid of hiccups is this: you need to put a cup of water on the table in front of you, clasp your hands in the lock, bend low and, reaching for the cup with your lips, without using your hands, drink water in small, greedy sips.

    ● Some advise to swallow a spoonful of granulated sugar without drinking it with water. You can eat something bitter or sour, as well as a piece of ice. With painful hiccups, a warm drink, a warm heating pad on the stomach, or, conversely, cold helps.

    ● You can also stop hiccups by a reflex method. Place your finger on the lining of your throat as if you are about to induce vomiting. This will help break the established rhythm of the hiccups.

    ● The rich and famous had their own secrets of how to deal with this annoying and indecent phenomenon in high society.For example, President Kennedy’s personal physician considered this method to be the most effective: you need to open your mouth wider, grasp your tongue with your fingers, stretch it slightly and hold it in this position for several seconds. The President’s physician argued that it was a sure and fast-acting remedy.


    According to the Guinness Book of Records, a certain Charles Osborne from the American state of Iowa began to hiccup in 1922 and stopped in 1990. A strange feature did not prevent the man from marrying twice and having eight children.

    See also:

    90,000 How to get rid of hiccups? | Pharmacy Weekly

    Most people know that even a small bout of hiccups can quickly become very annoying. There are many tips on how to get rid of hiccups, but do they all work? Let’s take a look at the most famous ones.

    All methods proposed in this article are taken from recommendations prepared by specialists from the British National Health Service.

    According to most doctors, hiccups occur due to rapid rhythmic contractions of the diaphragm during inhalation at a time when the vocal folds are sharply narrowed or closed.

    The easiest way to get rid of hiccups is to control your posture and breathing. Sit upright, inhale and hold your breath for 10 seconds, then exhale slowly. Repeat the action 3 or 4 times. Then, if the hiccups continue, repeat the exercise 20 minutes later.

    The most famous way to combat hiccups is to drink cold water from the “opposite” edge of the glass, that is, from the inside.To do this, bend over slightly, wrap your mouth around the back of the glass and drink in slow sips.

    Something sour, such as a slice of lemon or a couple of drops of vinegar on the tip of the tongue, can also help remove hiccups.

    You can try drinking a glass of warm water, but not carbonated, very slowly, while trying not to breathe.

    You can use the reflex method – for this pull out your tongue, take it with your fingers and pull it slightly. This stimulates the vagus nerve and relieves the phrenic spasms that cause hiccups.

    In the vast majority of cases, hiccups disappear spontaneously. Some people think that hiccups go away faster if you just ignore them.

    If hiccups persist for a long time, interferes with sleep and eating, and leads to depression, you should consult a doctor.

    But the best way to get rid of hiccups is to prevent them. Here is a list of factors that often lead to hiccups:

    • air entering the esophagus during a meal;
    • drinking alcohol, especially cold alcohol;
    • eating spicy food;
    • smoking;
    • severe stress.

    Based on materials from www.medicalnewstoday.com

    90,000 Causes of human hiccups and how to get rid of it

    Hiccups are a physiological process that occurs against the background of contractions of the diaphragm. As a rule, this phenomenon annoys a person, and sometimes those around him – it becomes impossible to communicate normally and do everyday activities. It’s all to blame for the load on the vagus nerve.

    Causes of hiccups

    Vagus nerve irritation

    The vagus nerve provides a connection between human internal organs and the central nervous system.The nerve is located in close proximity to the esophagus, passing from the chest cavity to the abdominal cavity. Together, the esophagus and vagus nerve penetrate through a small opening in the diaphragm and reach the abdomen. Very often hiccups start right here, in this narrow hole. If a hungry person pounces on food and does not chew it thoroughly, swallowing large pieces, they, falling into the esophagus, in this very place can irritate the nerve and cause hiccups.

    Wrong food intake

    Hiccups after eating may be due to air entering the digestive system.This is especially common in babies. In order for the air to escape as soon as possible, it is necessary to carry the baby in your arms, holding it with a column. It is important not to overfeed the baby – it is better to feed him more often, but in small portions. A possible cause may be that the nipple is incorrectly matched and the milk flows out too quickly. In this case, the nipple must be replaced.


    Low temperatures can also provoke this phenomenon, especially because of this, hiccups occur in newborns.In babies, the process of heat regulation is not perfect, so parents should make sure that the child is not cold.

    Other common causes

    Also, the reasons can be fright, overeating, long-term presence of the body in an uncomfortable position. A well-known reason for many is excessive alcohol consumption. In addition to alcohol intoxication, hiccups can be provoked by poisoning with chemicals and even nicotine. Often, it can be caused by excessive stress on the nervous system, that is, normal stress.

    The Guinness Book describes a case when an American, Charles Osborne, suffered from incessant hiccups for 68 years.

    This example is an exception, and in most cases, the hiccups end fairly quickly.

    Hiccups – indicator of serious diseases

    The frequent occurrence of this phenomenon can be a symptom of a serious illness, therefore, if it occurs regularly, you should seek the advice of a specialist.

    Persistent hiccups are most often associated with pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as disorders of the central nervous system. First of all, it is necessary to exclude gastrointestinal diseases: gastritis, ulcers, intestinal obstruction.

    Causes of a neurological nature can cause hiccups: strokes, brain trauma, encephalitis, hydrocephalus. If a person often hiccups, this may also indicate a violation of the respiratory system. Here such diagnoses as pneumonia, tuberculosis, hernia of the diaphragm, pneumothorax are possible.Against the background of helminthic invasions and diseases of the female genital area, constant hiccups can also occur. Probably the development of oncological diseases: the growth of tumors in the neck, mediastinum, esophagus, lungs – all this can cause frequent hiccups.

    Of course, for none of these diagnoses, treatment at home without consulting a doctor is inadmissible. But, fortunately, in most cases, hiccups are not a consequence of a dangerous disease, and you can get rid of it yourself.

    How to quickly get rid of hiccups

    There are many methods to stop hiccups.The choice should be approached reasonably, for example, it is better not to use the well-known method to “scare”.

    • If you do not want to wait for the moment when it passes by itself, you can take a regular plastic or paper bag and breathe into it. It is necessary that the air does not get there, thus the amount of oxygen is reduced, and the amount of carbon dioxide increases.
    • A similar method is holding the breath. It is recommended to restrict oxygen access 3 times in a row for the maximum possible time.
    • It would be logical to eliminate the cause of the problem. If you suspect nervous stress may be the cause, you should take a sedative. If hypothermia provoked it, you need to drink hot tea and warm up.
    • Sour or bitter foods can be used as a remedy for hiccups. This is a kind of distraction – when such food enters the body, often the diaphragm spasms stop. In this case, you can use lemon or a small amount of mustard.
    • The standard and widely used method is to sip a glass of water while holding your breath.

    Regardless of which method you choose, it must be remembered that if the hiccups continue for more than an hour, you should see a doctor for pharmacological treatment.