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Relief from uti symptoms: How to Relieve UTI Pain at Night: Medical and Home Remedies

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How to Relieve UTI Pain at Night: Medical and Home Remedies

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You may be able to relieve UTI pain by taking prescribed medications and using home remedies, including a heating pad.

A UTI is a urinary tract infection. It can be an infection in any part of your urinary system, including your bladder, kidneys, urethra, and ureters.

Some of the common symptoms that can make it difficult to sleep at night include:

  • pelvic discomfort
  • persistent urge to urinate
  • burning sensation when urinating
  • frequent urination of small amounts

Keep reading to learn about medical treatments and home remedies you can use to relieve nighttime UTI symptoms.

A UTI is an infection of any location along the urinary tract, but when most people say UTI, they’re usually referring to a bladder infection. UTIs are more common in folks assigned female at birth, because of the setup of anatomy.

S. Adam Ramin, MD, urologist and medical director of Urology Cancer Specialists in Los Angeles, explained that the “bladder and its tubing, the urethra, sit directly along the length of the vagina. Urine exits the body through this very short tube, and the opening of the urethra is a tiny hole right above the entrance into the vagina.

This positioning makes it super easy for bacteria to travel along the urinary tract.

During vaginal intercourse, bacteria from the vagina and rectum can easily move into the urethra and the bladder, causing a urinary tract infection, Ramin added.

Hormonal change is another cause of UTIs, though it’s less common. Karyn Eilber, MD, a board certified urologist and an associate professor of urology & OB-GYN at Cedars-Sinai Hospital, said some people experience UTIs at certain times of the month.

“Cyclical hormone changes related to the menstrual cycle can influence the vaginal pH. The vaginal pH is acidic which is conducive to the ‘good’ bacteria,” Eilber said. “At certain times of the month (or because of perimenopause or menopause), the pH can become less acidic so that there is an imbalance in a woman’s microbiome and she can be more prone to UTIs.”

For most healthy, hydrated people, peeing should be pain-free and urine output should be nearly odorless, or in some cases should only have a slight scent of ammonia to it. If that’s not the case, an infection might be present. Here are a few common signs of a UTI to look out for:

Urgent and frequent urination

A UTI can cause inflammation and irritation of the bladder lining, making it more sensitive. This results in more urinary urgency and frequency of urination. You might also notice that despite having an urgent need to pee, the output is minimal or nonexistent.

Burning or pain while peeing

Dysuria, or burning with urination, is also a common symptom. Pain due to a UTI usually occurs with urination, but pain or burning not related to urination may be indicative of a vaginal infection or something else, Eilber said.

Smelly or cloudy urine

Ramin said that sometimes, one of the early signs of an impending UTI is a distinctly unusual smell or cloudy appearance of your urine. If you suddenly notice a foul or otherwise unusual smell to it, this may indicate a urinary tract infection or urinary stones, especially if the smell is also accompanied by a cloudy appearance.

Loss of control

You may also find you have less control over your bladder during a UTI episode. UTIs that have reached the kidneys can include the symptoms mentioned above and are frequently accompanied by back pain and fever.

To help your recovery, you need to rest. But it can be difficult to sleep with some of the uncomfortable symptoms that may accompany a UTI.

Here are some things you can do at home to help you sleep comfortably:

  • Drink plenty of water during the day to help flush out bacteria.
  • Avoid alcohol, coffee, and soft drinks that contain caffeine or citrus juice. These tend to irritate your bladder and aggravate the urgency and frequency of your need to urinate.
  • Avoid drinking a lot of fluids before bed.
  • Use an incontinence pad or wear incontinence pants. These can lessen the concern of urinating in your sleep or give you the option of not getting out of bed to urinate.
  • Use a hot water bottle or heating pad to warm your abdomen to minimize bladder discomfort or pressure.
  • Completely empty your bladder before bed.
  • Take your antibiotics as instructed by your doctor.

If your doctor hasn’t prescribed pain medication and you feel it would help you sleep, ask them for a recommendation for either OTC or prescription pain medications.

The first step to relieving UTI discomfort at night is to see your doctor about knocking out the infection.

Stopping the infection

Based on your current health and the type of bacteria in your urine, your doctor might recommend antibiotic medication for a simple UTI, such as:

  • ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
  • cephalexin (Keflex)
  • fosfomycin (Monurol)
  • nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)
  • trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)

If you have a complicated UTI or kidney infection, your doctor may prescribe a type of antibiotic called fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin (Levaquin) or ciprofloxacin (Cipro).

To reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance, you should receive the shortest treatment course possible. Effective treatment typically takes no more than 7 days.

There are also other medications available for treatment that are not antibiotic-based.

Relieving the pain

Within a few days of starting the antibiotic, you should notice a relief in discomfort, but your doctor may also suggest an analgesic (pain medication).

Antibiotics aren’t the only option and there are other prescription medications available to treat UTIs.

Many UTI analgesics include phenazopyridine for relief from the pain, itching, burning, and urinary urgency. It’s available in both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) forms.

Over-the-counter UTI medication

When it comes to treating UTIs with OTC options, you may want to skip it. Bladder infections are usually easy to treat with a course of antibiotics prescribed by your doctor and plenty of fluids. But if you’re looking for pain relief, Ramin recommends AZO.

“AZO is an effective OTC and one of the best over-the-counter bladder analgesics we have available to ease urinary pain. If taken in small doses, this is safe. Overdosing on AZO should always be avoided,” he said. “You can use AZO with or without antibiotics, but typically I recommend using it for 3 days.”

Experts also recommend drinking plenty of fluids, unsweetened cranberry juice, and taking probiotics. Just because there are OTC options to relieve UTI discomfort, you shouldn’t overlook the actual infection. In fact, Kecia Gaither, MD, MPH, FACOG, double board certified in OB-GYN and Maternal Fetal Medicine, doesn’t recommend taking the OTC route at all.

“I don’t recommend over-the-counter medications for urinary tract infections,” she said. “Untreated [or not properly treated], a common bladder infection can spread to the kidneys and potentially the entire body, resulting in pyelonephritis and urosepsis.”

Those who are pregnant are particularly susceptible to this, as bladder infections can be further progressive in nature.

According to Eilber, UTI pain and other symptoms aren’t worse at night. They are just more bothersome because people aren’t as distracted by their daily activities and the symptoms of frequency and urgency are forcing you to get out of bed.

UTI discomfort may also seem worse because you’re not emptying your bladder as much as you would during the day. The pressure from collecting urine then creates discomfort against the inflamed walls of your infected bladder.

To reduce your risk of getting a UTI, there are specific lifestyle steps you can take, including:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water.
  • Drink cranberry juice.
  • Wipe from front to back after urinating and bowel movements.
  • Empty your bladder before and after sexual activity.
  • Take showers instead of baths.
  • Avoid potentially irritating products, such as deodorant sprays, douches, and powders, in the genital area.
  • Change tampons regularly.
  • Switch your birth control method. Condoms and diaphragms can contribute to bacterial growth.
  • Wear loose-fitting cotton underwear and clothing.

If you are experiencing symptoms of a UTI, it’s best to see your doctor as soon as possible. For those who are pregnant, a UTI can be dangerous for both mother and child.

Your doctor will perform the necessary tests, like a urine culture, to figure out the primary bacteria responsible for your infection. They’ll then prescribe medication that is targeted for your specific needs.

Again, this isn’t something you want to ignore for too long because your UTI could get a lot worse. Ramin said, in rare cases, the bacteria could make its way to your kidneys, which makes the UTI more difficult to treat.

“In more serious cases of urinary tract infection, antibiotics may need to be administered intravenously and then followed by a course of oral antibiotics for several days to weeks,” he said.

UTI supplement options

Read our full review of Uqora, a company that focuses on developing natural supplements for UTI prevention.

Was this helpful?

How do you get rid of a UTI?

While it’s possible for some UTIs to clear up on their own, the best way to get rid of a UTI is by seeing your doctor.

How long do UTIs last?

According to Jordan Gitlin, MD, chief of pediatric urology at NYU Langone Hospital, a very minor infection will need treatment for about 5 to 7 days. For a more severe infection that goes up to the kidney or requires hospitalization, treatment lasts 10 to 14 days.

Why is UTI pain worse at night?

The pain and discomfort associated with UTIs aren’t worse at night, you’re just more aware of them. This is because you’re not distracted by your daily tasks and because you’re not emptying your bladder as much as you would during the day.

How should I sleep with UTI pain at night?

Here are some things you can do to help you sleep more comfortably at night, if you have UTI pain:

  • Make sure you empty your bladder completely before going to bed.
  • You may consider setting alarms during the night so you wake up and use the bathroom.
  • Use an incontinence pad or wear incontinence pants. These can lessen the concern of urinating in your sleep or give you the option of not getting out of bed to urinate.
  • Use a hot water bottle or heating pad to warm your abdomen to minimize bladder discomfort or pressure.

Some of the uncomfortable symptoms of a UTI can interfere with sleep.

Once your doctor has diagnosed and recommended treatment for your UTI, talk with them about steps you can take to make sleeping easier. They can recommend prescription or OTC pain medications. You can also try heating pads and hot water bottles.

Once you’ve recovered from your UTI, some ways you can avoid another one are to stay hydrated, take showers instead of baths, and wear cotton underwear.

How to Relieve UTI Pain at Night: Medical and Home Remedies

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission Here’s our process.

Healthline only shows you brands and products that we stand behind.

Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations we make on our site. To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we:

  • Evaluate ingredients and composition: Do they have the potential to cause harm?
  • Fact-check all health claims: Do they align with the current body of scientific evidence?
  • Assess the brand: Does it operate with integrity and adhere to industry best practices?

We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness.

Read more about our vetting process.

Was this helpful?

You may be able to relieve UTI pain by taking prescribed medications and using home remedies, including a heating pad.

A UTI is a urinary tract infection. It can be an infection in any part of your urinary system, including your bladder, kidneys, urethra, and ureters.

Some of the common symptoms that can make it difficult to sleep at night include:

  • pelvic discomfort
  • persistent urge to urinate
  • burning sensation when urinating
  • frequent urination of small amounts

Keep reading to learn about medical treatments and home remedies you can use to relieve nighttime UTI symptoms.

A UTI is an infection of any location along the urinary tract, but when most people say UTI, they’re usually referring to a bladder infection. UTIs are more common in folks assigned female at birth, because of the setup of anatomy.

S. Adam Ramin, MD, urologist and medical director of Urology Cancer Specialists in Los Angeles, explained that the “bladder and its tubing, the urethra, sit directly along the length of the vagina. Urine exits the body through this very short tube, and the opening of the urethra is a tiny hole right above the entrance into the vagina.”

This positioning makes it super easy for bacteria to travel along the urinary tract.

During vaginal intercourse, bacteria from the vagina and rectum can easily move into the urethra and the bladder, causing a urinary tract infection, Ramin added.

Hormonal change is another cause of UTIs, though it’s less common. Karyn Eilber, MD, a board certified urologist and an associate professor of urology & OB-GYN at Cedars-Sinai Hospital, said some people experience UTIs at certain times of the month.

“Cyclical hormone changes related to the menstrual cycle can influence the vaginal pH. The vaginal pH is acidic which is conducive to the ‘good’ bacteria,” Eilber said. “At certain times of the month (or because of perimenopause or menopause), the pH can become less acidic so that there is an imbalance in a woman’s microbiome and she can be more prone to UTIs.”

For most healthy, hydrated people, peeing should be pain-free and urine output should be nearly odorless, or in some cases should only have a slight scent of ammonia to it. If that’s not the case, an infection might be present. Here are a few common signs of a UTI to look out for:

Urgent and frequent urination

A UTI can cause inflammation and irritation of the bladder lining, making it more sensitive. This results in more urinary urgency and frequency of urination. You might also notice that despite having an urgent need to pee, the output is minimal or nonexistent.

Burning or pain while peeing

Dysuria, or burning with urination, is also a common symptom. Pain due to a UTI usually occurs with urination, but pain or burning not related to urination may be indicative of a vaginal infection or something else, Eilber said.

Smelly or cloudy urine

Ramin said that sometimes, one of the early signs of an impending UTI is a distinctly unusual smell or cloudy appearance of your urine. If you suddenly notice a foul or otherwise unusual smell to it, this may indicate a urinary tract infection or urinary stones, especially if the smell is also accompanied by a cloudy appearance.

Loss of control

You may also find you have less control over your bladder during a UTI episode. UTIs that have reached the kidneys can include the symptoms mentioned above and are frequently accompanied by back pain and fever.

To help your recovery, you need to rest. But it can be difficult to sleep with some of the uncomfortable symptoms that may accompany a UTI.

Here are some things you can do at home to help you sleep comfortably:

  • Drink plenty of water during the day to help flush out bacteria.
  • Avoid alcohol, coffee, and soft drinks that contain caffeine or citrus juice. These tend to irritate your bladder and aggravate the urgency and frequency of your need to urinate.
  • Avoid drinking a lot of fluids before bed.
  • Use an incontinence pad or wear incontinence pants. These can lessen the concern of urinating in your sleep or give you the option of not getting out of bed to urinate.
  • Use a hot water bottle or heating pad to warm your abdomen to minimize bladder discomfort or pressure.
  • Completely empty your bladder before bed.
  • Take your antibiotics as instructed by your doctor.

If your doctor hasn’t prescribed pain medication and you feel it would help you sleep, ask them for a recommendation for either OTC or prescription pain medications.

The first step to relieving UTI discomfort at night is to see your doctor about knocking out the infection.

Stopping the infection

Based on your current health and the type of bacteria in your urine, your doctor might recommend antibiotic medication for a simple UTI, such as:

  • ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
  • cephalexin (Keflex)
  • fosfomycin (Monurol)
  • nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)
  • trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)

If you have a complicated UTI or kidney infection, your doctor may prescribe a type of antibiotic called fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin (Levaquin) or ciprofloxacin (Cipro).

To reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance, you should receive the shortest treatment course possible. Effective treatment typically takes no more than 7 days.

There are also other medications available for treatment that are not antibiotic-based.

Relieving the pain

Within a few days of starting the antibiotic, you should notice a relief in discomfort, but your doctor may also suggest an analgesic (pain medication).

Antibiotics aren’t the only option and there are other prescription medications available to treat UTIs.

Many UTI analgesics include phenazopyridine for relief from the pain, itching, burning, and urinary urgency. It’s available in both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) forms.

Over-the-counter UTI medication

When it comes to treating UTIs with OTC options, you may want to skip it. Bladder infections are usually easy to treat with a course of antibiotics prescribed by your doctor and plenty of fluids. But if you’re looking for pain relief, Ramin recommends AZO.

“AZO is an effective OTC and one of the best over-the-counter bladder analgesics we have available to ease urinary pain. If taken in small doses, this is safe. Overdosing on AZO should always be avoided,” he said. “You can use AZO with or without antibiotics, but typically I recommend using it for 3 days.”

Experts also recommend drinking plenty of fluids, unsweetened cranberry juice, and taking probiotics. Just because there are OTC options to relieve UTI discomfort, you shouldn’t overlook the actual infection. In fact, Kecia Gaither, MD, MPH, FACOG, double board certified in OB-GYN and Maternal Fetal Medicine, doesn’t recommend taking the OTC route at all.

“I don’t recommend over-the-counter medications for urinary tract infections,” she said. “Untreated [or not properly treated], a common bladder infection can spread to the kidneys and potentially the entire body, resulting in pyelonephritis and urosepsis.”

Those who are pregnant are particularly susceptible to this, as bladder infections can be further progressive in nature.

According to Eilber, UTI pain and other symptoms aren’t worse at night. They are just more bothersome because people aren’t as distracted by their daily activities and the symptoms of frequency and urgency are forcing you to get out of bed.

UTI discomfort may also seem worse because you’re not emptying your bladder as much as you would during the day. The pressure from collecting urine then creates discomfort against the inflamed walls of your infected bladder.

To reduce your risk of getting a UTI, there are specific lifestyle steps you can take, including:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water.
  • Drink cranberry juice.
  • Wipe from front to back after urinating and bowel movements.
  • Empty your bladder before and after sexual activity.
  • Take showers instead of baths.
  • Avoid potentially irritating products, such as deodorant sprays, douches, and powders, in the genital area.
  • Change tampons regularly.
  • Switch your birth control method. Condoms and diaphragms can contribute to bacterial growth.
  • Wear loose-fitting cotton underwear and clothing.

If you are experiencing symptoms of a UTI, it’s best to see your doctor as soon as possible. For those who are pregnant, a UTI can be dangerous for both mother and child.

Your doctor will perform the necessary tests, like a urine culture, to figure out the primary bacteria responsible for your infection. They’ll then prescribe medication that is targeted for your specific needs.

Again, this isn’t something you want to ignore for too long because your UTI could get a lot worse. Ramin said, in rare cases, the bacteria could make its way to your kidneys, which makes the UTI more difficult to treat.

“In more serious cases of urinary tract infection, antibiotics may need to be administered intravenously and then followed by a course of oral antibiotics for several days to weeks,” he said.

UTI supplement options

Read our full review of Uqora, a company that focuses on developing natural supplements for UTI prevention.

Was this helpful?

How do you get rid of a UTI?

While it’s possible for some UTIs to clear up on their own, the best way to get rid of a UTI is by seeing your doctor.

How long do UTIs last?

According to Jordan Gitlin, MD, chief of pediatric urology at NYU Langone Hospital, a very minor infection will need treatment for about 5 to 7 days. For a more severe infection that goes up to the kidney or requires hospitalization, treatment lasts 10 to 14 days.

Why is UTI pain worse at night?

The pain and discomfort associated with UTIs aren’t worse at night, you’re just more aware of them. This is because you’re not distracted by your daily tasks and because you’re not emptying your bladder as much as you would during the day.

How should I sleep with UTI pain at night?

Here are some things you can do to help you sleep more comfortably at night, if you have UTI pain:

  • Make sure you empty your bladder completely before going to bed.
  • You may consider setting alarms during the night so you wake up and use the bathroom.
  • Use an incontinence pad or wear incontinence pants. These can lessen the concern of urinating in your sleep or give you the option of not getting out of bed to urinate.
  • Use a hot water bottle or heating pad to warm your abdomen to minimize bladder discomfort or pressure.

Some of the uncomfortable symptoms of a UTI can interfere with sleep.

Once your doctor has diagnosed and recommended treatment for your UTI, talk with them about steps you can take to make sleeping easier. They can recommend prescription or OTC pain medications. You can also try heating pads and hot water bottles.

Once you’ve recovered from your UTI, some ways you can avoid another one are to stay hydrated, take showers instead of baths, and wear cotton underwear.

8 main symptoms of cystitis

When a person’s bladder becomes inflamed, he is diagnosed with cystitis. In most cases, a bacterial infection is to blame. Infection in the bladder causes a lot of discomfort and pain. If left untreated, inflammation of the bladder can lead to kidney complications. And sick kidneys are a very serious problem. In this material, we will consider not only the main symptoms, but also the causes, as well as methods of treating this disease.

The main symptoms of this disease include:

  1. Constant and strong desire to run to the toilet in a small way,
  2. Burning when urinating,
  3. ) ,

  4. Cloudy and strong-smelling urine,
  5. Discomfort in the pelvic region,
  6. Feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen,
  7. Slight fever.

In young children, episodes of accidental spilling of urine during the daytime may indicate an infection in the urinary tract. But nocturnal enuresis itself is unlikely to be associated with a urinary tract infection and is not a 100% sign of cystitis.

When should I go to the doctor?

Seek immediate medical attention if you develop symptoms of a kidney infection:

  • Side or back pain,
  • Fever and chills,
  • Nausea and vomiting.

If you have uncontrollable, frequent and painful urination that lasts for several hours, or if you see blood in your urine, call your doctor.

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra (urethra). All these organs play a role in the excretion of waste products of the body. The kidneys filter the blood of metabolic waste products and regulate the concentration of minerals and other substances. Tubes called ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Urine is stored there, and when the bladder fills, it exits the body through the urethra.

Bacterial cystitis

Urinary tract infections usually develop when bacteria enter the body through the urethra and begin to multiply. Most often, a bacterium such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) is to blame.

Bacterial bladder infections can occur in women after sexual intercourse. However, even sexually inactive women can experience bladder inflammation. This is due to the fact that bacteria often accumulate in the female genital area, which can cause disease.

Non-infectious inflammation of the bladder

Although the most common cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection, inflammation can occur due to a number of other factors. Some of these factors will be discussed below:

  • Interstitial cystitis. This is a chronic inflammation, which is also called painful bladder syndrome. The exact cause of this phenomenon has not yet been established. However, women are the most affected by this type of disorder. Interstitial inflammation is difficult to diagnose and treat.
  • Drug inflammation of the bladder. Sometimes the cause of the disease is the use of certain medications, especially the chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. After disintegration, the components of these drugs are excreted in the urine and can cause inflammation.
  • Radiation cystitis. Radiation therapy of organs in the pelvic area can trigger inflammation in the tissues of the bladder.
  • Use of catheters. Prolonged use of the catheter contributes to the development of bacterial infections and damage to the tissues of the bladder.
  • Chemical cystitis. Some people have hypersensitivity to chemicals found in certain foods. These include soaps, feminine sprays for intimate hygiene, or spermicidal jellies. In hypersensitive women, something like an allergic reaction develops in the bladder. As a result, these reactions cause inflammation.
  • Cystitis associated with other diseases. Sometimes inflammation is a complication of diabetes, kidney stones, prostate enlargement in men, and spinal cord injury.

Who is at greater risk than others?

Some people are more prone to developing bladder infections. Representatives of the weaker sex fall into a special risk group. Cystitis in women is a fairly common problem. The main reason is the differences in the anatomy of the structure of the organs of the urinary system. In women, the urethra is much shorter than in men. Because of this anatomical feature, bacteria get to the female bladder faster.

Particularly at risk are women who:

  • Lead a sexually active lifestyle. During sexual intercourse, bacteria can enter the urethra.
  • Use vaginal diaphragms that contain spermicidal substances.
  • In position. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can contribute to bladder inflammation.
  • Have reached menopause. The reason is the same – hormonal changes.

Other risk factors that affect both women and men include:

  • Kidney stones or prostate enlargement in men,
  • Decreased body defenses. This phenomenon is observed in people with certain diseases – diabetes, HIV infection and oncology.

How to treat cystitis?

Antibiotics are the first line of treatment for inflammation of bacterial origin. Usually prescribed trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin. The specific choice of drug and the duration of its administration depends on two factors:

  1. The patient’s general health,
  2. The type of bacteria that caused the illness.

At the first inflammation, the patient’s condition improves significantly within the first day after taking the antibiotic. However, do not stop taking the drug ahead of time – it is very important to complete a full course of treatment for cystitis. On average, an antibiotic is taken from three to seven days, depending on the severity of the infection. If a relapse occurs, cystitis tablets are taken for a longer time.

Women who have reached menopause are particularly susceptible to bladder infections. For them, doctors, in addition to pills, may recommend a vaginal estrogen cream.

Treatment interstitial cystitis

In this case, it is difficult to determine the exact cause of the disease, so there is no single therapeutic regimen that would work for all patients. The main treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms. Treatments for interstitial cystitis include:

  • Taking oral medications or putting drugs directly into the bladder,
  • Procedures that expand the bladder with water or gases,
  • A nerve stimulation procedure that uses weak electrical impulses to relieve pain in the pelvic region. In some cases, nerve stimulation helps to reduce the frequency of trips to the toilet,
  • Surgery.

Treatment other forms of noninfectious cystitis

If the patient suffers from hypersensitivity to certain chemicals, he should avoid such products. This will help relieve the symptoms of the disease and prevent repeated episodes of inflammation.

If the disease is a complication of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, the main task of the doctor is to relieve the patient of pain. To do this, he is prescribed painkillers and is recommended to consume an increased amount of fluid.

Prevention of cystitis

Cranberry juice or proanthocyanidin tablets are often recommended for some women to reduce the risk of reinfections. Although recent studies have shown that proanthocyanidin does not have as strong an effect as previously thought.

Cranberry juice should not be taken by people who are taking warfarin. Taking this anticoagulant and drinking cranberry juice can lead to the opposite effect – bleeding.

To prevent cystitis, many doctors recommend:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water,
  • Do not endure the urge to go to the toilet, but rather empty the bladder often,
  • Women after a bowel movement – wipe only from front to back. This will prevent bacteria from entering the anus into the vagina and urethra,
  • Shower rather than bath,
  • Gently wash the skin around the anus and vagina daily,
  • Empty your bladder immediately after intercourse and drink a glass of water to flush out bacteria ,
  • Avoid deodorant sprays and other intimate hygiene products. These drugs can irritate the urethra and bladder.

If you are concerned about the symptoms of cystitis, do not ignore them. The first and most simple thing that can and should be done is to pass a urine test.

Sources:

  1. Cystitis, Mayo Clinic,
  2. Cystitis (Urine Infection) in Women, Patient.info,
  3. What Is Cystitis, WebMD.

cystitis

urologist

kidney stones

symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

Overview

Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects 40% of women in the United States at some point in their lives, making it one of the most common diseases among women. Bacterial infections of the bladder and surrounding tissues are classified as uncomplicated urinary tract infections, sometimes known as cystitis or lower urinary tract infections.

Uncomplicated urinary tract infections occur in women who do not have any anatomical abnormalities or comorbidities such as diabetes, advanced age, pregnancy, or an immunocompromised state. Complicated urinary tract infections occur in people with anatomical defects or comorbidities such as diabetes, advanced age, pregnancy, or an immunocompromised condition.

Detection of urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections are common and are also called UTIs. UTIs describe microbial colonization and infection of urinary tract structures. UTIs are classified according to the site of infection as pyelonephritis (kidney infection), cystitis can also be classified as uncomplicated or complicated. UTI is the most common bacterial infection, affecting 150 million people worldwide each year. UTIs are most common in women more often than in men.

Epidemiology

Urinary tract infections are among the most common bacterial infections in women. They often occur between the ages of 16 and 35, with 10% of women becoming infected annually and more than 40-60% contracting the disease at least once in their lives. Relapses are common, with nearly half of those infected re-infecting within a year. Women are at least four times more likely to contract urinary tract infections than men.

Pathophysiology

A simple UTI usually only affects the bladder. When microbes enter the lining of the bladder, an inflammatory reaction known as cystitis occurs. Most of the organisms that cause UTIs are enteric coliforms that live in the periurethral vaginal introitus. These microbes enter the bladder through the urethra and produce UTIs. Sexual activity increases the migration of microbes to the bladder, which is a common cause of UTIs. People who void frequently and empty their bladders are less likely to develop UTIs.

Urine is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. A pH less than 5, the presence of organic acids and a large amount of urea are all factors that make it unfavorable for the development of bacteria. Frequent urination and large volumes of urine are also known to reduce the incidence of UTIs.

The bacteria that cause UTIs contain adhesins on their surface that allow them to bind to the urothelial mucosa. In addition, the small urethra facilitates the penetration of the uropathogen into the urinary system. Premenopausal women have high concentrations of lactobacilli in the vagina and an acidic pH that inhibits uropathogen colonization. Antibiotics, on the other hand, can negate this protective effect.

Pediatric UTIs

The urinary tract is a common source of infection in children and infants and is the most common bacterial infection in children < 2 years of age in both community and hospital settings. Acute UTIs are relatively common in children. By age seven, 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys will have had at least one episode.

Common uropathogens include E. coli (accounting for 85% of childhood UTIs), Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus.

The clinical signs and symptoms of a UTI depend on the child’s age.

A newborn with a UTI may present with symptoms such as infectious jaundice, failure to thrive, vomiting, or fever.

In infants and young children, common signs and symptoms include fever, smelly urine, hematuria (blood in the urine), abdominal or pelvic pain, and urinary incontinence.

School-age children may have symptoms similar to those of adults, including dysuria, frequent or frequent urination.

Boys are at increased risk of UTIs if they are less than six months old or if they are less than 12 months old and have not been tested. Women tend to be at an increased risk of UTIs, especially if they are less than one year old.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in women

Clinical signs and symptoms of UTI in women.

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency.
  • Possible suprapubic pain and hematuria.
  • Urine may be foul-smelling and cloudy.

For more information, see: Urinary tract disorder-facts-points-of-view-from-doctor-experts

Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) ) in postmenopausal women who are sexually active are:
  • Onset of symptoms shortly after intercourse
  • Use of semen for contraception, new sexual partners, age of first UTI;
  • Maternal history of UTI and urinary disorders

Medical conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes mellitus (DM), and immunity increase a woman’s risk of recurrent UTIs (UTIs) by facilitating access to uropathogens, overriding the host’s normal defense mechanisms.

Acute cystitis of the bladder (bladder) and UTIs in women:

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are uncomplicated acute cystitis caused by E. coli (80%) (E. coli), 100 years. Uncomplicated UTI infection in premenopausal non-pregnant women with unknown urinary tract abnormalities or comorbidities.

Classic lower urinary tract symptoms include dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, and sometimes hematuria. Physical examination is usually normal or positive in the presence of suprapubic tenderness.

Pyelonephritis (renal) and UTI in women:

In this complicated UTI, pyelonephritis (kidney infection). Lower UTI symptoms persist for more than a week with systemic symptoms of persistent fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting.

Urethritis (urethra) and UTI in women:

Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra. Pain during urination is the main symptom of urethritis. Urethritis is usually caused by a bacterial infection.

Bacteria that commonly cause urethritis include:
  • Gonococcus, which is sexually transmitted and causes gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia trachomatis, which is sexually transmitted and causes chlamydia.
  • Bacteria in and around stool
  • Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) can cause urethritis. Trichomonas (sexually transmitted) is another common cause of urethritis.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in men

Urinary tract infections are rare in men due to the large length of the male urethra, the antibacterial properties of the prostate fluid, and less frequent periurethral colonization in men. Dysuria is the most common underlying complaint in men with UTIs.

Risk factors for recurrent UTIs in men are:

  • Enlarged prostate
  • Colon fistula associated with colon cancer or inflammatory bowel disease
  • congenital anomalies of the urinary tract
  • instrument for measuring the urinary tract (during endoscopy or debridement)
  • Conditions that inhibit immune function such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus infection.

For more information on HIV see: Freddie Mercury – the long fight against AIDS

Male lower urinary tract infection (UTI) [urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis]

Lower urinary tract infections are usually caused by intestinal bacteria that enter and contaminate the urinary tract from below, usually spreading from the skin to the urethra and then to the bladder.

Urethritis:

Symptoms of urethritis in men usually include discharge from the urethra, itching or tingling in the penis, and dysuria. The main pathogens associated with urethritis are chlamydia, trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhea.

The symptoms and treatment of urethritis in men are markedly different from the symptoms and treatment in women. Although there is an infectious and non-infectious etymology. But most research has focused on urethritis as a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Cystitis:

The resulting infection can cause unpleasant symptoms such as sudden urge to urinate. It can also cause pain when urinating and abdominal pain. Cystitis is more common in men who practice anal intercourse and in those who are not circumcised.

Prostatitis:

Prostatitis is a common problem in men, causing dysuria and urinary frequency in middle-aged and young men more often than urinary tract infections. Patients with acute prostatitis often present with acute disease with sudden onset of chills and fever, urinary frequency and urgency, perineal dysuria, and low back pain.

Male upper urinary tract infection (pyelonephritis)

Upper urinary tract infections usually occur because bacteria travel up the urinary tract from the bladder to the kidneys, or because bacteria accumulated in the bloodstream collect in the kidneys.

Diagnosis of urinary tract infections

A clean urine sample (UA) is critical to making a diagnosis. It is preferable to have a clean urine sample in non-obese women. Most obese women cannot provide a clean sample, and the presence of epithelial cells in the OA indicates that the urine sample was exposed to the vaginal surface and did not exit the urethra directly. Obtain a clean sample with few epithelial cells. This may require rapid catheterization.

In uninfected women, bladder catheterization causes UTIs in about 1% of cases. Men should start a stream of urine to clear the urethra before collecting a sample in the middle of the stream. Urine must be brought to the laboratory quickly or frozen, as bacteria multiply rapidly at room temperature, creating an overestimation of the severity of the infection.

UTI should not be diagnosed based on visual examination of the urine alone. Turbid urine may be aseptic; turbidity may be caused by protein or calcium phosphate detritus in the sample rather than infection. Urine can be contaminated even if it is crystal clear. All urine is tested with a dipstick, which can be made at the patient’s bedside. pH, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and blood are all useful readings.

Remember that in patients with symptoms of a UTI, a negative result does not exclude the possibility of a UTI, but a positive result may indicate the presence of a UTI and help make the diagnosis. On microscopic urinalysis, look for the presence of bacteria and/or white blood cells (WBC) in the urine.

The pH of normal urine is somewhat acidic, with typical readings of 6.0 to 7.5, while the normal range is 4.5 to 8.0. A urea-degrading organism such as Proteus, Klebsiella, or Ureaplasma urealyticum is often found in urine with a pH of 8.5 or 9,0. Alkaline urine pH can indicate struvite kidney stones, sometimes known as “infection stones”.

The nitrite test is the most reliable test because bacteria must be present in the urine to convert nitrate to nitrite. This takes 6 hours, which is why urologists are often asked to give urine for testing in the morning, especially in men. The sensitivity of this test is over 90%. In symptomatic people, this is direct evidence of bacteria in the urine, which is by definition a UTI. Some bacteria do not convert nitrate to nitrite, but they are commonly seen in complex UTIs, including Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter.

The presence of leukocytes in the urine is detected by leukocyte esterase (LE). LE is likely released by leukocytes in response to microbes in the urine. This is why urinalysis is only a secondary test for UTIs, with a specificity of approximately 55%. Although LE is effective in detecting leukocytes in the urine, leukocytes can also be detected in the bladder for other reasons such as inflammatory conditions.

Hematuria may be helpful because bacterial infections of the bladder transitional cell wall can cause bleeding. This distinguishes a UTI from vaginitis and urethritis, both of which do not lead to blood in the urine.

Many laboratories will immediately do a microscopic examination of urine for the presence of microorganisms, leukocytes and erythrocytes if nitrites or leukocyte esterase are present. Because uninfected urine should be free of bacteria under high-field microscopy, any bacteria on Gram-stained urine is highly associated with UTI. In symptomatic people, an excellent urine sample with more than 5-10 WBC/HPF is atypical and strongly suggests a UTI.

Urine cultures are not usually required for simple UTIs, but they are recommended because of increasing antibiotic resistance and help distinguish recurrent infections from recurrent infections. Urine should be cultured in all men, as well as in all diabetic patients who are immunocompromised and pregnant women. The gold standard for infectious urine is greater than 10 colony forming units, according to traditional urine culture instructions.

A patient who presents with symptoms and more than 10 CFU is considered infected according to the latest findings. Except in cases of recurrent UTI, urine cultures are rarely useful in the emergency department, although they may facilitate follow-up therapy if patients do not respond to the first antibiotic administered.

Urine collection is critical. Urine samples taken from the middle of the urethra are fairly accurate if the proper procedure is used. Contamination is indicated by the presence of lactobacilli and squamous cells, and a catheterized sample may be required. Suprapubic aspiration may be required to obtain a urine sample in young children and people with spinal cord injury.

Treatment of UTIs

Historically, therapy has lasted from 3 days to 6 weeks. When using “mini-dose therapy”, which consists of three days of treatment, there are good cure rates. E. coli resistance to common antimicrobials varies by region of the country, and if the resistance rate is over 50%, choose a different treatment.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for three days is an effective mini-dose treatment, but resistance to it is common in many places. It should not be used if the local resistance is more than 20%. Mini-dose treatment is best suited with first-generation cephalosporins. Nitrofurantoin is an effective treatment for uncomplicated UTIs, however, it is bacteriostatic, not bactericidal, and must be taken for 5 to 7 days.

Fluoroquinolones are highly resistant but are popular among urologists due to their high tissue penetration, especially in the prostate. As a result, fluoroquinolones are not recommended unless the disease is severe or involves the prostate. Recent FDA warnings about the side effects of fluoroquinolone should be taken seriously.

The FDA has approved fosfomycin as a single-dose treatment for uncomplicated E. coli UTIs. Taking additional phenazopyridine for a few days may help provide additional symptomatic relief.

Even without therapy, most UTIs resolve on their own in about 20% of women, especially when more actively hydrated. A healthy girl has an extremely low chance of developing acute pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is quite common and does not require treatment, except in pregnant women, those who are immunosuppressed, those who have had a transplant, or those who have just had a urological or surgical operation.

Treatment of UTIs in children

Reevaluation to confirm appropriate clinical response should be performed 48-72 hours after initiation of antimicrobial therapy in all children with UTI.

Culture results and susceptibility may indicate the need to change antibiotics. Constipation should be addressed in infants and children with UTIs to help prevent future infections.

The effectiveness of cranberry juice in children is less certain, and high dropout rates in studies indicate that cranberry juice may not be suitable for long-term prevention. A systematic review concluded that regular male circumcision does not reduce the risk of UTIs enough to demonstrate the risk of surgical complications.

Prevention of UTIs

The simplest strategy for dealing with UTIs is to avoid them completely. Keeping clean and avoiding discomfort in the urethra is especially important if you have a history of urinary tract infections. Keep germs at bay with these preventive methods to reduce your risk and say goodbye to the unpleasant symptoms of a UTI:

  • Stay Hydrated

Drink plenty of water throughout the day. This will increase your need to urinate more often by clearing germs from your urinary system. Avoid dehydrating drinks like tea, coffee, and other caffeinated drinks. When it comes to hydration, water is the best option. Make an effort to drink at least eight glasses of water every day.

  • Avoid holding urine

Make sure you urinate whenever you feel the need to. Bacterial growth can be facilitated by urinary retention. Do not go to the toilet for more than 4 hours. This is especially important for pregnant women.

  • Wipe front to back

A bacterium called E. coli, which is commonly found in the rectum, is the most common cause of UTIs. Always clean your genitals from front to back after using the toilet. This reduces the chance of germs getting from the anus to the urethra.

  • Urination before and after sex

Because we know that sexual activity increases the chance of developing UTIs, especially in women, it is critical to flush out any germs that can cause UTIs before and after sex. Urinate quickly before and after intercourse to reduce the risk. If possible, wash thoroughly before and after to reduce the chance of spreading germs.

  • Avoid irritating feminine hygiene products

The vagina naturally contains about 50 good bacterial microbes that help maintain a regulated pH level. Scented feminine hygiene products can disrupt beneficial bacteria, putting you at greater risk of developing dangerous bacteria. Douches, scented pads or tampons, deodorant sprays, scented powders, bath oils, soaps, and any other potentially irritating products should be avoided.

  • Talk to your ob/gyn about contraceptive options

In some situations, your contraceptives may be to blame for recurrent UTIs. This is because some types of birth control encourage the growth of dangerous bacteria in the urinary system. Diaphragms, non-lubricated condoms, spermicides, and spermicidal condoms have been identified as potential sources of infection. If you suspect that your birth control methods are causing recurrent UTIs, talk to your doctor to discuss your choice.

  • Take probiotics

Probiotics are live micro-organisms available over the counter that help improve beneficial gut microflora. They have also been shown to stimulate the production of beneficial bacteria in the urinary system, thereby preventing UTIs. Probiotic supplements are widely available in most pharmacies and supermarkets.

  • Avoid baths

Shower instead of bath if at all possible. Sitting in unclean water has been linked to an increased risk of UTIs.

  • Increase cranberry consumption

Cranberries are a well-known traditional treatment for urinary tract infections. This is because the berries contain proanthocyanidins, which are known to inhibit E. coli from sticking to urinary tract tissues. The best alternatives are pure cranberry juice or fresh or frozen cranberries. Cranberry supplements are also available at most grocery stores. Increasing your cranberry intake at the first sign of UTI symptoms can be very helpful in stopping the infection before it gets worse.

  • Talk to your doctor about chronic UTIs

Long-term therapy alternatives are required in some circumstances. Your doctor may prescribe low doses of an antibiotic once a day for six months or longer. You may also need to take one dose of antibiotics after sex.

Prognosis

Even with antibiotic treatment, most UTI symptoms can persist for several days. Quality of life is poor among women who have recurrent UTIs. Such relapses affect about 25% of women. The following factors imply a bleak future:

  • Poor general health
  • Old age
  • Presence of kidney stones
  • Diabetes (especially if poorly controlled)
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Presence of malignant neoplasms
  • Catheterization
  • Ongoing chemotherapy
  • Incontinence
  • Chronic diarrhea

While UTI mortality is modest, morbidity is significant. In addition to the annoying symptoms, the cost of care is too high. Absence from work and school are common reasons, and hospitalization is sometimes necessary due to severe symptoms.

Conclusion

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are urinary tract infections that include the bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis), and kidney (kidney infection). Antibiotics can be used to treat UTIs, but they are not always necessary.

UTIs are best treated together and most nurses, in addition to physicians, will encounter a patient with a UTI. The key to reducing relapses is patient education. If a UTI is detected, the patient should be advised to consume more water. Sexually active women should try to urinate immediately after sexual intercourse to help flush out germs from the bladder.

Prophylactic use of antibiotics may help some women with recurring UTIs. A few other non-medical treatments may be helpful for some women with UTIs. According to anecdotal evidence, cranberry juice and probiotics may help reduce the severity and frequency of UTIs in some women.