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Amazon.com: Doctor’s Best Glucosamine Chondroitin Msm with OptiMSM Capsules, Supports Healthy Joint Structure, Function & Comfort, Non-GMO, Gluten Free, Soy Free, 240 Count (Pack of 1) : Health & Household

Doctor’s Best Glucosamine/Chondroitin/MSM with OptiMSM supports joint structure, function and comfort. It is a potent combination of three clinically proven, purified ingredients that help the body manufacture proteoglycans in healthy joints. Proteoglycans contribute to the maintenance of sound joint structure, ultimately enhancing healthy joint function.

Glucosamine sulfate is extracted from chitin, a long-chain polymer consisting of many glucosamine molecules linked together. Chitin forms structural frameworks in many living things, including aquatic crustaceans. Doctor’s Best glucosamine is purified and then sulfated and stabilized with potassium chloride. It is processed to remove residues of protein and impurities, yielding pure glucosamine sulfate as the final material.

Doctor’s Best uses chondroitin sulfate with a purity of 90 percent or greater. QA testing is performed using sophisticated laboratory analytical methods. MSM is an excellent dietary source of bioavailable organic sulfur. Doctor’s Best MSM features OptiMSM, a highly purified form (99.9% pure) of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM). Since the amount of MSM found naturally in living materials is too small to be extracted, the MSM used for dietary supplements is synthesized. The makers of OptiMSM developed a four-stage process to separate impurities including heavy metals and other contaminants and is 99.9% pure MSM. Each batch exceeds the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph standards for MSM, and is validated by testing in independent laboratories.

Why should I take Doctor’s Best Glucosamine/Chondroitin/MSM with OptiMSM?

Healthy joints may get worn away by sports injuries, overuse, or wear-and-tear that can cause joint pain. Glucosamine helps stimulate the manufacture of proteoglycans in healthy joints. Chondroitin is a component of healthy joints that attracts water to the tissue, which helps the joint stay elastic and function as a shock absorber for joints. MSM is a natural sulfur to help form antioxidants and serve as a key structural nutrient in healthy joints and may help to give shape, strength and support to other tissues within the body. This combination of ingredients has been proven to support joint structure, function and comfort.*

What Are the Benefits of Chondroitin Glucosamine MSM?

Chondroitin, glucosamine and methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM, are commonly found, either separately or together as a complex, in supplements marketed for joint health. They are also taken for relieving pain associated osteoarthritis — a painful degenerative condition that results in stiff, achy joints. These substances may offer anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving benefits, taken alone or in combination.

What actually is MSM? Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (Ch4)2SO2.

Chondroitin Cushions Joints
Chondroitin is a major constituent of the connective tissue in your body known as cartilage, which helps cushion your joints and prevent your bones from rubbing against each other. Chondroitin absorbs water and other fluids, which helps keep your cartilage hydrated and healthy. It’s taken as a supplement to treat osteoarthritis, a form of arthritis that results from the breakdown of cartilage.

Glucosamine and Joint Health
Like chondroitin, glucosamine is produced naturally in your body and plays a role in joint health. It helps build and repair cartilage that connects the joints. It’s common to take glucosamine alone or with chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Glucosamine possesses anti-inflammatory properties, and data suggests it may help relieve osteoarthritis pain, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Methylsulfonylmethane and Osteoarthritis
MSM is a sulfur-containing compound that helps support tendons and muscles. Because of MSM’s pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties, researchers examined whether it had benefits alone or in combination with glucosamine for knee osteoarthritis. In the study, 118 adults with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis took MSM and glucosamine alone or in combination for 12 weeks. Researchers found MSM and glucosamine effectively relieves knee osteoarthritis pain and that the combination of the two produces even better results.

Taking the Complex
The combination of chondroitin, glucosamine and MSM is used to support healthy joints and taken to reduce pain in those with osteoarthritis and other inflammatory joint problems. If you choose to take the chondroitin, glucosamine and MSM complex.

Here at the Dallas Wellness Center, we carry Arthro-Mend with MSM. It’s a great choice for those wanting to optimize joint mobility and helps support/maintain healthy joints.

Glucosamine, Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis Pain

Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular supplements used to treat osteoarthritis (OA). According to one estimate from the NIH, 6.5 million adults, or 2.6 percent of the population, has used one or both of these products. Although studies on glucosamine and chondroitin have been mixed, some evidence suggests they may help relieve OA joint pain and stiffness.  

What Are Glucosamine and Chondroitin? 

Glucosamine and chondroitin are natural compounds found in healthy cartilage — the connective tissue that cushions joints. Supplements are manufactured from the cartilage of animals such as cows, pigs, or shellfish, or are made in a lab. Glucosamine is sold in different forms, including glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride. You can buy glucosamine and chondroitin individually, but most often they’re sold together in a single supplement.  

In many European countries, these supplements are a prescribed treatment for OA. In the U.S., the recommendations on glucosamine and chondroitin are more moderate, due to the mixed results of studies.  

How Do They Work? 

In OA, the gradual degeneration of cartilage leads to pain, swelling, and other symptoms. Glucosamine and chondroitin have anti-inflammatory properties. “They also have some cartilage-protecting effects through a variety of different mechanisms,” says Chris D’Adamo, PhD, director of Research & Education at the University of Maryland School of Medicine Center for Integrative Medicine.  

Glucosamine and chondroitin protect cells called chondrocytes, which help maintain cartilage structure. In theory, these supplements have the potential to slow cartilage deterioration in the joints, and to reduce pain in the process. 

The Evidence 

The most comprehensive long-term study—the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT)—compared the combination of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin, both supplements individually, celecoxib (Celebrex) and a placebo (inactive pill) in nearly 1,600 people with knee osteoarthritis.  

The first phase of GAIT, published in 2006, found that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate didn’t offer significant relief to participants in general, but it did help a small subgroup of those with moderate-to-severe knee pain. In follow-up results of the study released in 2010, these supplements improved pain and function, although no better than a placebo or the NSAID drug celecoxib. 

Since the GAIT trial came out, a few large studies have shown more positive results, says D’Adamo. “If you look at the totality of the evidence for glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee, it’s very strong.” 

A 2016 multinational study called the MOVES trial found the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin as effective at relieving knee OA pain and swelling as celecoxib, without the side effects. The authors say these supplements could be a good alternative for people who aren’t good candidates for NSAIDs because they have cardiovascular or GI conditions.  And another 2015 study found the combination helped reduce joint space narrowing–a sign of cartilage degeneration. 

Reviews of studies have yielded mixed results about these supplements. Some found the supplements offered pain relief and function compared to placebo, while others didn’t. The difference in outcomes may be due to the variety of supplement types and doses researchers used. 

Which Form Is Best? 

Studies have also differed on which of these supplements offers the greatest benefit for OA. Some find chondroitin to be superior, others favor glucosamine, while still others prefer a combination of the two. “Evidence would favor the two,” D’Adamo says. “They’re typically bundled that way when you buy them.” 

The ideal form of glucosamine has also caused dissent in the research community. Some studies show an advantage to glucosamine sulfate; others to glucosamine hydrochloride. One study that compared the two glucosamine forms head to head found no real difference between them.    

“There are some studies that show improved joint flexibility and range of motion with glucosamine sulfate,” says Farshad Fani Marvasti, MD, MPH, director of Public Health, Prevention, and Health Promotion at The University of Arizona. “That’s the one I would take if you’re going to take it for joint stiffness.” 

Mayo Clinic researchers agree, saying that evidence supports trying glucosamine sulfate – not hydrochloride – with or without chondroitin sulfate for knee OA.  

Are They Safe? 

Glucosamine and chondroitin are considered safe, with no serious side effects reported in studies. However, these supplements can interact with blood thinners like warfarin (Coumadin).  

They might also affect blood sugar levels, and one small study found they raise eye pressure, which could increase the risk for glaucoma. If you have diabetes or glaucoma, you may need to avoid these supplements, or have your doctor monitor your blood sugar levels and eye pressure more closely while you take them.  

The Bottom Line 

In 2019 OA treatment guidelines, the Arthritis Foundation and American College of Rheumatology give a conditional recommendation of chondroitin sulfate for hand OA. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) says the evidence on glucosamine for OA pain is unclear, and chondroitin isn’t helpful, but that these supplements haven’t been shown to be harmful. That means that there isn’t strong evidence that benefits outweigh risk, but the supplement could be helpful for people with OA.

If you do want to try glucosamine and/or chondroitin, check with your doctor and pharmacist first to make sure it’s safe for you, and that it won’t interact with any other drugs you take. Also, be patient. “It can take weeks for the effectiveness to fully manifest,” D’Adamo says. “That differs from an NSAID or COX-2 inhibitor, where the relief is fairly immediate, but side effects are much more common.”  

5 Things Everyone Must Know Before Taking Glucosamine

What Are The Benefits Of Taking Glucosamine?

Glucosamine exists naturally within your body. This compound is literally the building block for a ton of molecules in your body, but it’s primary function serves as developing and sustaining cartilage in your joints. It’s also a popular ingredient in dietary supplements. In fact, some studies suggest glucosamine represents 20% of all supplements taken each year behind the very popular omega 3 fatty acids, which is taken by about 40% of all those who take supplements. The primary purpose for taking glucosamine is to help with bone and joint support. Other benefits of glucosamine include: weight loss, improved digestion, immune system boost, support of healthy knees, jaw health maintenance, and may improve overall comfort levels.

Does Glucosamine Really Work?

One of the biggest reasons why individuals take glucosamine is to help support a healthy back and joints. This is a tricky question because glucosamine along with chondroitin sulfate are literally naturally occurring compounds to support normal cartilage support. These two are the foundation of stimulating the body to make more healthy cartilage. With that said, when answering if glucosamine really works, then you’d have to say yes. Otherwise, why would your body produce it naturally?

You’re probably wondering then, ‘Why take glucosamine?’ As you age, your body begins to see a reduction in the production of proteoglycan, one of the vital components of cartilage. Likewise, as we age we see an increase in the enzymes that break down cartilage lining the bone in our joints that move against each other. This also happens for some people before they enter the later ages of life: genetics, joint injury, gender, being overweight, individuals with strenuous occupations, diet, and even ethnicity all impact the reduction of this compound in the body. Being overweight by a mere 10 pounds can put an extra 30-60 pounds of force on your joints with every step. Essentially, joint health affects everyone. This natural reduction of proteoglycan results in increased stress on joints. Chondroitin and glucosamine are required for the natural synthesis of proteoglycan in the body. Taking a glucosamine supplement may increase the amount of cartilage and fluid to the joints and potentially can help reduce the pace at which we see this natural decline of proteoglycan in the body.

LEARN MORE: 5 Simple Ways To Boost Bone Health

When Should I Take Glucosamine?*

With most glucosamine supplements, it is suggested by some experts that you take it with your meals to support digestive health. Along those same lines, they also suggest you try and hit at least 500 milligrams three times a day for proper supplementation. At Xyngular, our featured product for joint health, Flex, doesn’t require any of those restrictions when it comes to supplementation. With Flex, you can take Flex on an empty stomach, can take it whenever you want (morning or night), and you only have to take one serving one time a day. There’s also some more cool features of Flex we’ll talk about in a little bit. You’ll learn more about Flex below.

Can Glucosamine Be Taken Long Term?

Short answer: Yes! In fact, with most glucosamine supplements on the market you won’t begin to see the benefits until weeks (and sometimes months) later, so it’s vital you continue to take it long term. Because you will likely be taking glucosamine for the long term, it’s equally important that you find a glucosamine supplement which features the highest grade, premium ingredients. Those who experience the nasty side effects of glucosamine (nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain, gas, bloating, etc.) are usually those individuals who found the cheapest option or the one with the most reviews on Amazon. Remember: the world of reviews on Amazon and other sites are sketchy at best. FakeSpot estimates around 30% of reviews on Amazon are fake. According to the National Capitol Poison Control, some glucosamine products tested were found to contain less or more glucosamine than what was listed on the label AND in some cases, the product was found to be contaminated. Needless to say, opt in for the best ingredients because glucosamine is not a short term, quick fix supplement.

DISCOVER: The Xyngular Guide To Bone Health

What Foods Naturally Contain Glucosamine?

Believe it or not, there are no natural food sources for glucosamine. Whereas most glucosamine supplements are sourced from shells of shellfish (crabs, lobster, shrimp, etc), there isn’t a list of vegetables, fruits, or protein options you can make a note of on your next grocery list. This is probably another reason why glucosamine supplements are the 2nd most popular dietary supplement taken. Furthermore, this is why it’s so important to supplement glucosamine in the first place.

Flex: The Xyngular Solution For Optimal Joint Health*

Strenuous activity, physical work, natural aging, and even being just a little overweight can put a lot of extra stress on our joints. In fact, being overweight by as little as 5 pounds may put an extra 15-30 pounds of extra force on your knees. To counteract the issues of joint deterioration, to keep your body in motion, to keep you active and flexible, Flex helps lubricate active joints, nourishes and strengthens connective tissues, and helps reduce joint inflammation associated with physical activity.

Flex contains no soy, only has to be taken once a day, contains no stimulants like caffeine and green tea, contains zero nuts, uses vegetarian capsules, manufactured in the U.S., can be taken on an empty stomach, is a great option for post-exercise joint recovery, and can be taken with other Xyngular supplement. Our premium Flex formula of glucosamine and boswellia serrata are one of the most effective duos on the market to support your joints and help reduce inflammation often associated with exercise.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Can My Dog Take Too Much Glucosamine or Chondroitin?

Glucosamine and chondroitin are the main ingredients found in most canine joint supplements. These two natural cartilage building blocks are essential for maintaining healthy joint function and for helping to lessen the aches and pains so many dogs experience with canine arthritis. But you know what they sometimes say about too much of a good thing…

Luckily, while it ipossible for your dog to get too much glucosamine and chondroitin for their weight and arthritis needs, it would be quite difficult for them to overdose in a way that seriously affected them. Here’s why.

Finding the Right Dosage

The amount of glucosamine and chondroitin that is right for your dog depends on two things: 1) their weight and 2) the severity of their joint condition. For this reason, it’s important to consult with your veterinarian on how much they recommend daily for your particular pup, and buy supplements accordingly.

To get you started, here are the average recommendations:

Average Glucosamine Recommendations for Dogs

  • 250-500 mg for 5-20 pounds dogs
  • 500 mg for 20-45 pounds dogs
  • 1,000 mg for 45-90 pounds dogs
  • 1,500 mg for dogs weighing more than 90 pounds

Average Chondroitin Recommendations for Dogs

  • 900 mg for dogs weighing less than 80 pounds
  • 1,800 mg for dogs weighing more than 80 pounds

Choosing a High-Quality Supplement

The use of joint supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin have increased exponentially in recent years – a Google search for “joint supplements for dogs produces over 40,000,000 results! It’s wonderful to have natural options that are effective at combating the effects of canine arthritis, especially considering that many of the synthetic prescription drugs available can cause unpleasant side effects if used long-term. However, it’s important to understand that just because a dog joint supplement is labeled “natural” doesn’t necessarily mean it’s safe.

Recent reports of glucosamine toxicity in dogs have most often been linked to joint supplements with ingredients sourced from and/or manufactured in China. Many pet parents purchase these supplements because they are cheaper than ones sourced and made in the United States, but the truth is they can take a much higher toll on your pet’s health in the long run. Cheap supplements from China often contain the addition of toxic chemicals and bacteria as fillers such as lead, arsenic, and Salmonella, to name a few.

If your dog were to ingest too many of these cheap supplements at once or take them for too long a time, the results could be disastrous. That’s why it’s important to do your research and ensure you’re purchasing a high-quality glucosamine chondroitin supplement for your dog. Choose a canine joint supplement made in the USA, with ingredients sourced in the USA. Buy from a reputable company that’s transparent about their manufacturing process, and read labels carefully and go through reviews thoroughly. TopDog’s veterinarian formulated GlycanAid HA is a 5-star product made in the USA with only natural, pure ingredients, including glucosamine, chondroitin, and other essential nutrients to help your dog maintain normal healthy cartilage and joint function, limit discomfort, and improve joint mobility. And most importantly, keep them safe and healthy. You can also TAKE OUR QUIZ to receive curated recommendations on which products your dog should take.

 

Avoiding Overloading Their System

Once you ensure you are giving your dog the right dosage in their joint supplements, there are then essentially two main ways they could get too much glucosamine and/or chondroitin in their system:

1) An Overdose of Supplements

To make them more appealing to pups, most canine joint supplements come in the form of soft chews flavored in delicious combinations like bacon and cheddar. This can make them seem more like tasty treats than supplements, and if your dog is able to sniff them out, chances are they may eat the whole bottle and experience an overdose.

Luckily, glucosamine is more of a food supplement than a drug, so it’s only in very rare cases when a dog consumes extreme amounts of glucosamine that a toxic overdose would occur. Most likely, your dog would experience some vomiting and/or diarrhea, with no lasting side effects. However, if the joint supplement also contained active ingredients like vitamin D or zinc, this can be very serious and warrants an immediate call to your veterinarian.

2) Additional Glucosamine Sources

Even if you’re giving the right dosage in supplements to your dog, it’s possible they’re getting additional glucosamine from other sources. For example, some brands of kibble contain glucosamine. While a little bit won’t make much of a difference, too much kibble will not only make them overweight but could lead to extra glucosamine in their body. Again, the chances of this being dangerous are extremely slim, but it’s important for optimal effectiveness that they receive the correct dosage.

Another possible way your dog could be getting extra glucosamine is from natural food sources. However, you would know if this was the case, as you would be feeding them raw foods such as chicken feet, oxtails, or shellfish shells. These raw foods are great sources of glucosamine that is very easily absorbed by your dog’s body, but it can be tough to provide these foods to your pup every day, which is why most pet parents choose supplements.

So in essence, it would be quite difficult to give your dog too much glucosamine and/or chondroitin. While it’s important to ensure they’re receiving the correct dosage in their supplements for their weight and needs, the chances of them experiencing a toxic overdose are slim. So rest easy, pet parents.

Fixit: Glucosamine may have side effects

Q I take glucosamine for my joints. I heard that diabetes is a risk with glucosamine. Is that true?

A Ask your doctor or health care provider. Glucosamine is considered a supplement, and isn’t regulated like conventional medications.

According to Mayoclinic .com, in most human studies glucosamine sulfate has been well tolerated for 30 to 90 days. Possible side effects include upset stomach, drowsiness, insomnia, headache, skin reactions, sun sensitivity and nail toughening. Based on several human cases, temporary increases in blood pressure and heart rate, as well as palpitations, may occur in those taking glucosamine/chondroitin products. Based on animal research, glucosamine theoretically may increase the risk for formation of cataracts.

It remains unclear if glucosamine alters blood sugar levels. Several human studies suggest that glucosamine taken by mouth has no effects on blood sugar, while other research reports mixed effects on insulin. When glucosamine is injected, it appears to cause insulin resistance. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia and in those taking drugs, herbs or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a health care provider, and medication adjustments may be necessary.

Because glucosamine can be made from the shells of shrimp, crab and other shellfish, people with shellfish allergy or iodine hypersensitivity may have an allergic reaction to glucosamine products. However, some research suggests that there is not enough shrimp allergen in glucosamine supplements to trigger reactions in patients who are allergic to shrimp. Nevertheless, caution is warranted. A serious hypersensitivity reaction, including throat swelling, has been reported with glucosamine sulfate. There are reported cases suggesting that glucosamine/chondroitin products exacerbate asthma.

Get a rise out of it

Q When a recipe calls for both baking powder and soda, what is the main purpose of each of these ingredients?

A Both baking powder and baking soda are leavening agents that cause batters to rise when baked. The leavener enlarges the bubbles that are created in the batter when ingredients are creamed. When a recipe contains baking powder and baking soda, the baking powder does most of the leavening. The baking soda is added to neutralize the acids in the recipe, increase tenderness and provide some leavening.

When using baking powder or baking soda in a recipe, make sure to sift or whisk them together with the other dry ingredients before adding to the batter. Otherwise, they can create pockets in the baked goods, leaving large holes.

From Joy of Baking

Send your questions to Fixit in care of the Star Tribune, 425 Portland Av. S., Minneapolis, MN 55488, or call 612-673-7032, or e-mail [email protected] Past columns are available at www.startribune.com/fixit. Sorry, Fixit cannot supply individual replies. Fixit appears every day except Friday.

Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, Dose, Precautions & Warnings

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Glucosamine, chondroitin, msm – what is it, ᐈ Properties, Treatment of diseases, Forms of release.

Chondroprotectors and their properties

Chondroprotectors – what is it?

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are now recorded in 89% of the population. Moreover, not only representatives of the older age group suffer, but also young people 30-45 years old. This is because joint health is influenced by many factors that affect modern society.

Excess weight, unhealthy diet, stress, questionable ecology, physical inactivity, or, conversely, increased physical activity lead to a decrease in the production of articular (synovial) fluid that protects cartilage from abrasion. Inflammatory processes develop, accompanied by severe painful sensations and a decrease in motor ability. Chondroprotectors help to cope with the situation.

Chondroprotectors are biologically active complexes designed to compensate for the lack of elements necessary for the restoration of cartilage tissue.In addition, they stimulate the production of synovial fluid and stop inflammation. So they cope with all these ailments.

These drugs usually include chondroitin, glucosamine and MSM (methylsulfonylmethane). What are these substances and why are they needed – let’s figure it out.

Properties of substances and their role in the body

First of all, you need to understand how the joint works and what is needed to maintain it in normal condition.

A joint is a movable connection of bones, mainly tubular, allowing them to change their position relative to each other.

In the place of the mobile connection, the epiphyses of the bones are covered with elastic tissue – hyaline cartilage. It is this layer that protects the bones from friction against each other during movement. Around the joint is protected by the so-called “bag” with synovial fluid, which lubricates the cartilage and ensures a smooth painless movement of the bone during running or any other human movements.

The synovial fluid carries out the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the cartilage, while simultaneously cleaning it from carbon dioxide and metabolic products.It is constantly being updated, but the viscosity and other biophysical properties directly depend on the concentration of substances in its composition. The basis of the liquid is blood plasma, which contains molecules of hyaluronic acid, lubricin, as well as chondroitin and its derivatives.

Hyaluronic acid – is responsible for the thickness of the synovial fluid, is part of the structure of cartilage tissue. Helps maintain the strength and elasticity of the synovium, tendons, ligaments.

Lubricin is a high molecular weight proteoglycan produced by cartilage tissue. As part of the synovial fluid, it forms water cavities that perform shock-absorbing functions and protect tissues from damage. In addition, chondroitin and its sulfates play an important role in the metabolism of cartilage:

  1. Helps calcium to be deposited in bone tissue, thereby ensuring its density
  2. Participate in the regeneration process
  3. Stimulates the synthesis of hyaluronic acid
  4. Have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects

Under the influence of age-related changes and other factors, the production of its own substance decreases.To compensate for the deficiency, you can use natural chondroprotectors.

What is Chondroitin?

The pure compound and its sulfates are present in the synovial fluid and play an important role in the metabolism of cartilage:

  1. Helps calcium to be deposited in bone tissue, thereby ensuring its density
  2. Participate in the process of cartilage regeneration
  3. Stimulates the synthesis of hyaluronic acid, which is necessary to maintain the strength and elasticity of connective tissues (tendons, ligaments)
  4. Have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects

Under the influence of age-related changes and other factors, the production of its own substance decreases.Chondroitin tablets will compensate for the deficiency and restore joint health.

What is Methylsulfonylmethane?

MSM is another component, without which the correct functioning of the joints is simply impossible. In fact, it is an organosulfur compound with high bioavailability. Sulfur helps prevent degeneration of the musculoskeletal system caused by aging, high exertion and other factors. Participates in the synthesis of chondroitin and glucosamine, promotes rapid tissue recovery after damage.In addition, MSM is necessary for the production of its own collagen, which is necessary to maintain the elasticity and firmness of tissues.

It is very difficult to meet the daily requirement of an adult (1000 mg) with the help of diet correction. Eating 200 grams of egg powder or half a kilogram of beef at a time is difficult, and you need to maintain a sulfur balance every day.

Which foods are high in sulfur?
Product Amount of substance in 100 g, mg Percentage of daily requirement,%
Dry egg powder 650 63
Milk powder 260 26
Turkey 248 25
Beef 230 23
Pork 220 22
Soybean 244
Low-fat cottage cheese 220 22
Almonds 178 18
Chickpeas 199 20

It is much more effective to take sulfur as a dietary supplement.You can choose a monopreparation, but it is better to choose a multicomplex containing chondroitin, glucosamine and MSM in a daily concentration.

What is Glucosamine?

The substance in the form of a dietary supplement is very popular as a remedy for diseases of the musculoskeletal system . In the United States alone, it is regularly taken by about 5% of the population. According to statistics, 59% of adherents of alternative medicine choose it instead of protocol pharmaceuticals (1, 2).

Glucosamine is an amino sugar that is produced in the body by the cartilage tissue . It is necessary for the formation of chondroitin and is an element on which the health of the joint as a whole depends. Taking it as a chondroprotector, you can restore cartilage in a short time, remove inflammation and restore the mobility of the musculoskeletal system. Glucosamine is prescribed as part of the complex therapy of arthrosis, arthritis. Add to the menu of bodybuilders, fitness trainers, athletes.

Properties:

1

Relieves pain and swelling in any joint damage

2

Prevents the development of osteoarthritis, arthrosis

3

Normalizes the production of synovial fluid

4

Repairs cartilage

5

Maintains the normal condition of the musculoskeletal system during sports

It is almost impossible to get the substance from food.It is obtained from the shells of mollusks, crustaceans and the wings of some insects – you must admit, it does not look like the traditional European menu. But the purified sulfate is perfectly absorbed, while the risk of allergic reactions and side effects is minimal.

Manufacturers of natural biocomplexes and sports nutrition most often offer a combination of glucosamine with chondroitin – so its effectiveness appears faster.

Variants of glucosamine active ingredients and their features

Important! In the production of biocomplexes, several forms of the compound are used: hydrochloride, sulfate, glucosamine sulfate salts

What is Glucosamine Hydrochloride?

It is a molecule associated with hydrochloric acid.When it enters the intestine, it is hydrolyzed and forms free substance (6, 7).

Most dietary supplements contain hydrochloride, although there is not much evidence of its benefits over other forms. For example, large-scale studies on the treatment of cartilaginous arthrosis found no significant difference between synovial fluid levels after administration of glucosamine sulfate or hydrochloride (8).

The popularity of this form is due to the elementary structure of matter .It is easier to manufacture, resulting in affecting the final cost of . However, many reputable communities still recommend other options, such as sulfate.

What is Glucosamine Sulfate?

Like hydrochloride, glucosamine sulfate is hydrolyzed in the intestine to form a free compound. However, for reasons not yet clarified, it is absorbed by an order of magnitude better than , providing a quick therapeutic effect.Its bioavailability is 90%, in contrast to the 26% that can provide with hydrochloride (9, 10). And the half-life occurs in different ways – 56 and 28 hours, respectively.

Important! Glucosamine sulfate can provide a higher status of the substance in tissues and plasma, compared to the hydrochloride form. Research using it tends to give the best results.

In addition, it is this compound that provides the appearance of negative ions in proteoglycan molecules that trap and retain water in the cartilage structure (11, 12).

What are glucosamine sulfate salts?

The substance is a crystalline salt solution with a stoichiometric ratio of free glucosamine, sulfate, chloride and sodium 2: 1: 2: 2, respectively. The formula is patented by the German company Rottapharma. In some preparations, it is indicated as a component of Rotta. The main advantage is the frequency of application of .

According to the assurances of the brand’s specialists, salt should be taken once a day , unlike other forms.In this case, the level of the circulating substance will be much higher than with the introduction of hydrochloride (13, 14).

The effectiveness of the formula has been confirmed by numerous studies, although many of them contained a conflict of interest for Rottapharma. A Cochrane meta-analysis shows the benefits of the Rotta component in reducing pain in osteoarthritis , compared to other drugs under similar conditions and doses (15).

However, the data of independent studies regarding the high efficiency of this particular complex are still insufficient.

How is glucosamine metabolized?

What are the forms of chondroprotectors – capsules, tablets, injections, ointment (gel)?

When choosing a drug, one should be guided by the brand reputation rather than the information on the packaging. The fact is that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the composition of such additives, and only the manufacturer knows what exactly is offered in the coveted jar.

Tests carried out by American specialists show that the content of the valuable component can vary from 0 to 100% of the claimed .At the same time, the actual dosage of significantly affects the therapeutic effect of (3, 4, 5). In addition, in some cases, labels of indicate glucosamine sulfate , while the product is its hydrochloride salt.

What are the features of glucosamine absorption?

Previously, scientists believed that oral glucosamine is absorbed by 100%, since no residues were found in the feces of humans and experimental animals.However, modern research completely refutes this theory. The fact is that there are no compounds in the intestine that provide the transport of substances, and real absorption is about 26% of (16). In addition, its molecule is structurally similar to glucose .

The corresponding enzymes first try to transport the monosaccharide through the intestinal wall, and upon recognizing an error, blocks it. According to the latest data, it turns out that most of the valuable chondroprotector is metabolized by the intestinal microflora (17, 18).

Important! The exact bioavailability of glucosamine is not yet known. In the intestines of humans and animals, there are no active transporter molecules that ensure complete absorption. Most will be secondary to paracellular absorption.

How does glucosamine affect whey?

Typically, an oral dose of 1500 mg provides with 3-8 μmol / L of circulating compound (19, 20, 21).However, raising to 3000 mg does not double its status. In addition, in one study, administration of 7500 mg of sulfate did not help to exceed serum 15 μmol / L .

Another paper describes the use of glucosamine in 18 subjects. Here, too, supplementation did not significantly increase the plasma concentration of the substance. Approximately 1.5 hours after administration, the status corresponded to 1.9 μmol / L , and after 2.5 – 11.5 μmol / L .However, it will be fair to note that before the administration of glucosamine, its blood level in subjects was below 0.5 μmol / L (21).

Important! The substance begins to show up in the blood after supplementation. In this case, the indicator from 3 to 8 μmol / l is considered average and normal. The exact concentration, as well as the absorption time, has not yet been established.

Treatment of osteoarthritis and other pathologies of the musculoskeletal system

How do glucosamine and chondroitin help in the treatment of osteoarthritis?

Severe chronic illness is the most common cause of disability .It is characterized by progressive destruction of cartilage and surrounding tissues. It is accompanied by pain, stiffness of the joints and subsequently the loss of their functionality.

For treatment, glucosamine and chondroitin , as well as their combinations, are used. In some cases, methylsulfonylmethane is added to them.

How does glucosamine work?

Due to its structural features, glucosamine was originally considered as a kind of substrate for the synthesis of collagen .However, studies have shown that the substance is actively absorbed by chondrocytes, and this process does not depend on any genomic effects or anti-inflammatory biomarkers (22). The substance can stimulate the repair of cartilage tissue , but the mechanisms of this process are not fully understood.

Technically, collagen synthesis occurs when the cell receives large amounts of glucosamine. Oral supplements should stimulate the process, however, due to their low bioavailability and negligible effect on serum status, their effectiveness is subject to some doubts.The substance should be considered not as a substrate for collagen, but as a factor inhibiting its degeneration . And that’s why.

Important! Glucosamine can reduce the activity of genes that break down collagen, as well as inhibit the production of enzymes that provoke inflammation in cartilage tissue. Therefore, oral supplements cannot reverse the pathological manifestations of osteoarthritis, but significantly slow them down – completely.
Numerous scientific papers describe the effectiveness of supplements in maintaining normal joint space and reducing pain and swelling (23).But there are no definite recommendations yet.

How does chondroitin work?

In 2013, a team of scientists initiated a major study to determine the effectiveness of oral chondroitin for the treatment of osteoarthritis . Of the 9100 participants, 4900 were given chondroprotective agents, the rest placebo or anti-inflammatory drugs.

Within six months, the representatives of the first group showed clinically significant results .Pain sensations decreased by 20% on the WOMAC MCII Pain scale, stopped the process of joint space narrowing .

Analysis of several other scientific papers also confirms the positive effects of chondroitin in the treatment of joint diseases. In subjects , pain significantly decreased, swelling went away, and motor activity in gradually recovered (24).

A 2016 multicenter study found that a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin is as effective as in relieving pain and swelling of knee osteoarthritis as anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals, but without the side effects .Scientists believe that chondroprotectors can be a good alternative for patients with cardiovascular pathologies and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the combination of substances p helps to reduce the narrowing of the joint space , thereby significantly slowing down the progression of the pathology.

At the moment there are no exact recommendations on the use of chondroprotectors for back pain. Since question began to be studied relatively recently by , there has not been enough research yet, and those that have already been published show mixed results.

For example, in a follow-up of 250 patients with chronic osteoarthritis of the lumbar spine, administration of 1500 mg glucosamine sulfate did not lead to any significant improvement (25, 26, 27). However, Rottapharm experts claim that in the case of an integrated approach to treatment, the results will be (28, 29).

How>

How does glucosamine and chondroitin help in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the jaw?

Participants in a large study on the treatment of temporomandibular joints noted a decrease in pain , as well as noise in this area, when was prescribed 1500 mg of glucosamine and 1200 mg of chondroitin .The effect was obtained in just 12 weeks of therapy, which is a very optimistic result of (30, 31).

In addition, the analgesic effect was the same as with the administration of 1200 mg ibuprofen .

Additional approvals are required to recommend a combination of substances for therapeutic purposes.

How does glucosamine and chondroitin help in the treatment of Kashin-Beck disease?

The disease is characterized by cartilage degeneration , as in osteoarthritis.Since the pathogenesis in both cases is almost identical, scientists suggested using glucosamine for this diagnosis as well (34, 35). Therapy with monosaccharide in combination with chondroitin ( 1400 and 1200 mg, respectively ), helped reduce pain in 32% of the subjects, and in another 50%, joint mobility improved, decreased swelling (36).

Positive effects were also observed in other patients with Kashin-Beck, , with the administration of 1500 mg of pure glucosamine (36).These results give reason to recommend it as part of the complex treatment .

How do chondroprotectors affect the joints of athletes?

Many sports nutritionists recommend glucosamine supplements as they help maintain joint function during intense exercise .

A study involving cyclists showed that the substance at a concentration of 1500-3000 mg per day reduces the breakdown of collagen.At the same time, the therapy did not affect the synthesis of the latter, as well as bone formation and resorption (32). For a cohort of footballers, a similar program yielded the same results.

The study of the effect of the substances took place not only on healthy subjects, but also on athletes with knee injuries . The use of 1500 mg of monosaccharide for a month helped to reduce pain, as well as increase mobility in this area was 10% more effective than placebo (33).

What else can be treated with glucosamine?

Despite the fact that there is still no sufficient evidence base, the substance is actively used to treat inflammatory processes in different parts of the body .

How does glucosamine and chondroitin help in the treatment of interstitial cystitis?

The disease is characterized by the development of an inflammatory process of non-infectious etiology . The bladder is affected, which is accompanied by pain in the pelvic region, as well as increased urination , incontinence .

Scientists believe that the pathology of is provoked by a decrease in the status of glycosaminoglycans – polysaccharides present in connective tissue. The monosaccharide is their precursor, therefore the use of oral supplements will help restore the balance of the valuable substances (37).

How does glucosamine help treat intestinal inflammation?

> Colitis and enterocolitis is a disease of the mucous membrane of the large and small intestines, accompanied by pain, diarrhea and other symptoms of digestive disorders.In some cases extraintestinal manifestations are observed – dermatitis, joint pain. As in the case of interstitial cystitis, colitis develops against a background of glycosaminoglycan deficiency.

Studies in laboratory mice have shown the effectiveness of glucosamine supplementation for this diagnosis of . However, data on the use of in humans are not yet available (38).

How does monosaccharide help in the treatment of multiple sclerosis?

Some experts claim that Some experts claim that monosaccharide can help fight multiple sclerosis .One study compared between glucosamine therapy and conventional drugs. There was no significant effect, but managed to slow down the progression of sclerosis by (39).

One study conducted a comparative analysis of between glucosamine therapy and conventional drugs . There was no significant effect, but still managed to slow down the progression of sclerosis with (39).

How does monosaccharide help in the treatment of glaucoma?

Regarding this pathology, scientists still have not come to an unambiguous conclusion .Some believe that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of monosaccharide may be beneficial for the health of retinal (39). Others argue that the opposite substance may be harmful to patients with glaucoma (40).

Comparison of natural chondroprotectors and pharmaceuticals

Can natural chondroprotectors replace paracetamol?

In one of the independent studies, scientists compared the effects of paracetomol and glucosamine in dosages of 1500 and 3000 mg, respectively .After 6 months of therapy, changes in the state of experimental patients were identical to those of (42).

Can natural chondroprotectors replace ibuprofen?

Scientists have found that 1500 mg of the substance helps to reduce the manifestations of osteoarthritis in the same way as 3000 mg of ibuprofen . However, it should be noted that the latter acts a little faster (43).

Can natural chondroprotectors replace celecoxib?

Scientists have found that 1500 mg of the substance helps to reduce the manifestations of osteoarthritis in the same way as 3000 mg of ibuprofen .However, it should be noted that the latter acts a little faster (43).

Can natural chondroprotectors replace hydrolyzed collagen?

In the framework of clinical observations of patients with knee pathology, the test subjects were divided into 2 groups. The first was prescribed 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate , the second – 10 g of enzymatically hydrolyzed collagen . It turned out that the latter better relieves the manifestations of the disease, although monosaccharide was also useful for (45).

Interaction of glucosamine with other substances

How does glucosamine interact with chondroitin?

Supplements containing a combination of chondroitin and glucosamine are more effective in restoring the functions of the musculoskeletal system than monoproducts.

In one of the studies in cattle, it was confirmed that the tandem of substances stimulates the production of collagen in all types of cells significantly better than each separately.Other scientific works also note the synergistic stimulation of collagen synthesis, as well as inhibition of its degradation processes, when high doses of valuable compounds are administered (46, 47).

Despite the obtained results, representatives of the authoritative medical communities have not yet confirmed the synergistic effect of substances for relieving symptoms of joint inflammation . Although glucosamine itself quickly relieves pain, and chondroitin removes puffiness.

How does glucosamine interact with methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)?

MSM supplements are nearly as popular as chondroitin and glucosamine.The substance is a source of sulfur – the most important factor in joint health . Its deficiency leads to pathological consequences. Methylsulfonylmethane is often supplemented with chondroprotective therapy, such complex is called “MSM glucosamine” .

In one study, 30 obese women with osteoarthritis were randomized to receive glucosamine + chondroitin + MSM complex (1500 mg, 1200 mg and 900 mg, respectively) , and placebo. At the same time, aerobic loads were assigned in both groups.Combination therapy, albeit slowly, but helped to reduce knee pain , relieve swelling (48, 49).

Another scientific paper describes the effects of 1500 mg of glucosamine and 1500 mg of MSM , as well as their combinations, on inflammation of the knee joint. Over 12 weeks, the combination treatment showed better results than monotherapy (50).

How does glucosamine interact with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)?

In patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee joint, the combination of glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg) and NSAIDs was more effective than monotherapy with pharmaceuticals or pure chondroprotective agents (51).

How does glucosamine interact with quercetin?

There is a theory that this bioflavonoid helps reduce arthritis pain and that stops cartilage breakdown . Oral supplementation with a complex of quercetin and chondroprotectors showed good results during one of the clinical tests. However, a sufficient evidence base has not yet been formed (52).

How does glucosamine interact with fish oil?

The substance is a kind of “cocktail” of valuable substances, the main of which are eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA).

Scientists have experimentally proven that complex therapy with fish oil and glucosamine sulfate has a positive effect on the condition of patients with arthritis . However, is not immediately effective . The first clinically significant changes in were noted at 26 weeks of therapy with (53).

How does glucosamine interact with Boswellia Serrata?

Serrated Boswellia or Indian Frankincense – a plant widely used in Ayurvedic practices for the treatment of joint problems .But a study in laboratory mice did not show much difference between its therapeutic effects and that of chondroprotectors . Only their combination contributed to a change in the clinical picture. However, the improvements were comparable to that of paracetamol at a dosage of 100 mg / kg (54).

Side effects and recommendations for admission

What are the side effects of taking glucosamine?

The use of glucosamine in dosages of up to 2000 mg and chondroitin up to 1300 mg , separately or in combination, is considered absolutely safe .Specialists from the International Osteoarthritis Research Society (OARSI), the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology differ in their views regarding their effectiveness, but are unanimous about the safety of chondroprotectors.

Subject to the recommendations for use, side effects are unlikely . Rarely reported drowsiness, stool disturbances, skin rashes, heartburn and headache .

Who should not take glucosamine?

Despite the relative safety, , in some cases, the substance is not recommended to be taken :

Condition, diagnosis Reason
Pregnancy and lactation

There is insufficient data on the effects of supplements on maternal and fetal health.

Cancer

In some types of oncology, chondroprotective agents can reduce the effectiveness of treatment. Before use, a specialist consultation is required.

Diabetes mellitus

According to several studies, the substance can provoke hyperglycemia, as well as impair the sensitivity of cells to insulin. In this case, therapy is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist (55).

Asthma

Clinical observation from 2008 indicates the possibility of shortness of breath in patients with bronchial asthma (56).

Allergy

Chondroprotectors, for which the shells of crustaceans and molluscs are used as raw materials, can provoke allergic reactions.

Hematological disorders

Patients with bleeding disorders, as well as hypertensive patients, should not use chondroprotectors without the recommendation of a specialist.Do not take while on warfarin therapy.

Forms of production of chondroprotectors

What are the forms of release of chondroprotectors – capsules, tablets, injections, ointment (gel)?

Chondroprotectors have established themselves as an effective way to combat joint pathologies. Depending on the situation, they are prescribed in different forms:

  1. Injection – injected directly into the joint capsule. They help to quickly restore the volume of synovial fluid, have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.The course is usually 8-15 procedures. But it must be borne in mind that the injections are quite painful and must be performed perfectly accurately.
  2. Ointments and gels – intended for external use. They do not act as quickly as injections, but they give a good result as part of complex therapy. An acceptable option for athletes whose joints are intact but need additional protection. In addition, such products usually include pain relieving and warming components that promote rapid tissue repair.
  3. Tablets and capsules – the best option for the treatment and prevention of pathological manifestations in the joints. The active ingredients in them, as a rule, are present in the most bioavailable form of sulfates. The drugs act in a complex manner, help to remove the cause of the ailment, and not only to alleviate the symptoms. In addition, the effect of the pills is cumulative. To prevent the problem from returning, it is enough to drink a prophylactic course every six months.

The type of drug also depends on the active ingredient.So, glucosamine, the price of which varies depending on the manufacturer, is most often offered in tablet or encapsulated form. Less often – in powder (as part of nutritional cocktails).

Pure chondroitin tablets are rare. In Ukraine, you can buy sulfate from NOW Foods. The price of chondroitin is about 800 UAH for 120 capsules. Most often, the substance is added to balms and creams for external use.

For a greater therapeutic effect, chondroitin with glucosamine is offered in combination with collagen, hyaluronic acid or plant extracts.Such multi-drugs are ideal for athletes and are easily absorbed by older patients. The main thing is to consult a doctor before using and choose the optimal dosage.

Glucosamine, the price of which varies depending on the manufacturer, is most often offered in tablet or capsule form. Less often – in powder (as part of nutritional cocktails).

We recommend that you consult with a pharmacist in order to choose a drug just for you!

Conclusions

Chondroprotectors are biologically active complexes that help to compensate for the lack of elements necessary for joint health.They stimulate the synthesis of synovial fluid , relieve inflammation, and contribute to the restoration of cartilage tissue. The most popular are chondroitin, glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane.

Glucosamine is an amino sugar synthesized by cartilage tissue. It is essential for the formation of chondroitin and is the element on which the health of the joint as a whole depends . It is almost impossible to get it from food . For the production of dietary supplements, shells of mollusks and crustaceans, as well as the wings of some insects, are used as raw materials.Available on the market in the form of hydrochloride, sulfate, salt.

Chondroitin is a polysaccharide produced by cartilage tissue. Contained in synovial fluid . The main functions are to ensure the fixation of sulfur compounds during the production of chondroitin-sulfuric acid, which subsequently affects the deposition of calcium in the bone tissue . Participates in the regeneration of cartilage, stimulates the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid. As an additive, has the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of .

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) – organosulfur compound, with high bioavailability . Helps prevent degeneration of the musculoskeletal system caused by aging, high exertion and other factors. Participates in the synthesis of chondroitin and glucosamine, promotes rapid tissue recovery after damage. Required for to produce its own collagen .

When choosing a drug, one should focus on the brand’s reputation rather than the information on the packaging.The fact is that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the composition of such additives, and only the manufacturer knows what exactly is offered in the coveted jar.

The exact bioavailability of glucosamine is still unknown. In the intestines of humans and animals there are no active molecules-transporters , which ensure complete absorption. Most will be secondary to paracellular absorption.

The substance begins to be detected in the blood after supplementation.In this case, the indicator from 3 to 8 μmol / l is considered average and m are normal. The exact concentration, as well as the absorption time, has not yet been established.

Glucosamine can reduce the activity of genes that destroy collagen, as well as inhibit the production of enzymes that provoke inflammation in cartilage tissue. Oral supplementation cannot reverse the pathological manifestations of osteoarthritis, but significantly slows the progression of .

The combination of glucosamine and chondroitin is as effective in relieving pain and swelling of knee osteoarthritis as anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals, but has no side effects. Scientists believe that biocomplexes can be a good alternative for patients with cardiovascular pathologies and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the combination of substances helps to reduce the narrowing of the joint space , thereby significantly slowing down the progression of the pathology.

Chondroprotectors can be useful in the complex therapy of osteoarthritis of the spine , knee joint, temporomandibular region. They help with Kashin-Beck’s disease, interstitial cystitis, colitis, glaucoma.

Some studies indicate that the efficacy of the substances is identical in comparison with paracetamol, ibuprofen, celecoxib and other anti-inflammatory drugs.

Main advantage – high degree of safety of chondroprotectors . They are well tolerated at the recommended dosage. In rare cases, a rash on the skin, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, and headache may appear. Shellfish shell supplements should not be taken by people with seafood allergies.

Due to lack of data, preparations are not recommended during pregnancy and lactation . They are used with caution in diabetics, as well as in subjects with coagulation disorders.


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31. Nguyen P. et al. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of the effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride on temporomandibular joint disease: a pilot study. Cranio. 2001

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41. Ryan C. Murphy, Lechea Ketzler, Robert De Rice, Sandra M. Johnson, Mona S. Doss, Edward H. Jaccoma. Oral glucosamine supplementation as a possible remedy for ocular hypertension JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul; 131 (7): 955-7. DOI: 10.1001 / jamaophthalmol.2013.227.

42. Herrero-Beaumont G et al.Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Rheumatoid arthritis. 2007

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44. Chopra A. et al. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of equivalent drugs.Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013

45. Bohmová J. Efficacy and tolerability of enzymatic hydrolyzed collagen versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Int Orthop. 2011

46. Lippiello L. Collagen synthesis in tenocytes, ligamentous cells and chondrocytes exposed to a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007

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48. KE bag. Is MSM Glucosamine Effective in Osteoarthritis? Postgrad Med. 2006

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53. Gruenwald J. Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis.Adv Ther. 2009
54. Singh S. et al. Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effects in preclinical anti-inflammatory studies in rats. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007

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instructions for use, analogs, composition, indications

Pharmacodynamics
Glucosamine
Mechanism of Action
Glucosamine hydrochloride is a salt of the amino monosaccharide glucosamine, which is an endogenous component and a preferred substrate for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.Glucosamine hydrochloride inhibits the activity of interleukin-1 beta and other inflammatory mediators.
Clinical efficacy and tolerability
The safety and efficacy of glucosamine hydrochloride has been confirmed in clinical trials with a treatment duration of up to three years. Short and medium-term clinical studies have shown that the effectiveness of glucosamine hydrochloride in relation to the symptoms of osteoarthritis is noted after 2-3 weeks of its use.However, unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucosamine hydrochloride has a long-lasting effect that lasts from six months to three years.
Clinical studies with daily intake of glucosamine hydrochloride for a period of up to three years have shown a gradual improvement in the symptoms of the disease and a slowdown in structural changes in the joint, as demonstrated by conventional radiography.
Glucosamine hydrochloride has been shown to be well tolerated during short and long term treatments.
Evidence of drug efficacy was demonstrated when it was used for three months, with a residual effect for two months after discontinuation. The safety and efficacy of the drug have also been confirmed in clinical trials for up to three years. Continuous treatment for more than three years cannot be recommended, as there is no safety data for glucosamine supplementation for more than three years.
Chondrothin sulfate
Chondroitin sulfate is a high molecular weight mucopolysaccharide.It is the main component of proteaglycans, which together with collagen fibers make up the cartilage matrix.
Pharmacokinetics
Glucosamine
Absorption
After oral administration of 14C-labeled glucosamine, it is rapidly and almost completely absorbed, and about 90% of the radioactive label is recorded in the systemic circulation. The absolute bioavailability of glucosamine in humans after oral administration was 44%, taking into account the first passage.After a daily oral intake of 1500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride by healthy volunteers under fasting conditions, the maximum plasma concentrations in a stationary state (C max , CC ) averaged 3 hours (T max ) about 1602 ± 426 ng / ml. At steady-state, the AUC was 14564 ± 4138 ng ∙ h / ml. It is not known whether food intake has a significant effect on oral bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of glucosamine is linear in the dose range of 750-1500 mg, with deviations from linearity at a dose of 3000 mg due to lower bioavailability.There are no gender differences in absorption and bioavailability of glucosamine. The pharmacokinetics of glucosamine were similar in healthy volunteers and patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Distribution
After oral absorption, glucosamine is distributed in various vascular compartments, including synovial fluid, with an apparent volume of distribution 37 times higher than the total volume of fluid in humans. Glucosamine does not bind to plasma proteins. Therefore, it is extremely unlikely that glucosamine is capable of drug interactions when combined with other drugs that strongly bind to blood plasma proteins.
Metabolism
The metabolic profile of glucosamine has not been studied since, being an endogenous substance, it is used as a “building material” for the biosynthesis of articular cartilage components. Glucosamine is mainly metabolized by conversion to hexosamine, regardless of the cytochrome system. It does not act as an inhibitor or inducer of human CYP450 isoenzymes, including CYP 3A4, 1A2, 2E1, 2C9 and 2D6.00. There is no clinically significant interaction of glucosamine with other drugs that could be realized by inhibiting and / or inducing human CYP450 isoforms.
Excretion
In humans, the half-life of glucosamine from plasma is 15 hours. After oral administration of 14C-labeled glucosamine, excretion in urine was 10 ± 9%, with feces – 11.3 ± 0.1% of the administered dose. The average excretion of unchanged glucosamine after oral administration in humans is about 1% of the administered dose, which suggests that the kidneys and liver do not play a significant role in the elimination of glucosamine, its metabolites and / or its degradation products.
Pharmacokinetics in various categories of patients
In patients with renal and hepatic insufficiency
Studies of the pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency have not been conducted. These studies were considered inappropriate due to the insignificant contribution of the liver and kidneys to the metabolic process, degradation and excretion of glucosamine. Therefore, given the favorable safety profile and good tolerability of glucosamine, no dose adjustment is required in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency.
Children and adolescents
Studies of the pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in children and adolescents have not been conducted.
Elderly patients
Pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients have not been conducted, however, in clinical trials of the efficacy and safety of glucosamine, mainly elderly patients were included. It has been shown that in this category of patients there is no need for dose adjustment.
Chondrothin sulfate
Pharmacokinetics have not been studied.

The frequency of adverse reactions indicated below was determined using the following note: very often (≥ 1/10), often (≥ 1/100 to
General profile of adverse events
The most common adverse reactions associated with oral glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are nausea, abdominal pain, indigestion, flatulence, constipation, and diarrhea.These side reactions were usually mild and transient. In the following table, adverse reactions were grouped based on the MedDRA classification.

Class of systems or organs Very often
≥ 1/100
Often
≥ 1/100 to <1/10
Uncommon
≥ 1/1000 to <1/100
Rarely
≥ 1/10000
up to <1/1000
Very rare
<1/10000
Unknown *
From the immune system Allergic reactions **
On the part of metabolism and nutrition Inadequate glycemic control in diabetes
Mental disorders Insomnia
From the nervous system Headache
Drowsiness
Dizziness
On the part of the organ of vision Visual impairment
From the side of the heart Arrhythmias, including tachycardia
From the vascular system Tides
From the respiratory system, chest and mediastinum Asthma / worsening of asthma
From the gastrointestinal tract Diarrhea
Constipation
Nausea
Flatulence
Abdominal pain
Dyspepsia
Vomit
On the part of the skin, subcutaneous tissue Erythema
Itching
Rash
Angioedema
Hives
From the liver and biliary tract Increased levels of “liver” enzymes in the blood and jaundice ***
General violations Fatigue Edema / peripheral edema
On the part of laboratory and physiological parameters Increased liver enzymes, blood glucose levels, increased blood pressure, fluctuations in INR

* Frequency cannot be estimated from available data.
** Prone patients may develop severe allergic reactions to glucosamine.
*** Cases of increased liver enzymes and the development of jaundice have been reported, but a causal relationship with glucosamine intake has not been established.
Cases of hypercholesterolemia have been reported, but a causal relationship with glucosamine intake has not been established.
Reported Suspected Adverse Reactions
Medical professionals are encouraged to send information about any suspected adverse reactions and drug ineffectiveness to the address: Republican Unitary Enterprise “Center for Examination of Tests in Health Care”, Tovarishchekiy per., 2a, 220037, Republic of Belarus, e-mail: [email protected]

90 000 6 reviews, instructions for use

glucosamine

Glucosamine (glucosamine):
6 reviews
doctors,
1
patient review instructions for use, analogs, infographics,
1 form of release.

Reviews of doctors

Reviews of doctors about glucosamine

09/27/21 12:58:04

In an injectable form, it is quite effective and safe for a course of treatment, a combination with chondroitin sulfate is desirable. The tablet form is used by me personally only as a supportive therapy for the initial degree of arthrosis.

Recurrent disturbances in bowel function in patients with a tendency to constipation.

06/06/20 10:55:17

An expensive drug. Effectiveness has not been proven.

Absolute dummy with unproven effectiveness. Its promotion is due to large financial interests. In the latest recommendations of the American Society of Orthopedic Traumatology, oral chondroprotectors are not recommended for prescription due to unproven efficacy.

09/02/19 13:43:52

Glucosamine sulfate and Chondroitin sulfate, two main chondroprotectors.I almost always prescribe for joint diseases. A prerequisite will be the appointment of ascorbic acid, which serves as a catalyst. Treat at least twice a year. I would recommend doubling the indicated dosage on the package.

12/01/17 23:06:30

It is used to correct the diet, however, it has its own mild anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect with prolonged (at least 3 months) use.

The cost of the drug should be estimated based on the dosage. Compare the cost of 1000 mg of glucosamine from different manufacturers and get the comparative cost. For the drug is effective with a total daily dosage of 1000 to 1500 mg (Glucosamine + chondroitin).

02/06/17 10:56:05

A relatively inexpensive drug for the treatment of degenerative changes in cartilaginous surfaces, good value for money, quality, efficiency, no side effects.

Must be taken for a long time for several months, the effect is sometimes compared to the effect of a placebo.

Sometimes I prescribe for mild joint disease.

Patient reviews
about glucosamine

Form of issue

Dosage Packing Storage Sale Expiry date

1500mg

5; ten; twenty; thirty

24

Glucosamine analogs

Analogs for use Analogs for the active substance

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Tablets Artra® MCM (

As a biologically active food supplement – a source of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, contains methylsulfonylmethane (MSM 600 mg in 2 tablets).

Components Artra ® MSM are a source for the formation of cartilage matrix and connective tissue, contributing to their recovery.

Daily dosage (2 tablets) satisfies:

Index Content in a daily dose of
(2 tablets)
% Of the adequate
consumption level *
Glucosamine 832 mg 119 **
Chondroitin Sulfate 736 mg 123 **
Hyaluronic acid 20 mg 40

Note:

* Uniform requirements of the EurAsEC Customs Union;
** Does not exceed the upper permissible level of consumption.

With age, the synthesis of glucosamine and chondroitin deteriorates, and such an important element as MSM (methylsulfonylmethane – a natural source of sulfur) enters the body in trace amounts.

Chondroitin and glucosamine play an important role in the restoration of connective tissue, improve the shock-absorbing properties of cartilage, increase joint mobility.

Artra ® MSM contains high concentrations of glucosamine, chondroitin, hyaluronic acid and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), which in combination have a synergistic effect, complementing and enhancing each other’s effects.

Artra Components ® MSM:

  • help to reduce inflammation and soreness in joints
  • help to increase joint mobility
  • contribute to the acceleration of cartilage tissue regeneration
  • contribute to the protection of articular cartilage
  • are a source for the formation of cartilage matrix and connective tissue, contributing to their restoration

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a source of sulfur, which is biologically available for the body – a component of proteins that make up all connective tissues.MSM reduces the risk of inflammation, accelerates collagen protein synthesis, and helps maintain healthy joints.

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are involved in the synthesis of connective tissue.

Glucosamine is a structural component for the formation (synthesis) of other components of cartilaginous structures, inhibits the development of degenerative processes in the joints, restores their function. The introduction of exogenous glucosamine enhances the production of cartilage matrix.

Chondroitin sodium sulfate serves as an additional substrate for the formation of a healthy erythrocyte matrix, is part of the synovial fluid, which provides sliding of the articular surfaces, as well as nourishes the cartilage and helps to reduce nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Hyaluronic acid is part of the articular fluid, where it acts as a lubricant, reducing friction between the articular surfaces, is part of the cartilage, where it performs a “spring” function (maintains the resistance of cartilage tissue to compression), is an important component of synovial fluid, determining its viscoelastic properties.It forms a covering layer on the entire inner surface, which protects the articular cartilage and synovium from mechanical damage, as well as from free radicals and inflammation factors. On the surface of the mucous membranes, hyaluronic acid forms a thin semi-permeable protective layer, covering the nerve endings and preventing irritation; stimulates collagen formation.

GLUCOSAMINE, CHONDROITIN, MSM, HYALURONIC ACID, COLLAGEN II type 150 capsules.Doctor’s Best FREE SHIPPING

Description

  • Scientific nutrition
  • Food additive
  • Opti MSM
  • With BioCell Collagen
  • Supports joint and connective tissue health and lubricates joints

Glucosamine, Chondroitin & Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) with Hyaluronic Acid contains sodium-free potassium stabilized glucosamine sulfate, bovine chondroitin sulfate and pure MSM (OptiMSM) and BioCell proprietary collagen (US patents 6,025,327; 6,780,399)

Supports joint strength, elasticity and health. Supports the connective tissues of the body. Has a beneficial effect on hair, skin and nails.

Application Note

Adults: Take 5 capsules daily, with or without food.

Additive Information
Serving Size: 5 capsules
Servings Per Container: 30 servings
Amount per serving % Daily Value
Chloride (from glucosamine sulfate 2KCl) 170 mg 5%
Sodium (from chondroitin sulfate sodium) 100 mg 4%
Potassium (from glucosamine sulfate 2KCl) 180 mg 5%
BioCell Collagen, providing:
Hydrolyzed Collagen Type II
Chondroitin Sulfate
Hyaluronic Acid
1000 mg
600 mg
200 mg
100 mg



Glucosamine sulfate 2KCl 1500 mg
Chondroitin sulfate (from chondroitin sulfate sodium) 1000 mg
Methylsulfonylmethane (OptiMSM) 1000 mg

Various diseases of the joints in recent years have become seriously “younger” and become more common.Now this problem is faced not only by the elderly, but also by middle-aged people. And in some cases, even young people. But the main danger of such diseases is the gradual progression and insignificance of the initial symptoms, which is why many people simply ignore them for a long enough period until it is too late.

Also, joint diseases are characterized by the fact that they are extremely difficult to treat, in most cases it is simply impossible to “reverse” the problem, all that can be achieved is to stop the development of the disease.At the same time, treatment gives the best results precisely in the early stages of development, but, as we said above, people usually simply ignore them.

On the treatment of joint diseases

Treatment of various diseases of the joints is almost always carried out according to approximately the same scheme with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chondroprotectors, massage and special therapeutic exercises. In this case, NSAIDs are needed only in order to reduce pain, and the treatment itself is provided with chondroprotectors – substances that protect cartilage tissue from destruction and contribute to their early regeneration.

Almost all drugs that are used in the treatment of joint diseases are based on 2 chondroprotectors – chondroitin and glucosamine, which differ in their principle of action, but their price and instructions for use are almost identical. At the same time, many people, when the first unpleasant symptoms appear, try to self-medicate and take chondroitin or glucosamine as a basis, focusing on the reviews of other people, and not on consulting a doctor (since there is always time to read forums on the Internet, but there is always no time to go to the doctor) ).At the same time, it is extremely rare for people to understand the difference between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which can quickly reduce pain, but at the same time negatively affect the condition of the cartilage tissue (which has already suffered) and chondroprotectors, which must be taken for a long time before the appearance of a visible effect.

Let’s try to figure out which of the named chondroprotectors “works” better and how they differ.

What is glucosamine?

Glucosamine is a common chondroprotector that has a positive effect on the metabolism of cartilage tissue.At the same time, it stimulates the synthesis of collagen and proteoglycans, stimulates the regeneration of cartilage tissue, and reduces the vaso-destructive and pro-inflammatory effect of interleukin. In other words, this drug is a kind of “catalyst” for regeneration.

But it should be borne in mind that there are several forms of this drug, which differ in efficiency and method of preparation. So, the most common are glucosamine sulfate (stabilized with potassium or sodium chloride) and glucosamine hydrochloride (can be of animal or vegetable origin).At the same time, there are two more forms of this substance, but we do not mention them due to their low efficiency and low prevalence.

What is Chondroitin?

Chondroitin is a structural analogue of human cartilage tissues, and it is obtained from the bones and cartilage of fish and farm animals. In this sense, the katran (prickly shark), stingrays, sturgeon fish are highly valued. It is chondroitin, isolated from the bone-cartilaginous tissue of fish, that is the most active.

Chondroitin sulfate has an anti-inflammatory effect, while it stimulates the regeneration of cartilage tissue. In addition, this drug has another valuable property – it increases the resistance of cartilage tissue to various chemical influences, in particular, to the destructive effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. At the same time, it helps to improve the penetration of glucosamine into the affected joint.

It is also interesting that the bioavailability of this component is higher when applied externally, because chondroitin sulfate is more useful as an ointment, and therefore the price for it is higher, and not as tablets, the instructions for use of which are much simpler and rarely speaks of this difference.But at the same time, the effectiveness of this drug is quite high even in tablet form, therefore, along with ointments such as Chondroitin-Akos, tablets are also produced, for example, Artra.

Studies have shown that a one-year use of chondroitin stabilizes radiological parameters, significantly reduces pain and significantly increases joint mobility. The first positive “shifts” become noticeable already in the third month of treatment, gradually increasing. It should be borne in mind that the effect of eliminating the pain syndrome in this case occurs later than in the case of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but the effect of chondroitin continues for several months after the drug has ceased to be taken.With NSAIDs, relapse occurs immediately after drug withdrawal.

In other words, in a dispute between two chondroprotectors, chondroitin is often preferred, since it is more effective, but its cost is also much higher.

What are combination drugs?

Taking into account the advantages of various components described above, as well as the fact that chondroitin and glucosamine are perfectly combined and complement each other (for example, chondroitin promotes better absorption of glucosamine, which in this case becomes a “brick” for the restoration of cartilage tissue, while protecting cartilage from exposure to NSAIDs), then it was quite logical to decide to create a kind of drug, which would be a complex of these components.

Description

  • Methylsulphonylmethane – MSM, Methylsulfonylmethane
  • Joints sulfur
  • For Connective Tissue
  • For Healthy Cartilage
  • Quality Certificate GMP
  • Food additive

MSM (Methylsulphonylmethane) is a natural form of organic sulfur found in all living organisms. This natural compound has been researched since 1979. It provides the chemical bonds necessary for the formation and maintenance of various tissues in the human body (connective tissue and articular cartilage).MSM is a natural ingredient in nearly all fresh fruits, vegetables, seafood, and meats, but food processing techniques reduce the sulfur content of foods. Therefore, the addition of sulfur is simply vital for a modern person. NOW MSM is tested to maintain a 99.7% purity level.

The abbreviation MSM comes from the chemical name of the biologically active form of sulfur, methylsulfonylmethane, which is easily digestible by a living organism. Methylsulfonylmethane is a bioavailable sulfur transport molecule.
Preparations containing MSM contain a concentration of sulfur, which is necessary to maintain the balance of sulfur-containing amino acids and normal vital functions of the body

Ctional effect of MSM

Sulfur is irreplaceable in the human body, because it is a part of many proteins, therefore the systematic replenishment of its reserves is so necessary for the normal functioning of the connective tissue. This element is part of most biological catalysts – enzymes in the human body.Sulfur is indispensable in the synthesis of amino acids such as methionine, cysteine, taurine. It is incorporated into the insulin molecule. The synthesis of keratin, immunoglobulins is not possible without her participation. She takes part in the energy reactions of the body, helps to eliminate toxins.

Lotion with MSM improves skin condition, since methylsulfonylmethane has detoxifying properties, promotes active synthesis of collagen and glucoseaminoglycans by fibroblasts. MSM suppresses inflammation processes, allergic manifestations.Thanks to the active principle of the lotion, blood circulation and oxygenation of the skin are increased, and the effectiveness of insulin increases.

The phospholipids included in the lotion relieve inflammation, and plant extracts (green tea and citrus seeds) protect the skin from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species and help strengthen blood vessels. The aloe extract included in the lotion contributes to the nutrition of the skin, due to the expansion of blood vessels and an increase in blood flow.It also has anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties.

Indications for taking MSM

The drug is recommended for allergic diseases of various etiologies. There are positive reviews of patients with severe allergies about the effects of MSM. There is a decrease in intolerance to drugs or food, up to the complete disappearance of allergic manifestations, as a result of the use of MSM.

MSM is effective in relieving pain in systemic inflammatory diseases.When using it, a well-pronounced and long-term decrease in pain and inflammatory manifestations of accompanying injuries and some diseases of the musculoskeletal system was observed. The most pronounced effect was observed with the combined use of MSM and Ester-Sea. This drug is able to relieve numbness and pain during muscle tension or inflammation, which is very important for athletes.

MSM is indicated for a variety of disorders of the digestive system.

MSM is able to block contact of pathogens of intestinal and urinary tract infections with mucous membranes, therefore it has a toxic effect on lamblia, Trichomonas and roundworms.

MSM can be used as a dietary supplement in addition to drug treatment of allergies, lung diseases, arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, breast and colon cancer. Also, the drug is effective for diabetes, hypersensitivity to medications, stress, thermal and sunburn, cicatricial processes, acne, insect bites, snoring.

The use of MSM has a beneficial effect on the condition of the eyes, teeth, skin, nails and hair, the normal functioning of the joints and helps to improve brain activity.

Lotion with MSM is used to improve skin condition. It can be used by people who suffer from arthritis and other diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

Contraindications and side effects of MSM

A contraindication to the use of drugs and MSM lotion is individual intolerance to the components.

MSM is not toxic, however, during the first 10 days of its use, some people may experience headache, fatigue, diarrhea, and skin rashes.This is the result of cleansing the body, and the more toxins are in the body, the more pronounced the listed symptoms are.

Superior quality natural chondroprotector – Flexosan – Superior quality natural chondroprotector – Flexosan

Non-pharmacological methods

Occupy an important place in the elimination of problems of the skeletal system. Recommended:

Use of orthopedic insoles (with flat feet).

The use of a cane, crutch to reduce the load on the hip joints.

Improvement of physical activity due to dosed physical activity, exercise therapy.

Reducing stress on the affected joints.With osteoarthritis, prolonged walking, carrying heavy weights is not recommended.

In case of excess body weight, diet therapy is recommended, the purpose of which is to achieve body mass index values ​​of 18.5-25 kg / m².

Pharmacological methods

These methods include the use of medications, which are divided into two groups:

Fast-acting – analgesics, muscle relaxants and glucocorticoids (chemicals with a high risk of side effects).

Slow-acting symptom-modifying drugs are natural, usually without side effects (“Flexosan”).

In symptom-modifying agents of delayed action like Flexosan, the primary role belongs to the natural components of the cartilaginous intercellular substance – chondroitin and glucosamine. The drugs of this group slow down the rate of disease progression, prevent the development of structural changes in hyaline cartilage and the involvement of joints in the pathological process.This group of drugs has a significantly lower risk of side effects.

Methods of surgical correction

Also, depending on the degree of neglect or development of the disease, methods of surgical correction are used:

Glucosamine – description of the ingredient, instructions for use, indications and contraindications

Description of glucosamine

Glucosamine is a chemical produced in the bodies of humans, animals and shellfish.It is a carbohydrate molecule linked to a nitrogen atom. It is contained in most tissues, in the least amount present in the cartilage of the joints.

In this regard, it is produced in the form of a dietary supplement. Glucosamine is one of the most commonly prescribed chondroprotective drugs. It is intended for the prevention and restoration of joint cartilage.

There are 2 main types of glucosamine – hydrochloride and sulfate:

  • Glucosamine hydrochloride is made from plant materials or crustacean chitin.Contains at least 60% of the active substance. Well absorbed.
  • Glucosamine Sulfate is made from crustacean chitin. Contains 60–65% active ingredient. It is a compound consisting of glucosamine and the remainder of the sulfuric acid salt. It is a rapidly oxidizable substance and is therefore stabilized with sodium or potassium chloride. As a result, taking this drug, a person receives about 400 mg of salt – a daily requirement. In the presence of salt in food, an overdose is possible.

Food sources of glucosamine

Glucosamine can be obtained from meat.However, there is not much of it in the meat itself and even in the skin. A decent amount of the substance is found in cartilage and bones. Therefore, to fully enrich the body with it, it is better to boil bone broth – this is one of the best sources of glucosamine, as well as chondroitin and collagen.

Pharmacological and useful properties

Glucosamine has a beneficial effect on the skin. It heals microtraumas, reduces the depth and number of wrinkles, moisturizes and removes pigmentation. In addition, this substance is a powerful antioxidant.It neutralizes free radicals that destroy healthy cells, causing premature aging and tumor formation. But this is far from its main value.

Glucosamine is a hepatoprotector recognized by official medicine. It replenishes the lack of glucosamine, stimulates the synthesis of collagen and hyaluronic acid, ensures complete deposition of calcium in bone tissues, prevents the destruction of joints, eliminates pain, and relieves inflammation.

Contraindications

Glucosamine should not be taken with diabetes mellitus, with intolerance to components, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, under 12 years of age, as well as in the presence of allergy to shellfish, if the drug is made on their basis.

When taking chondroprotector, side effects may occur:

  • bowel disorder;
  • nausea;
  • flatulence.

Attention! Side effects can be avoided by taking the drug with meals.

Application rules and regulations

The optimal dosage of glucosamine for adults is 700 mg per day. During intense training and in the early stages of arthrosis treatment, the doctor may prescribe 2500 mg of the active substance.The maximum dose is 3000 mg per day. The duration of the treatment course is from 3 months to 3 years.

If glucosamine sulfate is chosen for treatment, then table salt should be excluded from the diet. It is also necessary to give up alcohol and reduce sugar intake, since the chondroprotective agent interferes with tissue sensitivity to insulin.

Attention! Glucosamine should not be taken simultaneously with anticoagulants and penicillin antibiotics.

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