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Splinting of fracture: First Aid, Material, Techniques & Types

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Fundamental Techniques to Splint Extremity Fractures

Splinting is the way to treat broken bones (also known as fractures) until you can get to a doctor. A splint can be made from scratch out of household items or it can be commercially produced specifically for splinting fractures. In some cases, when a toe or a finger is used, an uninjured neighbor can be the splint.

Splints can also be used for sprains or dislocations (disruptions of joints, such as the shoulder or the knee). Regardless whether you’re splinting a fracture or a dislocation and whether you use something designed as a splint or fashion it yourself out of sticks in the forest, the concepts are the same.

Caiaimage / Trevor Adeline / Getty Images

Solid as a Rock

The idea of a splint is to minimize motion of damaged bones or joints. When a bone is broken completely, pressure on the broken pieces can cause the jagged bits of bone to move and damage the softer tissues around it. For bones that are cracked, but not completely separated, external pressures on the bone can lead to increased damage and potentially even cause a broken bone to completely come apart.

The injury doesn’t have to be a fracture. External pressures can cause already damaged joints to become even more unstable. Regardless of whether the damage is to hard tissue like bone or to complicated soft tissues like those found in a joint, treatment relies on immobilization.

To avoid external pressure from further damaging a broken bone, it is necessary to immobilize—otherwise known as splint—the area. Most fractures occur to extremities (arms and legs), but there are bones all over the body (about 206 altogether). Even when the broken bone is not in an extremity, such as the ribs or the pelvis, it is vital to immobilize it as much as possible to reduce the potential for further injury. Most of the examples used here will be of extremity fractures.

Fundamentals of Splinting

An extremity splint will not work unless you completely encapsulate the injury within the splint. That means you must immobilize joints above and below the fracture. If, for example, an arm is broken in the middle of the forearm, more than just the forearm will need to be splinted. Because a moving wrist or elbow will exert pressure on the bones of the forearm, a break in that area necessitates immobilization of the wrist and the elbow as well. If they can’t move, they won’t twist and tweak the radius and ulna (bones of the lower arm).

In the case of a dislocation or sprain, not only will the joint need to be immobilized but so will the structures (usually bones) on either side of the joint. In the case of a knee, for example, the thigh (femur) and the lower leg (tibia and fibula) will have to be splinted to keep the knee from moving. Some say dislocations are actually much more painful than fractures, and the patient is likely not to move the extremity without any encouragement at all.

Assess the Function

The reason to splint an injury, especially to an extremity, is not to cure it. In many cases, severe fractures will require significant, even surgical, treatment to repair the damage.

A first aid splint is used to get the patient to the hospital or doctor. Sometimes, a splint may facilitate moving the injured patient, either by making it possible to move the patient without further injury or by making it possible for the patient to move on their own.

While helping to get the patient to a doctor, it’s important not to make things worse. First and foremost, splints must not further the injury to the extremity. Proper immobilization usually inhibits additional damage and that can be measured by assessing the function of the extremity. Circulation, sensation, and motion are the hallmarks of function in all extremities.

Be sure to assess the function of an extremity at least twice. Check once before any treatment is applied, and then again after the splinting is done. If any of the functionality (circulation, sensation, and motion) has disappeared or gotten worse, try to adjust—or even remove—the splint.  Loss of function is a big deal that can lead to permanent damage if left unchecked.

Assessing Blood Flow

Blood flow to the injured area (circulation) can be interrupted if damage to the surrounding tissues includes blood vessels. Anything strong enough to break a bone is strong enough to disrupt arteries, veins, and capillaries. To assess circulation, feel the extremity and its twin (if the right arm is broken, compare the right arm to the left arm) for warmth. The injured extremity should be as warm as the opposite extremity. If it’s cooler, that’s a sign that blood flow in the area is compromised.

Compare the color. Purple, blue, splotchy, or pale are all signs of decreased blood flow to the extremity.

If you know how to take a pulse, compare pulses at the ends of the extremities. If the injured extremity’s pulse is absent or very weak, it’s an indicator of circulatory problems.

The gold standard has always been to use capillary refill (put a little pressure on the fingernails or toenails to “blanch” them or squeeze the color out of them and then let go, the color is supposed to return in less than two seconds), but there is very little evidence that capillary refill is a reliable measurement.

Assessing Sensation

Sensation is the second measurement of function. In this case, the test is simple: “Can you feel that?”

Without letting the patient see what toe or finger you’re touching, ask them to tell you which one it is (keep it simple and use pinkies or big toes, as middle toes and fingers aren’t always easy for patients to describe). If the patient cannot feel you touching an extremity (or gets confused about what you’re touching), it’s an indicator that either the extremity doesn’t have enough circulation, causing the nerves to malfunction, or that there’s actual nerve damage.

Assessing Motion

The last measurement of function is motion. Can the patient move the extremity?

A loss of motion is an indicator of either a loss of circulation, damage to motor nerves, or structural failure. Bones and muscles are just levers and pulleys designed to make things move a certain way. If you break the supporting structure, sometimes the machine doesn’t move the way it’s supposed to move.

Slings and Swaths

Broken bones in different areas of the body require different techniques to immobilize them. Starting at the top, let’s take a look at the different types of splints and where they might be used most effectively.

Injuries to the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula) or to the upper arm (humerus) can only be properly treated with a sling and a swath. Lower arm injuries should be splinted with one of the techniques below, but can still be placed in a sling to help manage the injury. It’s also easier for the patient to move around if the splinted arm is in a sling.

A sling is basically a hammock for your arm. It provides some support for the weight of the arm rather than letting it dangle and pull on the injured bones and tissues. A swath is used to strap the arm, still in the sling, to the patient’s body.

Slings can be commercially produced (typical after surgery) or they can be fashioned out of a triangular bandage or even a long shirttail.

Cardboard Splints

The most economical of all commercial splints is the cardboard splint. A cardboard splint is just as it sounds, a splint made of cardboard and designed for first-aid use. Cardboard splints can also be fashioned out of any sort of thick-walled box. With a piece of cardboard, a roll of tape, a towel, and a pair of scissors, almost any extremity fracture can be splinted.

Cardboard splints can be bulky and difficult to apply, plus they don’t work if they get wet. Also, a cardboard splint might make it difficult to see an injured extremity in order to reassess function or to treat open wounds and control bleeding.

Aluminum Splints

Malleable aluminum splints usually come in a roll, but can also come in flat, padded versions. Aluminum splints can be shaped to fit an injured extremity very easily and they hold their shape in the rain. They’re more expensive than cardboard, but take up much less room and can be applied more easily and with much less bulk once they’re attached.

With practice, aluminum splints can be applied quickly, without hiding as much of the extremity as a cardboard splint. Aluminum splints are also commonly used for finger splints and come in small, ready-made packages.

Pillows

Ankle injuries can be properly splinted using nothing more than a bed pillow and a roll of tape. A decent pillow (down just doesn’t really work for this) can be wrapped around the foot on an injured ankle and taped around the leg. It effectively creates a soft ‘boot’ to hold an injured ankle.

A wide enough pillow can also be used to splint arm or lower leg injuries, although it’s not ideal.

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    First Aid – Splint

    What is splint? 

    A splint is a supportive device used to keep in place any suspected fracture in one’s arm or leg.

    Splint is used to:

    • Provide pain relief of the fractured limb.
    • Support bone ends of the fracture site. Bones ends of the fracture site are very sharp. A splint helps prevent bone protruding through the skin, soft skin and tissue damage, as well as bleeding.
    • Facilitate safe and seamless causality transport.

     What is Splint? 

    In emergency cases, anything can be used for splinting, yet there are two types of splints:

    Rigid Splint: Any rigid object, such as wood or plastic boards, broomstick, book or a rolled-out newspapers, which can be used to splint a fractured arm or leg.

    Flexible Splint: Any flexible object, like a pillow or a bed sheet with several folds. This type is used for foot, ankle and joint fractures.

     What are Medical Sling and Bandage?

     A Medical Sling is a piece of cloth used to immobilize the fractured arm to the rigid splint, in 90° of elbow flexion. The sling usually takes the shape of a big triangle. It can be used along with or instead of a rigid splint. If used alone, the sling should be supported with an additional bandage which is actually a folded drape of 5-6 inches width.

    General Principles of Splinting: 

    Several ways are adopted for splinting, which may seem highly complicated – at first sight – yet they are very simple. Here are some general principles to be applied when splinting as follows:

    • Identify the fracture site.
    • Stop the bleeding using bandages, but avoid pressing on the fractured painful and deformed site.
    • In case of bone fractures where bone ends protrude through the skin, do not push these ends back in place as this will cause inflammation and acute bleeding.
    • Keep the fractured bone (including the joints above and below the fracture site) motionless as indicated hereunder:
      • If the lower-arm is fractured, keep the wrist and elbow joints motionless.
      • If the upper-arm is fractured, keep the shoulder and elbow joints motionless.
      • If the lower-leg is fractured, keep the knee and ankle joints motionless.
      • If the upper-leg is fractured, keep the knee and femoral joints motionless.
    • Splint should be tied firmly to immobilize the fractured limb, then check for blood circulation to ensure the splinting is not too tight. Correct splinting provides pain relief.
    • If the fractured limb is bent with a sharp bone end protruding through the skin, keep it motionless. Splint a limb as you find it to make it as comfortable to the patient as you possible.
    • If an ambulance is called and is on its way, do not splint the fractured limb and wait for the ambulance team to use their specialized medical splints.

    Why keep upper and lower joints motionless?

    Each bone end in limbs is connected to a joint. Moving that joint dislocates the fractured bone. So, joints should remain motionless to immobilize fractured bones.

     What if the joint itself is broken?

    This is the most difficult fracture to handle. Yet, follow the same instructions of applying a splint. Make sure to maintain joints, upper and lower bones as well as the fracture site motionless. For example, the elbow joint connects both upper- and lower-arms. If broken, the joint and bones should be immobilized. Hence, both shoulder and wrist joints should remain motionless. 

    In most cases, joint fractures are very painful. In this case, never try to relocate the joint least you should damage the nerves and blood vessels around the joint, let alone the acute pain resulting.

    You should have an overactive imagination when dealing with such injury. You can splint the joint as you find it.

    What Materials are Needed for Splinting?

    You will need:

    • A splint (rigid or flexible).
    • A thick bandage to apply under the splint for maximum comfort. (Optional).
    • Robe – or the like – to wrap the splint to the fractured limb.

     What if these materials are not available?

    No worries. You can use the patient’s body as a splint as follows:

    • You can tie the fractured arm to the patient’s body using a dressing.
    • You can tie the fractured leg to the patient’s other leg using a dressing.
    • You can tie the fractured finger to the patient’s other fingers using a dressing. 

    7 Essential steps for Emergency Splinting

    How to create an emergency splint after fractures, broken bones or dislocation.

    Should someone in your company break, fracture or dislocate a bone, and adequate splinting gear is unavailable, you will need to create a temporary splint to immobilise the affected area. A splint will give the patient some pain relief and prevent them doing further damage to themselves.

    1. Don’t move the injured patient

    Unless you are in danger, in the middle of a road or near falling rocks etc. you should splint the injury and immobilise its movement. Moving someone with a fracture could injure them further.

    2. Assess the injury

    Find out exactly where the fracture is, you must be sure of this to immobilise the area effectively. Before you apply a splint, you should also ensure that the patient has a pulse, motor and sensory abilities in their hands for an arm injury, or feet for a leg injury.

    3. Straightening

    A severely deformed fracture will require straightening, this should only be done with professional assistance. With the help of another, pull traction on the lower half of the the injured area and gently guide it back to a neutral position. Again check for pulse, motor and sensory abilities in their hands for an arm injury, or feet for a leg injury.

    4. Materials

    In an emergency, using a professional medical splint will always be the best solution but using materials you have at hand can create an adequate temporary option. Materials like strong sticks, boards and thick cardboard could do the job to stop movement, even a magazine wrapped around an injured forearm can help, while a bandana, rope, or torn bits of material and clothing could do the job of tying the splint in place.

    5. Above and Below the Joint

    To protect the damaged area the splint should immobilise both the bone above and the bone below the joint. So if the patient has broken their lower leg you’ll need to immobilise their ankle and their knee with your splint.

    6. Placing the Splint

    A splint should be placed to the left and right of a lower leg injury, or on the outside of an arm fracture. Use your tying materials to wrap completely around the splinted area securely. The ties should not be so tight as to block circulation. Fully immobilise an arm fracture in a sling.

    7. Check Every Hour

    Every hour, check that there is sensation and pulse below the splint. Release the wrapping completely and rewrap it more loosely if the patient complains about tightness or numbness at any point.

    How to Splint Any Broken Bone

    Terry O’Connor

    Extremity Splints:

    Principles of Splinting

    • Visualize the injured body part.
    • Continually recheck the patient’s neurovascular status.
    • Traction is indicated if the pulse is not palpable.
    • Gentle traction involves less than 10 lbs of force.
    • Cover open wounds with sterile dressings.
    • Immobilize the joints above and below the injury.
    • Padding prevents further tissue damage.
    • Do not reset open or protruding fractures.
    • Splint the extremity in the position in which it was found.
    • Splint the patient before transport (if he or she is stable).
    • Ice and elevate the injury after immobilization.

    Rigid splints

    Rigid splints can be improvised from materials such as cardboard, wood, and wire. Proprietary vacuum splints and air splints are commonly used in the field. Rigid splints are attached to the extremity with a variety of fasteners, including tape, straps, gauze, and Velcro. For all splints, ample padding is essential, especially over bony surfaces and swollen tissue to minimize pressure damage and pain.


     

    soft improvised splint

    Soft Splints

    A soft splint earns its name from the soft, padded material that is used to secure the injury. Soft splints include sling and swathe splints, pillow splints, and blanket-roll splints. Shoulder, clavicle, upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and even hand injuries are commonly stabilized with a sling and swathe.

    Improvised Extremity Splints

    Improvised splints can be made from branches, boards, padded pack straps, or rolled-up newspapers or magazines. Slings can also be made from unused clothes.  In these cases, one need not pack additional materials. Disadvantages lie in less effectiveness compared with commercial splinting devices.


    Upper Extremity Splints

    Shoulder Dislocation

    The arm is most comfortable in an abducted position. This can be accomplished with a rolled blanket, a pillow, a jacket, or a SAM splint that has been fashioned into a triangle.

    Humeral Shaft Injury

    Humeral shaft fracture is often treated with a sling or with a sling and swathe splint alone. For pain control, a splint is often desirable

    Elbow Dislocation

    A dislocated elbow can be reduced in the field with the appropriate analgesia and experience. The dislocated elbow can also be splinted in place and the patient transported for definitive care

    Elbow Fracture

    A sugar-tong splint is useful for most elbow injuries. These most commonly include supracondylar, olecranon, and radial head fractures

    photo: sling and swathe and sugar tong splint

    Wrist Fracture

    The volar wrist or sugar tong splint is used for most wrist fractures, dislocations, sprains, lacerations, and other wrist injuries.

    figure: sugar tong splint

    Metacarpal Fractures

    Ulnar gutter splints are used for fourth and fifth metacarpal injuries and for corresponding digit injuries.

    figure: ulnar gutter splint

    Thumb Injuries

    A thumb spica splint is used for suspected scaphoid (navicular) fractures, thumb dislocations and fractures, and ulnar collateral ligament injuries.

    figure: thumb spica


    Lower Extremity Splints

    Knee injuries

    A knee immobilizer splint is used for knee injuries, patella tendon injuries, dislocations, and other severe ligamentous sprains when immobilization is required

    figure: knee immobilizer

    Leg Fractures

    Long-leg splints are used for tibial and fibular fractures.

    figure: single long leg splint

    Ankle and Foot Injuries

    Ankle stirrup and figure-8 splints provide for the immobilization of ankle injuries. The ankle stirrup splint can also be used for fractures

    figure: ankle stirrup splint

    ADDITIONAL NOTES:

    References:

    Cassell, O’Connor, Gianotti. Splints and Slings. “Wilderness Medicine, 7th ed” Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2016.

    Schimelpfenig, T.  “Wilderness Medicine, National Outdoor Leadership School.” Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg PA. 2000

    Tilton, B.  “Wilderness First Responder, 2nd ed.” The Globe Pequot Press, Guilford CT, 2004.

    Wilderson, J et al.  “Medicine for Mountaineering & Other Wilderness Activities” The Mountaineers Books, Seattle WA, 2001.

    “Fractures and Splinting”

    (c) 1995, Willis Lamm, TrailBlazer Magazine

    ” FRACTURES AND SPLINTING”

    By Willis Lamm


    Reprinted with permission of TrailBlazer Magazine for
    non-commercial use.


    There are 206 bones in the human body, and every fall brings with it the possibility of breaking one.
    While most of the
    time we dust ourselves off and climb back on with little more than bruised muscles and bruised egos, there
    are a few
    instances where fractures do occur, which can prove to be serious emergencies. Whether in the barn or out
    on the trail, it
    is important to understand the physiology of fractures and take the correct steps early on after the
    accident.

    What happens during a fracture:

    When a fracture occurs, a portion of a bone may chip or crack away or the bone may be completely broken.
    In any event,
    the bone fragments will damage nearby tissues and blood vessels, causing swelling and blood clots in the
    area of the
    fracture. Nearby tissue cells which lose their blood supply will die.

    Undamaged tissue cells nearby the fracture site will respond to the injury by rapidly dividing in an
    attempt to form a
    collar of tissue surrounding the fracture site. New bone is generated from this mass of tissue in order to
    eventually heal
    the damaged bone.

    If the fracture site is mishandled early after the injury, more soft tissues could be damaged which could
    significantly
    prolong healing. If the bone ends are disturbed, the disruption to the normal healing process could result
    in a permanent
    disability.

    More critically, arteries and nerves run parallel to bones in the arms and legs. A mishandled severe
    fracture could
    result in a bone end severing an artery or major nerve creating a potentially fatal bleed or paralysis.
    Even small
    fractures, such as in a finger, can lead to a frustrating disability if not treated correctly.

    Accordingly, all fractures (or suspected fractures), no matter how minor, should be taken seriously.

    As there is not enough column space to discuss all of the possible fractures, here are some common
    situations and basic
    care concepts. Remember that each situation is different, so utilize common sense when caring for any
    fracture until
    professional help can be obtained.

    There are two classifications of fractures, closed fractures and open fractures. Closed fractures
    include any fracture
    where the bone does not penetrate the skin (the skin stays closed). In such instances, proper treatment
    includes
    immobilizing the fracture and seeking medical help. Open fractures occur when a bone or bone fragment
    breaks through the
    skin or the skin and bone are broken in a traumatic, crushing injury. Proper treatment for open fractures
    must also include
    concern for possible infection.

    Recognizing Fractures:

    An open fracture will typically be self evident due to the exposed bone. The following clues suggest you
    are dealing with
    a probable closed fracture:

    1. The patient felt a bone break or heard a “snap”.

    2. The patient feels a grating sensation when he/she moves a limb. (This condition is known as
      crepitus.)

    3. One limb appears to be a different length, shape or size than the other, or is improperly
      angulated.

    4. Reddening of the skin around a fracture may appear shortly after the fall.

    5. The patient may not be able to move a limb or part of a limb (e.g., the arm, but not the
      fingers), or to do so
      produces intense pain.

    6. Loss of a pulse at the end of the extremity.

    7. Loss of sensation at the end of the extremity.

    8. Numbness or tingling sensations.

    9. Involuntary muscle spasms.

    10. Other unusual pain, such as intense pain in the rib cage when a patient takes a deep breath or
      coughs.

    If you discover any of these symptoms and cannot attribute them to any other obvious cause, assume them
    to be symptomatic
    of a fracture.

    Initial Care for Fractures:

    In treating fractures, an unhurried and careful approach is best. Few fractures are life threatening
    unless mishandled.
    Check the patient for any more serious injuries. Make sure someone is going for help, or call 9-1-1.
    Ensure your patient is
    breathing and that excessive bleeding is controlled and that all open wounds are protected as best you can
    from
    contamination. After these elements are satisfied you can deal with stabilization of the fracture.

    If you can, carefully cut away all clothing near the fracture site. You need to make sure the fracture
    hasn’t broken the
    skin and you may be able to use the cut away material to aid in splinting. If you find an open fracture,
    protect the wound
    from contamination as you would any other.

    No matter how soon you expect to get medical help, you should immobilize all fractures to prevent
    additional injuries due
    to accidental movement or muscle spasms. Immobilization can be achieved many ways; the key points being not
    to worsen the
    situation while immobilizing and making sure to also immobilize the joints above and below any limb
    fracture.

    In general, don’t try to reposition fractured limbs. Unless you know what you are doing, you could sever
    an artery or
    nerve. If out on the trail with help a long way off, practicality may necessitate slight repositioning in
    order to
    accommodate make-do splinting. In such situations if a limb has no pulse or is turning purple,
    repositioning may relieve
    some unnatural pressure which is pinching off an artery, however the rescuer must consider that a mishandled
    attempt could
    result in a jagged bone end severing the compressed artery, making a bad situation much worse!

    To put this tricky situation in perspective, Brady’s Emergency Care, 6th Edition states:
    “Angulations make
    splinting and transport more difficult. They can pinch or cut through blood vessels and are painful for the
    patient. They
    must, however, be repositioned so they can be splinted. Not to splint would be more dangerous.”

    DO NOT try to straighten angulations of the wrist, ankle or shoulder or attempt to straighten any
    dislocated
    joint!

    When splinting using sticks or other “found” objects, try make padding between the injured limb and
    splint using a jacket,
    shirt filled with grass, anything which can be reasonably secured and can help fill in the gaps between the
    limb and the
    splint material. Don’t get carried away with this concept, but if you can handily make something up without
    delaying the
    splinting process, it will be more comfortable to the patient.

    Long bone fractures in the legs and arms can benefit from mild traction when splinting. For arm
    fractures where you have
    help during splinting, one person can grasp the arm above and below the fracture site and apply a smooth,
    steady pull until
    your helper can apply the splint. If you encounter a firm resistance, crepitus or the patient experiences a
    significant
    increase in pain, do not attempt traction. Do the best you can to splint in the position found. Once you
    successfully apply
    traction, do not release it until the splint is securely supporting the limb, otherwise the retracting bone
    end will cause
    additional tissue damage and possibly injure a nerve or artery.

    A fractured forearm should be splinted from the hand through the elbow and can be secured across the
    chest with a sling if
    more comfortable for the patient. Upper arm fractures should be immobilized from shoulder through the elbow
    and can be
    secured against the body.

    Traction for leg injuries is more difficult, and the risk of injury resulting from a failed traction
    attempt is even
    greater. Do not attempt leg traction until your helper is ready to apply a splint. Legs should be secured
    to splints using
    several ties from the ankle to the pelvis, but not directly over the fracture. If a long smooth board is
    available (e.g., a
    fence board), it can be secured all the way up to the armpit to improve stability.

    Hip Fractures:

    Hip fractures can be very serious since they actually involve the upper portion of the femur, the large
    bone of the upper
    leg. Hip fractures are more common in older persons, and any elderly riders who sustain a fall and complain
    of hip pain
    should be suspect for this injury.

    Symptoms of hip fractures include sensitivity when pressure is exerted on the prominence of the hip,
    swelling with or
    without discoloration of the surrounding tissues, the patient is unable to move
    his/her leg when on his/her back, the
    suspect limb appears shorter or is rotated (usually outward).

    Patients with suspected hip fractures should only be moved on a stretcher. The injured limb can be
    secured to the
    uninjured limb to provide splinting. If medical help is a long way off and someone can spell you if you
    tire, you may find
    that manual traction provides significant relief for your patient.

    Fractured Hands and Ankles:

    These extremities should be splinted in “positions of mechanical function”, that is in as natural of a
    position as
    possible. The natural position of a hand is as if one were gently grasping a softball. A roll of clothing
    or other padded
    material can become the “ball” which can be placed in the palm before the hand is wrapped. Hands, ankles
    and wrists should
    be secured in whatever manner is necessary to protect them from being bumped or moving about while the
    patient is being
    rescued.

    Fractured Ribs:

    The primary concern of a suspected rib fracture is to prevent a loose piece of rib from puncturing a
    lung. The best
    course of action here is to keep the patient from moving around, pad and gently wrap the chest, and apply a
    sling and swathe
    to secure the arm on the injured side so it lays comfortably across the chest. Padding and wrapping the
    chest on the trail
    may be awkward, and it is not worth unnecessarily moving the patient around to accomplish this task. In
    such instances
    simply make the patient comfortable and discourage unnecessary movement.

    Skull and Facial Fractures:

    Fractures to the face and skull are serious emergencies, obviously involving the brain in the case of
    skull fractures, but
    also compromising the airway and breathing ability in the case of facial fractures. If you find evidence of
    skull or facial
    fractures you should presume the possibility of cervical spine injury also.

    Decreased consciousness, deep lacerations or severe bruising, deformity, fluid from the ears, unequal
    pupils, “raccoon’s
    eyes”, and a sunken eye are all symptoms of possible skull or facial injury. If you find any of these signs
    you should
    presume the possibility of cervical spine injury also.

    Care for skull and facial fractures includes maintaining an open airway, immobilizing the neck and spine,
    and treating
    wounds. Do not apply pressure, however, to any suspected fracture site! Note the patient’s change in level
    of consciousness
    prior to the arrival of medical help as these observations may assist in the diagnosis of the extent of the
    injury.

    Recap of Actions:

    1. Get assistance from competent bystanders.

    2. Check patient; ensure airway, breathing and circulation.

    3. Have someone go for help or call 9-1-1.

    4. Protect possible spinal injuries.

    5. Treat life threatening conditions.

    6. Protect open wounds, including open fractures.

    7. Splint fractured limbs and/or extremities, in natural or functional position, if feasible.

    8. Avoid unnecessary movement of fractured extremities.

    9. Apply mild traction if practical and it relieves pain while splinting is taking place.

    10. Keep patient quiet and treat for shock.

    11. If you have to move a patient for his/her survival, be careful and methodical, support splinted
      injuries to
      prevent further movement, bumping, etc., and don’t move the patient any further than necessary without
      proper
      professional equipment.


    Our thanks to TrailBlazer Magazine for permission to post this series on our web page.
    You can visit the TrailBlazer website at www.horsetrails.com.


    Email the author
    Return to Safety Main Page
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    Splint – Physiopedia

    Definition

    A splint is a rigid or flexible device that maintains in position a displaced or movable part, also used to keep in place and protect an injured part[1] to support healing and to prevent further damage[2].

    Purpose of Splinting

    Thomas’s splint, commonly used for the immobilization of hip and thigh injuries

    • Immobilization
    • Support to promote healing
    • Positioning or supporting during function
    • Pain relief[3]
    • Correction and prevention of deformity[4]
    • Restoring or maintaining of range of motion[5]
    • Edema control[6]

    Different Types of Splints

    Splints for Upper Extrimity

    [3]

    Region Type of splint
    Ulnar side of hand Ulnar gutter splint
    Radial side of hand Radial gutter splint
    Thumb, first metacarpal, and carpal bones Thumb spica splint
    Finger injuries
    • Buddy taping
    • Aluminium U-shaped splint
    • Dorsal extension-block splint
    • Mallet finger splint
    Wrist/hand
    • Volar/dorsal forearm splint
    • Short arm cast
    Forearm Single sugar-tong splint
    Elbow, proximal forearm, and skeletally immature wrist injuries
    • Long arm posterior splint
    • Long arm cast
    • Double sugar-tong splint
    Splints for Lower Extrimity

    [3]

    Region Type of splint
    Ankle
    • Posterior ankle splint
    • Stirrup splint
    Lower leg, ankle and foot Short leg cast
    Knee and lower leg Posterior knee splint
    Foot Short leg cast with toe plate extension

    Indications of Splinting

    Swollen sprained ankle, an indication for splinting

    Splints are placed to immobilize musculoskeletal injuries, support healing, and to prevent further damage. The indications for splinting are broad, but commonly include:

    • Temporary stabilization of acute fractures, sprains, or strains before further evaluation or definitive operative management
    • Immobilization of a suspected occult fracture (such as a scaphoid fracture)
    • Severe soft tissue injuries requiring immobilization and protection from further injury
    • Definitive management of specific stable fracture patterns
    • Peripheral neuropathy requiring extremity protection
    • Partial immobilization for minor soft tissue injuries
    • Treatment of joint instability, including dislocation[2]

    Contraindications of Splinting

    No specific contraindications to splinting exist. However, certain injuries and patient-specific comorbidities require special attention:

    • Injuries that violate the skin or open wounds: Antibiotic administration should be considered for these patients depending on the severity of the lesion. These patients also require additional soft tissue care, which may necessitate tissue debridement and skin closure before splint application.
    • Injuries that result in sensory or neurologic deficits: The complications of splint placement such as compartment syndrome, pressure injuries, or malreduction may go unnoticed if the patient has a concurrent nerve injury. These patients should undergo evaluation by a surgeon before splint application as neurologic findings may be a sign of a surgical emergency.
    • Injuries to the vasculature: This require special attention by vascular surgeons, as these may require urgent operative intervention. Furthermore, evaluation of the vasculature is essential both before and after splint application, as the reduction of some fractures may result in acute arterial injury or obstruction if trapped between the fracture fragments.
    • Patients with peripheral vascular disease or neuropathy: Special care should be taken when applying lower extremity splints in these patients since their baseline sensation may be altered. These patients have difficulty detecting pressure sores, skin irritation, and possible vascular compromise.[2]

    Side Effects of Splinting

    • Excessive use of splints can lead to chronic pain, stiff joints or weak muscles[7]
    • Skin irritation[8]
    • Discomfort[9]

    Advantages of Splinting

    Splint use offers many advantages over casting.

    • Splints are faster and easier to apply.
    • They may be static (i.e., prevent motion) or dynamic (i.e., functional; assist with controlled motion).
    • Because a splint is noncircumferential, it allows for the natural swelling that occurs during the initial inflammatory phase of the injury.
    • A splint may be removed more easily than a cast, allowing for regular inspection of the injury site.[10]

    Disadvantages of Splinting

    Disadvantages of splinting include-

    • Lack of patient compliance
    • Excessive motion at the injury site
    • Limitations in their usage, as in unstable or potentially unstable fractures[10]

    Complications of Splinting

    Compartment Syndrome, a complication of splinting

    • Compartment syndrome
    • Ischemia
    • Heat injury
    • Pressure sores and skin breakdown
    • Infection
    • Dermatitis
    • Joint stiffness
    • Neurologic injury[10]

    References

    1. ↑ VanBlarcom CW, editor. The glossary of prosthodontic terms. Mosby; 1999.
    2. 2.02.12.2 Althoff AD, Reeves RA. Splinting. StatPearls [Internet]. 2020 May 24.
    3. 3.03.13.2 Boyd AS, Benjamin HJ, Asplund CA. Splints and casts: indications and methods. American family physician. 2009 Sep 1;80(5):491-9.
    4. ↑ Singh KA, Shah H, Joseph B. Comparison of plaster-of-Paris casts and Woodcast splints for immobilization of the limb during serial manipulation and casting for idiopathic clubfoot in infants: a prospective randomized trial. The Bone & Joint Journal. 2020 Oct 3;102(10):1399-404.
    5. ↑ Rezaei B, Mahdavinejad R. Massage therapy and Splint in males with Carpal Tunnel syndrome. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research| Jan-Mar. 2020;10(S1).
    6. ↑ Giang TA, Ong AW, Krishnamurthy K, Fong KN. Rehabilitation interventions for poststroke hand oedema: a systematic review. Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2016 Jun 1;27:7-17.
    7. ↑ Gravlee JR, Van Durme DJ. Braces and splints for musculoskeletal conditions. American family physician. 2007 Feb 1;75(3):342-8.
    8. ↑ Johnston JJ, Spelman L. Pressure-induced localised granuloma annulare following use of an elbow splint. Prosthetics and orthotics international. 2017 Jun;41(3):311-3.
    9. ↑ So H, Chung VC, Cheng JC, Yip RM. Local steroid injection versus wrist splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases. 2018 Jan;21(1):102-7.
    10. 10.010.110.2 Boyd AS, Benjamin HJ, Asplund CA. Principles of casting and splinting. American family physician. 2009 Jan 1;79(1):16-22.

    Jaw splitting in case of fracture, how it goes, where can be done

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    Specialization physician-therapist.

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    Senior nurse

    Kazakova Olga Viktorovna

    Dentist-orthodontist,
    Specialization doctor-orthodontist.

    Before and after

    An example of work on the operation of dental implantation.

    “Academy Dent” examples of our work, before and after implantation.

    “Academy Dent” examples of our work, before and after implantation.

    Fracture of the jaw cannot be called a frequent medical diagnosis, but its occurrence is always accompanied by treatment in a dental clinic.First of all, splinting of the jaw is required, which ensures its immobilization, without which it is not possible to heal the fracture. Sometimes a jaw splint procedure is also required in case of dislocation or other occlusion correction situations.

    Jaw splinting after fracture

    Splinting of the jaw in case of a fracture is not just a key method of providing medical dental care, but the very first and most important one. The cause of its occurrence, the location and nature of the damage are not important.Splinting of the injured jaw in case of a fracture has to be done:

    1. For fractures with displaced facial bones and injuries not associated with displacement.
    2. For transverse, zigzag, oblique, longitudinal fractures.
    3. For closed and open injuries of the jaw bones.
    4. For a simple crack in the maxillofacial region.
    5. In the treatment of multiple and comminuted fractures.

    The specific method of splinting the jaw in case of fractures depends only on whether the upper or lower jaw was damaged, what type of damage occurred, how long, according to the dentist, it will take to restore the normal functioning of the teeth.Dentists use 3 types of splinting of the damaged jaw:

    • One-sided – required when only one half of the upper or lower part of the teeth is damaged, while a copper wire serves as a bus.
    • Double-sided – produced to fix the dentition on both sides, using a thicker and stiffer wire, hooks or rings as a base.
    • Two-maxillary – required in the event of displacement, debris and other complications as a result of trauma, assumes reliable fastening of both jaws to each other.

    Additionally, the procedure is accompanied by the appointment of an X-ray examination, the appointment of anesthetic and antibiotic therapy. It is impossible to solve the problem with a fracture of the lower or upper jaw on your own, since it is not just about the need to fix the teeth for the time of complete healing, but also about the elimination of complications.

    Splinting in case of a fracture of the lower jaw

    Splinting of the lower jaw in the event of a fracture is the only possible option for recovery after this type of injury, which means it is mandatory.This is due to the special mobility of the lower part of the teeth and possible damage to blood vessels, nerves, muscles located nearby. Injuries are most often located in the chin, lateral or corner of the jaw.

    Installing a splint on the lower jaw involves a surgical procedure, during which the doctor compares the debris and fixes them in their original place. Most often, the attachment is made in the mouth on the bone tissue, but some complex fractures require the installation of special devices from the outside.

    The choice of a specific method of splinting depends on the type and complexity of the fracture, its location. The wrong choice of the method for treating the lower jaw can lead to serious complications, so it is important to contact a specialist with extensive experience, for example, at the Center for Comfortable Dentistry of Dr. Sadov. This must be done immediately, immediately after providing the patient with first aid, since any attempt to speak or otherwise move the injured jaw can lead to a worsening of the condition, the appearance of bleeding, asphyxia and other undesirable consequences.

    Splinting of the upper jaw

    Fractures of the upper jaw are much less common than the lower. It is less mobile and does not extend, so much more effort is required to cause harm. Most often, a fracture of the upper jaw is accompanied by a fracture of the lower jaw, which means that a special double-jaw fixation is required. The essence of the procedure lies in the fact that both jaws are tightly connected to each other, leaving no free space even for eating. The oral cavity is literally “sutured” for at least 1 month, and often for a longer period.With this method of splinting, a special load is placed on the teeth, since fixation is performed using traction loops. This leads to additional painful sensations.

    Types of fractures of the upper jaw are divided according to the place of injury into 3 groups:

    1. At the lower level, that is, with breaking off of a part of the maxillary sinus and nasal septum.
    2. At the middle level – may accompany the separation of the jaw from the bones of the skull and nose.
    3. At the upper level – always accompanied by complete separation from the nose, cheekbones, skull bones and TBI.

    With regard to splinting, there is no difference between the treatment of the upper and lower jaw, and the specific type of device is selected by the attending orthopedic dentist.

    Rubber splints

    In some cases, wire splinting requires additional fastening with special rubber bands to fix the jaws in a closed state. The main task of the rubber bands is to move the teeth in the direction in which they were originally. Advantages of elastic material weight:

    1. The elastic bands are easy to cut and remove, which is especially important if the patient has a TBI and there is a risk of complications in the form of epileptic seizures, fainting and other neurological disorders.
    2. When properly tensioned, the rubber bands allow food to be taken through the tube, a tighter attachment often results in tube feeding.
    3. Damaged rubber bands can be easily replaced, while damage to the metal structure will require serious medical attention.

    The decision to install rubber bands for splinting should be made by the doctor and most often they are used only when the injured jaw has healed first.In the early stages, as a rule, a more rigid fixation is required. In any case, a specialist consultation is required, who, according to the condition of the teeth, the nature of the damage, the general condition of the patient, will be able to determine the most suitable type of splinting. The clinic of Dr. Sadov in Moscow employs professionals who have completed internships abroad, clearly versed in the peculiarities of dental orthopedics.

    How to eat after splinting

    Hard splinting assumes difficulty in eating, but at the same time, during this period, it is especially important for the body to receive a large amount of vitamins, minerals, nutrients required for the speedy regeneration of bone tissue.The patient’s menu after splinting usually includes various nutritious broths, fruit, vegetable and meat purees (baby’s can be used), semi-liquid and liquid cereals. It is necessary to monitor the content in food of a large amount of protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc. It is allowed to replace some meals with infant formula or sports nutrition, since in both cases the content of substances necessary for the body is high.

    It is strictly forbidden to drink any alcoholic beverages during treatment, especially if, in addition to the jaw, there is also a traumatic brain injury.In addition, you should not try to eat solid foods that require chewing. First, it can cause severe pain. Secondly, lead to improper fusion of damaged bone tissue.

    If you receive injuries with symptoms similar to a broken jaw: acute pain, bleeding, immobilization of the jaw, and so on, you should immediately seek professional help. Attempts to self-treatment or its complete absence cause irreparable harm and lead to the loss of dental functionality.

    90,000 species, how is the treatment going, nutrition after splinting, recovery period

    In case of a fracture or dislocation of the jaw bones, the first step is usually to splinter the jaw, since without this the bones will not heal properly, and various serious complications are possible.

    Contents:

    Before splinting

    Immediately after the fracture of the jaw bones and a visit to the doctor, a panoramic X-ray is taken, showing the severity of the fracture and helping to plan treatment.

    After that, all teeth are removed from the fracture area, since it will no longer be possible to return them to functionality. After removal, the fragments of the jaw are collected together and fixed with sutures and other instruments and devices, and only then a splint is applied to the jaw to provide rest to the fused bones.

    Types of jaw splinting

    Injuries to the jaw bone tissue can be with and without displacement. For splinting both the upper and lower jaw, different splints are used, depending on how severe the fracture is.There are several splinting methods that differ in the way they are fixed.

    Jaw splinting

    Unilateral splinting

    This type of splinting is used if only one half of the upper or lower jaw is broken . In this case, a copper wire is used as a tire, which is attached to the jaw using the method of dental splinting. If the teeth were saved at the fracture site, then the splint is placed on the neck of the teeth, combined with the tooth in one system.

    Double-sided splinting

    In this case, the splint is fixed on the jaw from both sides . The wire for double-sided splinting is used more rigid, and to make the fixation even more reliable, hooks and rings are put on the molars.

    Double-maxillary splinting

    This type of splinting is necessary if the patient is diagnosed with a bilateral fracture with displacement of debris. It is used only in the most severe cases, when displacement can severely impair the functionality of the jaw.

    If the patient still has immobile teeth, then a copper wire is placed on them. If only loose teeth remain, then the splint is placed in the alveolar bone, for which holes are specially drilled in it. The tires are placed on both jaws, after which they are connected with rubber rings attached to the hooks.

    If the jaws are rigidly fastened together, then the person will not be able to open his mouth himself, so the healing process of cracks and fractures will be significantly accelerated, and the correct bite will recover faster.Sometimes, for additional fixation of the lower jaw, a special chin sling is placed on the patient, which reliably presses the chin up.

    How the treatment is carried out

    Splinting is only the very beginning of long-term treatment. If the splint is single-jawed, then this is not so scary, but if it is installed on both jaws, then it will not even be possible to open your mouth, so you will have to eat only liquid food . And after the tire is removed, the jaw will need to be developed for a long time .

    Jaw splinting

    In order for the installed devices to give the maximum effect and the treatment went as it should, you must carefully follow all the recommendations of the dentist and monitor your diet.

    Today there are modern devices with which even two jaws can be splinted without combining them with each other. True, usually such devices are very bulky , fragile, inconvenient, interfere with washing and generally look awful. Therefore, most often people prefer to endure the inconvenience of the jaws connected to each other.

    Protein shakes for athletes and infant formula and puree can be added to the diet during splinting.

    Proper nutrition after splinting

    There are several general dietary recommendations that must be followed all the time you wear the splint:

    • Eat through a tube , and the food you eat should be mushy
    • It will be useful include kefirs and various high-calorie cocktails in your diet
    • When wearing a two-jaw splint, it is strictly forbidden to drink any alcoholic drinks .The reason lies in the fact that alcohol can provoke vomiting, which the patient will simply choke on, since he cannot open his mouth
    • In order for the bone sutures to heal as quickly as possible, you need to eat as many foods as possible with calcium . Especially useful are various fermented milk products, as well as sesame and walnuts, which can be finely ground
    • To replenish protein in the body, you need to eat at least 150 grams of pure meat per day, which can be somewhat problematic in a tire.It is recommended to boil the turkey or chicken in water with spices and salt, then grind the dry meat in a blender and dilute with broth
    • Fruit mixtures, porridge mousses, vegetable purees and other dishes are also prepared in the above way
    • You can add protein shakes during splinting. for athletes and infant formula and puree

    It is worth remembering that after splinting, most likely, you will seriously lose weight, even if your diet is full.This is due to the fact that the digestibility of food is difficult. However, usually after removing the tires with a normal diet , the weight is restored very quickly , and there are no digestive problems.

    Jaw splinting

    Recovery period

    With such a diagnosis as a fracture of the jaw, tissues can regenerate for a long time. Splints are usually removed after the minimum period of bone healing has passed. Typically, a splint should be worn from three weeks to one and a half months, depending on how complex the fracture is.

    Before removing the splint, the patient undergoes a control X-ray of the damaged area. If the fracture line is overlapped by a pronounced callus, then the splint can definitely be removed. After that, rehabilitation lasts for two to three weeks, during which you will still need to eat grated soft food, as well as attend physiotherapy procedures to return the jaw to mobility.

    Despite all the inconveniences associated with splinting, this method is still the most effective and efficient way to restore the functionality of the jaw and is widely used in maxillofacial surgery.

    Despite all the inconveniences associated with splinting, this method is still the most effective and efficient way to restore the functionality of the jaw and is widely used in maxillofacial surgery.

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    Disclaimer:
    This material is not intended to provide diagnosis, treatment, or medical advice. The information is provided for informational purposes only.Please consult your doctor about any medical and health-related diagnoses and treatments. This information should not be considered as a substitute for consulting a doctor.

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    Look at the dentistry of Moscow

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    JAW SHINING

    In case of serious damage to the jaw bones, splinting should be performed in case of a jaw fracture.Today, not all dental clinics provide such a therapeutic service, because it requires not only extensive knowledge, but also considerable practical experience.

    Jaw splitting – the best method for the restoration of jaws and teeth

    The first thing that the injured person has to do is to provide a snapshot of the damaged area, after which the doctor conducts an examination, makes a diagnosis and plans further treatment. Immediately, we note that in the area of ​​the fracture, all teeth must be removed.Further, the fragments of the jaw are collected like a mosaic and fixed with the help of special devices, of which the dentist has a lot. The process associated with restoring the bite is quite lengthy, so you have to stock up on a lot of endurance and patience.

    Carrying out splinting of the jaw in case of a fracture, it must be borne in mind that it can be of several types. Bone trauma is possible with and without displacement . In order to splinter the jaw, splints are used, the type of which depends on the severity of the injury.

    The following techniques are widely used in modern dentistry.

    1. In case of a fracture of one of the halves of the upper or lower jaw, use unilateral splinting . Copper wire is taken as a tire, which is attached to the damaged area using dental splinting. If there are still teeth at the fracture site, then the splints are combined into a single system, after which they are placed on the neck of the teeth.
    2. In the case of a bilateral displaced fracture, the double-jaw splint method is used.Copper wire is placed on fixed teeth (if any). If there are loose teeth, the splint is inserted into pre-drilled holes in the alveolar bone. After that, both jaws are connected using rubber rings attached to the hooks.
    3. Double-sided splinting involves double-sided fixation on the jaw. When a splint is applied to the jaw, a much tougher wire is used on both sides than when applied unilaterally.For a secure fit, hooks and rings can be added to the molars.

    Each of the above splints, which are designed to treat fractures of the jaw, can be used in various combinations. For example, a two-jaw splint with hook hooks is used for displaced fractures of the upper jaw. But, if in the presence of a fracture there are no several teeth or there is a visible defect in bone tissue, the best option would be to use a splint with a strut bend and a splint with hooks at the same time.

    Due to the rigid attachment of the jaws to each other, the patient loses the ability to open his mouth on his own, and this leads to an acceleration of the healing process of cracks, fractures, as well as restoration of the correct bite. The chin sling, which presses the chin up, acts as an auxiliary fixation device.

    Teeth splinting in case of jaw fracture can be carried out using fiberglass tape, crowns, clasp prostheses or by cable-stayed splinting.

    It should be noted that dental splinting is just the beginning of treatment . After this procedure, the patient cannot open his mouth, so he will have to eat liquid soups and cereals for a long period. And after the splints are removed, he will have to develop his jaw for a long time.

    Many people are interested in information about the price of such a service as jaw splinting. In our clinic, its cost is quite democratic with a high quality of performance.

    Jaw splitting

    Jaw splitting

    Jaw splinting is one of the obligatory restorative procedures in case of dislocations, fractures of the jaw bones.Unfortunately, without such manipulation, the jaw is not able to heal properly, and complications may arise. The process of wearing a splint can take from several weeks to 2-3 months or longer, depending on the severity and nature of the injury, the general condition of the patient.

    Types of jaw splints

    There are several methods for bypassing the jaw in case of a fracture, which differ in the type of fixation:

    • Double-jaw splitting of teeth for bilateral jaw fractures with displacement of fragments – used in very difficult cases.To fix the structure in the alveolar bone, several holes are drilled, the jaws are connected by rings clinging to the hooks;
    • Bilateral splinting in case of a fracture of the lower jaw – implies the imposition of a more rigid fixing wire on one side. For better fixation, metal hooks or rings can be thrown over the “sixes”;
    • unilateral splinting – used for fractures of the upper or lower jaw halves. The method involves fixing the bones with copper wire.If there are intact teeth, the splint will be placed on the neck.

    Professional dentists work with many types of splints that help to ensure the immobilization of jaw fragments and speed up the process of proper bone fusion.

    What is a jaw splint? Detailed process description

    The splint is applied by a dentist-surgeon, and the procedure is preceded by a whole range of preparatory measures:

    • a panoramic image is taken;
    • all teeth in the fracture zone are removed;
    • the fragments of the jaw are connected (according to the “puzzle” principle) and fixed with the help of special devices.

    If the splint is single jaw, the patient is able to open his mouth, the recovery process will not be as difficult.

    If the splint is installed on both jaws, unfortunately, the patient will not be able to open his mouth during the period of bone fusion. You will also need to arrange meals with a straw.

    After the splints are removed, long-term gymnastics is necessary to develop bones and complete recovery from injury.

    In the process of splinting, the dentist can also use fiberglass tape, crowns, clasp prostheses, screws and other elements to connect the jaw bones and correct the fusion process.

    In parallel, when splinting, the patient is prescribed:

    • taking antibacterial drugs;
    • course of antibiotics;
    • taking anti-inflammatory drugs;
    • antifungal drugs;
    • vitamins.

    Rehabilitation after jaw fracture

    Nutrition after a jaw fracture must be specially prescribed by the doctor. In most cases, this is liquid food that is fed to the patient through a tube.Fermented milk products, cereals with milk, perurized formulations are useful. Protein shakes with a high calorie content, vitamin smoothies made from fruits and vegetables are well accepted by a weakened body.

    The standard amount of protein food (meat) is about 150 grams. Solid fiber can be replaced with baby food puree, or blended chicken or turkey soufflé.

    Attention! Especially carefully it is necessary to approach the definition of the quality of products.If, for example, these are expired products, or food containing toxins (gourds of unknown origin), this can provoke nausea and vomiting. Due to the impossibility of opening the mouth, the patient may choke on the masses.

    It may be that in the process of nutrition during recovery, you will need third-party help (nurse, health worker) Also, in the process of recovery, the likelihood of a weakening of the body is high.

    How long does a jaw fracture heal?

    On average, the process of wearing a splint takes from two weeks to three months.After removing the splinting structure, the dentist takes a panoramic X-ray to ensure the quality of the bone fusion. If there is a callus on the fracture line, the specialist removes the splint. This is followed by a period of rehabilitation after a fracture of the mandible, which can take several weeks. Despite the lack of fixators, a person must still consume liquid food. To return mobility, physiotherapy and restorative gymnastics are prescribed.

    Exercises after jaw fracture

    The basis of therapeutic restorative gymnastics after jaw fractures lies in proper breathing.The main task is to restore the functioning of the respiratory apparatus, and then normalize the processes of swallowing and chewing. Also gymnastic complications will help to avoid complications during the healing process.

    Most Popular Exercises;

    • retraction of the lower jaw to the right and left on inspiration;
    • Raising the lower jaw on inhalation and lowering on the exhale and vice versa – raise the jaw on exhalation and lower it on inhalation;
    • yawn-type breath;
    • breaths with the pronunciation of the letter “k”;
    • Slower and more dynamic swallowing of saliva.

    Splinting of the jaw in the veterinary clinic in Rostov-on-Don

    A splint is a fixator for various parts of the body, intended for the prevention and treatment of injuries and diseases of the skeletal system. They can be both improvised and standardized. Improvised splints are made from scrap materials and are used for first aid and fixation of the affected bones until the sick animal is admitted to the hospital.

    Among the total number of injuries to the facial skeleton, one of the most frequent is a fracture of the lower jaw and upper, respectively.Approximately 70% of all bone fractures belong to a fracture of the mandible. This injury can be accompanied by a double or triple fracture.

    The symptoms of a jaw fracture are very pronounced, so this injury can be easily identified. For such a fracture, pain is characteristic, which sharply increases when trying to make movements with the jaw. The animal’s mouth takes an open position (rather ajar). As a rule, this injury is always accompanied by a violation of the correct ratio of the teeth of the lower and upper jaw.Over time, pronounced soft tissue edema begins to appear. If you try to touch the injured area, the animal will experience severe and sharp pain. It is not uncommon for saliva, which flows out intensively, to be stained with blood.

    Signs of a jaw fracture also imply frequent displacement of bone fragments. This is due to the fact that many muscles are attached to the surface of the bone of the lower jaw, which are responsible for its movement. Thus, their reflex (pathological) contraction displaces the fragments, thereby increasing bleeding, pain and discomfort.When diagnosed with a fractured jaw, the severity is of paramount importance in the manifestation of symptoms.

    Diagnostics consists of an external examination. It is checked: pain on palpation, normal boundaries of the contours (presence of deformation), the integrity of the dental arch, the presence of a hematoma. After manual examination, x-rays of the jaw are performed in various projections. The image clearly shows the contours of the bone, so you can easily determine the location of the fracture and the presence of displacement. The most informative method is an overview of the upper and lower jaw, since a fracture of the upper jaw can impersonate a lower fracture.

    The main treatment for a fracture of the lower jaw is to match the bone fragments and immobilize them with a special splint. Splinting of the jaw in case of fracture is carried out with the help of wire teeth splints, polymer or wire threads, metal rods. All wounds are sutured and in case of extensive defects, wire lamellar sutures are applied. Depending on the severity of the injury, recovery may take 1 to 2 months.

    Veterinarian Volvak A.ABOUT.

    Splinting of teeth or jaw in Perm

    Splinting is the stabilization of movable teeth to prevent them from further loosening and falling out. This procedure facilitates the chewing process, prevents tooth loss and relieves stress on sore gums. The situation when the teeth begin to loosen is often found in advanced stages of periodontitis and periodontal disease. That is why it is very important to monitor the condition of the teeth and oral cavity, to regularly make a preventive examination!

    Doctors of “Aesthetic Dentistry” are always happy to help their patients, and the initial consultation on teeth splinting in our clinic is free!

    Indications and Contraindications

    The splinting procedure can be indicated and recommended for patients who:

    • Increased tooth mobility after periodontal therapy
    • The shape of the chewing teeth has changed
    • There was a fracture of the jaw
    • Exposed tooth roots
    • Advanced stage of the inflammatory process of the gums
    • One or more teeth are missing
    • There is an acute dental injury

    This method of treatment can be used in a variety of situations – each case is individual, so you should always contact a specialist first.However, this type of treatment also has contraindications. Individual intolerance to the materials used, excessive hypersensitivity of tooth enamel – this can become contraindications for installing the system.

    Methods and types of splinting

    There are many methods and types of teeth splinting, the method is selected in conjunction with a specialist, depending on the problem being solved. Tires can be either temporary or permanent.

    Fiberglass splinting

    If temporary splinting is necessary, then experts often advise the procedure using fiberglass tape.The advantages of this method include:

    • High strength
    • Low cost
    • Aesthetics – almost completely invisible

    However, such a splint will only last about 3 years, which is why this method is used only in the case of temporary teeth splinting.

    Cable-stay technique with aramid fiber fixation

    This technique is common in dental practice.In this case, a tire is a yarn made from aramid fiber. The advantages of the method are also high strength and good compatibility with tooth enamel. This method is often used for children and adolescents after orthodontic treatment, so that after the removal of the brace system, the teeth remain in the correct position.

    Splinting for jaw fractures

    If the patient has severe injuries or a fracture of the jaw, the specialist will place a splint to prevent the loss of movable teeth.In this case, both plastic and metal structures are used.

    Stages of the splinting procedure in the clinic “Aesthetic Dentistry”

    1. Diagnostics. At this stage, it is necessary to undergo an initial consultation and diagnosis, then the specialist will examine the oral cavity, tell you about the clinical situation, and warn if it is necessary to carry out preparatory procedures, such as caries treatment or professional teeth cleaning. The patient will also discuss all the nuances of the treatment and choose the type of splints to be installed.
    2. Preparation. Before installing the splints, you must undergo a dental cleaning procedure to make the treatment more effective.
    3. Installation of the tire. At this stage, the specialist will do everything necessary (anesthesia, isolation of the surface of soft tissues) so that the splinting is painless and of high quality.
    4. Recovery period. After the splinting procedure, as a rule, there is no discomfort – the dentition quickly gets used to it. Depending on the installed splint, the doctor gives his recommendations and advice on care.In the future, the patient must attend preventive examinations so that the treatment takes place under the supervision of a specialist.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Can there be complications?

    Splinting is a simple procedure, but after it there may be complications, such as exacerbation of dental diseases, pulpitis, increased sensitivity of the teeth, the occurrence of dental diseases under the splint. Nevertheless, if the splinting procedure was carried out efficiently, then the risk of complications almost disappears.

    Are there any nutritional and system care features?

    It is not difficult to take care of the system, it is enough to observe daily hygiene and regularly visit a specialist. In nutrition, the splint also does not restrict the patient in any way, the exception is splinting in case of a fracture of the jaw – then the specialist will advise to exclude solid food so that the jaw itself can recover.

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    Attending physician

    Dentist-therapist, periodontist, hygienist

    Work experience:
    10 years

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    90,000 What is teeth splinting: types and classification

    When splinting teeth is used

    • Periodontitis and other gum diseases are the most common cause when the periodontal ligaments cease to hold the tooth in the socket;
    • Tooth mobility;
    • Bleeding gums;
    • Enlarged periodontal pockets;
    • Rapid accumulation of plaque in the area of ​​the tooth root;
    • Exposure of roots.

    At the same time, contraindications to the procedure are minimal: increased sensitivity of the teeth and allergy to the materials used. Splinting can be used both in case of the threat of tooth loss, and in the case of the loss of several dental units. The second option involves the simultaneous prosthetics of the jaw.

    What are the types of teeth splinting

    Experts identify several classification methods.By the nature of the fastening, the tires are divided into removable and non-removable . Removable ones are more often used as part of a structure for attaching a prosthesis. They are used when some teeth have already been lost and mainly during the restoration of the dentition. For example, after trauma to the teeth and gums, fractures of the jaw. The material used is metal or plastic. Fixed – these are permanent dentures and crowns.

    Depending on the period of use, tires are divided into temporary and permanent .Temporary teeth splinting is used for up to a year in case of acute inflammatory diseases or in preparation for operations. Permanent – these are mainly fixed supports, which are used for bone atrophy and chronic diseases (for example, periodontitis).

    Separately, it should be said about the materials of tires. If this is a thread, then silk, polyethylene, fiberglass, aramid are used. These materials firmly fix the teeth and do not stand out against the enamel background. The material of the thread should provide tight fixation, good aesthetics, eliminate tooth mobility, and prevent discomfort in everyday life.If splinting involves the installation of a prosthesis, the splint will be made of plastic or metal.

    Types of dental splints by fastening and materials:

    • Fiberglass thread. It is fixed by light exposure, due to which the structure becomes solid and motionless.
    • Clasp prosthesis. Used for mobility and partial absence of teeth. The metal arch fixes the existing dental units, attaches to them with the help of special hooks, artificial teeth are placed in place of the empty holes.This method of splinting prevents tooth loss and restores chewing function.
    • Cable-stayed method. Aramid thread is used as a tire, it is made of a strong, durable and safe material for the body, the thread does not stand out in appearance against the background of enamel.
    • Adhesive Bridge. Such a prosthesis is used in the absence of several dental units and the presence of stable abutment teeth. An adhesive bridge is a low cost option and can be uncomfortable in some cases.
    • Crowns. Used in cases of significant tooth decay and requires preliminary turning. Often, metal-ceramic crowns are used, which are soldered to each other.

    How to install the tire

    Preparation for the operation includes a consultation with a specialist, examination of the patient and diagnostics, during which the condition of the bone tissue and teeth roots is assessed. An image of the jaw and additional examinations may be required depending on the clinical case.Next, the doctor performs oral cavity sanitation: treatment of acute diseases, elimination of carious cavities, professional teeth cleaning.

    The operation process depends on the specific type of splinting. In general, it has the following sequence:

    1. Conducting anesthesia.
    2. Formation of a groove with a depth of 0.5 mm on the inner surface of the teeth.
    3. Tire placement in the furrow.
    4. Fixing the tire with composite materials.

    The main goal of the procedure is to avoid tooth loss, therefore, teeth are often splinted in case of periodontal diseases. Whether you should undergo such an operation, and which type to choose, will only be determined by the doctor after examining and diagnosing your jaw. Remember that this design requires careful daily maintenance, including the use of dental floss or an irrigator, as well as specialized brushes.