Spots on the bottom of the foot: The request could not be satisfied
Plantar Warts: What Are They?
That strange-looking bump on the bottom of your foot could be what’s known as a plantar wart. Plantar warts, caused by a virus, strike the soles of the feet, may occur alone or in bunches, and can be quite painful. If you think you have a plantar wart, make an appointment to see a podiatrist to receive a proper diagnosis and treatment.
Plantar Warts: What Are They?
A plantar wart is a wart caused by a type of human papillomavirus, or HPV, which enters the body through tiny cracks in the skin on the bottom of the feet.
- Are found on the sole of the foot
- May contain tiny black dots
- Are flat and firm to the touch
- Are gray, brown, or yellowish in color (and may even look like a callus, a rough patch of dead skin)
- May be extremely painful, especially when walking or applying pressure
A plantar wart “can take any shape but often resembles a cauliflower with black speckles throughout the lesion,” says Timothy C. Ford, DPM, director of the podiatric residency program at Jewish Hospital & St. Mary’s HealthCare in Louisville, Ky.
Just one plantar wart may appear on your foot, but they can also pop up in bunches, known as mosaic warts. Most often, they are found on the ball or heel of the foot, but can occur anywhere on the sole of the foot.
Plantar Warts: Risk Factors
While anyone can get a plantar wart, young children and teenagers are particularly prone to them.
Plantar warts are “more common in children than adults as we build immunity with age,” explains Dr. Ford. Public showers and baths, pools, and locker rooms are all common areas where you can come into contact with the virus that causes plantar warts, says Ford.
Other risk factors for plantar warts include:
- Touching another person’s wart
- Walking barefoot in dirty areas
- Walking barefoot in warm and damp areas
Plantar Warts: Diagnosis
Even if you’re pretty sure that you have a plantar wart, it’s best to go to a podiatrist for a diagnosis. In some cases, what you think might be a plantar wart is actually something more serious, like skin cancer. While this isn’t very common, it’s still better to check with a podiatrist to be sure.
If it is a plantar wart, you’ll need a podiatrist to treat the condition anyway — you shouldn’t try to take care of a plantar wart yourself. They are difficult to treat and may frequently come back. Often, plantar warts require surgical removal by a podiatrist.
“There are many ways to treat [plantar warts], from topical [medications] to surgical [procedures], depending on the symptoms and the length of time the wart has been present,” says Ford.
If you suspect you have a plantar wart, make an appointment to see a podiatrist so that you can get a proper diagnosis and treatment. Also, remember to be careful not to allow anyone else to come into contact with your plantar wart, as they can be contagious.
Common Foot Problems
What are ingrown nails?
Ingrown nails, the most common toenail problem, occur when the nail borders curve into the soft tissue of nail grooves. Ingrown nails cause pressure and pain along the nail borders. The edge of the nail may cut into the skin, causing redness, swelling, pain, drainage, and infection.
What causes ingrown nails?
Ingrown toenails are most commonly caused by shoe pressure. Ingrown toenails are also caused by:
- Improperly trimmed nails
- Crowding of toes
- Repeated trauma to the feet from normal activities (such as running, walking or doing aerobics)
- An inherited trait
How can I prevent ingrown nails?
- Cut your toenails after bathing, when they are soft
- Trim toenails with a nail clipper straight across, slightly longer than the end of the toes
- Do not round off the corners of toenails or cut down on the sides of the nails
- After clipping, smooth toenails with a file or emery board
- Avoid wearing tight, restrictive shoes
How can ingrown nails be treated?
Following the preventative steps above can help you avoid the need for treatment. To relieve discomfort from ingrown toenails, soak your foot in a solution of lukewarm water and salt or lukewarm soapy water. Then apply an antiseptic and bandage the area.
If self-care measures are unsuccessful or if you have a nail infection, you may need a doctor’s care. Ingrown nails may be corrected with surgery by removing part of the toenail and growth plate. Continuing to care for your nails properly and wearing well-fitting footwear can help you prevent ingrown nails from recurring.
What are mycotic nails?
Mycotic nails are nails that become infected with a fungus. The nail may be discolored (yellowish-brown or opaque), thick, brittle, and separated from the nail bed. In some cases, the nail may crumble.
What causes mycotic nails?
- Fungal organisms
- Dark, moist, warm environment of shoes, which promotes fungal growth
- Prior injury to nail, which can predispose nail to fungal infection
How can mycotic nails be prevented?
- Examine the tops and bottoms of your feet each day. If you notice blisters, cuts, scratches or other sores, care for them immediately.
- If you suspect an infected toenail, soak your foot in a solution of lukewarm water and salt, or lukewarm soapy water. Then apply an antiseptic and bandage the area. Although this may relieve discomfort, it is still recommended that you call a doctor.
- Wash your feet every day with mild soap and lukewarm water. Gently and thoroughly dry your feet.
- Care for your toenails regularly.
- Don’t wait to treat a minor foot problem.
How can mycotic nails be treated?
If you notice an infected nail, do not try to remove any part of it. Also, avoid over-the-counter medications unless prescribed by your healthcare provider.
Fungal nail infections are difficult to treat. Topical medications are available, but they only help a small number of fungal nail problems. Oral medications may be prescribed instead, including:
- Griseofulvin (Fulvicin®)
- Terbinafine (Lamisil®)
- Itraconazole (Sporanox®)
Other treatment methods include periodic removal of the damaged nail tissue and preventative management techniques.
What are corns?
Corns are a build-up of callus tissue (hard skin) near a bony prominence of a toe or between toes.
What causes corns?
Corns may be the result of pressure from shoes, which rubs against the toes or causes friction between the toes.
How can corns be prevented?
- Wear properly fitted shoes; avoid very high-heeled, narrow shoes that push the toes forward, causing them to rub against the shoe.
- Wear shoes with increased height or width in the toe area.
- Use cushioned pads and insoles.
How can corns be treated?
If you have a corn, do not try to cut it or remove it with a sharp object. Instead, soak your feet first in lukewarm, soapy water and then use a pumice stone to gently remove the build-up of tissue. Do not use over-the-counter remedies to dissolve corns.
Corns may be treated by wearing shoes with increased height or width in the toe area and using cushioned pads and insoles. Medications may also be prescribed to treat corns.
When other treatments have not been successful, surgery may be recommended. Corrective surgery involves removing internal pressure by removing a piece of the bone or changing the position of the bone so corns do not form.
What are calluses?
Calluses are a build-up of hard skin, generally beneath weight bearing bony surfaces. Calluses generally occur on the surface under the foot.
Some degree of callus formation on the sole of the foot is normal.
What causes calluses?
Calluses are caused by an uneven distribution of weight, generally on the bottom of the forefoot or heel. Calluses can also be caused by improperly fitting shoes or skin abnormality.
How can calluses be prevented?
- Wear properly fitting, supportive shoes with shock-absorbing soles; avoid leather-soled shoes.
- Use cushioned pads and insoles.
- Limit periods of barefoot walking.
How can calluses be treated?
If you have a callus, do not try to cut it or remove it with a sharp object. Instead, soak your feet first in lukewarm, soapy water and then use a pumice stone to gently remove the build-up of tissue. Use cushioned pads and insoles. Medications may also be prescribed to soften calluses.
When other treatments have not been successful, surgery may be recommended. Corrective surgery involves removing internal pressure by removing a piece of the bone or changing the position of the bone so calluses do not form.
What is a blister?
A blister is a shell on the skin surface that often contains a clear liquid. Blisters can become infected.
What causes blisters?
Blisters can form when the skin is repeatedly rubbed. For instance, this can happen when your shoes keep rubbing the same spot on your foot, when you wear shoes that don’t fit properly, or when you wear shoes without socks.
How can blisters be prevented?
- Wear shoes that fit properly and comfortably.
- Wear socks with shoes.
- Use foot powder to help keep your feet dry.
- Wear gloves when you are doing manual labor or working with your hands.
How can blisters be treated?
Do not break or “pop” the blister—the skin covering the blister helps protect it from infection. Gently wash the area with mild soap and water or a cleansing towelette, and then apply an antibacterial cream to the blister. Cover it with gauze, and secure it with hypoallergenic tape to help protect the skin and prevent infection. Change the dressing at least once a day, and wear different shoes until the blister heals.
What are plantar warts?
Plantar warts look like calluses on the ball of the foot or heel. They may appear to have small pinholes or tiny black spots in the center. They are usually painful and may develop as a single wart or in clusters.
What causes plantar warts?
Plantar warts are caused by a viral skin infection that occurs on the outer layer of skin on the soles of the feet.
How can plantar warts be prevented?
- Because it is unknown how the wart virus is transmitted, it is best to avoid direct contact with warts from another person or from one part of your body to another.
- Limit periods of barefoot walking.
How can plantar warts be treated?
Do not use over-the-counter medications to dissolve the wart. If you are not sure if you have a plantar wart or a callus, let your doctor decide.
Plantar warts are difficult to treat with a 100 percent cure rate, since warts generally have an average lifespan of about 18 months, depending on the infecting virus. There is no vaccine to prevent plantar warts.
In a doctor’s office, topical medications and pads are often used to soften the thickened skin and relieve some discomfort. Freezing the plantar wart with liquid nitrogen is another form of treatment. Surgery may also be considered when other treatment methods are not successful.
When to see your doctor
If you have persistent foot pain, redness or swelling, it is important to visit your doctor. Self-diagnosis and treatment with over-the-counter remedies or “bathroom surgery” may delay treatment and cause more problems. Some foot problems are inherited or could be the sign of another health condition.
Diabetic Feet & Skin Care Information
Symptoms and Causes
Anyone can get the foot problems listed below. For people with diabetes, however, these common foot problems can possibly lead to infection and serious complications that could make amputation necessary.
Athlete’s foot — Athlete’s foot is a fungus that causes itching, redness, and cracking. Germs can enter through the cracks in your skin and cause an infection. Medicines that kill the fungus are used to treat athlete’s foot. These medicines may be pills and/or creams applied directly to the problem area. Ask your healthcare provider to recommend a medication for athlete’s foot.
Fungal infection of nails — Nails that are infected with a fungus may become discolored (yellowish-brown or opaque), thick and brittle, and may separate from the bed of the nail. In some cases, the nail may crumble. The dark, moist and warm environment of shoes can promote fungal growth. In addition, an injury to the nail can put you at risk for a fungal infection. Fungal nail infections are difficult to treat. Topical medications are available, but they only help a small number of fungal nail problems. Oral medications may be prescribed by your health care provider. Treatment also may include periodic removal of the damaged nail tissue.
Calluses — A callus is a build-up of hard skin, usually on the underside of the foot. Calluses are caused by an uneven distribution of weight, generally on the bottom of the forefoot or heel. Calluses also can be caused by improperly fitting shoes or by a skin abnormality. Keep in mind that some degree of callus formation on the sole of the foot is normal. Proper care is necessary if you have a callus. After your bath or shower, use a pumice stone to gently remove the build-up of tissue. Use cushioned pads and insoles. Medications also may be prescribed to soften calluses. DO NOT try to cut the callus or remove it with a sharp object.
Corns — A corn is a build-up of hard skin near a bony area of a toe or between toes. Corns may be the result of pressure from shoes that rub against the toes or cause friction between the toes. Proper care is necessary if you have a corn. After your bath or shower, use a pumice stone to gently remove the build-up of tissue. Do not use over-the-counter remedies to dissolve corns. DO NOT try to cut the corn or remove it with a sharp object.
Blisters — Blisters can form when your shoes keep rubbing the same spot on your foot. Wearing shoes that do not fit properly or wearing shoes without socks can cause blisters, which can become infected. When treating blisters, it’s important not to “pop” them. The skin covering the blister helps protect it from infection. You also may use an antibacterial cream and clean, soft bandages to help protect the skin and prevent infection.
Bunion — A bunion forms when your big toe angles in toward the second toe. Often, the spot where your big toe joins the rest of the foot becomes red and callused. This area also may begin to stick out and become hard. Bunions can form on one or both feet. Bunions may run in the family, but most often they are caused by wearing high-heeled shoes with narrow toes. These shoes put pressure on the big toe, pushing it toward the second toe. The use of felt or foam padding on the foot may help protect the bunion from irritation. A device also may be used to separate the big and second toes. If the bunion causes severe pain and/or deformity, surgery to realign the toes may be necessary.
Dry skin — Dry skin can result if the nerves in your legs and feet do not get the message from your brain (because of diabetic neuropathy) to sweat, which keeps your skin soft and moist. Dry skin can crack, which can allow germs to enter. Use moisturizing soaps and lotions to help keep your skin moist and soft.
Foot ulcers — A foot ulcer is a break in the skin or a deep sore, which can become infected. Foot ulcers can result from minor scrapes, cuts that heal slowly or from the rubbing of shoes that do not fit well. Early intervention is important in treating foot ulcers. Ask your health care provider for advice on how to best care for your wound.
Hammertoes — A hammertoe is a toe that is bent because of a weakened muscle. The weakened muscle makes the tendons (tissues that connect muscles to bone) shorter, causing the toes to curl under the feet. Hammertoes can run in families. They also may be caused by wearing shoes that do not fit properly (are too short). Hammertoes can cause problems with walking and can lead to other foot problems, such as blisters, calluses, and sores. Splinting and corrective footwear can help in treating hammertoes. In severe cases, surgery to straighten the toe may be necessary.
Ingrown toenails — Ingrown toenails occur when the edges of the nail grow into the skin. Ingrown nails cause pressure and pain along the nail edges. The edge of the nail may cut into the skin, causing redness, swelling, pain, drainage, and infection. The most common cause of ingrown toenails is pressure from shoes. Other causes of ingrown toenails include improperly trimmed nails, crowding of the toes, and repeated trauma to the feet from activities such as running, walking, or doing aerobics. Keeping your toenails properly trimmed is the best way to prevent ingrown toenails. If you have a persistent problem or if you have a nail infection, you may need a health care provider’s care. Severe problems with ingrown nails may be corrected with surgery to remove part of the toenail and growth plate.
Plantar warts — Plantar warts look like calluses on the ball of the foot or on the heel. They may appear to have small pinholes or tiny black spots in the center. They are usually painful and may develop singly or in clusters. Plantar warts are caused by a virus that infects the outer layer of skin on the soles of the feet. DO NOT use over-the-counter medications to dissolve the wart. If you are not sure if you have a plantar wart or a callus, let your health care provider decide.
How can diabetes affect my skin?
If your blood glucose is high, your body loses fluid, causing your skin to become dry. This occurs because the body is turning the water into urine to remove excess glucose from the blood. Your skin also can get dry if the nerves, especially those in your legs and feet, do not get the message to sweat (because of diabetic neuropathy). Sweating helps keep your skin soft and moist.
Dry skin can become red and sore, and can crack and peel. Germs can enter through the cracks in your skin and cause an infection. In addition, dry skin usually is itchy, and scratching can lead to breaks in the skin and infection.
Skin problems are common in people with diabetes. Blood glucose provides an excellent breeding ground for bacteria and fungi, and can reduce the body’s ability to heal itself. These factors put people with diabetes at greater risk for skin problems. In fact, as many as a third of people with diabetes will have a skin disorder related to their disease at some time in their lives. Fortunately, most skin conditions can be prevented and successfully treated if caught early. But if not cared for properly, a minor skin condition can turn into a serious problem with potentially severe consequences.
What are some common skin problems in people with diabetes?
Some of the problems listed below—such as bacterial infections, fungal infections and itching—are skin conditions that can affect anyone. However, people with diabetes are more prone to getting these conditions, which can lead to serious complications. Some of the conditions listed—such as diabetic dermopathy, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum and eruptive xanthomatosis—occur only in people with diabetes. (Remember, people with diabetes also can develop skin conditions that affect people who do not have diabetes. )
Some common skin conditions include:
Acanthosis nigricans — This is a condition that results in the darkening and thickening of the skin. Often, areas of tan or brown skin, sometimes slightly raised, appear on the sides of the neck, the armpits, and groin. Occasionally, these darkened areas may appear on the hands, elbows, and knees. Acanthosis nigricans usually strikes people who are very overweight. There is no cure for acanthosis nigricans, but losing weight may improve the condition. Acanthosis nigricans usually precedes diabetes.
Allergic reactions — Allergic reactions to foods, bug bites, and medicines can cause rashes, depressions, or bumps on the skin. If you think you may be having an allergic reaction to a medicine, contact your healthcare provider. Severe allergic reactions may require emergency treatment. It is especially important for people with diabetes to check for rashes or bumps in the areas where they inject their insulin.
Atherosclerosis — Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of blood vessels from a thickening of the vessel walls. While atherosclerosis most often is associated with blood vessels in or near the heart, it can affect blood vessels throughout the body, including those that supply the skin. When the blood vessels supplying the skin become narrow, changes occur due to a lack of oxygen. Loss of hair, thinning and shiny skin, thickened and discolored toenails, and cold skin are symptoms of atherosclerosis. Because blood carries the white blood cells that help fight infection, legs and feet affected by atherosclerosis heal slowly when they are injured.
Bacterial infections — There are different kinds of bacterial infections affecting the skin. These include styes, which are infections of the glands of the eyelids; boils, which are infections of the hair follicles; and carbuncles, which are deep infections of the skin and the underlying tissue. There also are bacterial infections that affect the nails. With a bacterial infection, the areas involved generally are hot, swollen, red, and painful. Most bacterial infections require treatment with antibiotics in the form of pills and/or creams.
Bullosis diabeticorum (diabetic blisters) — In rare cases, people with diabetes develop blisters that resemble burn blisters. These blisters—called bullosis diabeticorum—can occur on the fingers, hands, toes, feet, legs, or forearms. Diabetic blisters usually are painless and heal on their own. They often occur in people who have diabetic neuropathy. Bringing your blood glucose level under control is the treatment for this condition.
Diabetic dermopathy — Diabetes can affect the small blood vessels of the body that supply the skin with blood. Changes to the blood vessels because of diabetes can cause a skin condition called diabetic dermopathy. Dermopathy appears as scaly patches that are light brown or red, often on the front of the legs. The patches do not hurt, blister or itch, and treatment generally is not necessary. The patches are sometimes called skin spots.
Digital sclerosis — The word “digital” refers to your fingers and toes, and “sclerosis” means hardening. Digital sclerosis, therefore, is a condition in which the skin on your toes, fingers and hands become thick, waxy and tight. Stiffness of the finger joints also may occur. The treatment is to bring your blood glucose level under control. Lotions and moisturizers may help soften the skin.
Disseminated granuloma annulare — This condition causes sharply defined, ring- or arc-shaped areas on the skin. These rashes most often occur on the fingers and ears, but they can occur on the trunk. The rash can be red, red-brown or skin colored. Treatment usually is not required, but some cases may benefit from a topical steroid medication, such as hydrocortisone.
Eruptive xanthomatosis — Eruptive xanthomatosis can occur in some individuals when blood glucose levels are not well controlled and when triglycerides in the blood rise to extremely high levels. This condition appears as firm, yellow, pea-like bumps on the skin. The bumps—which are surrounded by red halos and are itchy—usually are found on the feet, arms, legs, buttocks and backs of the hands. Treatment for eruptive xanthomatosis consists of controlling your blood glucose level. Lipid-lowering drugs also may be needed.
Fungal infections — A yeast-like fungus called Candida albicans is responsible for many of the fungal infections affecting people with diabetes. This fungus creates itchy red rashes, often surrounded by tiny blisters and scales. These infections most often occur in warm, moist folds of the skin. Three common fungal infections are jock itch, which appears as a red, itchy area on the genitals and the inside of the thighs; athlete’s foot, which affects the skin between the toes; and ringworm, which causes ring-shaped, scaly patches that can itch or blister. Ringworm can appear on the feet, groin, trunk, scalp, or nails. Medicines that kill the fungus may be needed to treat these infections.
Itching — Itching skin, also called pruritus, can have many causes, such as a yeast infection, dry skin or poor blood flow. When itching is caused by poor blood flow, the lower legs and feet are most often affected. Using lotion can help to keep your skin soft and moist, and prevent itching due to dry skin.
Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum — Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD) is caused by changes in the blood vessels and generally affects the lower legs. With NLD, the affected skin becomes raised, yellow and waxy in appearance, often with a purple border. Sometimes, NLD is itchy and painful. As long as the sores do not break open, treatment is not necessary. If the sores do break open, see your health care provider for treatment.
Scleroderma diabeticorum — Like digital sclerosis, this condition causes a thickening of the skin; but scleroderma diabeticorum affects the skin on the back of the neck and upper back. This condition, which is rare, most often affects people with diabetes who are overweight. The treatment is to bring your blood glucose level under control. Lotions and moisturizers may help soften the skin.
Vitiligo — Vitiligo is a condition that affects skin coloration. With vitiligo, the special cells that make pigment (the substance that controls skin color) are destroyed, resulting in patches of discolored skin. Vitiligo often affects the trunk, but may be found on the face around the mouth, nostrils and eyes. This condition usually occurs in people with type 1 diabetes. There is no specific treatment for vitiligo. You should use sunscreen with a SPF of 15 or higher to prevent sunburn on the discolored skin.
Assessing skin turgor (fullness) is a way for health care workers to assess the amount of fluid loss that may occur from various conditions, such as diarrhea or vomiting. Loss of body fluid through frequent urination also is a concern for people with diabetes. Skin turgor refers to the skin’s elasticity (its ability to change shape and return to normal). An assessment of skin turgor is used to help determine the effects of diabetes on skin health.
Spots on the Bottom of Your Feet
Taking good care of your feet includes checking them regularly for skin changes.
Image Credit: baona/iStock/GettyImages
Whether you’re just going about your day or trying to get in 10,000 steps, your feet work hard! Taking good care of them is one way to keep the momentum going. That includes checking your feet for any skin changes, like brown or dark spots. Pay special attention if you also have pain.
Whenever you have foot pain, start by checking your feet for any injuries, suggests board-certified dermatologist Deirdre Hooper, MD, an associate clinical professor at Louisiana State University and Tulane University in New Orleans. It could be something as simple as having a blister, which is a fluid-filled bubble that develops in an area of pressure and rubbing (friction) on your skin, explains Harvard Health Publishing. Most blisters clear up without requiring treatment, Harvard says.
“Most important is avoiding or fixing what caused friction,” says Rebecca Sundling, DPM, a podiatric surgeon at Foot and Ankle Specialists in Grand Rapids, Michigan. “Blisters filled with blood should be evaluated by a podiatrist.”
Read more: What Causes Blisters on the Bottom of Your Feet When Walking?
Splinters and stubbed toes can also leave you with a wound, notes Harvard Health Publishing. An ingrown toenail can cause redness, swelling and pain around the nail, says the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The Mayo Clinic suggests using over-the-counter ointment and changing dressings daily to treat small wounds. Remove small splinters by soaking your feet in warm, clean water or using sterilized tweezers, Dr. Hooper adds.
Minor foot injuries sometimes become infected because footwear creates the dark, damp environment where viruses, fungi and bacteria thrive, notes Penn Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Call your doctor if the wound doesn’t heal or develops signs of infection, like getting red, sore, swollen or discharging pus suggests the Mayo Clinic.
It’s also important to check the skin of your feet for changes in color or texture.
Some people develop rough, hard skin that’s white or yellow. This thickened skin, usually called a callus or corn, results from excess pressure or repeated rubbing in one spot, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Treatment usually involves over-the-counter remedies, like pumice stones, notes the American Academy of Dermatology, or visiting a reliable nail salon.
The fungal infection athlete’s foot is another common cause of skin changes on your foot. This fungus lives in dark, damp places, like locker rooms and even shoes, describes the U.S. National Library of Medicine. When your feet come in contact with the fungus, it can transfer to the areas of skin between and underneath toes, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
If you have athlete’s foot, you may notice soft, moist, flakey spots between toes or scaly patches on your soles, reports the Cleveland Clinic. These patches may itch or burn. Over-the-counter products can be used to treat athlete’s foot, the clinic advises.
“Look for creams ending in -azole,” suggests Dr. Hooper. “Also, keep spaces between your toes dry. It may sound strange, but a hair dryer works best, especially if you’re prone to sweating.”
Round spots that are raised or grainy (and sometimes have a black dot in the center) may be warts, which are small skin growths caused by a virus, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Warts on the bottom of your foot (plantar warts) are usually easy to treat with over-the-counter products or home remedies, according to the Cleveland Clinic. If warts are large, painful or spreading, call your doctor.
Psoriasis and contact dermatitis are other health conditions that can affect your feet, Dr. Sundling notes. Psoriasis causes skin cells to build up, forming itchy, dry patches, explains the National Psoriasis Foundation. According to the Mayo Clinic, contact dermatitis is an allergic reaction to something that touches your skin.
Read more: The 6 Best Anti-Inflammatory Foods for People With Psoriasis
The most serious type of discoloration may not be painful, and that’s why it’s important to check the skin of your entire foot — the top, bottom, between toes, and even the skin under your toenails. According to the American Podiatric Medical Association, this can help you spot skin cancer early, which is important for successful treatment.
According to a January 2018 study in the Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery, melanoma skin cancer ranks among the top 10 cancers for both women and men, and it may be more serious when it develops on the foot: In this study, just 50 percent of people with melanoma of the toe survived five years after diagnosis. (Earlier studies confirm higher survival rates for melanoma in other places on the leg.)
Dr. Sundling suggests using the “ABCDEs” of melanoma when checking spots on your feet, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
- Asymmetry: Is the spot asymmetrical? (Does it have an
odd, irregular shape?)
- Border: Does the
spot have irregular or jagged borders?
- Color: Is the
spot uneven in color?
- Diameter: Is the
diameter (distance between its edges) larger than a pencil eraser?
- Evolving: Has
the spot evolved (noticeably changed) over the past few weeks or months?
If you answer “yes” to any of these questions, contact a dermatologist to schedule an exam and have the spot removed for testing if necessary.
Lumps and Bumps on the Bottom of the Foot
Dr. Niks August 10, 2018 Common Disorders
There are a number of different causes of lumps and bumps on the bottom of the foot. Working from the toes to the heel:
1. Lumps and Bumps; Bottom of the Big Toe
A painful lump may be found on the bottom of the big toe. This condition often presents itself as a hard callused area. Sometimes a hard lump may be felt beneath the callused area. The most common cause of this condition is a limitation of movement of the big toe joint while walking. If there is limitation of movement at this joint, then the big toe cannot bend upward as the heel comes off the ground while walking. As a consequence, there is excessive force placed on the bottom of the big toe and an enlargement of the bone in this area will occur secondary to the pressure. Another cause is the presence of an extra bone or piece of cartilage in the area. However, it is the limitation of movement in the big toe joint that causes the area to become enlarged and painful.
People who have diabetes must watch these areas closely. Over time, the excessive pressure can cause this area to break down and ulcerate. One way to check to see if there is a limitation of movement of the big toe joint is to perform the following test. While standing on a flat surface, have another person try to bend the big toe upward. The joint that must move is the joint where the toe attaches to the foot. There is a joint in the middle of the big toe and this is not the one you are checking. If the big toe joint cannot be bent upward then a limitation of motion exists. Testing the movement at the joint without putting weight on the foot will give a false impression as to the available movement at the joint while you are walking. This limitation of movement of the big toe while walking can, over, time create an arthritic condition in the joint. A bony mass may then form on the top of this joint as a result of jamming in the joint. This condition is called hallux limitus or hallux rigidus. Treatment for the painful lesion in the bottom of the big toe joint consists of using functional foot orthosis to correct the functional limitation of the big toe joint motion or may consist of surgical correction of the hallux limitus. Rarely is surgery to remove only the lesion on the bottom of the toe alone, successful, because the cause of the initial problem still exists.
2. Lumps and Bumps in the Ball of the Foot
Painful lumps in the ball of the foot are usually but not always associated with a thickening of the skin or callus. These areas are due to a prominence of the long bone behind the toe called the metatarsal bone. When there is a mal-alignment of these bones, one or more of them may become propionate. When this occurs, the weight-bearing force across the bottom of the foot is disturbed. Weight is not evenly distributed across the ball of the foot, and these areas absorb greater pressure. The excessive pressure often forms a callus or thickening of the skin. People who have diabetes should watch these areas carefully. Over time, they can ulcerate the skin and can become infected. Treatment consists of removing the pressure with pads or using a molded insole or orthotic in the shoes.
Other skin lesions that frequently occur on the bottom of the foot are plantar warts, porokeratoses, and inclusion cysts.
3. Lumps and Bumps in the Arch of the Foot- Plantar Fibromas
Within the arch of the foot, firm, nodular masses may form. These can occur as a single mass or in clusters. They are called and are a non-cancerous tumor that forms within a ligament in the arch of the foot called the plantar fascia. Frequently, they will slowly enlarge causing pain while walking. Their cause cannot always be determined. Damage to the tendon will cause their occurrence and there is an association with taking the drug Dilantin. In 10% of the cases, patients will also demonstrate similar lumps in the palms of the hands called Dupuytren’s Contracture.Treatment consists of padding the area to reduce pressure. Functional foot orthotics will take the strain off of the plantar fascia ligament and sometimes cause the fibromas to shrink in size. Cortisone injections are of little value and may even stimulate the mass to enlarge or spread. Surgical excision of the mass requires removal of most of the plantar fascia. Simple excision of the mass without removal of the entire ligament generally results in recurrence of the mass. Whenever surgery is contemplated, the patient should wear a functional foot orthotic following the surgery. The orthotic helps to accommodate for the loss of the plantar fascia and its effect on foot function (See surgical excision of plantar fibromas).
Malignant Melanoma of the Foot
What Is Malignant Melanoma?
Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the cells of the skin that produce pigmentation (coloration). It is also called malignant melanoma because it spreads to other areas of the body as it grows beneath the surface of the skin. Unlike many other types of cancer, melanoma strikes people of all age groups, even the young.
Melanoma in the Foot
Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle often goes unnoticed during its earliest stage, when it would be more easily treated. By the time melanoma of the foot or ankle is diagnosed, it frequently has progressed to an advanced stage, accounting for a higher mortality rate. This makes it extremely important to follow prevention and early detection measures involving the feet as well as other parts of the body.
Most cases of melanoma are caused by too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun or tanning beds. This exposure can include intense UV radiation obtained during short periods or lower amounts of radiation obtained over longer periods.
Anyone can get melanoma, but some factors put a person at greater risk for developing this type of cancer. These include:
- Fair skin; skin that freckles; blond or red hair
- Blistering sunburns before the age of 18
- Numerous moles, especially if they appeared at a young age
What Should You Look For?
Melanoma can occur anywhere on the skin, even in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. Melanoma usually looks like a spot on the skin that is predominantly brown, black, or blue, although in some cases, it can be mostly red or even white. However, not all areas of discoloration on the skin are melanoma.
There are four signs—known as the ABCDs of melanoma—to look for when self-inspecting moles and other spots on the body:
Asymmetry — Melanoma is usually asymmetric, which means one half is different in shape from the other half.
Border — Border irregularity often indicates melanoma. The border, or edge, is typically ragged, notched or blurred.
Color — Melanoma is typically a mix of colors or hues, rather than a single, solid color.
Diameter — Melanoma grows in diameter, whereas moles remain small. A spot that is larger than 5 millimeters (the size of a pencil eraser) is cause for concern.
If any of these signs are present on the foot, it is important to see a foot and ankle surgeon right away. It is also essential to see a surgeon if there is discoloration of any size underneath a toenail (unless the discoloration was caused by trauma, such as stubbing a toe or having something fall on it).
To diagnose melanoma, the foot and ankle surgeon will ask the patient a few questions. For example: Is the spot old or new? Have you noticed any changes in size or color? If so, how rapidly has this change occurred?
The surgeon will also examine the spot to determine whether a biopsy is necessary. If a biopsy is performed and it reveals melanoma, the surgeon will discuss a treatment plan.
Prevention & Early Detection
Everyone should practice strategies that can help prevent melanoma, or at least aid in early detection, so that early treatment can be undertaken.
Precautions to avoid getting melanoma of the foot and ankle, as well as general precautions, include:
- Wear water shoes or shoes and socks—flip flops do not provide protection!
- Use adequate sunscreen in areas that are unprotected by clothing or shoes. Be sure to apply sunscreen on the soles as well as the tops of feet.
- Inspect all areas of the feet daily, including the soles, underneath toenails and between the toes.
- If you wear nail polish, remove it occasionally so that you can inspect the skin underneath the toenails.
- Avoid UV radiation during the sun’s peak hours (10:00am to 4:00pm) beginning at birth. While sun exposure is harmful at any age, it is especially damaging to children and adolescents.
- Wear sunglasses that block 100 percent of all UV rays—both UVA and UVB.
- Wear a wide-brimmed hat.
Remember: Early detection is crucial with malignant melanoma. If you see any of the ABCD signs—or if you have discoloration beneath a toenail that is unrelated to trauma—be sure to visit a foot and ankle surgeon as soon as possible.
Black macules on the sole of the foot
Photo: Stein Helge Røsbekk
A woman in her late 20s, second trimester of her third pregnancy, no complications, discovered black spots on the soles of her feet. Eight dark, macular skin lesions 1 – 5 mm in diameter were found on the one sole (left image) and one on the other. The woman felt well, but she suffered from symphysiolysis and her gait had therefore changed. She also reported that she had been unusually physically active recently, but had not engaged in sport.
Microscopic examination of punch biopsy revealed small areas of light to dark brown pigmentation of the stratum corneum. The microscopy image is stained with haematoxylin and eosin and shows a tear in the stratum corneum with extravasated red blood cells and dark particles consistent with the degradation products of haemoglobin. Perls’ staining confirmed iron-containing degradation products of haemoglobin. Other parts of the epidermis and dermis were normal. The diagnosis was therefore post-traumatic plantar petechiae.
These skin changes were first described in 1961 in basketball players under the name «calcaneal petechiae» and have subsequently been found among several kinds of athletes (1) – (3). Alternative terms are «talon noir» and «post-traumatic punctate haemorrhage of the skin». The condition can arise when pressure points are subjected to repeated strain, which results in intraepidermal bleeding and therefore dark skin lesions. Histologically, areas of pigmentation and extravasated red blood cells are found in the stratum corneum together with haemoglobin and degradation products thereof, and the latter can be detected by means of special stains for iron detection (4).
We are not aware of any previous descriptions of post-traumatic plantar petechiae in Norway, nor of any descriptions of this condition in pregnant women. Nevertheless, it is likely that these are common skin lesions. A survey of 596 German athletes revealed an incidence of 2.9 % (5). Post-traumatic plantar petechiae are completely harmless. They vanish spontaneously in the course of a few weeks if the strain is taken off the pressure points, as also happened in the present case.
The patient has consented to the publication of the article.
90,000 Doctors talk about an unusual symptom of COVID-19
Bruises and blisters on the feet can be a symptom of COVID-19, Spanish doctors say. There is a lot of evidence for this, which, however, remains to be verified. Until more unambiguous data emerge, doctors recommend keeping in mind that spots on the skin of the feet may indicate an illness, and take appropriate action.
Bruises and blisters on the feet can be a symptom of COVID-19, warns the Council of Orthopedic Colleges in Spain.There is plenty of evidence for this, but a causal relationship has yet to be proven. In the meantime, doctors recommend that you carefully consider such a symptom and keep in mind that other manifestations of the disease may follow. The post was posted on the Council website .
Numerous cases in Spain, Italy and France show that with COVID-19, patients often have small bruises and frostbite-like spots on their feet. One of the first cases was in a 13-year-old Italian boy – the parents initially mistook the strange, crusty spot for a spider bite.The doctors prescribed the appropriate treatment, but two days later the child had a fever, muscle pain and severe itching in the legs.
Photos of bruises on the legs of COVID-19 patients circulated for some time on Italian social networks and attracted the attention of doctors.
They found out that a week before the visit, the boy’s mother and sister had fever, cough and breathing problems. However, doctors could not make tests and follow the course of the disease.
The most common strange symptom was found in children and adolescents. On average, such manifestations of the disease were observed in every fifth patient in Italian hospitals. So, among 88 patients in one of the hospitals, 20% reported the appearance of bruises on the skin. However, in the previous two weeks, they had not taken any medications that could cause such a reaction. Most had rash-like bruising, a few had hives, and one had chickenpox. After recovery, they passed without leaving a trace.
Doctors fear that bruises, potentially caused by COVID-19, could lead to a misdiagnosis – in Thailand, a man with such a symptom was first diagnosed with Dengue fever, but later tests confirmed the coronavirus.
There is no sufficient evidence that bruises on the legs are indeed a sign of COVID-19, the researchers admit. It is possible that this is an accidental coincidence and both phenomena are in no way connected with each other. However, doctors fully admit such a symptom.
“It would be completely unsurprising if COVID-19 had cutaneous manifestations,” says physician Daniel Gordon.- Many viruses cause rashes and other markings. Viruses tend to target different organs rather than just one, although in the case of COVID-19, the lungs are the most affected. We now have only sporadic case reports and scientists will need to do more work to find out if there is a link between the bruises and COVID-19. ”
Doctors suggest that COVID-19 can lead to blockage of small vessels, which provokes hemorrhages.
Now doctors are busy collecting data on cases of bruising on the legs in patients with COVID-19.Dermatologists help categorize the lesions observed. They advise colleagues to be vigilant and, if possible, send people with bruised feet to quarantine, but act within reasonable limits.
Earlier, American doctors recognized loss of smell and taste as the most characteristic symptom of COVID-19 – among patients who did not need hospitalization, these signs were observed in 70%.
“If you lose your sense of smell and taste, you are ten times more likely to have COVID-19 than any other infection,” the researchers said.- The most common symptom so far remains fever, but loss of smell and taste, as well as weakness, are in second place. COVID-19 is an extremely contagious disease and this study demonstrates the need to understand its early signs. ”
At the same time, in patients admitted to hospitals, loss of smell and taste was observed twice less often.
Scientists suggest that this may indicate a different course of the disease in two groups of patients – in the former, the infection mainly affects the nose, in the latter, it more strongly affects the lungs, leading to the need for artificial ventilation.
This hypothesis has yet to be tested, but if confirmed, the loss of smell and taste can be used as a factor in predicting the further course of the disease.
90,000 Brown spots on the sole of the foot – Question to the dermatologist
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Mycosis of the feet. The author of the article: dermatovenerologist Sattarova Lyalya Ravilevna.
03 December 2019
Family Health Magazine
Among all skin diseases, one
of the most common is a fungal infection of the skin of the feet, called
mycosis.High morbidity is associated
with the presence of a huge number of patients with
immune disorders, common peripheral deficiency
blood supply, long-term and uncontrolled intake of antibiotics. Also
there is a high level of damage to this pathology in the elderly, since some somatic diseases (sugar
diabetes, oncological pathology, pathology of the vessels of the lower extremities) are found in this age group significantly
Infection with mycosis of the feet can occur through direct contact
with a patient in a family or group and is carried out through shoes, clothes, objects
everyday life (rugs in the bathroom, washcloths, manicure accessories).Causative agents
diseases are found in large numbers in the pieces of the affected nail
plates or scales from lesions on the skin.
More often, people who constantly use the bath are susceptible to fungal disease,
shower, pool. When walking barefoot
a patient with mycosis leaves feet on the floor,
in a foot basin infected with a fungus
scales that easily adhere to damp skin after washing, especially in the area
interdigital folds. Penetration
fungi contributes to the violation of the integrity of the skin caused by sweating or dry skin, diaper rash,
abrasion, minor trauma, poor drying of interdigital folds after
water procedures, etc.Clinically fungal skin lesions
stop most often starts from the 3rd or 4th
interdigital folds, since it is these gaps that are the “tightest”. Gradually
defeat captures all interdigital
folds, skin of soles, current areas and
rear of the foot. Mycosis of the feet most often occurs in the form of “dry” manifestations: peeling and hyperkeratosis. With an erased form
patients have a slight
peeling and superficial cracks in
interdigital folds and on the skin of the soles.
In foci, peeling can be represented by 3 forms:
- 1. Fine (flour-like) – after washing
becomes almost invisible.
- 2. Ring-shaped – rings in the form of pinkish spots of various sizes, shapes,
surrounded by a fringe of exfoliated epithelium – after washing it is more pronounced.
- 3. Large-lamellar – in the form of dense
The most characteristic features
oozing and detachment of the stratum corneum
layer in the interdigital spaces, the formation of surface erosion and deep
painful cracks.The sick is worried
itching and burning. When a secondary infection is attached, pustular
elements, bloody crusts. Inflammatory phenomena increase from the center to
Due to the fact that at the beginning of the disease
sick or do not experience any
discomfort, or they are worried about slight itching. The disease can last
decades and the process gradually involves nails, skin of large folds, etc.
Once in the nail plate, the fungus grows
and reproduces very slowly.Mecelia threads (fungi) gradually fill the entire
nail plate and are embedded in the nail
In the development of fungal diseases, in
particular nails, play an important role
not only the characteristics of the pathogen (species,
genus), but also the state of the body’s defense mechanisms of a fungal infection. An intact healthy nail practically
invulnerable to fungal infection, so often the onset of the disease is preceded by
The clinic can be represented by the following types of nail lesions:
– normotrophic type, in which
shape and thickness are preserved,
white and yellow spots that tend to merge, gradually occupying
the whole nail;
– hypertrophic type, when the nail
the plate is thickened, dirty yellow,
has an unevenly destroyed free edge – “pitted nail”;
– the onycholytic type is characterized by
thinning of the nail with manifestations of delamination
in the area of the free edge of the plate.Treatment.
The main task in the treatment of mycosis
stop is the removal of the etiological
factor – a pathogenic fungus from the affected areas. Depending on the route of exposure to the pathogenic agent, they release
the following treatments:
– local (external) – when the antifungal drug is applied directly to the affected area;
– systemic – in the case of prescribing the drug inside, when it gets into tissues with current
– combined – a combination of systemic and local treatment.The choice of a particular treatment tactics
is determined by the characteristics of the pathological process, clinical form, prevalence.
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90,000 Spots on the soles of the feet. What do they look like? Why do they appear? How to treat?
Red spots on the soles of the feet can be of different shapes and sizes. Sometimes they can contain liquid, and sometimes they take the form of a small rash. There can be many reasons for their appearance.Although red spots are usually harmless and not a health threat, they can sometimes be contagious and easily spread and transmitted. Knowing the root cause of red spots on the soles of your feet can help you find the best treatment for them.
Why do red spots appear on the soles of the feet?
Let’s consider several reasons for the appearance of red spots on the soles of the feet:
Insect Bites . Red spots can develop from insect bites such as bedbugs and mosquitoes.They can itch and swell a lot because the body releases histamine in response to these bites.
Purulent skin disease . Caused by streptococcal bacteria, this skin infection usually affects children and babies. If there are microtraumas on the skin of an adult, then this infection quickly enters the body, upon contact with the patient.
Dyshidrosis or dyshidrotic eczema . It causes small bubbles filled with fluid to appear on the feet.These spots are very itchy and may persist for about 3 weeks.
Viral pemphigus of the oral cavity and extremities . This viral infection usually affects young children and leads to mouth ulcers with a red rash on the soles, palms, and even the buttocks.
Chickenpox . Red dots are located on the lower legs and other parts of the body. 10-21 days after infection with the virus, spots begin to appear. The infection can last for about 5-10 days.
Irritant contact dermatitis . It causes itching and bumps on the feet. It is caused by damage to the protective outer layer of the skin, usually due to contact with chemicals such as household cleaners, detergents, dyes, cosmetics, or industrial chemicals.
Allergic contact dermatitis . Exposure to allergens triggers an immune response in the skin. Common allergens include latex rubber, plants, metallic substances, synthetic fabrics.
What do the spots look like on the sole of the foot?
Skin spots can look different. It depends on the reason for their appearance.
In a purulent skin disease, ulcers appear red and fluid and are very painful. These sores can burst, and a crust forms in their place.
When there is a blockage of the sebaceous glands on the feet, bubbles appear filled with fluid, which are very painful and itchy.
With contact dermatitis, the skin on the foot becomes rash and red in color.These rashes begin to itch a lot and cause a lot of discomfort to the person.
Red spots on the soles of the feet in a child
The appearance of red spots on the legs of a child may indicate serious problems that occur in the baby’s body. If you find any rashes, it is worth contacting the skinner. The reasons for their appearance may be:
- infectious diseases;
- diseases associated with the circulatory system of the child;
- body reaction to an allergen;
- poor hygiene.
If unpleasant symptoms are found, it is worth showing the child to a specialist. Do not self-medicate.
However, the appearance of red spots on the legs should not cause panic in the parents. In most cases, this is the body’s reaction to an external or internal stimulus, that is, a banal allergy. It is necessary to monitor the frequency of the appearance of the rash and the general condition of the child before the arrival of the doctor.
How are red spots on the sole of the foot treated?
If red spots appear as a result of an insect bite, then you should use a special balm after the bite.It will bring relief, relieve unpleasant itching and inflammation.
Antibiotic creams or topical ointments should be used to treat purulent infections caused by streptococcal bacteria. It is necessary to apply the cream directly to the red spots on the soles of the feet. Rinse the affected area with warm water first, then apply an antibiotic ointment for best results. Also, sometimes the doctor prescribes oral antibiotics if the disease becomes neglected.Always stop treatment even if you feel better after a few days, otherwise the infection will return and may become more resistant to antibiotics.
For dyshidrosis, the doctor prescribes corticosteroid ointments or creams to relieve unpleasant symptoms. Apply the cream and cover the affected area with a film to improve absorption. You can also apply wet compresses after applying a corticosteroid ointment.
If the appearance of the stain is caused by a viral infection, then there is no specific treatment.It may take up to 10 days for symptoms to resolve. However, topical local anesthetics can be used to relieve pain caused by mouth and leg ulcers. Take pain relievers such as ibuprofen or analgin.
For common dermatitis, antihistamines and ointments should be used. And also be sure to see an allergist in order to find out what is the reason for the appearance of spots on the feet. If the initial allergen is found, it is worth excluding all contact with it.
90,000 Venous diseases – swelling of the ankles and feet are treatable
What is venous disease?
Vein disease is widespread. Symptoms of venous disease may initially be cosmetic but may not cause discomfort such as telangiectasia. But, if you do not start treatment in a timely manner, this can lead to the development of a serious illness. If the saphenous veins are involved in the process, then they are already talking about varicose veins or varicose veins.
Many men and women suffer from chronic venous diseases . Often there is a hereditary predisposition to the disease. However, factors such as long standing or sitting, being overweight, and lack of physical activity also play a negative role.
Heavy legs, fatigue, a tingling sensation, or swelling may indicate a vein problem. But if you correctly interpret the symptoms and take timely measures, then vein disease can be effectively counteracted .
While the arteries transport blood from the heart to the tissues, the veins transport oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart – against gravity. The movement of blood is supported by the so-called venous-muscular pump of the legs, and the reverse flow of blood is prevented by venous valves. If these mechanisms cease to cope with work, blood stagnation develops in the legs. Spider veins, varicose veins, phlebitis appear and, in the later stages of the development of the disease, venous ulcers may develop.
Diseases of the veins: Characteristics
Chronic venous disease:
This is an enlargement of small but clearly visible veins in the upper layer of the skin.
Varicose veins :
Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins of the legs that appear as twisted bluish bands under the skin.
Venous insufficiency :
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is associated with long-term impaired venous function. Veins of the legs are usually affected. Typical symptoms of CVI include swelling and discoloration of the skin.
Acute venous diseases:
Phlebitis is often associated with varicose veins.It is manifested by severe redness, swelling, a feeling of heat and pain in the veins.
Deep vein thrombosis occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) blocks a deep vein and partially or completely blocks blood flow. Thrombosis can present with swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin. However, in some cases, thrombosis does not initially cause any symptoms, which can lead to late diagnosis and the development of complications.
Causes of vein problems
If the function of the venous valves is disturbed, for example, with age or due to hormonal changes (pregnancy), then there is a reverse flow and stagnation of blood.The vein wall becomes thinner and the vein expands. This leads to the appearance of telangiectasias, varicose veins and, at a later stage of the development of the disease, venous ulcers.
There are both factors controlled by the patient and factors that he cannot influence:
Factors that cannot be influenced:
- Old age
- Hereditary predisposition
(the disease is more common in women than in men)
- Hormonal background
(for example, during pregnancy)
Factors that can be influenced:
- Physical inactivity
(e.g. in occupations that involve standing or sedentary work)
- Alcohol use
- Tight clothing and high heels
Main symptoms – how to recognize venous diseases?
The first signs usually appear long before the appearance of varicose veins or other changes: Feeling of heaviness, fatigue, tingling or pulling pain in the legs – especially in the late afternoon.Swelling may also develop. This leads to the development of “heavy legs syndrome”.
If these signs occur, you should immediately consult a doctor in order to start treatment at an early stage of the disease.
Stages of Chronic Vein Disease – CEAP
Usually, the severity of chronic venous disease is determined using the so-called CEAP classification from C0 (no clinical manifestations) to C6 (most severe):
- C = Clinic (clinical class of disease)
- E = Etiology (etiology of the disease)
- A = Anatomy
- P = Pathophysiology
There are no visible signs of CVD
Telangiectasias 9029 or reticular
Varicose saphenous veins with edema
Varicose saphenous veins 9029 and subcutaneous tissues, such as 9000
Hyperpigmentation and / or varicose eczema
Lipodermatosclerosis and / or white atrophy of the skin
|C 5 9000 Varicose veins|
Varicose saphenous veins with open (active) venous ulcer
The severity of venous disease should not be underestimated.Varicose veins are not just a cosmetic problem: If left untreated, the condition can lead to serious complications. Adequate therapy can relieve symptoms of the disease and possibly slow its progression.
Prevention of venous diseases
Prevention of venous diseases: You can do it yourself:
- Sports and exercise: “It is better to walk or lie down than sit or stand.”This is a rule of thumb of the German Venous Society (Deutschen Venen-Liga e.V.) Movement helps keep veins healthy and elastic. Alternating contractions and relaxation of the leg muscles maintain venous blood flow, and special exercises help keep the veins healthy.
- Diet: A healthy, balanced diet is essential. It is recommended to limit the consumption of alcohol.
- Weight Management: Maintain a normal body weight.
- Clothing and footwear: Wear loose, comfortable clothing.Replace high-heeled shoes with flat shoes: Feet move better in flat shoes, which activates the musculo-venous pump. Conversely, in high heels, the contractions of the calf muscles are limited so that the pressure on the veins is reduced.
- Shower: A hot / cold shower also improves leg health.
Prevention of venous disease: It can be done independently
“Better to walk or lie down than sit or stand.”This is a rule of thumb of the German Venous Society (Deutschen Venen-Liga e.V.) Movement helps keep veins healthy and elastic. Alternating contractions and relaxation of the leg muscles maintain venous blood flow, and special exercises help keep the veins healthy. …
Hot / cold showers also improve leg health.
Patients with venous disease should, if possible , exclude or at least minimize the “risk factors that they may affect” described above . A positive effect on the treatment process is provided by: proper nutrition, maintaining a normal body weight, regular physical activity (for example, walking, swimming, cycling). It is recommended to limit the consumption of alcohol.
More often replace high heels with shoes with small heels or almost flat soles: in high heels, the foot exhibits only very limited muscle activity, so that muscle pressure on the venous system decreases.Wearing flat shoes activates the calf pump.
Treatment of chronic venous diseases
Diseases of the veins are not completely cured, but treatment can significantly improve the condition. Even for difficult cases, there are many treatment options. Consult your doctor for the best option.
Your doctor may refer you to a vein specialist (phlebologist).After a detailed examination, anamnesis and examination, the phlebologist will establish a diagnosis. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound are often used to clarify the diagnosis. Depending on the severity of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient, the doctor prescribes treatment.
The main treatment options include compression therapy and, if necessary, surgery:
- Regular use of medical compression stockings improves venous function, reduces leg strain and reduces discomfort.Compression knitwear with physiological pressure distribution decreasing from the level of the ankles upwards, prevents blood stagnation in the vessels of the legs and facilitates the return of blood to the heart.
- There are various surgical techniques for treating varicose veins. A number of them are minimally invasive procedures. The most popular are phlebectomy (removal of veins) and sclerotherapy. After the procedure, you must use medical compression hosiery.
It is recommended to regularly use medical compression hosiery .The pressure of the jersey acts on the veins . Thanks to this the cusps of the venous valves close better . As a result, blood is better pumped to the heart and blood congestion in the veins disappears. This reduces symptoms such as pain, swelling and feeling of heaviness. Medi offers a wide range of compression hosiery ranges in a variety of colors and designs.
Medi products for the treatment of venous diseases
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90,000 How to remove stains from white sneakers: useful tips
White sports shoes are a fashion trend that gives owners a lot of trouble.Even if you wear white sneakers or sneakers only for training, they will still get dirt and stains. Well, if you decide to wear light-colored shoes for a walk, an attractive appearance will remain only in your memories. To maintain the cleanliness and whiteness of a sports model, you should study in advance how to remove stains from white sneakers.
Preliminary preparation for cleaning
It is recommended that you remove major dirt from your sneakers before proceeding with washing and bleaching.Wipe off any sand and dirt from the outsole and rubber edging. It is easier to clean the embossed surface with a toothpick or other sharp object. If you do not first remove external contamination, yellow spots and streaks will inevitably appear on the shoes after washing.
White shoes should be washed without insoles and laces. The removed insoles must be cleaned separately with soapy water and a brush. After rinsing, lay them out on a flat surface to dry. The best detergent for washing laces is laundry soap.To remove the gray streaks from the laces, left by the metal eyelets, will help to pre-soak for half an hour in a solution of bleach.
Trust the fight against stains on rag sneakers with a quality stain remover. Moisten a cotton pad with the solution and treat the area well. Rinse off the residues of the chemical agent with plain water.
Important! The sneakers should not be cleaned with chlorine bleach, as this is too aggressive for the fabric. After a while, a hole may form in the areas where the stain is removed.
Practical ways to clean white sneakers
In addition to using stain removers, there are many available tools that can effectively remove yellow spots from white sneakers at home. To return sports shoes to their pristine whiteness, prepare a simple composition:
- Mix equal parts baking soda and water to form a thick paste.
- Lightly moisten the soles that have been cleaned from dirt.
- Apply the prepared paste to a kitchen sponge and rub the surface with force.
- Leave the shoes for half an hour, repeat the sponge treatment.
- Rinse off the paste with water and remove to dry.
To make the surface of the sneaker white, ordinary toothpaste with a whitening effect will help. The composition must be applied to the stain with an old toothbrush and rubbed well. Adding a few spots of lemon juice will help enhance the effect. Treat until the contamination is removed, then rinse the treated area well with water.
If the area of dirt is significant, it is easier to wash the sneakers by choosing a hand or machine wash. To avoid the appearance of yellowness on the surface of the sneakers, they should first be well cleaned on the outside.
Only high-quality shoes can withstand washing in the machine. If the brand of your sneakers is represented by unknown Chinese characters, you risk getting the sneakers in parts with holes in the fabric. Automatic washing of branded shoes will not harm if you follow the safety rules:
- Shoes must be washed in a special bag.In the absence of it, a regular pillowcase or a light sock stretched over each sneaker will do.
- Choose the most gentle operating mode of the machine. The maximum heating temperature is 35 degrees with the spin off. Replace the powder with liquid MS, as it will be easier to rinse the fabric afterwards.
It is necessary to wash sneakers by hand in warm water, taking shavings of baby soap as a detergent.After pre-soaking, the surface should be rubbed with a brush. For a good result, sneakers should be rinsed thoroughly to remove all soap from the fabric. This will eliminate the formation of yellow streaks and streaks after drying.
Textile sports shoes should only be allowed to dry naturally after washing. Hot air of a hair dryer and drying on a battery is prohibited. Hang the steam by the tongue in a well-ventilated area and let dry. After that, fill the inside with paper balls, which will keep the shoe shape and speed up the drying process.
Important! Do not use newspapers for stuffing. The ink from the pages will leave black spots on the white sneakers when soaked.
How to whiten the sole?
Dirt on sneakers, like on any other shoe, appears not only on the surface, but also on the outsole and rubber edging. After normal washing, dirt may remain, which will require additional processing. There are several effective home remedies for this as well.
- Stripes and stains on the rubber part can be easily removed with an eraser.Previously, the place of contamination can be moistened with water, which will enhance the abrasive effect.
- The stain on the edge / sole can be rubbed with a lemon wedge, leaving the shoes for a quarter of an hour to absorb, then wipe the area with a damp cloth.
A good result in removing dirt from rubber is provided by chemical solvents: nail polish remover or acetone. They can only be used for completely white soles; in the presence of colored stripes, the solvent will simply remove some of the paint from them, forming a more noticeable stain.Acetone can be replaced with gasoline, which is more gentle on rubber than acetone.
If none of the home options worked for you, or you don’t want to mess with the shoes yourself, take your sneakers to the dry cleaner, where they will deal with any dirt using professional chemicals.
Legs affection in diabetes mellitus
Defeat of legs in diabetes mellitus
The defeat of the lower extremities in diabetes mellitus (DM) can be conditionally divided into several groups, however, as a rule, they occur in combination.
1. Peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathy manifests itself as pain, creeping sensation, cramps, and a burning sensation in the feet, which intensifies in the evening and at night.
At the same time, the nerve fibers responsible for temperature, pain, tactile and vibration sensitivity lose their sensitivity, which can lead to tragic consequences if you do not organize proper foot care. This means that you may not feel the injury: for example, you may not notice a foreign object in a shoe or a burn when warming your feet near a battery or in a foot bath until a wound has already formed.
2. Deformation of the toes and the arch of the foot. Damage to the nerve fibers can lead to deformation of the toes and the arch of the foot, which, in turn, can also result in ulcerative defects of the feet. As a rule, deformations are a consequence of wearing improperly selected shoes, which can also lead to increased calluses, the development of hyperkeratosis (a skin disease associated with an increased rate of cell division of the stratum corneum and a violation of the process of their desquamation).
If you have any changes: bones, flat feet, deformity of the fingers – ask your doctor where you can order or purchase orthopedic shoes.Wearing individual orthopedic shoes is a mandatory prevention of foot ulcers.
3. Decreased blood flow in the arteries of the lower extremities (atherosclerosis of the arteries of the lower extremities).
The main reasons for the development of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus are:
- poor blood sugar control;
- high blood pressure;
- increase or decrease in cholesterol levels;
The main symptom of atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries of the lower extremities is the occurrence of pain when walking – the so-called intermittent claudication.
If you are concerned about these symptoms, be sure to contact your doctor to find out the reasons.
To stop the progression of the atherosclerotic process, you must immediately quit smoking, control your blood pressure and take medications prescribed by your doctor regularly to maintain normal blood pressure.
In some cases, drugs that improve peripheral blood flow may be effective. Oftentimes, poor circulation can cause your feet to feel cold.
Remember that you cannot warm your feet on a radiator, near an open fire, or steaming in hot water – this can lead to the formation of burns and ulcerative defects, since you may also have neuropathy, i.e. you will not feel the heat. The best way to keep your feet warm is by wearing warm socks.
Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a combination of these complications of diabetes mellitus on the legs, which pose an immediate threat or development of ulcerative necrotic processes and gangrene of the foot.
To prevent the development of VTS, several rules must be observed:
- adequate control of blood sugar levels;
- blood pressure control and taking antihypertensive drugs.
- foot care.
Let’s talk about the last point in more detail. The resulting ulcerative defects and wounds in patients with diabetes are treated for a long time and not always successfully, which is associated with the peculiarities of the course of diabetes. Therefore, the prevention of such conditions is extremely important.
What should I do?
- Daily, independently or with family members, inspect feet, skin condition, including the spaces between the toes.
- Tell your doctor immediately if you have abrasions, cuts, cracks, scrapes, wounds, or other damage to the skin.
- Wash your feet daily with warm water (temperature below 37 C, check the water with your hand, not your foot), dry your feet gently with a soft towel, dabbing movements, not forgetting about the interdigital spaces.
- If you have keratinized skin, treat these areas with a pumice stone or a leather file (not metal). Do not use a razor or scissors for this purpose. And it is better to consult a specialist – a podiatrist who specializes in the treatment of feet in patients with diabetes.
- Do not use chemicals or patches to remove calluses or horny skin.
- For dry skin of the feet, after washing, lubricate them with a cream containing urea, except for the interdigital spaces.
- Carefully handle nails without rounding the corners, using a file (not metal).
- Use warm socks to keep your feet warm, not hot water bottles or hot water, which can cause sensitization burns.
- Wear seamless (or out-seamed) socks / tights made of cotton or other natural fabrics, and change them daily.
- Do not go barefoot at home or outdoors, do not wear shoes on your bare feet.
- Consult your orthopedic surgeon if you need to wear prophylactic or sophisticated orthopedic shoes.
- Inspect your shoes daily for any foreign object, or the insole wrapped, as this can lead to abrasion of the skin of the feet.
- If the skin is damaged (crack, scratch, cut), do not use alcohol and dye solutions. Use colorless aqueous antiseptic solutions for processing – Chlorhexidine, Dioxidine.
Take care of your feet and be healthy!
- “Algorithms for specialized medical care for patients with diabetes” Edited by I.