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Signs of infection at iv site: What are the stages of catheter-related phlebitis?

What are the stages of catheter-related phlebitis?

Phlebitis stages indicates the severity of inflammation in a vein due to an intravenous (IV) catheter. The score ranges from 0–4, according to how severe the symptoms are.

Symptoms in the early stage involve redness and pain at the IV site. If the condition progresses to the advanced stage, additional symptoms include swelling and a palpable venous cord, which is firmness in the vein.

In the early stage, doctors recommend removing the IV device and inserting a new one in another site. If phlebitis reaches the medium stage, they advise considering treatment.

One treatment may entail topical anti-inflammatory medications for people to apply to the skin over the vein. Another treatment option is an oral medication to reduce the formation of blood clots.

Keep reading to learn more about phlebitis stages due to IV therapy, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and outlook.

Phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein, which results in redness, swelling, and pain. It can happen in an arm when a person receives IV therapy in a hospital.

The condition may also occur from a blood clot. When this happens, it is called thrombophlebitis. This may affect veins near the surface of the skin or deeper veins, but it usually occurs in the leg.

The staging system only applies to phlebitis due to IV therapy, a method of putting fluids into the bloodstream. It involves inserting a tube called a cannula into a vein. Approximately 25–35% of people who receive IV therapy in a hospital acquire phlebitis, notes an older 2002 study.

The chart below shows the phlebitis staging scale for IV therapy.

StageDescription
Score of 0.The IV site looks healthy.
Score of 1.The IV site looks slightly red, and a person experiences slight pain near the site.
Score of 2, or early-stage phlebitis.Redness and pain at the IV site are present.
Score of 3, or medium stage phlebitis.Redness, swelling, and pain along the path of the IV cannula are present.
Score of 4, or advanced stage phlebitis.Signs include redness, swelling, a palpable venous cord, and pain along the path of the IV cannula.

Causes of phlebitis include:

  • infection
  • injury
  • irritation

The use and removal of an IV can lead to these causes. A 2016 study explains that IV-related phlebitis may stem from:

  • Mechanical damage: This may happen when movement of the IV cannula inside a vein produces friction. It can also be due to irritation when a cannula is too wide for a vein.
  • Chemical damage: This may occur when a drug or other component of fluid flowing through an IV has a characteristic that produces vein irritation.
  • Infection: In response to IV insertion, bacteria may infiltrate a vein. This can create serious complications if the infection develops into sepsis. In sepsis, the infection leaves the IV site and becomes systemic, or circulates throughout the body.

Aside from IV therapy, thrombophlebitis can cause injury or trauma to a vein. If it affects a vein close to the skin surface, doctors call this superficial thrombophlebitis.

Risk factors for surface thrombophlebitis include:

  • smoking
  • taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy
  • pregnancy
  • underlying cancer

If phlebitis involves an IV site, a diagnosis may be evident by observing the symptoms.

In contrast, if symptoms suggest superficial thrombophlebitis, the following procedures are necessary for diagnosis:

  • Physical examination: This entails noting any symptoms of redness, warmth, and tenderness over the track of a surface vein, along with a palpable cord.
  • Medical history: This includes discovering whether a person has risk factors or conditions that may cause injury to a vein.
  • Ultrasound: This imaging test can show the extent of superficial thrombophlebitis. It may also determine whether it has developed into the complication of deep vein thrombosis, a blood clot in a deep vein.
  • D-dimer blood test: This test measures a protein fragment that results when a blood clot dissolves. As the level of D-dimer is not always higher than normal in superficial thrombophlebitis, its use is limited.

Treatment of IV-related phlebitis differs from the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis.

Treatment for IV-related phlebitis

In the early stage, experts recommend removing the IV and inserting a new one in a different site. Once phlebitis reaches the medium stage, they also advise considering treatment.

A 2015 review evaluated the effectiveness of treatments for IV-related phlebitis. Due to limited, poor-quality data, the authors concluded that research is too preliminary to determine how well current treatments work. However, options include:

  • Topical treatments. Examples include a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as diclofenac gel (Voltaren) or a medication to reduce swelling of inflamed veins such as heparinoid (Hirudoid).
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: These decrease inflammation and include medications, such as ibuprofen.

Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis

Research from 2018 reports that most cases of superficial thrombophlebitis resolve on their own. Treatment may involve:

  • elevating the leg above the heart to reduce swelling
  • wearing elastic stockings
  • applying warm compresses to the area
  • using topical or oral anti-inflammatory medications

If superficial thrombophlebitis is more severe, treatment may include an anticoagulant, such as fondaparinux (Arixtra).

When the cause of the condition is an infection, in rare cases, treatment may necessitate surgical removal of the infected part of the vein.

Cases of phlebitis from an IV infusion can range from those involving mild discomfort to those with severe complications, such as sepsis. The outlook depends on the severity.

Phlebitis stages are a grading system that doctors use to diagnose and monitor the severity of inflammation of a vein associated with IV therapy.

Doctors do not use phlebitis stages to diagnose the severity of thrombophlebitis. Instead, the diagnostic process involves a physical exam, history, and ultrasound.

There are some differences in treatment between IV-related phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. Yet both conditions may entail treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or anticoagulants.

What are the stages of catheter-related phlebitis?

Phlebitis stages indicates the severity of inflammation in a vein due to an intravenous (IV) catheter. The score ranges from 0–4, according to how severe the symptoms are.

Symptoms in the early stage involve redness and pain at the IV site. If the condition progresses to the advanced stage, additional symptoms include swelling and a palpable venous cord, which is firmness in the vein.

In the early stage, doctors recommend removing the IV device and inserting a new one in another site. If phlebitis reaches the medium stage, they advise considering treatment.

One treatment may entail topical anti-inflammatory medications for people to apply to the skin over the vein. Another treatment option is an oral medication to reduce the formation of blood clots.

Keep reading to learn more about phlebitis stages due to IV therapy, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and outlook.

Phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein, which results in redness, swelling, and pain. It can happen in an arm when a person receives IV therapy in a hospital.

The condition may also occur from a blood clot. When this happens, it is called thrombophlebitis. This may affect veins near the surface of the skin or deeper veins, but it usually occurs in the leg.

The staging system only applies to phlebitis due to IV therapy, a method of putting fluids into the bloodstream. It involves inserting a tube called a cannula into a vein. Approximately 25–35% of people who receive IV therapy in a hospital acquire phlebitis, notes an older 2002 study.

The chart below shows the phlebitis staging scale for IV therapy.

StageDescription
Score of 0.The IV site looks healthy.
Score of 1.The IV site looks slightly red, and a person experiences slight pain near the site.
Score of 2, or early-stage phlebitis.Redness and pain at the IV site are present.
Score of 3, or medium stage phlebitis.Redness, swelling, and pain along the path of the IV cannula are present.
Score of 4, or advanced stage phlebitis.Signs include redness, swelling, a palpable venous cord, and pain along the path of the IV cannula.

Causes of phlebitis include:

  • infection
  • injury
  • irritation

The use and removal of an IV can lead to these causes. A 2016 study explains that IV-related phlebitis may stem from:

  • Mechanical damage: This may happen when movement of the IV cannula inside a vein produces friction. It can also be due to irritation when a cannula is too wide for a vein.
  • Chemical damage: This may occur when a drug or other component of fluid flowing through an IV has a characteristic that produces vein irritation.
  • Infection: In response to IV insertion, bacteria may infiltrate a vein. This can create serious complications if the infection develops into sepsis. In sepsis, the infection leaves the IV site and becomes systemic, or circulates throughout the body.

Aside from IV therapy, thrombophlebitis can cause injury or trauma to a vein. If it affects a vein close to the skin surface, doctors call this superficial thrombophlebitis.

Risk factors for surface thrombophlebitis include:

  • smoking
  • taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy
  • pregnancy
  • underlying cancer

If phlebitis involves an IV site, a diagnosis may be evident by observing the symptoms.

In contrast, if symptoms suggest superficial thrombophlebitis, the following procedures are necessary for diagnosis:

  • Physical examination: This entails noting any symptoms of redness, warmth, and tenderness over the track of a surface vein, along with a palpable cord.
  • Medical history: This includes discovering whether a person has risk factors or conditions that may cause injury to a vein.
  • Ultrasound: This imaging test can show the extent of superficial thrombophlebitis. It may also determine whether it has developed into the complication of deep vein thrombosis, a blood clot in a deep vein.
  • D-dimer blood test: This test measures a protein fragment that results when a blood clot dissolves. As the level of D-dimer is not always higher than normal in superficial thrombophlebitis, its use is limited.

Treatment of IV-related phlebitis differs from the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis.

Treatment for IV-related phlebitis

In the early stage, experts recommend removing the IV and inserting a new one in a different site. Once phlebitis reaches the medium stage, they also advise considering treatment.

A 2015 review evaluated the effectiveness of treatments for IV-related phlebitis. Due to limited, poor-quality data, the authors concluded that research is too preliminary to determine how well current treatments work. However, options include:

  • Topical treatments. Examples include a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as diclofenac gel (Voltaren) or a medication to reduce swelling of inflamed veins such as heparinoid (Hirudoid).
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: These decrease inflammation and include medications, such as ibuprofen.

Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis

Research from 2018 reports that most cases of superficial thrombophlebitis resolve on their own. Treatment may involve:

  • elevating the leg above the heart to reduce swelling
  • wearing elastic stockings
  • applying warm compresses to the area
  • using topical or oral anti-inflammatory medications

If superficial thrombophlebitis is more severe, treatment may include an anticoagulant, such as fondaparinux (Arixtra).

When the cause of the condition is an infection, in rare cases, treatment may necessitate surgical removal of the infected part of the vein.

Cases of phlebitis from an IV infusion can range from those involving mild discomfort to those with severe complications, such as sepsis. The outlook depends on the severity.

Phlebitis stages are a grading system that doctors use to diagnose and monitor the severity of inflammation of a vein associated with IV therapy.

Doctors do not use phlebitis stages to diagnose the severity of thrombophlebitis. Instead, the diagnostic process involves a physical exam, history, and ultrasound.

There are some differences in treatment between IV-related phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. Yet both conditions may entail treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or anticoagulants.

Sexually transmitted infections and diseases

A lot of suffering is brought to a person by infections that can be transmitted during sexual intercourse. Often, STIs cause a lot of discomfort and interfere with normal life. Often they do not have any symptoms, the person does not even suspect that he has a particular disease. Fortunately, medicine does not stand still, and such infections are treatable.

STI types

Sexually transmitted diseases are diseases that can occur in a person after intimacy. Sometimes they carry a whole range of different symptoms, or they may not even show any signs. Today, the list of such diseases is very extensive, among which are:

  • chlamydia;
  • trichomoniasis;
  • genital herpes;
  • HPV;
  • syphilis;
  • ureaplasmosis;
  • HIV;
  • Gonorrhea etc.

Transmission methods

Despite the fact that these diseases are among those that are sexually transmitted, you can get infected in other situations:

  1. During intercourse . This is the main route of transmission, in which people acquire infections through intercourse without barrier contraceptives with a person who already has this or that disease.
  2. Through infected blood . It is also possible to become infected with these unpleasant diseases by transfusing contaminated blood, by reusing medical instruments, needles, syringes – which have not been decontaminated – after an infected person.
  3. From infected mother to child. An infant can become infected while still in the womb, during labor, or while breastfeeding a newborn. That is why a pregnant woman should take appropriate tests several times during pregnancy in order to identify and treat a particular disease in a timely manner.
  4. When using personal hygiene products, an infected person is rare, but can also become infected. This may include the use of washcloths, towels, toothpaste, razors and other items that contain certain secretions of the patient.
  5. Through saliva . This variant of infection transmission is also rare, but, nevertheless, it has a place to be. You can become infected during passionate kisses, smoking a cigarette that has already been in the mouth of an infected person, etc.

Thus, sexually transmitted infections can be in the body of a healthy person and through other sources. But it is worth noting that it is not so easy to get infected with such diseases, since pathogens cannot exist for a long period of time outside the human body, and it is impossible to enter the body through food or water. You can not get infected through handshakes, hugs or a friendly kiss. You can use the same items, drink water from the same fountain, eat food in public transport, etc.

STI symptoms

Each disease has its own symptoms, some of which may not appear at all. In general, all sexually transmitted infections have similar symptoms. So, women suffer from such manifestations as:

  • itching and discomfort in the vagina;
  • discomfort during intimacy, accompanied by soreness;
  • atypical vaginal discharge;
  • soreness during urination;
  • rashes, ulcers, irritation in intimate area;
  • changes in the lymph nodes.

Men may experience:

  • itching in the intimate area;
  • during urination – increased pain;
  • atypical discharge;
  • rash, sores, redness and other formations in the intimate area.

If at least one of these symptoms is detected, you should immediately seek medical help. The doctor will examine the patient, and also appoint a list of studies that must be completed in order to diagnose a particular disease.

Syphilis

The infection can pose a real danger to human life in the absence of the necessary treatment. Syphilis refers to an infectious disease that can be caused by a pathogen such as spirochete pallidum. You can become infected with the disease through unprotected sex. The infection manifests itself after ten days.

There are three degrees of the disease:

  1. Syphilis begins with the formation of a rather hard chancre in the genital area, resembling an ulcer in appearance. Later, they form in the mouth, as well as on the fingers.
  2. If you do not undergo treatment at this stage, then there is a transition of such sores to the whole body. The patient feels very bad because of the inflammatory processes occurring in the body, he is overcome by headaches, body aches appear.
  3. The third stage is characterized by the manifestation of complications in the form of meningitis. At this stage, the disease can lead to paralysis and even death of a person.

Chlamydia

This is another rather insidious disease that belongs to STIs. Its insidiousness lies in the fact that in the early stages it is quite difficult to identify the disease, since the symptoms are very mild. This is especially true for women, since they have practically no signs of the disease. But it is worth noting that the disease caused by chlamydia is a very terrible disease that concerns women’s health. It can lead to inflammatory processes in the intimate area, ectopic and non-developing pregnancies, and even infertility.

In men, chlamydia is manifested by certain signs, which are impossible not to notice. During sex and urination, they may feel pain and cramps. This is due to the presence of inflammatory processes occurring in the male genital organs.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is another sexually transmitted infection. She also may not let women know about herself at first. The stronger sex, on the contrary, feel the whole range of symptoms and they appear almost immediately. They may be tormented by unpleasant discharge with pus, very frequent and painful urination, blood may appear during ejaculation and other uncomfortable manifestations.

In the absence of proper treatment, the infection, as a rule, leads to complications. Just at this stage, the disease begins to manifest itself in women. They may experience pain during sex, as well as discharge with blood after it. The temperature may also rise, and the general condition will worsen. Gonorrhea of ​​any degree is treatable, but it is best not to take it to extremes and visit a doctor immediately after the first signs.

Trichomoniasis

A disease of a bacterial nature, which is caused by such a pathogen as Trichomonas vaginalis. An infection, like those already mentioned, may not make itself felt at first, and the first symptoms will appear only a couple of weeks after infection.

In men, pain in the urethra is observed, and unpleasant discharge may also appear. Women experience the most obvious signs, manifested in inflammation of the mucous membranes of the vagina. As a result, she may experience pain during intimacy. Another sign of trichomoniasis is yellow-green thick and frothy discharge that has an unpleasant odor. During pregnancy, it is imperative to receive treatment, because during childbirth, the child can also become infected with this infection.

Genital herpes

A highly contagious sexually transmitted disease is genital herpes, which is derived from herpes simplex. Unlike previous ailments, this can be contracted both through intimacy and through contact with the patient directly through the skin.

The infection manifests itself almost immediately. The very next day after infection, a person may experience minor blisters on the genitals, which cause discomfort in the form of mild itching. Then they develop into sores, which cause a lot of torment to a person, lymph nodes also increase and body aches appear.

It is worth noting that the external manifestations of the disease are only part of the problem. Most importantly, the herpes virus, even with its complete cure, remains in the human body forever. It is very dangerous for pregnant women and in the absence of the necessary treatment, complications can occur that even lead to a missed pregnancy.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Another nasty infection is the human papillomavirus. It also refers to sexually transmitted diseases, but you can also get sick when using other people’s personal hygiene products, visiting public places (pools, baths, gyms), from mother to child during childbirth. But these methods of transmission are not so common. It is worth noting that it is HPV that is the cause of cervical cancer. This applies to the virus of the sixteenth and eighteenth types.

The disease manifests itself as the appearance of small warts in the genital area, and this applies to both men and women. By the way, STIs may not manifest themselves at all. At the same time, you can find out if there are traces of this virus in the body after conducting laboratory tests.

Ureaplasmosis

The pathogen of ureaplasmosis is ureaplasma. Today, the infection is classified as opportunistic, that is, the bacterium lives in the human body all its life. The disease manifests itself during the period when the active reproduction of ureaplasma begins. Symptoms can be noticed after 2-3 weeks. Patients begin inflammatory processes in the genitals, there is a burning sensation during going to the toilet.

In the fair sex, discharge of an atypical nature predominates, pain in the abdomen and other unpleasant symptoms occur. The danger of ureaplasmosis is that the lack of treatment leads to a chronic stage, which, in turn, causes a number of other problems: cystitis, colpitis, endometriosis and other unpleasant ailments. Also, the disease can lead to the inability to have children. Pregnant women often have problems with the fetus, which leads to non-developing pregnancy and premature birth.

Mycoplasmosis

Another nasty infection is mycoplasmosis. This disease can also be caused by opportunistic bacteria – mycoplasmas. That is, an uninfected person also has a small amount of microorganisms, and their active growth just leads to the appearance of mycoplasmosis. Symptoms of infection may include pain during urination and during intimacy, pain in the lower abdomen, and abnormal discharge from the genital tract.

The disease affects both men and women, but the symptoms are most pronounced in the second group of people. If appropriate treatment is not received, the disease is fraught with its own consequences and can lead to the development of other diseases: vaginitis, endometritis, cervicitis, etc. It is also very dangerous during pregnancy, as it can lead to abnormalities in the development of the fetus, missed pregnancy and other complications. As for men, mycoplasmosis can cause prostatitis.

HIV

HIV is the most dangerous sexually transmitted disease. Its insidiousness lies in the fact that a person does not even know that he is sick. The incubation period can last from three weeks to three months.

As a rule, HIV is manifested by such symptoms as inflammation of the lymph nodes, weakness, headaches and lack of appetite. Another sign of infection is inflammation of the tonsils. A person, thinking that this is a manifestation of a sore throat, begins treatment, which does not help. It is also possible to increase the temperature, which is not knocked down by antipyretic drugs.

Lack of appropriate treatment leads to very sad consequences. He is constantly overcome by various diseases in the form of pneumonia, herpes, tuberculosis and other diseases. This happens due to reduced immunity. The next stage in the development of HIV is AIDS.

To date, there is no treatment that would completely eliminate this virus from the body. There is only a special therapy that practically stops the further progression of the disease. Thus, a person may well lead a full life.

STI diagnostics

The fact is that there are a lot of sexually transmitted pathogens. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose the disease by conducting a whole range of various studies. If symptoms of the disease are detected, a woman should definitely visit a gynecologist, a man – a urologist.

Among the studies are the following:

  • PCR analysis and taking microscopic swabs from the mucous membranes of the genital organs;
  • blood and urine test;
  • bacterial culture.

In general, tests for men and women do not differ, since the main goal is to identify the causative agent of STIs. You should not delay contacting a doctor, since the disease often becomes chronic, which causes difficulties in treatment.

STI treatment

If the disease was nevertheless detected, the doctor will prescribe a comprehensive treatment. For both men and women, it will not be different. Treatment includes:

  • antibiotic therapy;
  • antivirals;
  • taking immunostimulants;
  • physiotherapy;
  • taking vitamins.

In order for the treatment to be effective, one type of therapy is not enough. That is, a combination of local treatment (ointments, suppositories, etc. ) and correction of the entire state of the body is necessary. A lasting result can only be achieved with an integrated approach. It is strongly recommended not to engage in self-treatment – an adequate therapy should be selected by a doctor, taking into account the characteristics of each patient.

As a rule, if the visit to the doctor was not delayed, the treatment lasts no more than two weeks. Sometimes, in advanced cases, it can last up to three weeks. There are also situations when the course of treatment needs to be repeated after a while. For the period of therapy, the doctor usually prescribes sexual rest.

Sexually transmitted diseases are treated by gynecologists – in women, and in men – urologists. But in some cases, the help of other doctors may be required. This is due to the fact that the disease can affect not only the reproductive system, but also the skin, joints, vision, etc. In this case, dermatologists, infectious disease specialists, oculists, proctologists, etc. are also involved in the treatment.

Also, a prerequisite for getting rid of STIs is the appointment of treatment for both partners. Otherwise, re-infection is possible and you will have to start all over again. After completing the full course, you should again take tests to make sure that the therapy has worked and the disease has receded.

Prevention of sexually transmitted infections

But in order to prevent the development of the disease, one should also think about prevention. There are several rules to help avoid problems:

  1. The main and first rule of preventive measures is awareness. It must be understood that there are diseases that can be transmitted during sexual intercourse. Interviews should also be held with adolescent children to protect them from unwanted infections.
  2. Barrier contraceptives must be used during intercourse. The best and simplest of them is the condom.
  3. You should lead an orderly sexual life, try to avoid casual contacts. Frequent change of partners just leads to problems.
  4. Practice good personal hygiene.
  5. Strengthen the immune system. Very often, the progression of the disease occurs against the background of reduced immunity.
  6. Follow a healthy lifestyle (eat right, give up bad habits, avoid stress, etc.)
  7. Do not use other person’s personal hygiene items (towels, toothbrushes, razors, etc.)
  8. Regularly undergo medical examinations and visit doctors.
  9. At the first suspicious symptoms, you should definitely consult a doctor and be examined for a problem.

Thus, sexually transmitted diseases are quite dangerous phenomena. With their manifestations, they bring a lot of suffering to a person, interfere with normal life. But there are also infections that can be completely asymptomatic, which is fraught with the development of dangerous complications that can lead to the development of other diseases and even death. Prevention and timely treatment is the key to a happy and healthy life.

how it is transmitted, pathogen, causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention

How it is transmitted phylaxis

Smallpox is an infectious disease caused by the Variola virus (VARV) belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus. The disease is characterized by fever, symptoms of intoxication, the appearance of a rash on the skin and mucous membranes.

The official start of vaccination against smallpox infection in Russia is October 23, 1768. The vaccine was first administered to Empress Catherine II and her heirs. The material for vaccination was obtained from a smallpox boy of peasant origin. Subsequently, not only children were vaccinated, but also the grandchildren of the Empress.

By the beginning of the 19th century (1804-1810), about 8 million people had already been infected with smallpox in Russia. As a result, for 827 thousand patients, the outcome of the disease was fatal. In our country, mass vaccination and revaccination starts from 1919 and becomes mandatory after the Great October Revolution. Serious success in the prevention of smallpox was achieved only in the USSR. By 1936, the disease had been eradicated.

By the early 1960s, smallpox had been completely eradicated in Europe and North America. In the first half of the 1970s, WHO set the task of completely coping with the causative agent of the disease. This required preventing variolation and closely monitoring smallpox outbreaks.

The last case of viral infection was registered at the end of October 1977 In 1980, WHO certified the global eradication of smallpox.

How smallpox is transmitted

The causative agent of the disease is the Variola virus (VARV), which can infect humans and animals. The pathogen has excellent resistance to various environmental factors, easily tolerates both low temperatures and drying. In the frozen state, the causative agent of smallpox is able to maintain viability for several years. After drying at an increase in temperature to 100°C, the death of the pathogen occurs within 5-10 minutes.

The source of infection is a person with smallpox. High infectivity is observed during the first ten days, however, the release of viral particles into the environment occurs during the entire period of the appearance of rashes. The asymptomatic course of the disease, as well as the carriage of the pathogen in this pathology, is uncharacteristic, as is the transition to the chronic form.

Places of localization of variola in the human body are the mucous membranes of the respiratory organs, as well as the oral cavity. The causative agent is excreted with coughing, sneezing and breathing. The infection can be transmitted from the patient by airborne droplets and airborne dust. An aerosol with pathogenic microflora is able to travel long distances, infecting people who are in the same room with a sick person.

Human susceptibility to infection is very high. People who are not immunized are most often infected. After the illness, the formation of stable long-term immunity (more than 10 years) is noted.

Of the available candidates for the “relatives” of the Variola virus, monkeypox and cowpox are of the greatest interest.

The first of these is a rare infectious disease that can affect both animals and humans. The main signs of monkeypox are general intoxication of the body, a high rise in temperature, and the formation of exanthema on the skin.

The causative agent is genetically close to the human smallpox virus. To date, there has been an increase in monkeypox. So, in May 2021, an infected patient was identified in the UK, on ​​June 2 and 24, two more cases of the disease were registered. In the US, on July 16, 2021, an American was diagnosed with monkeypox. All of them have been to Nigeria.

Varicella is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the Varicella Zoster virus, which belongs to the herpes family of viruses. The pathogen, with a decrease in immunity, causes a severe disease – herpes zoster. Chickenpox predominantly affects children. Most often, their disease is milder than in adults.

Clinical manifestations of human smallpox

The duration of the incubation period of the disease ranges from 9 days to two weeks. In some cases, an increase of up to three weeks is possible. Symptoms of smallpox will depend on the severity of the disease.

The following stages are distinguished in the clinical course of the disease:

  • prodromal period;
  • rash stage;
  • suppuration of contents of eruptions;
  • recovery period.

The duration of the prodromal stage is from two to four days. During this period, there are symptoms of intoxication of the body, which are accompanied by a rise in body temperature, the presence of a headache, a feeling of chills, weakness, the appearance of pain in the muscles, the lumbar region. The skin of the thighs and chest is covered with eruptions similar to the exanthema characteristic of scarlet fever or measles. By the end of the prodrome stage, the temperature index is normalized. By the fifth day, rashes appear, which are initially represented by small roseolas, turning into papules and vesicles with many chambers. They are surrounded by hyperemic skin and have an umbilical depression in the central part. Vesicles are localized in the face, torso, upper and lower limbs. With the progression of the rash, the symptoms of intoxication increase again.

After 5-7 days from the onset of the disease, the stage of suppuration begins. During this period, there is a sharp rise in temperature, the condition worsens. The pockmarks form a purulent pustule and become painful. After about a week, they open up, leaving blackened necrotic crusts. Also at this stage there is a strong skin itch.

By the twentieth day of illness, the recovery period begins. Body temperature gradually decreases, pockmarks begin to heal, peeling of the skin is noted in their place, and scars remain in the future.

The clinic of the disease is characterized by several degrees of severity:

  1. Severe – papular-hemorrhagic, confluent, smallpox purpura.
  2. Moderately severe – disseminated smallpox.
  3. Light. The disease proceeds without obvious signs of intoxication, there are no rashes.

Most often, a mild form of the disease occurs in people vaccinated against smallpox. A severe pathology with a hemorrhagic component has a tendency to complication with a fatal outcome.

Clinical manifestations of monkeypox

The duration of the incubation period is from one to three weeks. The onset of the disease is acute, accompanied by complaints of severe headache, there is a rise in temperature to high numbers. The patient feels weakness, chills. Lymph nodes located near the site of infection increase in size, become inflamed, and become painful on palpation. The patient complains of nausea, vomiting, loss or lack of appetite, which is associated with intoxication of the body.

By the fourth day, the temperature begins to drop to 38.5 °C or lower. Rashes appear on the body, which go through several stages:

  1. Formation of a small spot up to 1 cm in diameter with transformation into a tubercle.
  2. Appearance of a bubble, initially filled with clear contents, which gradually become cloudy.
  3. Scab formation with scar formation.

At each stage, the temperature again rises to high values. In each of these periods, the patient notes a deterioration in well-being. An increase in lymph nodes is already noted over the entire surface of the body.

Due to the appearance of rashes on the mucous membrane of the pharynx, the disease is accompanied by the appearance of cough, dryness in the pharynx. In the presence of a rash in the mouth, increased salivation and a feeling of discomfort during chewing are noted. If the eyelids and genitals are affected, then painful sensations appear in these areas.

In the case of a purulent infection, the temperature rises, blood pressure decreases, the pulse becomes frequent, consciousness is disturbed. These signs indicate the development of infectious-toxic shock.

Smallpox diagnostics

Diagnosis of the disease is aimed at detecting the pathogen. To identify the smallpox virus, the contents of the rash and crusts are examined. The following methods are used, which allow not only to detect pathogenic microflora, but also antibodies to the virus:

  • viroscopy;
  • serological tests: ELISA, agar microprecipitation;
  • blood test for antibodies: ELISA, RTGA, RSK, RN – are possible already from the 5-8th day of illness.

Treatment of smallpox

Therapy of the disease is carried out with the appointment of:

  • drugs with antiviral action;
  • immunoglobulins;
  • antibacterial preparations of the penicillin group, cephalosporins and macrolides;
  • means for intravenous drip administration, relieving intoxication;
  • glucocorticoids.

Smallpox is also treated externally: rashes are treated with antiseptics.

Smallpox prophylaxis

In order to prevent infection with the pathogen, specific preventive measures are taken to exclude the importation of a dangerous infection from regions that are unfavorable in terms of the epidemic.

Successful eradication of the disease has been achieved through decades of immunization of the population. At the moment, the mass introduction of the smallpox vaccine is impractical.

If a sick person is identified, they are isolated, including those who were in contact. Disinfection of the focus of infection. Everyone who has been in contact with an infected person, if no more than 72 hours have passed, must be vaccinated.

The author of the article:

Ivanova Natalya Vladimirovna

therapist

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