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Sinus infections and smoking: How Smoking Harms Your Sinuses


How Smoking Harms Your Sinuses

To understand how smoking damages your sinuses, you need to know how your nose and sinuses help keep you healthy. The membranes in your nose and sinuses are constantly producing mucus that acts as a protective blanket for your whole respiratory system.

“The lining of the nose and sinuses is the same as the lining in the lung. There are cilia, or tiny hair-like structures, that clean the nose, sinuses, and lungs of airborne particulate matter, bacteria, and mucus,” explains Kathleen L. Yaremchuk, MD, an ENT (ear, nose, and throat) doctor and chairman of the department of otolaryngology at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. “Smoking causes the cilia to stop working, which predisposes the smoker to increased infections of the lungs and sinuses.”

The nose and sinuses produce about one to two quarts of mucus every day, according to Samer Fakhri, MD, associate professor of otolaryngology at the University of Texas Medical School in Houston. “Normally, all that mucus travels to the back of your throat and you swallow it. When the cilia are damaged by smoking, the mucus backs up in the sinuses and bacteria start to multiply there. This can lead to a sinus infection.”

The Link Between Smoking and ENT Issues

As soon as you inhale tobacco smoke, it starts to irritate your whole upper airway. Irritating gases like ammonia and formaldehyde cause your nose and sinuses to produce more mucus. You become more susceptible to colds and allergies and, eventually, to cancer of the throat and lungs.

Dr. Fakhri says there are additional ENT-related hazards linked to smoking:

  • Chronic sinusitis. “If you continue to smoke when you have a sinus infection, you are more likely to develop chronic sinusitis,” he says.
  • Compromised surgical results. “If you need surgery for sinus disease, the results are much worse for smokers,” says Fakhri.
  • Negative effects on senses. Smoking can lead to a decreased sense of taste and of smell.
  • Cancer. Prolonged exposure to smoking has been linked to nose and sinus cancers.
  • Second-hand smoke. “Secondhand smoke has been linked to snoring, respiratory infections, and ear infections in children,” warns Fakhri.

Fakhri also says that smoking has been shown to decrease immune function, which is your body’s defense mechanism against diseases. Once you stop smoking, he says, it can take the nose and sinuses several months to several years to get back to normal.

Smokers spend 25 percent more time in the hospital than nonsmokers, are twice as likely to die before age 65, and may lose up to 20 minutes of life for every cigarette they smoke.

ENT doctors see the up-close results of smoking on the nose, sinuses, and throat, so their advice is based on experience: Smoking and good sinus health don’t mix.

Find more information in the Everyday Health Ear, Nose, and Throat Center.

Smoking And Sinusitis – New York ENT

Sinusitis (also called sinus infection) occurs when your sinuses, which are normally filled with air, become blocked with mucus. As mucus builds up and is unable to drain normally, it creates a breeding ground for germs that can cause infection.

As a result, you may develop symptoms that include the following:

  • Discolored drainage from your nose or the back of your throat
  • Nasal congestion or obstruction
  • Facial pain or tenderness
  • Reduced sense of smell or taste

What are the causes of and risk factors for sinusitis? Does smoking have effects on sinuses?

Sinus infections can be caused by a variety of issues, including the following:

In addition, a number of factors – including smoking – can increase your risk of developing sinus infections.

In this blog, the board-certified ear, nose, and throat physicians at New York ENT explain more about how smoking is a risk factor for sinus infections.

What does tobacco smoke contain?

Tobacco smoke contains irritating gasses such as ammonia and formaldehyde, which can irritate your airways. This makes your body produce more mucus in response and makes you more likely to develop allergies or a cold, which can increase your chances of also having sinusitis.

What effect does smoking have on your nose and sinuses?

Research has linked not only direct smoking with sinusitis but also secondhand smoke. Smoking can make you more likely to get a sinus infection and also inhibit your body’s ability to fight the illness, and this effect can last for months or even years after you quit smoking.

Your nose and sinuses are lined with tiny hair-like structures called cilia. They move in a rhythmic beat that moves mucus harmlessly down the back of your throat, where it’s swallowed.

Smoking causes cilia to become paralyzed, which stops mucus from being able to drain freely. Since your nose and sinuses produce a quart or two of mucus a day, it can quickly build up and create a breeding ground for germs that can cause a sinus infection.

This, combined with your body’s attempt to fight the infection, can cause cilia to be lost. Fortunately, if the microbes are removed and the infection is brought under control, the cilia can regrow and resume their normal function.

A sinus infection can be much more than a short-term annoyance. In cases of chronic sinusitis, symptoms last for 12 weeks or more, despite attempts to treat them, and can cause lingering symptoms including fatigue.

Smoking is harmful to your overall health, in addition to your nose and sinuses. If you’re experiencing symptoms of sinusitis, make an appointment today with the doctors at New York ENT. We’ll diagnose the underlying cause of your sinusitis, which will allow us to effectively treat your condition and help you breathe easier.

How Smoking & Secondhand Smoke Affects Sinuses & Sinus Health

How does smoking affect my body?

While most are aware that smoking can result in serious health problems, many do not realize that smoking does not only affect the lungs, mouth, and throat. In fact, smoking can result in serious complications to your sinuses and ability to breathe. Your sinuses and nose are responsible for creating a mucus layer that coats the nasal passages and protects your respiratory system from harm and keeps it clean. Small hair-like structures in the nose called cilia line the nasal passages and help the mucus flow as it should.

Smoking damages the cilia, causing mucus to clog up in the nasal canal. In addition, smoking tobacco introduces formaldehyde and ammonia into your airway. The body’s response to these chemicals is to produce more mucus than usual. The lack of function of the cilia along with the overproduction of mucus can cause frequent sinus infections and common colds, and eventually lead to the development of allergies and even cancer.

Does secondhand smoke cause damage to my sinuses?

Like smoking, being exposed to secondhand smoke can do damage to your respiratory system. In fact, secondhand smoke is associated with more frequent lung and sinus infections, chronic coughs, ear infections, and even snoring and sleep hygiene problems.

Could I be allergic to cigarette smoke?

Many experience what seems to be an allergy to tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke can cause the following symptoms, even for those who are only experiencing secondhand smoke or only smoke on occasion:

  • Running nose
  • Itching
  • Sneezing
  • Sore throat
  • Wheezing
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Snoring
  • Poor sleep hygiene
  • Congestion
  • Headaches
  • Bronchitis
  • Sinusitis

How can I treat a tobacco smoke allergy?

Most doctors report that allergy-like symptoms that result from tobacco smoke are not exactly caused by an allergy. Instead, the discomfort and symptoms are due to the exposure to harmful chemicals found in the smoke. In fact, anyone who is exposed to the chemicals found in most cigarettes are likely to experience these symptoms at one point or another. However, some people are more sensitive to them than others.

If you are experiencing irritation or illness as a result of cigarette smoke exposure, the best remedy is to avoid the smoke. Your doctor may be able to help you find other ways to alleviate your symptoms if you are unable to avoid the smoke exposure.

If you are suffering from tobacco smoke reactions, the first step is to consult with a sleep health expert. Ear, nose, and throat specialists at eos sleep have extensive experience in treating ear, nose, and throat conditions as well as sleep-related problems. Call 1-212-873-6036 today or fill out the form on this page to schedule an appointment or to learn more about eos sleep treatment options.

Secondhand Smoke Linked to Chronic Sinusitis

April 19, 2010 — Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to as many as 40% of the roughly 30 million cases of chronic sinusitis among adults in the U.S., a new study shows.

Chronic sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is defined as allergic and non-allergic sinus inflammation lasting at least three months. Symptoms can include, but are not limited to, nasal congestion, facial pain, headache, and daytime or nighttime coughing.

In a 2006 report, the surgeon general estimated that 60% of nonsmokers in the U.S., or 126 million adults and children, are routinely exposed to secondhand smoke.

Secondhand smoke exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for a number of respiratory ailments, including asthma and other conditions including heart disease, sudden infant death syndrome, and cancers of the lung and sinus.

Sinusitis and Secondhand Smoke

Researchers compared secondhand smoke exposures among patients with chronic sinusitis to non-sinus sufferers matched for age, sex, and race in four settings: home, work, public settings, and private social gatherings. None of the study participants smoked.

Participants with chronic sinusitis were almost twice as likely as those without sinusitis to report secondhand smoke exposure at social gatherings (51% vs. 28%) and slightly more than twice as likely to report exposure at work (18% vs.7%).

The patients were also more likely to report exposure at home and in public places, although these associations did not reach statistical significance.

The more places people reported being exposed to tobacco smoke, the higher their risk for chronic sinusitis, study researcher C. Martin Tammemagi, DVM, PhD, tells WebMD.

Tammemagi is an associate professor at Brock University in Ontario, Canada.

The research appears in the April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. It was funded by the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute in Miami.

“Ours is one of the first studies to connect secondhand smoke to rhinosinusitis,” Tammemagi says. “Our research confirms that people are being exposed in large numbers and it indicates that about 40% of cases are caused by secondhand smoke.”

The finding that private social gatherings are an important contributor to secondhand smoke exposure was somewhat surprising, Tammemagi says.

“Certainly from a public policy point of view, limiting these exposures is not easy,” he says. “But people with sinus problems need to recognize that exposure when they go to a party or a card game at a friend’s house puts them at risk.

Nonsmokers More Vulnerable

Sinus specialist and sinus sufferer Jordan S. Josephson, MD, says it is no surprise that exposure to secondhand smoke triggers symptoms.

Josephson practices at Lenox hill Hospital in New York City and is the author of the book Sinus Relief Now.

“I experience it all the time,” he tells WebMD. “If I walk past someone who is smoking I can feel the effects almost immediately.”

He says nonsmokers are probably more vulnerable to secondhand smoke than smokers because they are exposed less often.

“More study is needed, but I believe these studies will confirm just how bad secondhand cigarette smoke is for the lungs and sinuses,” he says.

Sinusitis Eventually Abates when Smokers Quit

Smokers with chronic rhinosinusitis who kick the habit should see their condition gradually improve to the level of a nonsmoker, although it may take 10 years, study findings suggest.

Cigarette smoking is a known cause of chronic sinusitis and smoking also makes symptoms worse, so it stands to reason that quitting smoking would be beneficial to people with the condition.

But the newly published, cross-sectional study is actually the first investigation to quantify the severity of symptoms and quality-of-life impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), said senior author Ahmad Sedaghat, MD, PhD, of Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston.

  • Note that this cross-sectional study comparing chronic sinusitis symptoms among former smokers found that symptoms were better among those with a more distant smoking history.
  • Smokers symptomatology appears to become similar to non-smokers after 10 to 20 years of abstention.

It is also among the first to examine whether the negative impact of smoking on CRS is reversible with smoking cessation, he said.

“It does seem strange because CRS is so common, but there really hasn’t been much research examining the effect of smoking cessation on CRS outcomes,” he told MedPage Today.

The findings were published online in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery.

In their effort to quantify the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on CRS symptoms, Sedaghat and colleagues utilized the aptly named SNOT questionnaire — a 22-item indicator of sinusitis symptom severity.

They recruited 103 former smokers with CRS and an equal number of CRS patients with no history of smoking for the study. For the ex-smokers, time since quitting ranged from a few months to more than 50 years.

The primary outcome was their SNOT-22 score and secondary outcome measures were general health related quality of life (QOL) measured with the five-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year.

Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since smoking cessation for former smokers.

Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 scores and EQ-5D VAS scores and they also reported using more CRS-related antibiotics and oral corticosteroids in the past year.

Among former smokers, each year since quitting was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β=-0.48, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.05; P=0.032), EQ-5D VAS (β=0.46, 95% CI 0.02-0.91; P=0.046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.98; P-0.001).

These associations all continued to be statistically significant after testing with multivariable modelling.

“The results suggest that SNOT-22 and EQ-5D VAS scores may improve by approximately 0.5 points per year after cessation of smoking and that the likelihood of using CRS-related corticosteroids may also go down every year after smoking cessation,” the researchers wrote.

Given the differences in the study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, the researcher estimated that “the effects of smoking on symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use would have resolved after 10 to 20 years.”

“Our estimates of 10 to 20 years after smoking cessation for normalization of sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related corticosteroid use are consistent with previous studies showing that the effects of smoking on heart disease normalize after a similar time frame,” the researchers wrote.

They added that, unlike other risk factors for CRS, such as allergy, genetics, and patient anatomy, smoking status is a modifiable risk factor which may “represent an important target for improving outcomes.”

The study findings may also be useful for counseling patients with chronic rhinosinusitis on the benefits of smoking cessation, Sedaghat told MedPage Today.

“We tell patients all the time that smoking is bad for them,” he said. “But we haven’t really been able to say to them, ‘If you stop smoking here is what you can expect.’ We can now tell them that they can expect their symptoms to get better over time.”

Study limitations cited by the researchers included the cross-sectional design and the inclusion of only ex-smokers and not current smokers in the study cohort. It was also not clear if smoking cessation occurred before or after CRS symptoms first occurred.


The researchers declared no funding source or relevant relationships with industry related to this study.

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BecomeAnEX and the General Data Protection Regulation

BecomeAnEX and the General Data Protection Regulation

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About GDPR

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Confirmations and Surprises in the Association of Tobacco Use With Sinusitis | Otolaryngology | JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery

To generate estimates of sinusitis prevalence for adults in association with the use of tobacco or passive smoke exposure.

Analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

Sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States.

A total of 20,050 adults aged 17 years or older.

Main Outcome Measure 
Presence of self-reported sinusitis or sinus problems.

In the United States, 66 million adults, constituting 35% of the adult population, reported having sinusitis or sinus problems at least once during the previous 12 months. Female sex, non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black race, higher income levels, and progressively higher educational levels were associated with increased prevalence of sinusitis. The prevalence of both acute and recurrent or chronic sinusitis increased with direct cigarette and other tobacco use but did not rise with passive exposure to cigarette smoke.

Consistent with data for other respiratory ailments, the direct use of tobacco confers a small increased risk of developing sinusitis in the adult population, but contrary to expectation, passive smoke does not. The demographic variables of sex, race/ethnicity, and educational level demonstrated unexpectedly strong associations with the prevalence of sinusitis and should be analyzed and controlled for in future studies of sinusitis.

ALTHOUGH SINUSITIS was the most frequently reported chronic condition in 1995, affecting 14.1% of the US population,1 the impact of any simple etiologic factor has been difficult to define for individual patients. Tobacco smoke was suggested as a risk factor for the
“aggravation and prolongation of sinusitis” in the 1964 Surgeon General’s report on smoking,2 but no clinical studies have documented this risk.

Several lines of evidence link sinusitis to tobacco exposure through its effect on nasal mucociliary function. Cigarette smoke3 and the inhalation of nasal snuff4 have a profound effect on nasal airway mucociliary function, demonstrated by in vivo nasal mucociliary clearance tests. Agius et al5 showed that cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, caused a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency of nasal mucosal cells in vitro. Environmental tobacco smoke has been shown to alter nasal mucociliary clearance in nonsmokers.6 People with allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis have been found to have nasal mucociliary clearance dysfunction,7 but a clear clinical association with severity of symptoms has not been shown. Although pathophysiologically plausible, changes in nasal mucociliary function from tobacco do not necessarily translate into clinical sinusitis.

This study was undertaken to examine whether the use of tobacco increases the risk of sinusitis in the US population and whether passive smoke exposure is also associated with an increased prevalence of sinus problems.

We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross-sectional health survey, performed in 1988-1994, of 33,994 persons aged 2 months and older, representing the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. Details of the complex sampling design, data collection, and weighting approach have been described elsewhere.8 Briefly, NHANES III used a stratified, multistage probability sample design, with oversampling of young children (<5 years old), older persons (>59 years old), black persons, and Mexican Americans. To obtain a distribution of participants that would be similar to the US population as a whole, sampling weights can be used during the analysis to incorporate the differential probabilities of selection and to include adjustments for noncoverage and nonresponse. To generate estimates of national prevalence, the present analysis is limited to the 20,050 persons who comprised the adult population (age ≥17 years).

In the NHANES III interviews on demographic, tobacco use, and health characteristics, race/ethnicity was defined by the participant as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, or Mexican American. Any person who did not choose those categories was considered to be “other.” Poverty income ratio (PIR) is the ratio of reported household annual income to the poverty threshold defined by the US Census Bureau, with adjustment for family size. This ratio was coded as a continuous variable in the NHANES III database and was demarcated for our analysis into 4 ordinal categories: less than 1. 00, 1.00 through 1.99, 2.00 through 2.99, or 3.00 or greater. Educational level completed was coded in the NHANES III database as “never attended or kindergarten only” or in individual levels of 1 through 17 years, with 17 entered for those with 17 or more years of education. From these codes we categorized educational level as “no schooling,” 1 through 6 years (elementary school), 7 through 9 years (middle school), 10 and 11 years (some high school), 12 years (graduated high school), and 13 through 17 years (at least some college).

The dependent variable sinusitis was self-reported for the following question: “During the past 12 months, have you had sinusitis or sinus problems?” A positive response was followed by a question about the number of episodes, which could be answered with an integer number or “continuously, constantly.” Anyone who responded positively was considered to have any sinusitis. For the present analysis, we defined acute sinusitis as having 1 to 3 episodes, and recurrent or chronic sinusitis as having at least 4 episodes or continuous sinus problems during the past 12 months.

Tobacco exposure variables were the direct use of cigarette, cigar, pipe, and smokeless forms of tobacco; passive exposure to cigarette smoke; and the quantification of cigarette exposure, both direct and passive. “Ever used tobacco” was defined in the survey as having smoked at least 100 cigarettes, 20 cigars, 20 pipefuls of tobacco, or ever having used chewing tobacco or snuff. Those who had “ever used” cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, or snuff were asked about current use of those forms of tobacco. We defined
“former smokers” as those who had “ever” used cigarettes but did not currently smoke them. Direct cigarette exposure was quantified as the number of cigarettes currently smoked per day and was also dichotomized as 10 or fewer cigarettes per day vs more than 10 cigarettes per day.

Passive cigarette smoke exposure in the survey was determined by asking about the existence and number of persons who smoked cigarettes in the household. We coded this passive exposure as yes or no for the presence of smokers in the household and quantified it by summing the number of persons who smoked in the home and the number of cigarettes those persons smoked per day.

To quantify the dose of tobacco exposure in another way and to capture other passive smoke exposure outside the home, we also examined the NHANES results for serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. Since they had been performed only on study subjects who participated during 1988-1991, serum cotinine measurements were available for only 60% of the total group. Serum cotinine concentrations were determined in a 2-step process. The enzyme immunoassay method was used as a screening method for differentiating “low” (<142 nmol/L [<25 ng/mL]) and “high” (≥142 nmol/L [≥25 ng/mL]) cotinine concentrations. Confirmatory analysis was then performed with a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric method in batches of 50 specimens, according to their “low” or “high” concentrations on enzyme immunoassay. Serum cotinine concentrations less than 28.4 nmol/L (5 ng/mL) generally indicate nonsmokers, levels of 28.4 to 85.2 nmol/L (5-15 ng/mL) may indicate recent passive smoke exposure, and levels greater than 85.2 nmol/L (15 ng/mL) generally indicate active smokers.9

Our analyses used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) to incorporate sampling weights consistent with the complex design of the NHANES III survey.8 Bivariate comparisons of prevalence of sinusitis were assessed using χ2 and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous independent variables and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the categories of polytomous independent variables, which were converted to “dummy” binary variables. For the continuous serum cotinine level variable, means, t tests, medians, and interquartile ranges were used. We adjusted for the demographic variables of sex, race/ethnicity, PIR, and educational level using multivariable logistic regression. For the multivariable logistic regression models, the group with the smallest prevalence was chosen as the reference level for the nominal variables sex and race/ethnicity. Adjusted ORs were converted into adjusted RRs, since the prevalences of any, acute, or recurrent or chronic sinusitis in this population were all found to be more than 10%.10 The more common the outcome of interest, the more the OR overestimates the RR if it is greater than 1 or underestimates it if it is less than 1. Multiple stratification tables were used to look for possible interactions between the independent variables in affecting the prevalence of any sinusitis.11

Effect of demographic variables

Table 1 shows that 35% of the adult population of the United States reported having sinusitis or sinus problems at least once during the past 12 months. Female sex, non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black race, and higher income status (PIR ≥3.00) were all associated with an increased prevalence of any (including both acute and recurrent or chronic) self-reported sinusitis in bivariate analysis. This prevalence also progressively increased as educational level increased. In multiple stratification tables, all race/ethic groups had a higher prevalence with female sex and progressively increasing prevalence with increasing education. However, PIR did not affect the prevalence of any sinusitis in all race/ethnicity groups in the same way; although non-Hispanic black and Mexican Americans did show increases with increasing PIR, non-Hispanic white and “others” did not.

Effect of cigarette smoking

As shown in Table 2, current cigarette smokers had a higher prevalence of any sinusitis than former and never smokers. Table 3 shows that when stratified by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, those who smoked 11 or more cigarettes per day had a significantly higher prevalence of any sinusitis than those who smoked fewer than 11 cigarettes per day or did not smoke (adjusted RR, 1.16). Median serum cotinine concentrations increased with the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day, demonstrating a dose relationship, except for persons who smoked more than 40 cigarettes per day. When adjusted for the demographic variables of sex, race/ethnicity, educational level, and PIR, the risks remained essentially the same. However, the increase in prevalence is more consistent with a threshold effect than with a dose-response effect. In a threshold effect, the outcome response suddenly “jumps” after previously being unchanged at increasing levels of exposure. In contrast, in a dose-response effect, the outcome response rises or falls constantly (or “monotonically”) with higher levels of exposure. Quantifying dose by increasing serum cotinine concentrations (Table 4) also did not show consistent increases in the prevalence of sinusitis.

Table 5 divides the study population into those with acute sinusitis and those with recurrent or chronic sinusitis; it reveals that about 12% of adults reported recurrent or chronic problems with their sinuses, whereas about 21% had acute problems. (The sum of prevalences for acute sinusitis and recurrent or chronic sinusitis does not equal 35%, because 742 persons in the survey did not respond to the query about the number of episodes during the previous 12 months.) Current smokers report an increased prevalence of both acute (adjusted RR, 1.18) and recurrent or chronic (adjusted RR, 1.22) sinusitis. Although the RRs are small, they represent a proportional increase of 14% in recurrent or chronic sinusitis between never smokers and current smokers. Examined as the number needed for one effect (calculated as the reciprocal of the absolute difference in prevalence between current smokers and never smokers), 62 people must become current smokers to result in one excess case of recurrent or chronic sinusitis. When dichotomized by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, those who smoke more than 10 cigarettes per day had an increased risk of developing both acute and recurrent or chronic sinusitis.

Effect of noncigarette tobacco use

Table 6 shows that the prevalence of any sinusitis was higher for each form of tobacco used when compared with never users of any form of tobacco. The RRs for chewing tobacco, snuff, pipe, and cigar use were not adjusted to avoid problems with too few events per variable.11,12 Because the 95% CIs for the RRs include 1.0, increased risk cannot be claimed for each separate form of tobacco used. When users of noncigarette forms of tobacco (ie, pipe, cigar, chewing tobacco, and snuff) were examined as a combined group, however, they had a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of any sinusitis (adjusted RR, 1. 37) when compared with never users.

Interaction of demographic variables and tobacco use

In data not tabulated herein, when race/ethnicity was analyzed with tobacco use variables in multiple stratification tables, non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans showed a higher prevalence of any sinusitis in users compared with nonusers of tobacco. Non-Hispanic blacks tended to have a lower prevalence of any sinusitis with tobacco use, whereas “other” race/ethnicity groups tended to have a higher prevalence. In multiple logistic regression models that included tobacco use variables, female sex, 10 years or more of education, and non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity groups were independent predictors of increased prevalence for sinusitis, whereas PIR was not.

Effect of passive smoke exposure

Table 7 shows that among the never smokers exposure to passive smoke at home did not result in a higher prevalence of any sinusitis. Median serum cotinine concentrations were slightly higher for those exposed to passive smoke in the home, confirming their exposure. Quantifying the dose by the number of smokers, the daily total number of cigarettes smoked in the home, or serum cotinine concentrations also did not lead to a higher prevalence with increasing dose. When divided into acute and recurrent or chronic sinusitis groups, exposure to passive smoke did not increase the prevalence in either group, with adjusted RRs of 1.23 (95% CI, 0.97-1.54) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.73-1.27) for acute and recurrent or chronic sinusitis, respectively.

The results of this study demonstrate that the direct use of tobacco, but not household passive tobacco smoke exposure, can be linked to an increased prevalence of sinusitis. This study, however, does not allow conclusions about whether the use of tobacco or exposure to its smoke affects the severity of symptoms, chronicity of disease, or refractoriness to treatment.

The prevalence of any self-reported sinusitis shows variation with the numbers of cigarettes directly smoked but not a true dose response. Since sinusitis prevalence is also most likely increased by smokeless tobacco, direct tobacco smoke is probably not the only cause for mucociliary dysfunction. Nasal mucociliary dysfunction from nicotine is not likely to be the only pathophysiologic explanation for the increased prevalence of sinusitis from tobacco use, however, because serum cotinine concentrations did not consistently affect the prevalence of sinusitis. Other components in tobacco or tobacco smoke may cause changes to the cilia or nasal secretions that are responsible for the observed differences. In addition, individuals’ susceptibilities play an important role in their response to tobacco smoke. Bascom et al6 found that in healthy nonsmoking adults, 6 of 12 subjects showed more rapid nasal mucociliary clearance with sidestream tobacco smoke than with just air, whereas 3 of 12 subjects had substantial decreases in clearance.

Defining passive smoke exposure is limited by the quantification of household exposures only. Workplace exposures are unaccounted for in the survey. However, serum cotinine levels are not significantly different between the exposed with sinusitis and without sinusitis. Given that more than 10 cigarettes had to be smoked before the prevalence among direct smokers exceeded that of nonsmokers in this study, the dose from passive tobacco smoke is probably insufficient to increase the risk of sinusitis in tobacco nonusers.

The main limitation of this study is that sinusitis is self-reported in a questionnaire rather than documented by a physician using strict diagnostic criteria. Colds, flu, allergies, facial pain or pressure, headache, and nasal obstruction without sinusitis may all be included in self-reported “sinusitis.” Nevertheless, this method of self-report is similarly used for estimating prevalence in the United States, according to the National Health Interview Survey, an annual multistage probability sample survey conducted by the US Census Bureau for the National Center for Health Statistics. In that survey, during 1990-1992, the estimated US prevalence of chronic sinusitis was 13.6%, affecting 33.7 million people.13 This result can be compared with the 11.8% of adults in the present analysis for an overlapping period. The estimates may differ, because the National Health Interview Survey defines chronic as duration of problem (3 months, vs our categorization of recurrent or chronic as more than 3 episodes or continuous problems). The estimates produced by our analysis seem just as valid as those given by the National Center for Health Statistics, which concluded that chronic sinusitis is now the most common chronic condition affecting the US adult population.1

It is unclear why the prevalence of self-reported sinusitis varies with income level and educational level. Differences in access to medical care would produce a detection bias, leading to more diagnoses for symptom clusters in patients with more access. A different explanation is that those with more access to medical care may have higher expectations for health and may not tolerate symptoms that others with more barriers to access may consider not important enough to pursue with a physician.

Differences in prevalence for race/ethnicity may be due to true differences in the baseline racial susceptibility to sinusitis. Race/ethnicity correlates with some differences in PIR and educational level, but these socioeconomic factors do not explain all the variation in prevalence with race/ethnicity. These differences in prevalence for sex, white and black race, and income level were also noted in the National Center for Health Statistics estimates for chronic sinusitis.13 Because these variations with race/ethnicity, educational level, and sex seem robust, these demographic variables will be important to analyze and control for in future studies of sinusitis.

Consistent with data for other respiratory ailments, the direct use of tobacco confers a small increased risk of developing sinusitis in the adult population, but contrary to expectation, passive smoke does not. Although risk factors should be identified and altered when possible, it is also important to avoid burdening patients with recommendations for lifestyle alterations that may not affect their disease. There are enough other health-related reasons not to smoke or use tobacco without chiding people for causing their own or someone else’s sinus problems. The demographic variables of sex, race/ethnicity, and educational level demonstrate unexpectedly robust associations with the prevalence of sinusitis and should be analyzed and controlled for in future studies of sinusitis. Although the multifactorial risk factors for sinusitis make it difficult to quantitate the impact of any one factor, only by doing work like this can we take measures to prevent and treat this common problem.

Accepted for publication February 22, 2000.

Corresponding author: Judith E. C. Lieu, MD, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, One Children’s Place, Room 3S35, St Louis, MO 63110. Reprints: Alvan R. Feinstein, MD, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, IE-456 SHM, PO Box 208025, New Haven, CT 06520-8025.

 MA Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1995.  Vital Health Stat 10. 1998;
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US Department of Health, Education and Welfare,US Public Health Service, Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service.  Washington, DC US Dept of Health, Education and Welfare, US Public Health Service1964;

 T Nasal mucociliary in patients with upper and lower respiratory diseases.  ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1993;55352- 355Google ScholarCrossref 5.Agius
 LA Smoking and middle ear ciliary beat frequency in otitis media with effusion.  Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh). 1995;11544- 49Google ScholarCrossref 6.Bascom
 DL Sidestream tobacco smoke exposure acutely alters human nasal mucociliary clearance.  Environ Health Perspect. 1995;1031026- 1030Google ScholarCrossref 7.Mahakit
 P A preliminary study of nasal mucociliary clearance in smokers, sinusitis and allergic rhinitis patients.  Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 1995;13119- 121Google Scholar8.

National Center for Health Statistics, Plan and Operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.  Hyattsville, Md US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics1994;


 SM Laboratory Procedures Used for the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994.   Hyattsville, Md Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics1996;

 KF What’s the relative risk?a method of correcting the odds ratio in cohort studies of common outcomes.  JAMA. 1998;2801690- 1691Google ScholarCrossref 11.

 AR Multivariable Analysis: An Introduction.  New Haven, Conn Yale University Press1996;

 AR A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis.  J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;491373- 1379Google ScholarCrossref 13.Collins
 JG Prevalence of selected chronic conditions: United States, 1990-1992.  Vital Health Stat 10. 1997;
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Acute sinusitis | An antibiotic is a reliable weapon if the target is a bacterial infection

Acute sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.

Fun Facts:

Most people who see a doctor for sinus inflammation (acute sinusitis) do not actually have the disease. The appearance of yellowish or greenish discharge from the nose is natural, since the body is fighting the virus, and this manifestation (symptom) is not an indication for the appointment of antibiotics.

What to do:
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Use a humidifier or breathe in moist air.
  • Gently rinse the nasal cavity with salt water or inhale with herbal infusions.
  • If the temperature rises (over 38.5 ° C) and headache, take paracetamol or ibuprofen. The children’s dose is indicated in the instructions for use of the drugs.
  • Apply vasoconstrictor drops for 2-3 days.
See a doctor:
  • With a repeated rise in temperature after its normalization or long-term fever, pain in the projection of the paranasal sinuses when bending forward (i.e.i.e. localized soreness near the nose or in the forehead).
  • For pain in the projection of the paranasal sinuses and nasal discharge that does not decrease within 10-14 days in children and 7-10 in adults.
With inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, mucus accumulates in their cavity

Behind the nose and eyebrows, there are several small cavities called the paranasal sinuses or sinuses. Most sinus infections start after a cold. The body fights infection by producing mucus, which helps flush viral particles out of the nasal cavity and sinuses.The mucous membrane lining the cavity swells, and the outflow of mucus is partially disturbed. This condition is called sinusitis.

There are various types of sinus infections

The main cause of inflammation is viruses that cause the common cold. Smoking, allergies, overuse of nasal sprays, swimming, and even changes in air pressure can cause inflammation. If the outflow of mucus is disturbed, bacteria begin to multiply in it. Bacterial infections result in increased sinus pressure, resulting in pain around the eyes when bending forward, and fever.This condition is called acute bacterial sinusitis. One of its signs is a worsening of the condition when a cold starts to pass. With this disease, antibiotics may be prescribed to kill bacteria.

Antibiotics are not effective for all sinusitis

In some cases, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses resolves on its own with the use of home remedies and certain drugs that reduce symptoms (for example, vasoconstrictor nasal drops, which reduce swelling of the mucous membrane).

Discuss with your doctor if antibiotics are needed. Taking antibiotics unnecessarily can be harmful by making bacteria resistant to them. If your doctor has prescribed antibiotics for you, be sure to complete the full course of treatment.

The best prevention of sinus infections is hand washing and smoking cessation

Viruses are spread by touching the mouth, nose or eyes. Frequent hand washing with warm water and soap will help prevent infection.Blow your nose carefully. By quitting smoking, you can prevent the development of many diseases of the lungs, nose and sinuses and ears, since smokers are more likely to suffer from colds and inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.

90,000 What is halitosis?

Faculty Approved
Columbia University College of Dentistry

What is it?
One of the most common dental problems is bad breath.It is also known as halitosis. This odor may appear intermittently or be persistent, depending on the cause.

Millions of bacteria live in the oral cavity, including on the back of the tongue. For many people, they are the main source of bad breath. The constancy of temperature and humidity in the mouth is ideal for the growth of these bacteria. In most cases, bad breath is caused precisely by bacteria living in the mouth.

Certain types of halitosis are generally considered normal. These are usually not considered health problems. One example is morning breath. It is associated with changes in the oral cavity during sleep. During the day, saliva washes away decaying food particles and eliminates odors. The body produces less saliva at night. Your oral cavity dries out and dead cells accumulate on your tongue and inner surfaces of your cheeks. The bacteria that use these cells as a food source gives off an unpleasant odor.

In addition, bad breath can be caused by:

Poor Oral Hygiene – Irregular or improper brushing or flossing causes food particles to remain between the teeth and decompose in the mouth. Poor oral hygiene usually leads to periodontitis (gum disease), which also leads to bad breath.

Oral infections – These can be associated with a cavity in the tooth or with periodontitis (gum disease).

Respiratory tract infections – infections of the larynx, sinuses or lungs.

External source – eating garlic, onions, or coffee, smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco. Smoking and drinking coffee, tea and / or red wine can also lead to discolored teeth.

Dry mouth (xerostomia) – It can be associated with disorders of the salivary glands, drugs or mouth breathing.A large number of prescription and over-the-counter medicines can cause dry mouth.

Diseases – diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, lung disease, sinusitis, reflux disease and others.

Mental Illness – Some people may think they have bad breath without being noticed by others. This is called “pseudohalytosis”.


You may not be aware that you have bad breath.This is because the olfactory cells in the nose become accustomed to the smell. Others may notice the smell and pull away when you speak, or even express displeasure with facial expressions.

Other symptoms depend on the root cause of halitosis:

Oral infections – Symptoms depend on the type of infection. These may include:
• Redness or swelling of the gums, with possibly mild bleeding, especially after brushing or flossing
• Pus between the teeth or an accumulation of pus (abscess) at the base of the tooth
• Loss of teeth or changes in the seating of dentures
• Painful open wounds or sores on the tongue or gums

Respiratory tract infections – symptoms may include:
• Sore throat, redness and / or swelling of the tonsils
• Swollen cervical lymph nodes
• Fever
• Blocked nose
• Greenish or yellowish discharge from the nose
• Cough with phlegm

Dry mouth – symptoms may include:
• Difficulty swallowing dry food
• Difficulty speaking for a long time due to dry mouth
• Burning sensation in the mouth
• An unusually high number of carious lesions
• Sjogren’s syndrome

Diseases – Symptoms of diabetes, lung disease, kidney disease or liver disease.


A dentist or therapist may notice bad breath during a visit. Occasionally, a patient scent can indicate the likely cause of a problem. For example, a “fruity” smell can be a sign of uncontrolled diabetes. A urine-like odor, especially from someone with an increased risk of kidney disease, can sometimes indicate kidney failure.

Your dentist will review your medical history to identify conditions that can cause bad breath and medicines that can cause dry mouth.The dentist will also ask you about your diet, individual habits (smoking, chewing tobacco) and any symptoms. He will also ask who noticed bad breath and when.

The dentist examines your teeth, gums, mouth and salivary glands. It will also palpate your head and neck and evaluate your breathing as you exhale from your nose and mouth.

If a medical condition is the most likely cause, your dentist may refer you to a general practitioner.For severe cases of gum disease, your dentist may recommend seeing a periodontist (dentist who specializes in gum problems).

If your doctor suspects you have a lung infection, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, or Sjogren’s syndrome, you will need to get a diagnostic test. The type of test depends on the suspected disease. You may be required to have blood tests, urinalysis, chest x-rays or sinus x-rays, or other tests.

Estimated duration

The duration of elimination of bad breath depends on its cause. For example, if the problem is related to poor oral hygiene, proper dental care will immediately provide breath freshening. Even better results will be achieved after a few days of regular brushing and flossing. Periodontitis and tooth abscess also respond quickly to proper dental treatment. Bad breath associated with chronic sinusitis may return, especially if it is caused by a structural disorder of the sinuses.

Bad breath caused by the disease can persist for a long time. It is often eliminated with proper treatment of the underlying disease.


Prevention of bad breath caused by dental problems is easy with proper home and professional care.

• Brush your teeth, tongue and gums after each meal and floss once a day.This is most important if bad breath is caused by dental problems

• As recommended by your dentist, rinse your mouth with mouthwash approved by your local dental association

• Visit your dentist regularly (at least twice a year) for examinations and professional oral hygiene.

To combat bad breath, you can also drink plenty of water throughout the day to help your body produce saliva.Occasional rinsing of the mouth with water will remove food particles. Sugar-free chewing gum or sugar-free breath mints can help keep breath fresher and prevent plaque buildup. However, it should be borne in mind that the consumption of chewing gum and / or sugar-free lozenges that contain sorbitol can have side effects. These include diarrhea and flatulence.

Treatment for bad breath depends on the cause.

When to contact a specialist

See your dentist immediately if bad breath is associated with loose teeth or painful swelling and bleeding of the gums. Also see your doctor if halitosis is associated with any of the following symptoms:

• Fever
• Sore throat
• Postnasal syndrome
• Discolored nasal discharge
• Cough with phlegm

If you do not have all of these symptoms and bad breath persists despite proper nutrition and oral hygiene, see your dentist or therapist.

Sometimes bad breath can be a sign of a medical condition that needs urgent attention. If you have diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or chronic liver or kidney failure, ask your doctor how bad breath can affect your condition.


The prognosis for fresh breath is usually good, provided that the treatment plan of your dentist or therapist is followed.

90,000 Learning to be healthy: prevention of sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the maxillary paranasal sinus. The paranasal sinuses are small cavities in communication with the nasal cavity. There are two maxillary sinuses in humans – right and left. Another name for this formation is the maxillary sinus or maxillary sinus. Often, specialists make diagnoses such as maxillary sinusitis. There is no fundamental difference between the latter terms and the term sinusitis.

The main cause of sinusitis is infection – bacteria or viruses enter the maxillary sinus through the nasal cavity or through the blood and cause an inflammatory process. An organism with a weakened immune system is unable to fight these viruses.

Factors predisposing to the occurrence of sinusitis:

  1. Conditions that disturb nasal breathing : curvature of the nasal septum, vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis (enlargement of the turbinates), in children – adenoids, allergic diseases of the nose.
  2. Immunity disorders resulting from long-term chronic diseases, parasitosis, allergic conditions, etc.
  3. Untimely or improper treatment of common colds , acute respiratory infections, rhinitis, which causes sinusitis as a complication.
  4. Carriers of bacteria. Many of you are familiar with the medical examination procedure, when doctors take nasal swabs for bacteriological cultures. Often, the patient is diagnosed with the so-called staphylococcus, which lives for a long time in the person’s nasopharynx.The latter, if not for the examination, would not have learned that he is a carrier of bacteria. For a long time, these bacteria may not cause serious harm to health. but even with a common cold, staphylococcus aureus can activate and show its pathogenic properties
  5. Congenital developmental disorders of the anatomical structures of the nasal cavity .
  6. There are discomfort in the nose and the paranasal region, which gradually increase. Pains are less pronounced in the morning, increase in the evening.Gradually, the pain “loses” a certain place and the patient begins to have a headache. If the process is one-sided, then the pain is noted on one side.
  7. Difficulty in nasal breathing. The patient has a stuffy nose. The voice takes on a nasal tone. As a rule, both halves of the nose are blocked. Difficulty in nasal breathing, persistent or with slight relief. Possible alternating congestion of the right and left halves of the nose.
  8. Runny nose. In most cases, the patient has mucous (clear) or purulent (yellow, green) nasal discharge.This symptom may not be present if the nose is heavily stuffed up, since the outflow from the sinus is difficult (as mentioned above).
  9. Increase in body temperature to 38 and above. As a rule, this symptom is observed with acute sinusitis. In a chronic process, body temperature rarely rises.
  10. Malaise. This is expressed by fatigue, weakness, patients refuse to eat, their sleep is disturbed.

These are just the main complaints of with sinusitis.To establish the diagnosis, an X-ray or computed tomography (a more informative method) of the paranasal sinuses helps. After that, a qualified otorhinolaryngologist should easily establish the diagnosis. When the diagnosis of sinusitis is confirmed, the doctor will prescribe appropriate treatment.
Acute sinusitis and chronic sinusitis are most often treated using conventional pharmacotherapy, which the doctor selects for consultation. Washing the paranasal sinuses (without a puncture) is carried out only with severe pain syndrome or profuse discharge of pus.Laser therapy is carried out with the aim of eliminating the effects of inflammation and enhancing the effect of medical treatment. In some cases (for example, with a severe course of the disease), it is advisable to combine treatment with an otorhinolaryngologist with acupuncture and taking dietary supplements. The entire course of treatment of the acute process takes, depending on the severity, from two weeks to two months.
Treatment of acute sinusitis includes enhanced antibiotic therapy, the use of sulfa drugs, the use of vasoconstrictors, the use of physiotherapeutic methods (electrophoresis of drugs, a Solux lamp, UHF, microwave therapy, ultrasound, inhalation, etc.).
The rinsing of the maxillary sinuses after puncture is especially effective. For washing, isotonic sodium chloride solution, solutions of furacilin, boric acid, silver nitrate, potassium permanganate, etc. are used. After washing, solutions of some antibacterial agents and enzyme preparations (trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc.) are introduced into the sinuses. Together, all these activities lead to recovery. It is important to avoid cold winds in your face when walking outdoors in the fall and winter.
If in chronic sinusitis conservative treatment does not lead to success, they resort to surgery.

If you feel unwell, you should immediately consult a doctor for qualified help and do not self-medicate.

Source of information: department of organization of medical and preventive work and psychological assistance.

ENT otolaryngologist in Rostov on Don price sign up

Name of service Price, rub)
Promotion !!! Removing the sulfur plug (one side) 550
Promotion !!! Washing tonsil lacunae, 1 procedure (Manual method) 450
Promotion !!! “Cuckoo” drug movement method 600
Otolaryngologist (ENT) consultation 1500
Tuning tuning fork 350
Streptatest – express diagnostics of streptococcal infection 350
Taking biomaterial for histological examination 800
Taking a smear for cytological examination 250
Taking a smear for bacteriological culture 250
Blowing on Politzer 350
Ear toilet 400
Removing the sulfur plug (one side) 550
Eustachian tube catheterization with drug administration (one side) 1,250
Removal of posterior nasal tamponade 1,750
Removal of a foreign body from the nose 1,050
Removal of the foreign body of the ear 1,050
Hypopharyngoscopy, removal of a foreign body from the laryngopharynx 1,600
Removal of a foreign body from the pharynx 1,050
Stitching (1 stitch) 200
Stitch removal (1 stitch) 150
PHO wounds 450
Anemization of the nasal mucosa with adrenaline 150
Putting a turunda in the nose 150
Putting a turunda in your ears 150
Washing the maxillary sinus through anthrostomy saline solution with POS (dioxidine, dexamethasone, naphthyzine) 450
Postoperative nasal cavity toilet 500
Instillation of drops in the nose (polydexa) 50
Treatment of the tonsils with a drug 150
Washing tonsil lacunae, 1 procedure 450
Washing the lacunae of the palatine tonsils (manually), 10 procedures 3000
Transtympanic injection of medicinal solutions 150
Study of discharge from the throat with determination of antibiotic susceptibility 300
Examination of nasal discharge with determination of antibiotic sensitivity 300
Study of discharge from the ear with determination of antibiotic sensitivity 300
Postoperative dressing 400
Anterior tamponade (with gauze swabs) 800
Postoperative throat treatment 350
Inhalation through a nebulizer with a drug 250
Inhalation through a saline nebulizer 250
Phonophoresis (patient drug) 200
Phonophoresis (with the cost of the drug) 250
Magnetic laser therapy 300
BTE block 600
Method of moving drugs “Cuckoo” 600
Sclerosis of the inferior turbinate 600
Washing the attic 600
Ear toilet for mesotympanitis, acute otitis media 600
Treatment (lubrication) of the oropharyngeal mucosa with drugs 400
Infusion of drugs into the larynx 400
Puncture of the maxillary sinus 2,000
Drainage of the maxillary sinus 1,000
Opening of tonsil cysts 1 100
Ear polypotomy 950
Cauterization of ear polyps 550
Opening the boils of the ear canal 1,600
Research of hearing by speech and tuning fork 400
Vascular hardening of the nasal septum 800
Lancing of hematoma of abscess, cyst, boil, atheroma of ENT organs 2,000
Treatment of hematoma of abscess, cysts, boils, atheroma of ENT organs (5 procedures) 2 100
Extinguishing the bleeding vessel of the nasal septum with TCA solution 400
Laser cryodestruction, ultrasonic disintegration, diathermocoagulation of the inferior turbinates with local anesthesia 5 100
Treatment of nosebleeds – anterior tamponade, vascular extinguishing with cauterizing agents, vessel coagulation, including bleeding Polyp (without histology) 2 100
Epistaxis Treatment – Posterior Tamponade 2 100
Reduction of the nasal bones (manual method) 3,000
Cavity care (toilet) after general cavity surgery on the middle ear 1 100
Non-puncture method of treatment of rhinosinusitis “Yamik-system”, primary manipulation 1 900
Non-puncture method of treatment of rhinosinusitis “Yamik-system”, repeated manipulation 1,000
Tracheostomy care (toilet, tube change) 1 100
Nasopharyngeal lavage (nasal douche) 700
Solnyshko apparatus (tube-quartz) 1 field (KUF) 200
Quantum therapy, 1 procedure (RIKTA apparatus) 300
Treatment of pathology of ENT organs using the “TONZILLOR – 3MM” apparatus
Treatment of chronic pharyngitis with ozone / NO – ultrasound method, 1 procedure 300
Treatment of acute renitis, vasomotor, allergic, catarrhal ozone / NO – ultrasonic method, 1 procedure 500
Hypertrophic rhinitis treatment (UZDNNR), once (minor surgery) 5100
Reflexotherapy ozone / NO – ultrasonic 250
Treatment of acute and chronic otitis media with ozone / NO – ultrasound method, 1 procedure 300

Acute purulent sinusitis – signs of the disease and methods of treatment – Into-Sana

What is sinusitis and how is it different from a common cold?

Sinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus, but in society it is customary to call this inflammatory disease of all paranasal sinuses.If we talk about acute sinus inflammation, then most often it occurs as a purulent complication of an acute viral infection. As you know, a common cold or viral rhinitis lasts about a week. Therefore, if it dragged on for more than 7-10 days or intensified on the 5th day of the disease, purulent discharge from the nose appeared, one can suspect the development of a purulent disease of the paranasal sinuses. Also, pain in the frontal region or root of the nose, a feeling of pressure on the teeth, and a night cough should be alerted.

What are the reasons for the development of acute sinusitis, because not every cold is complicated by sinusitis?

The cause of acute purulent sinusitis is bacteria, but certain conditions are necessary for its development.This is a decrease in the protective properties of the mucous membrane, and the anatomical features of the structure of the nasal cavity (curvature of the nasal septum, etc.), and the presence of pathogenic or opportunistic bacterial microflora in the upper respiratory tract, and many others.

How is acute sinusitis diagnosed?

The diagnosis is established with a special ENT examination and is confirmed by an X-ray examination, therefore, if you suspect the development of a sinus disease, you should contact an ENT doctor.

What methods of treating acute sinusitis are there today, is it really necessary to use antibiotics, puncture of the maxillary sinus?

Since the disease is caused by bacteria, antibacterial treatment is definitely needed. Another thing is that not in all cases it is necessary to prescribe systemic antibiotics (in tablets or injections), sometimes local use of antibacterial drugs, including of plant origin, is sufficient. The second, no less important point in the treatment of acute sinusitis, is to ensure the outflow of pus from the sinuses.To do this, use means that relieve swelling in the nose, primarily vasoconstrictor drops, various complex decongestants, expectorants. If the outflow from the sinus is insufficient, then, of course, it is necessary to carry out various manipulations, including puncture of the maxillary sinuses. Of course, today, with the advent of new pharmacological agents, the need for this manipulation has decreased, but it remains necessary in various situations. Various physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are also widely used (phonophoresis of drugs in the sinus area, inhalation through the nose, etc.)and complex phytopreparations. But only a doctor can decide on the method of treatment.

What alternative treatments are possible in the treatment of acute sinusitis?

The basic principles of treatment with folk remedies are similar to traditional ones, but for this they often use herbal remedies that have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, expectorant properties: decoctions of chamomile, coltsfoot, calendula in the form of rinsing the nasal cavity, ultrasonic inhalations. One of the most common plants used to treat sinusitis is cyclamen root remedies, which increase the secretion of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses, so they can only be used with absolute confidence that there is sufficient outflow of pus from the sinuses, otherwise the condition may worsen.

You should pay attention to the popular method of treating sinusitis – various types of warming up. This method can be dangerous, because if there is a violation of the outflow of pus from the sinuses, there is a risk of developing complications of sinusitis, so it can be used only on the recommendation of a doctor.

What is the danger of acute purulent sinusitis?

The best outcome of untreated sinusitis, of course, is self-recovery, which is really possible, since the body has its own ways of fighting the infection.But, unfortunately, it is impossible to clearly predict this option for each specific patient. If the disease is started, the most common consequence is the transition to chronic purulent sinusitis, the spread of infection into the orbit, and intracranial complications.

What are the ways to prevent acute purulent sinusitis?

Since acute purulent sinusitis is a complication of ARVI, the most effective way of prevention is rational treatment of acute respiratory disease.In addition, patients with problematic nasal breathing, allergic rhinitis and other nasal diseases are more likely to suffer from acute sinusitis. Therefore, if ARVI is too often complicated by acute purulent sinusitis, it is necessary to contact an ENT specialist outside the disease to identify possible causes that contribute to the development of inflammation.

Is a patient with acute purulent sinusitis dangerous to others?

Acute purulent sinusitis is not an infectious disease, so the sick person is not dangerous to others.But it should be remembered that in everyday life you should have less close contact (hug, kiss) with your family, especially children, use a separate towel, etc. The described manifestations and recommendations are general guidelines, and treatment for each patient is selected individually and only by a doctor, therefore in case of a “lingering” cold, consult a specialist.

90,000 What is ethmoiditis and how to recognize its symptoms?

Etmoiditis is an inflammation of the paranasal ethmoid sinuses, which are located between the eyes and just behind the nose.In this article, we will look at where this disease comes from, what are its symptoms and methods of treatment.

The paranasal sinuses (they are also sinuses) are cavities filled with air. There are 4 types of them in total:

  1. Haimorovs (maxillary),
  2. Frontal (frontal),
  3. Wedge-shaped (sphenoidal),
  4. Ethmoid, they are also ethmoidal, hence the name of the disease – ethmoiditis.

As already mentioned, ethmoid sinuses are located behind the nose, or rather, just behind its bridge.Together with the rest of the sinuses, ethmoid sinuses help filter, cleanse, humidify the air you breathe, and also produce mucus. The mucus produced travels through the entire labyrinth of sinuses and down into the nose. When mucus does not drain and accumulates in the sinuses, they become swollen and inflamed. If inflammation develops in the ethmoidal sinuses, the person develops ethmoidal sinusitis.

Where does this disease come from?

When conditions are created that affect the structure of the sinuses or the flow of mucus into the nose, the sinuses become inflamed.These conditions include the following factors:

  • Upper respiratory tract infection (cold, flu),
  • Allergy,
  • A deviated nasal septum – when the wall that separates the nostrils is displaced to the side,
  • Polyps in the nose – benign growths of the mucous membrane membranes in the sinuses or nasal cavity,
  • Tooth abscess (tooth infection),
  • Enlargement of the adenoids,
  • Smoking, including passive smoking,
  • Injury to the nose or face,
  • Foreign objects entering the nasal cavity.

What are the symptoms of ethmoiditis?

In contrast to inflammation of other sinuses, a patient with ethmoiditis may develop symptoms that more affect not the sinuses, but the eyes. This is due to the fact that the ethmoidal sinuses are located close to the lacrimal ducts. Often the patient develops pain between the eyes, as well as severe sensitivity if you lightly touch the bridge of the nose.

Sometimes signs of ethmoiditis appear as edema around the eyes, especially immediately after sleep.When a person wakes up and stands upright, the outflow of mucus in the paranasal sinuses improves, which ultimately reduces the swelling.

Other symptoms of ethmoiditis include:

  • Facial edema,
  • Runny nose that does not go away after 10 days,
  • Thick nasal discharge,
  • Postnasal drip syndrome – when mucus runs down the throat,
  • Headaches,
  • Sore throat, cough
  • Bad breath,
  • Decreased sense of smell and taste,
  • General malaise,
  • Fever.

If the infection has formed in the ethmoidal sinuses, the person will not necessarily be bothered by pain only in this area. Regardless of which sinus is inflamed, pain can spread throughout the face. In addition, mucus from the frontal and maxillary sinuses flows into the ethmoidal sinuses. Therefore, if the mucus is clogged in the ethmoidal sinuses, the aforementioned 2 sinuses can also become inflamed.

With regard to headache, with inflammation of any of the paranasal sinuses, it is characterized as dull and prolonged, but not sharp or throbbing pain.It is very often worse if the patient bends forward or coughs.

How is ethmoiditis diagnosed?

Usually this disease is diagnosed on the basis of the patient’s complaints and examination of his nasal cavity and ears. To do this, the otolaryngologist uses a special instrument called an otoscope. If necessary, the doctor also performs an endoscopic examination of the nose. Also ENT can measure the temperature of the patient, “listen” to the lungs and examine the throat.

If thick mucus comes out of the patient’s nose, the doctor can take a sample with a swab.This sample is sent to a laboratory where it is examined for signs of a bacterial infection. Also, to clarify the cause of the disease, a general blood test is sometimes prescribed.

How to treat ethmoiditis?

Depending on the severity of the symptoms, the duration and origin of the disease (viral or bacterial infection), the tactics of treating ethmoiditis can be completely different. For mild to moderate symptoms, simple home treatments can be done. In the most severe cases – when complications arise or the disease becomes chronic, surgery may be necessary.

The following remedies and methods are used to treat ethmoiditis:

Home Treatments

Some simple home procedures and tricks can help reduce pain and pressure in your sinuses. These procedures include applying warm compresses to the face and inhaling steam. Another way to relieve symptoms and speed up the healing process is to sleep on a high pillow. The essence of this method is to raise the patient’s head – this will facilitate the outflow of mucus.

Also, for any type of sinusitis (inflammation of any paranasal sinus), it is recommended to rinse the nose with saline solution several times a day. For information on how to properly prepare and use it, read the article on the front.


Acute ethmoiditis is very often accompanied by headaches and discomfort in the eyes or nose. In order to reduce these unpleasant symptoms, pain relievers are prescribed to patients: paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin.

We remind you that in no case should you give aspirin to children, because this can lead to the development of an extremely serious disease – Reye’s syndrome.

Nasal Sprays

One short-term solution for heavy nasal discharge is to use steroid nasal sprays.


If the cause of ethmoiditis is a bacterial infection, in this case the ENT will prescribe one or more antibiotics.Most often, amoxicillin, azithromycin and erythromycin are prescribed.


Ethmoidal sinusitis usually resolves without surgical procedures. However, in rare cases, the aforementioned therapies do not cure the infection. It is then that the doctor considers the possibility of surgery.

Sinus surgery is performed for one or more purposes:

  • Remove damaged tissue,
  • Expand nasal passages,
  • Remove polyps,
  • Align a deviated nasal septum.

How to prevent ethmoiditis?

People who often suffer from sinusitis are advised to:

  • Drink plenty of fluids (water, juices) – this will make the mucus thinner and improve its drainage from the sinuses,
  • Regularly rinse the nose with salt water,
  • Perform steam inhalation which helps to clear the nasal passages,
  • Use a humidifier,
  • Use saline drops to keep the nasal passages moist,
  • Sleep with your head up,
  • Do not blow your nose too much or too often,
  • Avoid frequent use of decongestants ( naphthyzin, galazolin and others).

Although in most cases ethmoiditis resolves after a few days, in very rare cases, serious complications develop. One of these is inflammation of the tissues of the orbit with the formation of pus (orbital abscess). For this reason, in no case should you self-medicate. If you or your child develop symptoms of ethmoiditis, it is best to see an otolaryngologist right away.