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Sugar level 500: Diabetic coma – Symptoms and causes

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Blood Sugar Over 500 What To Do – No. 2 Will Surprise You!

Last Updated on by Eat Better Move More

It is important to stay on top of your blood sugar levels. This especially true for those who are pre-diabetic, or have been diagnosed with diabetes.

However, keeping your blood sugar in range is something that has health benefits for anyone. 

Medical professionals usually provide those monitoring their blood sugar levels with a scale that includes information about blood sugars level ranges given in milligrams per deciliters (mg/dL).

What Level Of Blood Sugar Is Dangerous?

These are often individualized for each person’s unique body physiology, but nearly all people taking the time to monitor their blood sugar levels aim to keep their levels in a safe range — usually below 200 mg/dL. 

Hyperglycemia is the condition attributed to dangerously high levels of blood sugar. If you find your blood sugar much higher than the 200 mg/dL, you should take steps to lower it.

So if you find your blood sugar over 500 it requires immediate action. Here’s a list of suggestions of what to do.

Tip No. 1 – Call Your Doctor

Health professionals suggest calling your doctor if you are diabetic and your blood sugar level goes over 300 mg/dL. So a blood sugar level over 500 mg/dL is most often considered a medical emergency. 

Hyperglycemia can cause medical issues that can be fatal if untreated. Depending on the situation, you may not be able to handle the situation at home.

So make sure you check with a medical professional to ensure you do not need to visit the hospital.

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, it makes sense to consult an endocrinologist to construct an emergency plan. 

Tip No. 2 – Take Your Insulin

For those who have been prescribed fast-acting correction insulin, now is the time to take it.

When prescribing the medication, your healthcare provider or pharmacist should have included a correction factor — a measurement by which to estimate the impact on your blood sugar level.

For example, if you have a ratio of 1:25, then taking one dose should lower your blood sugar level by 25 points.

Examples of these fast-acting insulin correction medications include: Admelog, Afrezza, Apidra, Fiasp, Humalog and Novolog among others.

When taking these medications, remember that they may take as long as 2 hours to make an impact and can stay in your bloodstream for up to 4 hours.

Consider these impacts and adjust the rest of your daily routine to accommodate.

It’s important to check your urine for ketones during any blood sugar emergency. Anytime your blood sugar is above 250mg/dL, it is important to check for ketones, because they can cause complications from high blood sugar.

Tip No. 3 – How To Reduce Blood Sugar Level Immediately

Instead of injecting insulin into your body fat, injecting directly into your muscle tissue will create faster results. Talk to your doctor about adding this option as part of your emergency insulin administration plan. 

Tip No. 4 -Drink Some Water

Increased thirst is one of the first signs of hyperglycemia. So if you find yourself with a very dry mouth and very thirsty, you may be in trouble. It’s important to stay hydrated when monitoring your blood sugar levels.

Tip No. 5 – Foods That Lower Blood Sugar Instantly

A great way to stabilize high glucose is by eating a high protein snack. Dieticians recommend foods that are high in protein, contain healthy fats and are low in carbohydrates. 

Carbohydrates are broken down by the body into glucose, which is absorbed by the cells. So if you have problems with high blood sugar levels, it is important to maintain a diet low in carbohydrates as part of a healthy lifestyle. 

Fiber, on the other hand, is a food that helps your body maintain lower blood sugar levels. Talk to your dietician about building a diet that contains high-fiber foods like fruits, vegetables and whole grains.  

Tip No. 6 – Know the Signs

There are some common signs that your blood sugar is getting near the danger zone. These include:

  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Urinating more than usual
  • Fatigue and tiredness
  • Stomach aches
  • Short breath or difficulty with breathing
  • Dry mouth and strange ‘fruity’ odor

Blood Sugar Over 500 What To Do Final Tip No. 7 – Try to Exercise

Exercising makes your body better able to accept glucose into the bloodstream, and can therefore lower blood sugar levels for more than 24 hours as cells deliver glucose to muscles and tissues. When exercising, try to get your heart rate up for about 30 minutes.

It’s important to check your urine for ketones, because strenuous exercise above 250mg/dL can cause complications to hyperglycemia. 

Blood Sugar Over 500 What To Do Conclusion

If your blood sugar is over 500, it’s important to know what to do. Because this is in the danger zone in the blood sugar danger levels chart, the most important first step is to discuss the matter with a medical professional. If you have any of the danger signs listed above, you may need to get to the emergency room.

If you suffer from chronic hyperglycemia, try using the tips in this article to maintain a lower blood sugar level.

High Blood Sugar: Complications That Can Happen

If your blood sugar is too high for too long, it can cause serious health problems. It’s something to be careful of whether you have diabetes or not.

How high is too high? Your doctor will tell you what your target range should be and what to do if your levels aren’t in that range. If you have diabetes, you’ll need to check your blood sugar, also called glucose, to know if it’s too high, too low, or meets your goal.

The problems that high blood sugar can cause happen over time. The sooner you get your levels back in line, the better.

What High Blood Sugar Feels Like

The symptoms can include:

  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Blurred vision
  • Having to pee more often
  • Feeling hungrier than normal
  • Numb or tingling feet

You might also feel more tired than usual, get infections on your skin, or notice that cuts and sores take a long time to heal.

Tell your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

Complications

High glucose levels can affect you from head to toe. If they’re out of control for a long time, you could have some or all of the following:

  • Heart disease or heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Kidney damage
  • Nerve damage
  • Eye damage
  • Skin problems

When to Call Your Doctor

Pick up the phone if your blood sugar is high and you have any of these symptoms:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Vomiting
  • High levels of ketones in your urine
  • Extreme thirst or a very dry mouth
  • Having to pee too often
  • Dry or flushed skin
  • Breath that smells like fruit
  • Confusion

These are symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Your body burns glucose for energy. When your cells don’t get enough of it, they burn fat. That produces chemicals called ketones. When these build up, your blood becomes more acid-like. This can be life-threatening if it’s not treated.

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)

This mostly affects elderly people. As glucose builds up in your blood, your body tries to get rid of it through your urine.

At first, you pee a lot. Over time, you pee less, but when you do, it’s very dark. This condition can lead to dehydration, coma, and death.

Get medical help right away if you have any of these warning signs:

  • Blood sugar level over 600 mg/dL
  • Extreme thirst that may later go away
  • Warm, dry skin that doesn’t sweat
  • Fever over 101 F
  • Sleepiness or confusion
  • Weakness on one side of your body
  • Vision loss
  • Hallucinations

You can avoid many of these problems by keeping your blood sugar under control. Follow your doctor’s advice about diet and exercise, take your medicine, keep up with your doctor visits, and check your levels often.

What happens when your blood sugar is in the 500s?

Very high blood sugar above 400 mg/dL (22. 2 mmol/L) can be a medical emergency. A very high blood sugar can cause life-threatening problems, coma, or death. If you have type 1 diabetes, untreated high blood sugar can result in a dangerous problem called ketoacidosis, which is a buildup of acids in the blood.

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Considering this, what happens if blood sugar level is 500?

If blood sugar goes as high as 500 mg/dl, you may experience symptoms such as thirst, the urge to urinate more often, weight loss, low energy, and drowsiness, he says. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) occurs when levels fall to less than 70 mg/dl.

Likewise, how do you feel when your blood sugar is too high? The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Other symptoms that can occur with high blood sugar are: Headaches. Tiredness.

Also asked, what should I do if my blood sugar is over 500?

Keep these tips in mind:

  1. Follow your meal plan.
  2. Keep an eye on your blood sugar level.
  3. Take your medication as directed.
  4. Have a sick-day plan.
  5. Check for ketones when your blood sugar is high.
  6. Have glucagon and fast-acting sources of sugar available.

What level of blood sugar is dangerous?

Interpreting the results

Fasting blood sugar level Risk level and suggested action
90–120 mg/dl Normal range
120–160 mg/dl Medium: Seek medical attention
160–240 mg/dl Too high: Work to bring down blood sugar levels
240–300 mg/dl Much too high: This could be a sign of ineffective glucose management, so see a doctor

Diabetes-Related High and Low Blood Sugar Levels

Topic Overview

Diabetes-related blood sugar levels

When you have diabetes, you may have high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) from time to time. A cold, the flu, or other sudden illness can cause high blood sugar levels. You will learn to recognize the symptoms and distinguish between high and low blood sugar levels. Insulin and some types of diabetes medicines can cause low blood sugar levels.

Learn how to recognize and manage high and low blood sugar levels to help you avoid levels that can lead to medical emergencies, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or dehydration from high blood sugar levels or loss of consciousness from severe low blood sugar levels. Most high or low blood sugar problems can be managed at home by following your doctor’s instructions.

You can help avoid blood sugar problems by following your doctor’s instructions on the use of insulin or diabetes medicines, diet, and exercise. Home blood sugar testing will help you determine whether your blood sugar is within your target range. If you have had very low blood sugar, you may be tempted to let your sugar level run high so that you do not have another low blood sugar problem. But it is most important that you keep your blood sugar in your target range. You can do this by following your treatment plan and checking your blood sugar regularly.

Sometimes a pregnant woman can get diabetes during her pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes. Blood sugar levels are checked regularly during the pregnancy to keep levels within a target range.

Children who have diabetes need their parents’ help to keep their blood sugar levels in a target range and to exercise safely. Be sure that children learn the symptoms of both high and low blood sugar so they can tell others when they need help. There are many support groups and diabetes education centers to help parents and children understand about blood sugar, exercise, diet, and medicines.

Teens especially may have a hard time keeping their blood sugar levels in control because their bodies are growing and developing. Also, they want to be with their friends and eat foods that may affect their blood sugar. Having diabetes during the teenage years is not easy. But your teen is at an excellent age to understand the disease and its treatment and to take over some of the responsibilities of his or her care.

If your blood sugar level reads too high or too low but you are feeling well, you may want to recheck your sugar level or recalibrate your blood glucose meter. The problem may be with either your blood sample or the machine.

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia)

High blood sugar occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in your blood rises above your target range. Eating too many calories, missing medicines (insulin or pills), or having an infection or illness, injury, surgery, or emotional stress can cause your blood sugar to rise.

High blood sugar usually develops slowly over a period of hours to days. But missing a dose of insulin can cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels just above your target range may make you feel tired and thirsty. If your blood sugar level stays higher than your target range for weeks, your body will adjust to that level, and you may not have as many symptoms of high blood sugar.

Unless you don’t monitor your blood sugar regularly or you don’t notice the symptoms of high blood sugar, you usually will have time to treat high blood sugar so that you can prevent high blood sugar emergencies. Three things can help you prevent high blood sugar problems:

  • Test your blood sugar often, especially if you are sick or are not following your normal routine. You can see when your blood sugar is above your target range, even if you don’t have symptoms of high blood sugar such as increased thirst, increased urination, and fatigue. Then you can treat it early, preventing an emergency.
  • Call your doctor if you have frequent high blood sugar levels or if your blood sugar level is consistently staying above your target range. Your medicine may need to be adjusted or changed.
  • Drink extra water or noncaffeinated, non-sugared drinks so you will not be dehydrated. If your blood sugar continues to rise, your kidneys will increase the amount of urine produced, and you can become dehydrated.

Complications of high blood sugar can cause serious problems, including coma and death. Over time, high blood sugar can damage your eyes, heart, kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)

Low blood sugar occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in your blood drops below what your body needs. Not eating enough food or skipping meals, taking too much medicine (insulin or pills), exercising more than usual, or taking certain medicines that lower blood sugar can cause your blood sugar to drop rapidly. Do not drink alcohol if you have problems recognizing the early signs of low blood sugar.

People who lose weight or develop kidney problems may not need as much insulin or other medicines as they did before they lost the weight or developed kidney problems. Their blood sugar may drop too low. Be sure to check your blood sugar often when your body goes through changes.

When your blood sugar level drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), you will usually have symptoms of low blood sugar. This can develop quickly, in 10 to 15 minutes.

  • If your blood sugar level drops just slightly below your target range (mild low blood sugar), you may feel tired, anxious, weak, shaky, or sweaty, and you may have a rapid heart rate. If you eat something that contains sugar, these symptoms may last only a short time. If you have diabetes, you may not always notice symptoms of mild low blood sugar. This is called hypoglycemia unawareness. If your blood sugar is well controlled and does not change much during the day, you may have an increased risk for hypoglycemic unawareness.
  • If your blood sugar level continues to drop (usually below 40 mg/dL), your behavior may change, and you may feel more irritable. You may become too weak or confused to eat something with sugar to raise your blood sugar level. Anytime your blood sugar drops below 50 mg/dL, you should act whether you have symptoms or not.
  • If your blood sugar level drops very low (usually below 20 mg/dL), you may lose consciousness or have a seizure. If you have symptoms of severe low blood sugar, you need medical care immediately.

You may have symptoms of low blood sugar if your blood sugar drops from a high level to a lower level. For example, if your blood sugar level has been higher than 300 mg/dL for a week or so and the level drops suddenly to 100 mg/dL, you may have symptoms of low blood sugar even though your blood sugar is in the target range. But if you have had diabetes for many years, you may not have symptoms of low blood sugar until your blood sugar level is very low.

If your doctor thinks you have low blood sugar levels but you are not having symptoms, he or she may ask you to check your blood sugar more often. Your doctor may ask you to check your blood sugar in the middle of the night or to do a 3-day test using a continuous glucose monitor.

Check Your Symptoms

How old are you?

Less than 3 years

Less than 3 years

3 years or older

3 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Did you pass out completely (lose consciousness)?

If you are answering for someone else: Is the person unconscious now?

(If you are answering this question for yourself, say no. )

Are you back to your normal level of alertness?

After passing out, it’s normal to feel a little confused, weak, or lightheaded when you first wake up or come to. But unless something else is wrong, these symptoms should pass pretty quickly and you should soon feel about as awake and alert as you normally do.

Yes

Has returned to normal after loss of consciousness

No

Has returned to normal after loss of consciousness

Did the loss of consciousness occur during the past 24 hours?

Yes

Loss of consciousness in past 24 hours

No

Loss of consciousness in past 24 hours

Do you have a plan for dealing with low blood sugar?

If you haven’t used your plan or don’t have one, take steps to get your blood sugar back up.

Yes

Has plan for managing low blood sugar

No

Has plan for managing low blood sugar

Are your symptoms:

It may take up to 30 minutes after you eat a quick-sugar food before you can tell how it is affecting your blood sugar.

Getting worse?

Symptoms are getting worse

Staying the same (not worse or better)?

Symptoms are the same

Getting better?

Symptoms are getting better

Are you concerned that you are having episodes of low blood sugar more often than in the past?

Yes

Increased episodes of low blood sugar

No

Increased episodes of low blood sugar

Are you having trouble drinking enough to replace the fluids you’ve lost?

Little sips of fluid usually are not enough. You need to be able to take in and keep down plenty of fluids.

Yes

Unable to maintain fluid intake

No

Able to maintain fluid intake

Has there been a decrease in how alert or aware you are or how well you can think and respond?

Yes

Decreased level of consciousness

No

Decreased level of consciousness

Is your blood sugar high?

If you are an adult, is your blood sugar >600 mg/dL? If you are younger than 18, is your blood sugar >250 mg/dL?

Be sure to double-check a high blood sugar. If it’s not higher than the number given for your age group but you’re worried about it anyway, answer yes.

Yes

Blood sugar over 600 mg/dL

No

Blood sugar over 600 mg/dL

Does your urine contain a moderate to large amount of ketones?

Ketones are a sign that your blood sugar is getting out of control. There is a urine test for ketones that you can do at home.

Yes

Moderate to large amount of ketones in urine

No, or you haven’t tested your urine

Less than moderate amount of ketones in urine (or has not tested urine)

Do you have a plan for dealing with high blood sugar?

Yes

Has plan for managing blood sugar

No

Has plan for managing blood sugar

Is the plan helping get your blood sugar under control?

Yes

Plan is helping get blood sugar under control

No

Plan is helping get blood sugar under control

Are you concerned that you are having episodes of high blood sugar more often than in the past?

Yes

Increased episodes of high blood sugar

No

Increased episodes of high blood sugar

Have you been sick with anything worse than a cold for more than 2 days?

Yes

Sick for more than 2 days

No

Sick for more than 2 days

Are you concerned about how to keep your blood sugar in the target range?

Yes

Concerns about managing blood sugar

No

Concerns about managing blood sugar

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Symptoms of serious illness may include:

  • A severe headache.
  • A stiff neck.
  • Mental changes, such as feeling confused or much less alert.
  • Extreme fatigue (to the point where it’s hard for you to function).
  • Shaking chills.

Symptoms of serious illness in a baby may include the following:

  • The baby is limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • The baby doesn’t respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • The baby is hard to wake up.

You can get dehydrated when you lose a lot of fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel tired and edgy (mild dehydration), or you may feel weak, not alert, and not able to think clearly (severe dehydration).
  • You may pass less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or you may not be passing urine at all (severe dehydration).

Severe dehydration means:

  • Your mouth and eyes may be extremely dry.
  • You may pass little or no urine for 12 or more hours.
  • You may not feel alert or be able to think clearly.
  • You may be too weak or dizzy to stand.
  • You may pass out.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • You may be a lot more thirsty than usual.
  • Your mouth and eyes may be drier than usual.
  • You may pass little or no urine for 8 or more hours.
  • You may feel dizzy when you stand or sit up.

Mild dehydration means:

  • You may be more thirsty than usual.
  • You may pass less urine than usual.

Severe dehydration means:

  • The baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up.
  • The baby may have a very dry mouth and very dry eyes (no tears).
  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 12 or more hours.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 6 hours.
  • The baby may have a dry mouth and dry eyes (fewer tears than usual).

Mild dehydration means:

  • The baby may pass a little less urine than usual.

Early symptoms of low blood sugar may include:

  • Sweating.
  • Feeling nervous, shaky, and weak.
  • Extreme hunger and slight nausea.
  • Dizziness and headache.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Confusion.

If blood sugar continues to drop, you may start to have more severe symptoms.

You can test for ketones at home using special tablets or test strips. Ketones are substances made by the body when it burns fat instead of sugar. They are a sign that your blood sugar is out of control.

To do the urine test:

  • Collect a urine sample in a clean container.
  • Follow the directions on the test.
  • If either the test strip or the urine changes color when the tablet is dropped into the sample, the urine sample contains ketones.
  • Test results may range from negative to 4+, from small to large, or from low to high. (For tests that read from negative to 4+, more than 1+ means that you have a moderate to large amount of ketones in your urine.)

Some home blood sugar meters can also measure blood ketones. You use the same finger-prick method that you use to measure blood sugar.

Symptoms of infection may include:

  • Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or around the area.
  • Red streaks leading from the area.
  • Pus draining from the area.
  • A fever.

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis may include:

  • Flushed, hot, dry skin.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Drowsiness or difficulty waking up.
  • Fast, deep breathing.
  • Fruity breath odor.
  • Belly pain, loss of appetite, and vomiting.
  • Confusion.

Here is what you can do to treat low blood sugar. If at any point during these steps you think you are getting worse, seek care immediately.

  • Eat some quick-sugar food, such as 3 to 4 glucose tablets, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of honey, ½ to ¾ cup (4 to 6 ounces) of fruit juice or regular (not diet) soda pop, or hard candy (such as 6 Life Savers).
  • Wait about 15 minutes. Then check your blood sugar.
    • If your blood sugar is above 70 and your symptoms have improved, you can go back to your regular schedule of meals and snacks.
    • If your blood sugar is still low, eat another quick-sugar food, wait 15 minutes, and check your blood sugar again. If your blood sugar is still below 70, you may need medical care soon.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Home Treatment

Manage your blood sugar level

When you have diabetes, whether it is type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes, one of the most important skills you will learn is how to manage your blood sugar level.

Following your doctor’s instructions on the use of insulin or diabetes medicines, diet, and exercise will help you avoid blood sugar problems. You will learn to recognize the symptoms and distinguish between high and low blood sugar levels. It may be hard for a parent of a young child to distinguish the difference between high and low blood sugar symptoms in a child.

When you have learned to recognize high or low blood sugar levels, you can take the appropriate steps to bring your blood sugar level back to your target blood sugar levels.

People who keep their blood sugar levels under control with diet, exercise, or oral diabetes medicines are less likely to have problems with high or low blood sugar levels. Do not drink alcohol if you have problems recognizing the early signs of low blood sugar.

Learn how to deal with high blood sugar levels

Be sure to know the steps for dealing with high blood sugar and how fast your insulin medicine will work to bring your blood sugar down. Some insulins work very fast while regular insulin takes a little longer to bring the sugar level down. Knowing how fast your insulin works will keep you from using too much too quickly.

Learn how to deal with low blood sugar levels

Because you have diabetes and can have low blood sugar levels, you need to keep some type of food with you at all times that can quickly raise your blood sugar level. These should be quick-sugar foods (about 15 grams of carbohydrate). Be sure to check your blood sugar level again 15 minutes after eating a quick-sugar (carbohydrate) food to make sure your level is getting back to your target range. If you continue to have low blood sugar, take another 15 grams of carbohydrate. When your blood sugar gets to 70 mg/dL or higher, you can eat your normal meals and snacks. Eat a small snack if your next meal or snack is more than a few hours away.

Foods to help raise blood sugar

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Food

Amount

Glucose tablets

3–4 tablets

Glucose gel

1 tube

Table sugar

1 tablespoon (3 teaspoons)

Fruit juice or regular soda pop

½–¾ cup (4–6 ounces)

Fat-free milk

1 cup (8 ounces)

Honey

1 tablespoon (3 teaspoons)

Jellybeans

10–15

Raisins

2 tablespoons

Gum drops

10

Candy like Life Savers

5–7 pieces

Hard candy (like Jolly Rancher)

3 pieces

It is important to know that sugar foods like a candy bar or ice cream do not help raise low blood sugar levels quickly, because these foods also have fat and protein. So the body can’t use the sugar (carbohydrate) in these foods quickly to raise the blood sugar level.

You can get low blood sugar from using too much insulin or from other medicines you take.

Parents need to help their child learn to treat a low blood sugar level.

Pregnant women who have gestational diabetes also need to know how to deal with a low blood sugar level.

Since low blood sugar levels can quickly become a medical emergency, be sure to wear medical identification, such as a medical alert bracelet, to let people know you have diabetes so they can get help for you.

If you have severe symptoms of low blood sugar, someone else may need to give you a shot of glucagon. If this occurs, be sure to call your doctor immediately to let him or her know this has happened.

Symptoms to watch for during home treatment

Call your doctor if any of the following occur during home treatment:

Prevention

Take steps to control your blood sugar level

Although high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) have very different symptoms and treatments, they are both caused by blood sugar and insulin imbalances. The steps you take to control your blood sugar level will help prevent both high and low blood sugar levels.

Be sure to have identification that says you have diabetes, such as a medical alert bracelet, with you at all times. This will help other people take steps to care for you if you are not able tell them about your medical condition.

You can take steps to prevent high and low blood sugar emergencies.

  • Follow your treatment plan.
  • Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly to detect early changes before an emergency develops. Treat your symptoms of high or low blood sugar quickly to prevent more problems.
  • Control your stress to prevent your blood sugar level from increasing slowly over several days.
  • Limit how much alcohol you drink. Do not drink alcohol if you have problems recognizing the early signs of low blood sugar.
  • Take precautions when you are driving and do not drive if your blood sugar is below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

Monitoring and controlling blood sugar levels

Use home blood sugar tests to determine whether your blood sugar is in your target range. Work with your doctor to set your individual treatment goals. If you can consistently maintain this level of control, you will have very few blood sugar level emergencies.

Parents can help their child learn how to prevent low blood sugar levels and high blood sugar levels.

Control stress

No matter how skilled you are at monitoring and controlling your blood sugar levels, you are still at risk for high or low blood sugar levels that are brought on by stressful situations. Stress can affect your body’s blood sugar levels in two ways:

  • It can increase hormones that may cause your blood sugar to go up.
  • It can cause you to change the way you take care of yourself, a problem for all people with diabetes.

Stress can be both mental and physical. Some examples of stress include an illness, a bad day at work, and a tough problem at home. When you are under stress, your blood sugar levels change. For more information, see the topic Stress Management.

Blood sugar levels and exercise

You can keep your blood sugar levels under control when you exercise, so that you do not become too hungry or make your blood sugar level drop. There are two ways to keep your blood sugar levels under control:

  1. At the meal before your planned exercise, you can take less insulin, OR
  2. Before you exercise, eat some carbohydrate.

Keep a quick-sugar food with you during exercise in case your blood sugar level drops low.

Vaccinations

Your doctor may recommend that you get vaccinations, such as a flu vaccine or pneumococcal vaccine, to prevent you from those illnesses.

Other places to get help

The American Diabetes Association has a lot of information on diabetes and can link you to support groups. For more information, call 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383) or see the organization’s website: www.diabetes.org/home.

Preparing For Your Appointment

Questions to prepare for doctor appointment

You can help your doctor treat your condition by being prepared to answer the following questions:

  • What steps did you take to correct your high or low blood sugar level? Did they help?
  • Have you had signs of another illness?
  • Have you made any recent changes in your diet, exercise, or medicines?
  • What other prescription and nonprescription medicines do you take?
  • Have you recently had increased emotional or physical stress?
  • Have you noticed situations that trigger or may cause your high or low blood sugar problem?
  • Have you noticed any patterns, such as time of day, when your high or low blood sugar problem occurs?
  • Have you used a high blood sugar card ? If so, be sure to bring it when you see your doctor.
  • Do you have other health risks?

Be sure to take your daily blood sugar (glucose) monitoring logbook to your appointment. If you have specific records of your high and low blood sugar problems, be sure to take those records.

Parents will also need to keep records of their child’s high or low blood sugar problems to share with their child’s doctor.

References

Citations

  1. Warshaw H, Kulkarni K (2011). The Complete Guide to Carb Counting, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association.
  2. American Diabetes Association (2013). Carbs: Fast! Diabetes Forecast. http://www.diabetesforecast.org/diabetes-101/carbs-fast.html. Accessed April 21, 2016.
  3. American Diabetes Association (2015). Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hypoglycemia-low-blood.html. Accessed April 21, 2016.

Credits

Current as of:
February 26, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine

Current as of: February 26, 2020

Author:
Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine

Blood sugar 500 mg/dl after-eating – good or bad?

We help you interpret your blood sugar values. You have tested your blood sugar after eating and the result was 500 mg/dl. The corresponding A1C is 19%. Let’s have a look at the blood sugar gauge:

Your result is:

Very High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia / Dangerous)

To improve your blood sugar after eating you need to
lower your blood glucose level by 360mg/dl.

Your blood sugar level (up to 2 hours) after eating should always be below 140mg/dl but not fall below 80mg/dl.

It is normal for blood sugar levels to rise immediately after a meal. The increased glucose is a product of the carbohydrates in the food that was just consumed. The higher blood glucose triggers the pancreas to produce more insulin.

Blood Sugar after eating

This release of insulin usually takes place within about 10 minutes of eating. The insulin removes the glucose from the blood and stores it for the body to use as energy. In a healthy individual, blood glucose levels should return to a normal level within about two hours after finishing the meal. In diabetics, the blood sugar level often remain elevated for a longer period because of the body’s inability to produce or utilize insulin properly.An elevated two-hour postprandial (after a meal) blood sugar may indicate diabetes or prediabetes. As a general rule, a normal two- hour postprandial blood sugar is as follows:

• Age 50 and under: Less than 140 mg/dl
• Age 50 – 60: Less than 150 mg/dl
• Over age 60: Less than 160 mg/dl

A doctor may recommend different postprandial blood sugar levels based on an individual’s particular circumstances and health history.

Several factors may cause a person’s postprandial blood sugar to remain elevated.

• Smoking after the meal: Studies show that smoking raises blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
• Extreme stress: Stress produces the body’s fight-or-flight response triggering the release of stress hormones such as cortisol. These hormones cause the body to release the glucose it has previously stored for energy.
• Eating or drinking after the meal and before testing the blood sugar: Continuing to eat will keep blood sugars closer to their immediate post-meal levels.

Studies show that 15 to 20 minutes of moderate exercise, such as walking, shortly after a meal may improve glucose metabolism and reduce postprandial glucose levels.


Covid causes sugar spike, docs worried

Hospitals find dangerously high sugar levels in many non-diabetic Covid patients; KEM doctors launch study.

Top doctors across public and private hospitals in Mumbai are reporting cases of non-diabetic Covid-19 patients developing uncontrolled sugar levels, complicating the management of the infection and, in some cases, proving to be fatal.

A team of doctors at KEM has now begun studying the phenomenon, hoping to find answers to what causes the “sugar spike” and whether it could, apart from immediate risk to a patient, have longterm implications.

Even before Covid entered our lives, India had been bearing the brunt of diabetes. India has an estimated 77 million people with diabetes, making the country second-most affected in the world, after China. Experts say one in six people (17%) in the world with diabetes is from India. Worryingly, the number is projected to grow by 2045 to become 134 million, according to the International Diabetes Federation.

KEM Dean Dr Hemant Deshmukh told Mumbai Mirror on Friday that while the mortality rate of Covid-19 patients who are aged above 60 and have existing co-morbidities has improved, hospitals are now seeing a lot of younger Covid-19 patients – aged 25 to 55 – arriving with extremely high blood sugar levels.

Just last week, a 43-year-old man, who has tested positive for Covid-19, was admitted to Mulund’s Fortis Hospital with highgrade fever and body-ache. Though the patient had no history of diabetes, his blood sugar level at the time of admission was 480 mg/dL. A blood sugar level of under 140 mg/dL is considered normal.

On the first day in the ward, he was administered intermittent subcutaneous insulin, but his sugar level remained dangerously high. He was moved to the ICU the next day and doctors started insulin infusion to control his blood glucose and began giving him long-acting insulin in the night. The patient’s Covid-19 symptoms settled down over the next three-four days and parallely his insulin requirement also dropped. He was eventually moved to the ward with much lower insulin dependence and discharged in two weeks.

Dr Rahul Pandit, Director-Intensive Care, Fortis Hospital, who is also a member of state government-appointed Covid-19 Task Force, said over the past two months he has seen many similar cases of non-diabetic patients developing high sugar levels after contracting coronavirus. “We are trying to understand what is causing this sugar spike and we have some answers, but it is still early days,” he said.

Senior endocrinologist and diabetologist Dr Shashank Joshi, who is also a member of the Task Force, said doctors in India and abroad are studying the link between Covid-19 and hyperglycemia. In Mumbai too, an extensive study is underway, including follow up with recovered patients to check if they develop diabetes later.

What doctors know so far is this:

♦ Stress management mechanism of human body when triggered can lead to blood glucose levels shooting up and fever or a virulent infection can act as a trigger.

♦ Covid-19 virus displays an affinity for the ACE2 receptors and its spike protein attaches itself to these receptors. Initially thought to be present only in lungs, researchers now know ACE2 receptors are present in the other organs too, including the Pancreas, the organ responsible for production of insulin. The spike protein by attaching itself to the ACE2 receptors causes dysregulation of the blood glucose in the body, thereby leading to high blood glucose levels.

Dr Jeenam Shah, a pulmonologist attached to Bhatia Hospital and Wockhardt Hospital, said he had seen diseases, infection, injury or stress causing blood sugar levels to go off-track, but the kind of elevation seen in Covid-19 cases is highly unusual.

Dr Vimal Pahuja, metabolic physician at L H Hiranandani Hospital, Powai, said doctors have now begun making the reverse diagnosis. “If we see a patient with his sugar levels but no history of diabetes, we suspect it to be a Covid-19 case,” he said.

Dr Pahuja said he saw a 35-yearold patient last month who, when admitted, had sugar levels touching 330 mg/dL. He also had cough a fever. The patient eventually tested positive for Covid-19 and despite being put on treatment, his blood sugar levels touched 500 mg/dL. His sugar levels dropped after he was given 150 to 200 units of insulin every day for ten days.

If the trend of Covid resulting in blood sugar spike in non-diabetic patients continue, Mumbai’s healthcare experts will have a new challenge on their hands, something the city can do without.

RUDRAA FOREVER Suagr care juice to control sugar level and keeps body healthy Price in India

Diabetes( Sugar) is a disease or condition in which the body does not properly process food for use as energy. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. It occurs when your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Cause of diabetes:- Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. Rudraa Forever Sugar care juice 500ml helps to control sugar level and keeps body healthy. Rudraa Forever Sugar Care juice contains extracts of Jamun, Aloe Vera, Karela, Amla, Harar, beda and gilloy. All these ingredients have a miraculous effect on diabetes. Jamun- It is an astringent, anti-diuretic, which helps reduce frequent urination, has hypoglycemic properties, which is the ability to reduce sugar in blood and has antioxidants that make them amazing for diabetics. Karela- It contains an insulin-like compound called Polypeptide-p or p-insulin which has been shown to control diabetes naturally. Amla- It contains polyphenols that have properties, which are known to protect our body from oxidative stress caused by high blood sugar. Amla is effective in assisting proper absorption of insulin and further result in a drop in blood sugar levels. Giloy- It acts as a hypoglycaemic agent and helps treat diabetes (particularly Type 2 diabetes)”. Giloy juice helps reduce high levels of blood. Aloe vera- It improves digestion of foods; lowers inflammation found responsible in the auto-immune cycle that may reduce natural insulin levels from the pancreas and also the high trace mineral content found in Aloe Vera may help replenish deficiencies. Haritaki- The production of insulin from the pancreatic ?-cells become active on consumption of the haritaki or harar . It also helps to reduce the breakdown of starch into glucose which in turn regulates the secretion of insulin and leads to low blood glucose level. Vibhitaki- It is high in gallic acid and ellagic acid, two phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on blood sugar levels, insulin sensitivity and body weight.

norm, reasons for increasing and decreasing glucose levels in human blood

Glucose and metabolites of carbohydrate metabolism play an important role in providing energy to body tissues and in cellular respiration. Prolonged increase or decrease in its content leads to serious consequences that threaten human health and life. Therefore, doctors attach great importance to the control of blood glucose levels.

Several hormones affect its concentration in the blood at once – insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, thyrotropin, T3 and T4, cortisol and adrenaline.For diagnostic purposes, it is important to know the reference values, as well as deviations from the norm and what such indicators indicate. In addition to glucose, there are other markers of blood sugar: fructosamine, glycated hemoglobin, lactate, and others. But first things first.

Glucose in human blood

Like any other carbohydrate, sugar cannot be directly absorbed by the body and requires splitting into glucose using special enzymes with the ending “-ase” and bearing the unifying name of glycosyl hydrolases (glycosidases), or sucrases …”Hydro-” in the name of a group of enzymes indicates that the breakdown of sucrose into glucose occurs only in an aqueous medium. Various sucrases are produced in the pancreas and small intestine, where they are absorbed into the blood as glucose.

Good to know!

Sugar, or sucrose (beet, cane sugar), being a multisaccharide, consists of two monosaccharides – fructose and glucose [1]. Other sugars are also subject to decomposition to glucose – maltose (malt sugar), lactose (milk), nigerose (black rice), trehalose (mushroom), turanose (honey), cellobiose (woody birch), and so on.Starch, pectin, inulin and other complex carbohydrates are also broken down to glucose, gradually decreasing in molecular weight in the process of enzymatic hydrolysis, but this process is slower. Hence the name – slow carbohydrates.

So, glucose (dextrose) is formed by the breakdown of carbohydrate compounds into simple monosaccharides. It is absorbed by the small intestine. Its main (but not the only) source is carbohydrate-rich foods. It is extremely important for the human body that the amount of sugar is maintained at a constant normal level, as this substance supplies energy to the cells.It is of particular importance for skeletal muscles, heart and brain, which need energy the most.

If the sugar content is outside the normal range, then:

  • energy starvation of cells occurs, as a result of which their functionality is significantly reduced; if a person has chronic hypoglycemia (low glucose), then damage to the brain and nerve cells may occur;
  • Excess substances are deposited in tissue proteins , causing their damage (in case of hyperglycemia – an increased glucose content – they undergo destruction of the tissues of the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels and the nervous system).

The unit of change for glucose is millimole per liter (mmol / L). Its level depends on the time of day, on a person’s diet, his motor and intellectual activity, the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, which has a sugar-reducing effect, as well as the intensity of the production of hormones that neutralize insulin.

Note!

The human body always keeps a certain amount of energy in reserve.This means that he receives glucose not only from the outside (from food), but also from his own intracellular sources – in the form of glycogen. Glycogen, sometimes called animal or human starch, is found in large quantities in liver cells called hepatocytes. Up to 6% of the cell mass and up to 120 grams in the total weight of the liver are glycogen granules [2]. Its significant reserves are located in the heart (up to 1% of cell weight) and other muscle tissue, but only for local consumption.The liver, on the other hand, is able to provide energy to the entire body, and not just itself.

There is another internal source of glucose – it is activated when glycogen stores are depleted, which usually happens after a day of fasting or earlier – as a result of severe nervous and physical exertion. This process is called gluconeogenesis [3] , it is designed to synthesize glucose from:

  • lactic acid (lactate) , formed in loaded muscles and erythrocytes;
  • glycerol , obtained by the body after fermentation of adipose tissue;
  • amino acids – they are formed as a result of the breakdown of muscle tissue (proteins).

The scenario of obtaining glucose from amino acids is considered dangerous to human health and life, since the “eating” by the body of its own muscle mass can affect an organ such as the heart, as well as the smooth muscles of the intestines, blood vessels.

Blood test for glucose (sugar): the norm of indicators

The study of sugar levels is carried out in several ways, for each of which there are corresponding indications. Determining the concentration of this substance allows you to diagnose a number of serious diseases.What is the rate of blood sugar?

Fasting blood sugar

This test is taken after 8-14 hours of fasting. Blood is drawn from a vein. The general norm of glycemia in adults is 4.1–6.1 mmol / l, in children under 14 years old – 3.3–5.6 mmol / l. In women during pregnancy, indicators can reach 4.1–5.1 mmol / l [4].

Detection of glucose on an empty stomach in a volume of 7.0 mmol / l and above is a reason for additional laboratory tests, including hormones and enzymes.

Blood sugar “loaded” with glucose

If the results of a standard analysis for sugar cause doubts among specialists, then a glucose tolerance test is performed. It can also be performed to detect diabetes and various disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.

Such a study is indicated in the presence of clinical signs of diabetes, combined with normal blood glucose levels, with periodic detection of sugar in the urine, an increase in the daily amount of urine, a hereditary tendency to diabetes or the presence of retinopathy of unexplained origin.Such an analysis is recommended for women who have given birth to children weighing more than four kilograms, as well as their children.

During the examination, blood is taken from the patient on an empty stomach, and then he takes 75 grams of glucose dissolved in tea. For children, the dosage is calculated using the formula 1.75 g / kg. Re-analysis is carried out one to two hours after taking the drug, while the blood sugar content should not exceed 7.8 mmol / l. If the plasma glucose level two hours after administration in the oral glucose tolerance test is 11.1 mmol / L or higher, this is a possible indication of diabetes mellitus [5].If the glucose concentration is below 11.1 mmol / l, but above 7.8 mmol / l, we can talk about impaired glucose tolerance [6].

Glycated hemoglobin

Compound of erythrocyte hemoglobin with glucose. Measuring the concentration of glycated hemoglobin allows you to determine the blood sugar level for the last two or three months. For analysis, a biomaterial is taken from a patient after a two- or three-hour fast. The advantages of this analysis include the fact that its results are not affected by the emotional state or the presence of infections in the patient, and there is no need to interrupt medication.

Glycated hemoglobin is measured as a percentage of the total hemoglobin. The level of less than 6% is considered the norm. A value of 6.5% or more is a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus [7].

Fructosamine

It is a combination of glucose with plasma proteins, which allows you to determine the average sugar content over the last two to three weeks. For analysis, venous blood is taken from the patient after an eight-hour fast. The normal concentration of fructosamine is less than 319 μmol / L.

For a retrospective assessment of the patient’s condition, the content of glycated hemoglobin is most often determined (the analysis shows the glucose concentration for three months), and the measurement of the concentration of fructosamine is prescribed when it is necessary to assess the patient’s condition over the past few weeks, in particular:

  • with a sharp change in the treatment plan diabetes;
  • during pregnancy in women with diabetes;
  • in patients with anemia (in their case, the study for glycated hemoglobin does not give accurate results).

If a value above 370 μmol / L is recorded, this may indicate decompensation of carbohydrate metabolism, renal failure, hypothyroidism, or an increase in class A immunoglobulin (IgA). If fructosamine is below 286 μmol / l, this is a reason to suspect hypoproteinemia (hypoalbuminemia) in nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, hyperthyroidism; also such a result may indicate abuse of ascorbic acid.

C-peptide

It is a constituent of the secretion of the pancreas, which allows the assessment of insulin production.Measuring the amount of this substance makes it possible to diagnose diabetes and evaluate the effectiveness of its treatment. C-peptide and insulin are produced in an equal ratio, but the concentration of C-peptide is constant and does not depend on the level of glucose in the blood of a person. Accordingly, the determination of its amount allows you to accurately assess the production of insulin. Normal fasting C-peptide values ​​vary widely – 260–1730 pmol / L.

An increase is observed after eating, hormonal drugs, glucocorticosteroids, contraceptives and some other means.If these factors are excluded, it is worth checking for the presence of diseases and conditions such as beta cell hypertrophy, insulinoma, the presence of antibodies to insulin, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, somatotropinoma (pituitary tumor), apudoma (a tumor that uncontrollably produces insulin into the blood), renal failure … A low level of C-peptide may indicate insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin therapy, alcoholic hypoglycemia, stress, the presence of antibodies to insulin receptors (with insulin-resistant type II diabetes mellitus).

Why can my blood glucose be increased or decreased?

So, increased blood glucose is observed in the presence of diseases of the endocrine system, pancreas, kidneys and liver, heart attack and stroke, diabetes mellitus. Almost the same reasons, only with the opposite sign, lead to a decrease in blood glucose. Sugar can be lowered in pathologies of the pancreas, some endocrine diseases, insulin overdose, severe liver disease, malignant tumors, fermentopathy, autonomic disorders, alcohol and chemical poisoning, taking steroids and amphetamines, fever and intense physical exertion.Hypoglycemia can occur with prolonged fasting, as well as in premature babies and babies born to diabetic mothers.

This is interesting!

Of all human organs, the brain consumes the most energy, which means glucose. Although it weighs only 2% of body weight, it uses about half of the glucose produced by the liver and released into the blood [8].

How do I get my blood sugar back to normal?

In case of slight deviations from the norm of glucose in the blood, it is recommended to correct the diet.Patients with hyperglycemia need to limit the intake of carbohydrates from food. The “prohibited” group includes sugar-containing foods, white bread, pasta, potatoes, wine and sparkling drinks. At the same time, you should increase your intake of foods that lower sugar levels (cabbage, tomatoes, onions, cucumbers, eggplants, pumpkin, spinach, celery, beans, and others).

Patients with diabetes are advised to adhere to diet No. 9. The use of sugar substitutes, in particular sucrasite, aspartame and saccharin, is allowed.However, they can make you feel hungry and, in some cases, upset stomach and intestines. The permissible dosage of these funds should be determined by the doctor.

With hypoglycemia , increase the intake of proteins, which are found in large quantities in nuts, beans, dairy products and lean meats. Prevention of hypo- and hyperglycemia consists in adherence to the diet and adequate physical activity.

If the increase in sugar is explained by diseases of the organs involved in glucose turnover, then such diabetes is considered to be secondary .In this case, it must be treated simultaneously with the underlying disease (cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, a tumor of the liver, pituitary gland, pancreas).

If the level of hyperglycemia is low, the doctor may prescribe medications that smoothly lower the sugar level, but do not increase the production of insulin. With confirmed insulin deficiency, patients are prescribed insulins, which are injected subcutaneously. Their dosage is calculated by the endocrinologist individually for each patient.

The glucose level is an important indicator that reflects the state of the body’s metabolic processes and signals a number of serious problems. To avoid complications, blood sugar values ​​should not be allowed to go beyond the normal range. Therefore, it is important to regularly undergo an appropriate examination.

All information related to health and medicine is presented for informational purposes only and is not a reason for self-diagnosis or self-medication.

What is the blood sugar rate and what to do if it is high or low

Why do you need blood sugar

In fact, we are not talking about sugar, but about glucose. Sugar, like any other carbohydrate, is not directly absorbed by the body: it is broken down in the intestine to simple sugars (monosaccharides) and enters the bloodstream as glucose.

A healthy person weighing 70 kg always contains approximately 1 teaspoon (4 grams) of glucose in the blood.

This substance is the main source of energy for all cells in the body. It is thanks to him that we have the strength to breathe, move, learn and think.

How blood sugar is measured and what is considered the norm

In international practice, blood sugar (glycemia) is measured in the so-called molar concentration – millimoles per liter (mmol / L). In the United States, Germany and some other countries, is also common mass concentration – in milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl).To convert one concentration to another, it is enough to remember the following equation: 1 mmol / L = 18 mg / dL.

A blood sugar test is done on an empty stomach – usually in the morning. This is important because any food you eat can raise your glucose levels.

You can take the analysis from a finger or from a vein. Venous blood tests give more accurate results.

The norm of glucose in blood taken on an empty stomach from a vein is from 3.9 to 5.6 mmol / l (70-100 mg / dl).

If the test result is abnormal, this means the following:

  • From 5.6 to 6.9 mmol / L – the so-called prediabetes.This is a mild rise in blood sugar, which means that there are processes in your body that increase your risk of developing diabetes.
  • 7 mmol / L and above – hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose). Most often, the violation speaks of diabetes mellitus.
  • Below 3.9 mmol / L – hypoglycemia (decreased blood glucose). This is also an unhealthy condition that can be a sign of a number of disorders in the body.

Please note: when analyzing blood from a finger, the normal values ​​shift – up to the range of 3.3–5.5 mmol / l.

Why does blood sugar change

The body regulates the amount of glucose in the blood with the help of:

  • enzymes that help break down carbohydrates in the intestines and thus affect the rate at which glucose enters the bloodstream;
  • Hormones that determine how quickly the cells in the body will consume sugar from the blood.

The necessary enzymes are produced by the pancreas. It also produces insulin, a key hormone that allows cells to metabolize glucose.If there is too little insulin, or, for example, the cells for some reason stop responding to it (this is called insulin resistance), the blood sugar level rises. In the first situation, they speak of type 1 diabetes, in the second, type 2 diabetes.

The work also affects glycemia:

  • liver and kidneys, which cleanse the blood from excess glucose and remove the substance from the body;
  • Thyroid: The hormones secreted by it determine the rate at which cells consume sugar from the blood;
  • adrenal glands.This paired endocrine gland also produces hormones (such as adrenaline) that affect metabolic rate.

Why is the deviation of sugar levels from the norm dangerous

Both hypo- and hyperglycemia affect well-being. The brain first of all suffers , since its cells consume about half (up to 60% – if we are talking about a hungry or sedentary person) of all the energy supplied by glucose.

Dizziness, loss of concentration, weakness, darkening of the eyes, trembling hands are common symptoms for both low and high blood sugar.But in addition to feeling unwell, abnormal glycemia has other, more serious consequences.

With constant hyperglycemia, glucose accumulates in organs and tissues and becomes toxic – begins to destroy the liver, kidneys, retina, blood vessels, heart, nervous system. With a lack of sugar, the cells of the body are chronically lacking in nutrition, and this also leads to damage to vital organs.

Why is blood sugar elevated

Most often, this indicates a pre-diabetic state or already onset diabetes mellitus.However, other medical problems can also increase blood glucose .

  • Hyperthyroidism. This is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too many hormones.
  • Pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas.
  • Severe stress.
  • Trauma or surgery.
  • Liver diseases.
  • Stroke.
  • Pancreatic cancer, as well as other, more rare, tumors.

Why is blood sugar low

Hypoglycemia is also a common companion of diabetes.It occurs when a person with the condition mistakenly takes too much insulin. But there are other possible reasons for the drop in blood glucose levels.

  • Insufficient power supply. Your blood sugar drops if you are on a too strict diet or have an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia.
  • Exercising too hard and too long. Let’s say you’ve just run a marathon, ridden a few tens of kilometers on a bicycle, or just dug a vegetable garden, forgetting about lunch.
  • Hypothyroidism. This is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too few hormones.
  • Diseases of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, liver or kidneys.

How to find out if your blood sugar level has deviated from the norm

It is almost impossible to do this without a blood test. The fact is that the characteristic symptoms of a decrease or increase in glucose levels can be easily confused with ordinary fatigue or, for example, a reaction to changes in the weather.

In order not to miss the developing hypo- or hyperglycemia and the diseases that caused it, doctors – both Western and Russian – recommend that you regularly test for blood sugar levels.

It is necessary to donate blood for sugar at least once every three years. This is especially important for people over 45.

In addition, it is recommended that the test be done as soon as possible if you show signs of diabetes:

  • urination has become more frequent;
  • You have put on a lot of weight;
  • your eyesight deteriorates;
  • Weakness comes on regularly, up to darkening in the eyes.

What to do if your blood sugar is low or high

This situation must be discussed with your doctor.The doctor will establish the causes of hypo- or hyperglycemia, make an accurate diagnosis and give instructions on how to return glucose levels to normal.

Depending on the diagnosis, the physician can prescribe medications. Some of them may have to be taken for a lifetime.

Read also 💊💉🍰

How to lower blood sugar without drugs

Elevated blood sugar seriously affects a person’s performance and general well-being.This can be avoided if there are several healthy products in the daily menu.

Generally, blood sugar is the concentration of glucose in it. This substance is necessary for the normal functioning of the human body. And his body receives from carbohydrates and other substances along with food. Sugar, which is obtained as a result of the breakdown of carbohydrates, enters the bloodstream and the hormone insulin begins its work almost immediately. It is he who carries sugar from the bloodstream to cells in order to provide energy for transformations.

When there is too much sugar in the blood, a person begins to feel unimportant: fatigue, absent-mindedness appears. To avoid this, endocrinologists are advised to regularly eat foods that lower blood sugar levels. And adjust your lifestyle.

What is needed for this?

Eat starch-free vegetables often. These can be: broccoli, carrots, cucumbers, spinach. They have absolutely no effect on the rise in blood sugar levels, and also generously supply the body with the necessary nutrients.By the way, scientists have proven that spinach can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.

Drink herbal decoctions. It has long been known that medicinal decoctions of wild rose, burdock root, alfalfa, dandelion root, mountain ash, quince twigs or leaves have a very good effect on the functioning of internal organs, and also restore normal metabolism.

There are nuts. Pistachios, almonds and walnuts are excellent at lowering blood glucose levels.And all thanks to the high content of monounsaturated fats in them.

Exercise, or better yet, go to the gym regularly. Exercise is another effective way to lower blood sugar. Thanks to this activity, there is an active restoration of the sensitivity of cells to insulin.

Add cinnamon to food. Scientists have found that regular consumption of this seasoning helps to stimulate the secretion of insulin in the pancreas.By the way, cinnamon can be added not only to food, but also to drinks – tea or coffee.

Eat dairy products more often. To achieve the expected effect, at least 500 ml of low-fat dairy products should be consumed per day. After all, they contain healthy fats, proteins, and lactose, which restore normal blood glucose levels. By the way, as a result of long studies, doctors have found that people with a large body weight, who love milk, kefir, yoghurts and other dairy products, the risk of developing diabetes is reduced by 70 percent.

Take a walk in the fresh air. To achieve a therapeutic effect, you should walk at least 2 kilometers daily.

Diabetes mellitus and bad habits

L. V. Silvanovich

Smoking is a bad habit that has a detrimental effect on health, and smoking in diabetes is also very dangerous. Numerous medical studies have proven that smoking in type 1 and type 2 diabetes causes serious damage to all organs and systems.Nicotine, tar and other harmful substances, of which there are more than 500 in tobacco smoke, weaken the body, affect the heart, blood vessels, metabolism, and impair the permeability of cell membranes for insulin. Smoking exacerbates a number of diabetes-related problems. Adding smoking to diabetes actually doubles the risk of illness and death. Smoking is one of the factors that predispose diabetic patients to various cardiovascular diseases. The mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes is three times higher among smokers than among non-smokers.

Diabetes mellitus worsens the composition of blood lipids, which leads to a thickening of the walls of blood vessels, an increase in the concentration of cholesterol in the blood and damage to blood vessels. Smoking is a risk factor for stroke, impairs blood flow in the lower extremities, which can lead to their amputation.

Among the most active substances that penetrate the body by inhalation of cigarette smoke are nicotine, carbon monoxide and heavy tar, which penetrate into almost all tissues.

Nicotine affects the nervous system, resulting in increased blood flow to the muscles and weakens to the skin.Because of this, palpitations occur, blood pressure rises sharply. The load on the heart increases, but the blood circulation weakened due to the disease and the weak flow of oxygen lead to disruption of the myocardium. As a result, ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris and, in severe cases, a heart attack may occur.

Carbon monoxide – carbon monoxide – also enters the body through smoke. This odorless, poisonous substance directly affects the composition of the blood. Hemoglobin in the smoker’s blood is partially converted into carboxin, which is unable to carry oxygen to the cells.The tissues feel oxygen starvation, and the person feels extreme fatigue, gets tired quickly and cannot withstand even a slight physical exertion.

Drinking alcohol in diabetes is always dangerous, since alcohol blocks the flow of carbohydrates into the blood from the liver, which can lead to severe delayed hypoglycemia. Moreover, it is impossible to eliminate such hypoglycemia by introducing an injection of glucagon, but only by taking rapidly digestible carbohydrates (sweets, sugar, intravenous glucose).Such hypoglycemias are difficult to treat and often end up in hospitalization.

A decrease in sugar levels can occur at night due to the specific delay of alcoholic hypoglycemia, so before bedtime you need to eat a portion of slowly digestible carbohydrates. Before drinking alcohol, you need to eat (salads, bread) so that alcohol is absorbed more slowly.

It should be remembered that sweet and semi-sweet wines, champagne, liqueurs contain a large amount of quickly digestible carbohydrates and quickly increase blood sugar.Carbonated alcoholic drinks also contribute to the rapid absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream. It is not recommended to use them at all for diabetes.

Remember that uncontrolled alcohol abuse in general, and especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus, can lead to irreversible changes in the liver, the development of alimentary hepatitis and cirrhosis, and irreversible changes in the brain.

Overeating, excessive consumption of quickly digestible carbohydrates , a sedentary lifestyle are also “bad habits” of our time.

Semi-finished products, “fast food”, sausages, sausages contain more than 30% of “hidden” fat. To improve their taste, they are smoked, artificial colors, preservatives, flavors, flavor enhancers, salt in large quantities are added – all this has a bad effect on health. With the constant use of high-calorie foods with a large amount of carbohydrates, the need for insulin increases, and insulin sensitivity decreases. Blood sugar rises. Insulin is a hormone, the receptors of which are also found on fat cells, so the release of insulin contributes to an increase in the accumulation of adipose tissue, “internal obesity” (obesity of internal organs).For patients on insulin therapy, an increase in the dose of injected insulin has the same effect. The rapid release of insulin leads to an increase in appetite, and this is a vicious circle.

An important indicator of obesity is the waist circumference and body mass index.

Waist circumference for men should not exceed 94 cm, for women – 80 cm.

Normal body mass index: 18.5-24.9 kg / m2.

The more pronounced obesity (higher body mass index and waist circumference), the more difficult it is to reduce blood sugar and achieve diabetes compensation.

90,000 About 500 children in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus

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1%. More than 24 thousand children in Russia have diabetes mellitus. In the Krasnoyarsk Territory, about 500 children and adolescents are being treated with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.Every year, endocrinologists identify about 50 new cases.

In the Regional Clinical Children’s Hospital in the department of gastroendocrinology, there is a school for patients with diabetes mellitus. Endocrinologists explain in detail to their patients, as well as to their parents, what characterizes diabetes mellitus, how, having such a diagnosis, you need to eat right, how to use a glucometer, with which you can control blood sugar levels and what should be done if blood sugar is sharp rose.

Diabetes mellitus develops due to a lack of insulin in the human body. For this reason, glucose, which a person consumes as part of any carbohydrate product, cannot penetrate into the cells of organs and tissues to provide the body with the necessary energy for life. Traditionally, experts distinguish between several types of diabetes mellitus, but the most common two of them are the first and second types.

In the first type of diabetes mellitus , the pancreas stops producing insulin for a number of reasons.This type of diabetes is especially common in children and adolescents. As a rule, such patients annually undergo examination and treatment within the walls of the regional clinical children’s hospital. Four times a year, blood is taken from such children to study the level of glycated hemoglobin, after all, in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. the analysis for glycated hemoglobin is the most necessary and effective method in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Also, patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus need to monitor their blood sugar levels before and after meals up to eight times a day.

Treatment of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus is carried out only with insulin preparations, which the patient must receive daily instead of the hormone he does not have, throughout his life. For this, pump insulin therapy is used in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, when a device the size of a cell phone injects insulin according to a program set for a particular child, and the catheter for injection is constantly in the subcutaneous tissue and changes every 3 days. This saves the patient from repeated daily injections, and allows him to most accurately select the dose of insulin.Insulin pumps are expensive, but in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, thanks to the current charity program, more than 120 children have already received an insulin pump for free.

Experts predict that with the development of medical technologies, it is possible in the near future that the life of people with diabetes mellitus will become easier and better if remotely controlled pumps, without catheters, etc. are used. And with the advent of implantable pumps, patients with diabetes will be able to lead a fulfilling life.

For information:

In the department of gastroendocrinology of the Regional Clinical Children’s Hospital, 18 children aged 4 to 18 years old with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus are currently being examined and treated. Representatives of companies supplying free children’s insulin pumps for the administration of insulin held a merry holiday for children, at which they once again focused the attention of children on the importance of maintaining a correct lifestyle and nutrition, as well as monitoring their health.

“Disease of Civilization”: Recognize and Prevent

Nowadays, any person, leading a “modern” lifestyle – with low physical activity, high-calorie diet and frequent stress – can develop diabetes mellitus. To exclude this dangerous disease, you need to annually determine the level of glucose in the blood during medical examinations or simply when contacting the clinic to any specialist, advises endocrinologist Natalya Yuryevna Slobodina.

Natalya Yurievna, at what age and how often should blood glucose tests be performed?

Glucose levels need to be monitored regularly even with visible well-being.The WHO Expert Committee recommends testing for diabetes in all patients over the age of 45, and if the test is negative, tests should be repeated every 3 years. But, given the fact that diabetes is rapidly growing younger and more widespread in the current conditions, doctors recommend regular (annual) examination of patients and younger age, especially if there are signs of the so-called metabolic syndrome.

How does this syndrome manifest itself?

The presence of a metabolic syndrome in a patient can be said if there is severe obesity, and in the anamnesis there is a hereditary burden of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and high cholesterol.For women, risk factors are also gestational (detected during pregnancy) diabetes and the birth of a child weighing more than 4.5 kg. According to the modern WHO classification, there are several types of diabetes. Most cases are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (a chronic disease of the pancreas with impaired carbohydrate metabolism and a decrease in the body’s sensitivity to its own insulin). If type 1 diabetes (an autoimmune disease of the endocrine system, characterized by insulin dependence) affects about 5–10%, then type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 90–95% of cases.

What is your blood glucose level as a cause for concern?

Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for people with critical values ​​of 20-25 mmol / L to come to my first appointment, and complications of diabetes usually become reasons for treatment –
decreased vision, impaired renal function. Meanwhile, a sugar level of more than 7 mmol / l is considered critical. The normal indicator when taking blood from a vein on an empty stomach is less than 6.1 mmol / L.This is the upper limit of the norm, and even such a figure, especially with a complicated family history, is already a reason to think about it and seek advice from an endocrinologist. By the way, blood sugar may “rise” for a short time during an exacerbation of a disease or in case of poisoning. Then the test should be retaken. In any case, you should not wait until the indicators reach a critical level. Even when the blood sugar level is determined at the upper limit of the norm, it is undesirable to postpone a visit to the doctor.

Why?

The fact is that diabetes and its complications cannot be completely cured.The disease begins, as a rule, gradually, often completely asymptomatic. Diabetes can progress over several years without the person even knowing about it. Moreover, an increased level of glucose in the blood can be detected by chance, during the examination for a completely different reason. Unfortunately, modern medicine can only stop the development of the disease, and therefore the sooner you start controlling your glucose level with diet and medication, the more surely you will save yourself from diabetes complications.

Which ones are life-threatening?

The most dangerous consequences of diabetes mellitus are its systemic vascular complications – nephropathy (damage to the vessels of the kidneys), retinopathy (damage to the vessels of the retina), damage to the great vessels of the heart, brain, peripheral vessels of the lower extremities. These diseases are the main cause of disability and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus.

What is the prognosis of treatment if a high blood sugar level is detected in a timely manner?

The prognosis is good for the prevention of complications.However, despite the great progress in the study of the causes and mechanisms of development, diabetes mellitus remains a chronic disease, and its complete cure is still impossible. Today, with the help of therapy, it is possible to control blood sugar levels and minimize the possibility of developing complications.

Is a visit to a specialist necessary before a laboratory test?

If we are talking about an initial examination and the patient has no obvious complaints, then it is wiser to first consult a general practitioner who will prescribe a range of diagnostic tests.If the patient is seen by a doctor for any of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome (coronary heart disease, high cholesterol, obesity, high blood pressure), he can take a glucose test on his own. Moreover, for the screening of diabetes mellitus, WHO recommends the determination of both glucose and hemoglobin A1c, the so-called glycated hemoglobin, which is associated with glucose. Its high content can be a symptom of diabetes mellitus.

What symptoms should be alert enough to suspect an elevated glucose level?

Relative indications for the study may include complaints of fatigue, apathy, shortness of breath, increased appetite, thirst, frequent urination, headache, dry skin, sweating, boils that do not heal for a long time, wounds, impaired sensitivity of the lower extremities.However, the problem is that these symptoms appear most often already when the disease has developed and is diagnosed. The initial stage of diabetes is almost asymptomatic. However, according to statistics, about 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, so obese people, by definition, are at risk. This type of diabetes is also characterized by a high prevalence among close relatives, so a family history of diabetes is another reason to consider taking a blood sugar test.

It turns out that diabetes is a “disease of civilization”, of a wrong way of life?

Exactly. To treat this type of diabetes, you need to change your lifestyle: learn how to eat right, increase physical activity, lose weight. Maintaining diabetes mellitus in a state of good compensation requires efforts not only on the part of the doctor, but also in 90% of cases on the part of the patient. With proper nutrition (limiting fatty, sweet foods), increasing physical activity (walking at least half an hour every day, climbing stairs to the floor), avoiding stress, serious endocrine diseases can be prevented.

Date of publication: 13.04.17

Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

The doctor informed you that you are at risk of developing diabetes mellitus, or even made a verdict – “pre-diabetes state” . This is not yet a reason to give up on your health. The main thing is timely diagnosis and competent prevention.

Manifestation of diabetes mellitus

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia), which is the main laboratory sign of diabetes, and lack of insulin in the metabolism of the body are the main clinical signs of diabetes.In type I diabetes , these symptoms appear quickly, and in type II diabetes – slowly, gradually. The main symptom is polyuria, i.e. a large amount of urine: the patient urinates frequently, even at night, hence the resulting second symptom is thirst (dehydration), hunger. In type I diabetes, body weight is usually reduced, there is a risk of ketoacidosis, in type II diabetes, infectious complications such as urinary tract infections, skin diseases, discharge and itching in the genital area are common.

If diabetes is suspected, blood sugar levels and urinary sugar should be checked. Urine in healthy people does not contain sugar.

Laboratory tests are something without which it is impossible to diagnose a disease and, ultimately, to prescribe the correct treatment.

Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

Normal blood glucose levels in healthy people range from 3.5 to 5.3 mmol / l on an empty stomach; after eating, it rises to 7 mmol / l.In a patient with diabetes, this level rises above 7 mmol / L on an empty stomach and above 10 (sometimes 11) mmol / L during the day.

The assessment is carried out as follows:

  • For a patient with typical signs of diabetes, one analysis is sufficient if the sugar level exceeds 7 mmol / L on an empty stomach or 10-11 mmol / L during the day (a lower value is typical for venous blood, higher values ​​are for capillary blood taken from the finger).
  • If the glycemic value is less than 5 mmol / l, then diabetes is excluded.
  • If the glycemic value is between 5 and 7 mmol / L, an oral glucose tolerance test is performed (a study of the body’s ability to process glucose from the mouth).
  • If there are no typical signs of diabetes, you need to check the value of glycemia in two tests taken on different days.

Oral (oral) glucose tolerance test (PGT)

The patient drinks a glucose solution on an empty stomach (75 g in 200 ml of water). Blood sugar is measured on an empty stomach, then one hour and two hours after taking glucose.

Impaired glucose tolerance

We are talking about a disease, or a condition where the patient is not able to process all the sugar that he consumes, but this is not diabetes. This condition is diagnosed by laboratory analysis, there are no symptoms.

However, the study of blood glucose gives an idea of ​​it at the time of the study, in contrast to the test for glycosylated hemoglobin.

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a biochemical blood index reflecting the average blood sugar content over a long period of time (up to 3 months.), i.e. the higher the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, the higher the glycemia has been over the past three months and, accordingly, the greater the risk of developing complications of diabetes mellitus.

The diagnostic value of this test is very high: this indicator allows you to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage, which means that treatment can be started in a timely manner. In addition, the analysis for glycosylated hemoglobin is carried out regularly in order to assess the effectiveness of therapy for diabetes mellitus.

Where to get tested for diabetes.

You can pass a blood test for diabetes mellitus at any point of Sinevo in Minsk, Baranovichi, Bobruisk, Borisov, Brest, Vitebsk, Gantsevichi, Gomel, Grodno, Zhlobin, Lida, Mogilev, Mozyr, Molodechno, Novogrudok, Novopolotshe , Polotsk, Rechitsa, Svetlogorsk, Slutsk, Smorgon, Soligorsk.

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