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Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg or foot: 7 Warning Signs and Symptoms


What are the symptoms of a blood clot in the leg?

A blood clot occurs when blood congeals. If this happens inside a person’s body, including their leg, it can cause severe problems. Some blood clots are especially dangerous as they can travel to a person’s lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism that can be fatal.

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) note that the symptoms of a blood clot in a person’s leg include swelling, red skin, pain in the leg, or the leg feeling warm to the touch. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if a blood clot happens in a larger vein, this is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

The AHRQ say that blood clots are more likely to occur if a person is unable to move around a lot. This can be due to surgery, an injury, or sitting down for an extended period, such as on a long-haul flight.

According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, blood clots or DVT can cause obvious symptoms. However, they also note that DVT does not always have any associated symptoms.

Symptoms include:

  • Swelling: If a person develops a clot in their leg, it may swell up so that it is much larger than the other leg.
  • Red skin: The skin on their leg may also become red or discolored.
  • Pain: They may experience pain in the part of the leg where the blood clot has developed.
  • Warmth: The swollen, red skin may feel warm to the touch.

According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a person should contact their doctor immediately if they suspect they have DVT. This is because DVT can result in a pulmonary embolism, where the blood clot moves to a person’s lung.

The symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:

  • shortness of breath
  • pain when breathing
  • rapid breathing
  • increased heart rate

A pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate emergency treatment.

According to the AHRQ, risk factors for a blood clot include:

  • having had surgery recently
  • being older than 65
  • taking birth control hormones
  • being treated for cancer, or having had cancer
  • having a broken hip, pelvis, or leg
  • having a bad bruise
  • being obese
  • staying seated or in bed for long periods
  • having had a stroke
  • being paralyzed
  • having a port in their body through which a doctor administers medicine
  • having issues with veins
  • having heart problems
  • having had a blood clot previously, or family members who have had blood clots

According to the CDC, the best way to prevent a blood clot or DVT is to maintain a healthy weight, avoid a sedentary lifestyle where possible, and follow any recommendations from a doctor.

The CDC also recommend that a person gets up and walks around regularly, and exercises their leg muscles, even when seated.

A person could try:

  • raising and lowering their heels while keeping their toes on the floor
  • raising and lowering their toes, keeping their heels on the floor
  • tightening and releasing their leg muscles

According to an article in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, taking a low dose of aspirin might be effective at reducing the chances of developing blood clots or DVT.

It is possible to minimize the risk of developing a blood clot or DVT by avoiding clear risk factors and practicing prevention techniques, such as exercising muscles wherever possible.

If a person thinks they have had a blood clot in their leg, they should contact a doctor immediately.

Is your leg pain normal, or is it a blood clot?

Self Care, Leg


According to the American Society of Hematology, each year in the United States, approximately 900,000 people experience deep vein thrombosis or blood clots.

Know what to look for and avoid serious complications.

The first sign of a blood clot is mild pain. As the pain intensifies, the skin near the blood clot may become red and very warm to the touch. Since blood clots restrict blood flow, the pain often limits a person’s ability to move.

Most blood clots occur in the veins in the legs, but they can develop in arteries and other parts of the body, too.

Blood clots are serious.

If the blood clot breaks loose and travels through the veins or arteries to the heart, lungs, or brain, it could cause a heart attack, pulmonary embolism, stroke, or even death.

How do blood clots form?

In healthy people, blood clots form naturally after an injury or surgery. The platelets and plasma in the blood combine to start the clotting process. The first job of these cells is to build a dam to stop the blood, which prevents people from bleeding to death after a minor cut or scratch. The second job of this group of cells is to create a scab to protect the skin from infection while the body heals.

This is the body’s normal response to injury. As the tissues heal, the scab dissolves and is absorbed back into the body.

But blood clots that develop in the veins and arteries can be dangerous.

When circulation inside the blood vessels slows because of injury or other constricting conditions, the blood thickens. Platelets and plasma bond blood cells together and create the clot.

Blood clots that form for no apparent reason are the most dangerous.

Both arterial and venous clots can cause dangerous health complications if the clot travels.

A major cause of arterial blood clots is arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. When plaque-build-up on the arterial wall ruptures, platelets and plasma rush in to repair the damage and create a blood clot. If the clot breaks free and travels to the lungs or the brain, it can have fatal consequences.

Deep vein thrombosis or DVT blood clots occur in the arms and legs but are more common in the latter.

People experiencing DVT blood clots will feel increasing levels of pain. The skin around the area will become warm and sensitive to touch. The skin may have a reddened appearance as the body works to get rid of the clot. If blood flow is restricted, people often feel pain when they move the affected area, Anyone suffering these symptoms should call 9-1-1 and seek immediate treatment.

Are you at risk for a DVT blood clot?

Several conditions increase the likelihood of deep vein thrombosis.

• Obesity slows blood flow, which creates the potential for blood clots.
• Sitting in one position for two or three hours or more while traveling in a car or plane hinders muscle movement and restricts proper circulation.
• Smoking decreases the oxygen in the blood and blood flow.
• Trauma or surgery can cause immobilization and stress the circulatory system, which heightens the risk.
• Age increases the risk, especially for people over 60 years of age.
• Diabetes damages nerves and interferes with circulation.
• Cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases increase the risk of circulation issues.
• Pregnancy, birth-control pills, and other hormonal treatments can impact the body’s clotting response.

Some research suggests endurance athletes may also have an increased risk of life-threatening blood clots because of injury, dehydration, and travel. The signs of a blood clot mimic the symptoms of many sports-related muscle injuries. Athletes may ignore a blood clot thinking it is an injury that will heal with time.

Can you prevent blood clots?

Yes. Many blood clots are preventable.

Prevent arterial blood clots by watching your diet, monitoring your blood pressure, and taking action to keep your cholesterol numbers in check. Work with your healthcare provider to determine the best prevention plan for your health. You can reduce your risk of clots in your veins by making lifestyle changes.

• If you smoke, stop.
• If you’re overweight, lose weight by eating nutrition-rich foods and exercising to burn excess calories.
• Avoid long periods of immobility. If you’re traveling by car, stop often. If you’re flying, stand up and walk around every hour or two.
• If you have diabetes or a chronic inflammatory disease, be vigilant, and maintain your health. Ask your healthcare provider for specific ways you can avoid blood clots.

How are blood clots treated?

If you receive a DVT blood clot diagnosis, your healthcare provider may refer you to a hematologist, a physician specialized in the treatment of blood-related conditions.

After your diagnosis, your healthcare team will determine which treatment is the most effective for your condition. Your treatment plan will be based on your current health, any underlying conditions, and the location of the blood clot.

Medication is an effective treatment for some types of blood clots.

Anticoagulants, like warfarin or heparin, prevent blood clots from forming.
Thrombolytics dissolve blood clots that have formed and are causing problems.

Catheter-directed thrombolysis. Other blood clots require more intervention. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is a procedure that inserts a catheter into the vein to deliver clot-dissolving medication directly to the clot.

Surgery. Clots located in critical areas or those that don’t respond well to medication or other minimally invasive techniques may require surgical removal.

What if I have leg pain, but I’m not sure if it is a blood clot?

Blood clots that cause symptoms are serious and need immediate medical attention. If you have pain in your legs or arms accompanied by redness and swelling that seems to get worse, contact your healthcare provider or visit an urgent care facility for treatment.



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Blood Clot in Foot | Symptoms & Treatment

What to do if you suspect a blood clot?

If you or someone you love suspects a blood clot, seek medical attention right away. The longer you wait, the higher your chance of developing a highly dangerous clot in one of your organs. Visit your doctor or go straight to the emergency room immediately. Clots can be life-threatening. You will want the peace of mind of a proper diagnosis. Your doctor may prescribe a blood thinner and monitor the clot. Surgery or the direct application of a clot-busting drug via a thin tube to the site of the clot may be needed. Clots are a dangerous condition that can travel through the circulatory system to anyplace in your body. If left untreated, they can become deadly. You won’t know for sure if you have one without undergoing a proper examination by a healthcare professional.

If you are experiencing any of the following symptoms, go straight to the hospital:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Vomiting up blood
  • Blood in your stool
  • Dark foul-smelling stool
  • Fainting spells
  • Pain of numbness radiating into the left arm
  • Slurred speech
  • Droopy face
  • Seizures
  • Quick-onset confusion

What can I do to prevent a blood clot from forming?

You can take action to lower your odds of developing a blood clot. Follow a healthy diet low in fat, maintain a healthy weight, don’t smoke, and exercise regularly.

You should also:

  • Avoid sitting for a long period of time, especially during a long flight or after surgery.
  • If you have a desk job, set your alarm to remind you to get up and move at least every two or three hours. While sitting, flex the muscles in your legs, feet, and toes.
  • Talk to your doctor about tight-fitting compression socks or garments. They may be able to help regular blood flow.
  • Make an appointment with your healthcare provider. He or she may recommend taking a clot-fighting blood-thinner, sometimes called anticoagulants.

What is May-Thurner Syndrome?

May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is a medical condition that increases one’s chances of developing blood clots. Also known as Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome, MTS occurs when the right iliac artery presses against the left iliac vein pinching the vein. This compression can cause damage to the vein and increase the risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left leg. DVT is characterised by a potentially dangerous blood clot in the left leg. The clot can completely or partially block proper blood flow through the vein.

What are the warning signs for May-Thurner Syndrome?

Warning signs for MTS are subtle and very often go unnoticed. Because of this, most people do not realize they have MTS until a DVT presents itself. Individuals who experience symptoms should seek treatment. Symptoms include:

  • discoloration (red or purple) of the skin, 
  • enlarged veins in the leg,
  • leg is warm to the touch, 
  • swelling,
  • tenderness or 
  • pain in the leg. 

While the condition of DVT alone isn’t life-threatening, if the blood clot breaks free it has the potential to travel through the bloodstream and become lodged in the blood vessels of the lung (known as a pulmonary embolism). This is a serious and life-threatening condition.

DVT can also lead to pulmonary condition in the legs called post-thrombotic syndrome (also known as chronic venous insufficiency link). Post-thrombotic syndrome is characterized by:

  • a pooling of blood in the leg, 
  • chronic leg swelling, 
  • increased pigmentation or discoloration of the skin,
  • increased pressure and
  • leg ulcers (known as venous stasis ulcers. )

I’ve never heard of May-Thurner Syndrome. What is it?

May-Thurner syndrome is rare. It is a vascular disorder that affects a vein in your pelvis. The right iliac artery presses against the left iliac vein, causing it to restrict blood flow. This is the vein that returns blood from your pelvis and legs back to your heart. The added pressure of the vessels pressing against each other will can cause one or both of them to narrow, impeding the blood from flowing properly. It may also cause scarring leading to a thickening of the wall. The constricted flow of blood in the leg can cause a variety of other symptoms and conditions in your legs or feet. The most problematic is perhaps a blood clot. Many people with from May-Thurner syndrome will go years without symptoms or a proper diagnosis. Over time May-Thurner syndrome can lead to:

  • Swelling in the leg.
  • Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). CVI is a condition where the blood will pool within your veins, causing pressure, swelling, skin changes and venous ulcers or sores that will not heal on their own.
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT is a blood clot in that occurs in a vein located deep below your skin. If a DVT breaks loose a moves to your lung, heart or brain it can lead to life-threatening emergencies. For example: a heart attack, stroke or a pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in your lung)

How will I know if I have May-Thurner syndrome?

Symptoms of May-Thurner syndrome can include:

  • Swelling, heaviness, or a feeling of fullness in your leg or foot.
  • Sores or venous ulcers on your legs or feet that don’t heal by themselves.
  • Newly appearing varicose veins in your legs.

In many cases, patients have no symptoms and can go undiagnosed for years. Only when a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) develops, do many become aware of their condition.

Some symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are:

  • Swelling in the leg(s).
  • Pain and/or tenderness in the leg(s).
  • Changes in skin color (such as redness).
  • Skin that is warm to the touch.

What are the common treatments for May-Thurner Syndrome?

You don’t have to live with the worries or symptoms of May-Thurner syndrome. It is treatable. After considering your symptoms and risk factors your healthcare provider will design a tailor-made treatment program. Any successful treatment program will effectively treat your condition while considering your lifestyle and overall health. 

Common treatments for May-Thurner syndrome may include:

  • Taking blood thinners or anticoagulants. These medications can help prevent blood clots.
  • Thrombolysis is an intravenous procedure that we use on larger clots. In it, a catheter is feed to the site of the clot, delivering high potency anti-clotting drugs directly to the blockage. We also refer to this as “clot busting.”
  • A stent is a small tube made of metal mesh that is used to hold your vein open and restore proper blood flow.
  • Compression stockings are tight-fitting stocking that can ease swelling in your leg. These snug stockings are worn over your legs from your toes to knee. They apply constant pressure to your lower legs. Putting continual pressure on the area, will improve swelling and increase blood flow.

Your doctor may suggest surgery in some cases. In certain cases, surgery can be beneficial in relieving the symptoms or reducing the risks of complicating conditions brought on my blood clots. Different surgerys can be used to:

  • Circumvent the section of the vein where the clot or other circumstance that is causing reduced blood flow. In this procedure, a vein is taken from another place in the body and used as a bypass, opening up the flow of blood.
  • Relocate the right iliac artery. Repositioning the artery so that it is no longer pressing on the left iliac vein can open up the blood flow.
  • A stent may be placed in the vein to hold it open.

What are venous ulcers?

Venous ulcers are painful sores that occur on the lower leg or around the ankle. Sometimes called venous stasis ulcers or non healing wounds, venous ulcers are lingering open wounds that don’t heal easily on their own. They frequently take, weeks, months or even longer to heal.

What are the risk factors of venous ulcers?

Various medical conditions can lead to the persistent venous ulcers. Painful venous ulcers can present themselves if you suffer from:

  • Obesity
  • Certain groups of medicine
  • Venous insufficiency
  • Diabetes 
  • Infections
  • Venous hypertension
  • Inflammatory diseases
  • Kidneys failure
  • Poor circulation and/or blood clots
  • Varicose veins

How did I know if I have venous ulcers?

untreated swelling

If you are at risk for venous ulcers keep an eye out for the following signs and symptoms:

  • Area around the sores might be shiny. The skin may be tight and warm (or hot) to the touch.
  • Discolored skin (red, purple)
  • Dull ache in the leg or calf.
  • Feeling of fullness or heaviness in the leg or calf.
  • Swelling and cramping in the legs.
  • Symptoms of blood pooling in the legs (purple, dark red, and/or brown spots. Swollen, hardened skin.)
  • The edges of the ulcers are often unevenly shaped.
  • Tingling and itchiness in the lower leg and/or ankle, 

Stasis Ulcers: What are they?

Most commonly found on the ankle or calf, painful venous stasis ulcers are open sores that do not heal well on their own. They are typically red in color however a fibrous yellow tissue may cover them. The sores border is typically irregular. Red, purple, and brown spots may also be present on the lower legs and ankles. When suffering from venous stasis ulcers you may experience discharge and drainage. Venous stasis ulcers are common in people who have previously suffered from swollen legs and varicose veins.

Diagnosing and Treating Venous Ulcers

While diagnosing the venous ulcers is not difficult, finding the proper cause of these painful sores can be challenging. Some Western Pennsylvania providers use a duplex ultrasound. This is a noninvasive imaging test that we use to diagnose which veins are causing the venous ulcers. The difference in this approach is that it pinpoints the abnormal vein or veins. By finding the cause of the ulceration, we can treat the venous pathology and  thereby prevent the return of the ulcers once healed.

After your veins have been evaluated, your healthcare provider will recommend a personalized treatment plan based on your specific needs:

Compression Stockings for blood clot

      • Placing the leg under constant compression is a vital aspect to healing venous ulcers.
      • While, compression stockings are the most commonly used tool for this treatment, there are other methods available.
      • The inward compression from the stocking will counteract the pressure from the veins of the leg and allows skin to heal.
    • Growth factors

      • Still in the testing phase, we can apply some medications to the wound. The hope is that these medicines will promote the growth of new tissue.
    • Hydrocolloid dressings

      • Hydrocolloid dressings is specially designed dressing that is applied over the venous ulcer.
      • It promotes healing and also helps to remove any debridement (non-living tissue) from the wound.
    • Surgery

      • Sometimes you need a minor surgery to clean the wound from non-living material. Wound debridement, as it is know, removes any non-living tissue that could keep a wound from properly healing.
    • Transparent dressings

      • We can apply a specialized clear plastic film over the wound. The pressure from the dressing, facilitates proper blood flow.
      • You should wear support stockings over the wrap to hold it securely.
    • Unna boots

      • Similar to a cast, we can custom fit a hard boot to your lower leg. Your physician will wrap a moist gauze around your lower leg (starting at the base of the toes and going to just below the knee. )
      • With time, the gauze hardens and forms a snug boot around your leg.
      • The boot provides additional support for the leg, improving the blood flow in your veins, healing the ulcer more quickly.
  •  Vein Ablation for preventing a blood clot

Keep Deadly Blood Clots at Bay

Medication, movement can prevent DVT, pulmonary embolism.  


Each year in the United States, pulmonary embolisms (PE) kill more people than AIDS, breast cancer and motor vehicle crashes combined. According to the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, this little-known condition occurs when a blood clot in the leg travels to the lungs, blocking one or more arteries.

Most recently, news that tennis star Serena Williams suffered a PE after undergoing surgery is raising awareness about the condition, its risk factors and how to prevent the potentially deadly condition from occurring.

The blood clots that cause PE often originate in the deep veins of the leg, a condition called deep vein thrombosis or DVT.

Connecticut foot and ankle surgeon and assistant clinical professor at Yale School of Medicine Peter Blume, DPM, FACFAS, explains that women are at the highest risk for blood clots and pulmonary embolism as well as men and women who are overweight, smokers and those taking oral contraceptives. “Surgery is also one of the leading causes of blood clots in patients, which means those at highest risk need to be diligent in speaking to their surgeon about their elevated risks so preventive measures can be taken,” Dr. Blume said.

Patients facing surgery should take note, though, that blood clots in the leg are relatively rare after foot and ankle surgery, Dr. Blume said. In addition, the clots can be prevented with medication and exercise.

Depending on a patient’s risk factors, the surgeon may decide to prescribe an anticlotting medication to prevent DVT. The most common medications are low-molecular weight heparins, which patients inject into their arm, leg or stomach for about two to three weeks after surgery.

Patients with confirmed DVT, which is diagnosed with an ultrasound, may be put on warfarin (Coumadin) for six months to a year to prevent new clots from forming.

“If a patient had a confirmed DVT and we’re concerned about the clot moving based on ultrasound, sometimes we’ll put in an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter that leads from the leg to the heart to prevent the clot from traveling to the lungs,” Dr. Blume added.

Patients also would be advised to get up and move around after surgery—even if they are wearing a cast or using crutches.

“The biggest recommendation you see in the airline magazines when you’re flying is to move your legs to prevent DVT, because people who sit on a long flight have a high incidence of DVT,” Dr. Blume explained. “Similarly, if you’re sitting after surgery and the blood is not moving in the calf and you’re not exercising, you could end up with a clot in your calf. Surgeons have learned over the years that getting people moving after surgery will reduce the risk of a clot causing a pulmonary embolism.”

Symptoms of pulmonary embolisms vary and can mimic those of other conditions, such as a heart attack. The most common signs include sudden, unexplained shortness of breath, chest pain and a cough that produces blood-tinged mucus. “Other symptoms may include wheezing, leg swelling, excessive sweating, rapid heartbeat and fainting,” adds Dr. Blume. “Pulmonary embolisms can occur quickly, and prompt medical attention is vital for recovery, so patients need to seek care if they are suffering from any of the symptoms associated with the condition.”

Blood Clot Symptoms: How to Tell if You Have One

Article Featured on WebMD

Ever get a paper cut or nick yourself while shaving? When that happens, a blood clot saves the day. It quickly stops the bleeding, and when it’s done its job, it usually breaks up. Sometimes, though, things can go wrong.

When blood clots don’t fall apart, they can be dangerous and lead to serious medical conditions. You can get them in blood vessels in just about any part of your body. They’re most likely to affect a leg, especially if you sit for long periods of time.

You might get a clot in your arteries, which carry oxygen in your blood from your heart to all the cells of your body. The result can be really serious. It can keep oxygen from getting to your heart, lungs, or brain, and cause a life-threatening emergency, like a heart attack or stroke. You could also get a clot in the veins that carry blood back to your heart. When that happens, symptoms usually come on more gradually, but can still mean trouble.

If you learn the warning signs, you’ll know when to get quick medical help that can make a huge difference in keeping you out of the danger zone.

Arms, Legs

When a blood clot forms in one of the deep veins in your arm or leg, way beneath your skin’s surface, it could be something called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). That’s dangerous because the clot could travel to your heart or lungs.

You’re more likely to get a DVT if you’ve haven’t moved around for a long time, say after surgery or during a long plane trip. Get medical help right away if you notice any of these symptoms:

  • Swelling. This can happen in the exact spot where the blood clot forms, or your entire leg or arm could puff up.
  • Change in color. You might notice that your arm or leg takes on a red or blue tinge, or gets warm or itchy.
  • Pain. As the clot gets worse, you may hurt or get sore. The feeling can range from a dull ache to intense pain.
  • Trouble breathing. If this happens, it could mean that the clot has moved from your arm or leg to your lungs. You may also get a bad cough, and might even cough up blood. You may get pain in your chest or feel dizzy. Call 911 to get medical help right away.
  • Lower leg cramp: If the clot is in your calf or lower leg, you may feel like you have a cramp or charley horse.


A blood clot that forms in or around your ticker may cause a heart attack. Watch out for symptoms like these:

  • Severe pain in your chest and arm
  • Sweating
  • Trouble breathing


A blood clot in your lung usually starts out in a deep vein in your arm or leg, then breaks off and travels to your lung. When this happens, you get what’s called a pulmonary embolism, an extremely dangerous condition.

Get medical help right away if you:

  • Feel short of breath or have problems breathing
  • Get pain in your chest
  • Start to cough
  • Begin to sweat
  • Feel dizzy


Blood clots here may be caused by fatty deposits in the walls of the blood vessels that bring blood to your brain. Or sometimes, they may form because of a blow to your head that leads to a concussion. In other cases, a clot that starts out in a different part of your body, like your chest or neck, might enter your bloodstream and travel to your brain, where it can cause a stroke.

Watch out for these symptoms:

  • Problems with your vision or speech
  • A seizure
  • General feeling of weakness


Blood clots can happen in the veins that drain blood from your intestines. They can be caused by conditions like diverticulitis or liver disease, or even by birth control pills.

How will you know if this is going on? Check with your doctor if you have problems like these:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Severe pain in your belly, which may be worse after you eat
  • Diarrhea
  • Bloody stools
  • A sensation that feels like you’re bloated


A blood clot there can keep them from removing waste from your body. That can cause high blood pressure or even kidney failure.

This is dangerous, so look out for these symptoms:

  • Pain in the side of your belly, legs, or thighs
  • Blood in your urine
  • Fever
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • High blood pressure
  • Sudden severe leg swelling
  • Trouble breathing


New Mexico Orthopaedics is a multi-disciplinary orthopaedic clinic located in Albuquerque New Mexico. We have multiple physical therapy clinics located throughout the Albuquerque metro area.

New Mexico Orthopaedics offers a full spectrum of services related to orthopaedic care and our expertise ranges from acute conditions such as sports injuries and fractures to prolonged, chronic care diagnoses, including total joint replacement and spinal disorders.

Because our team of highly-trained physicians specialize in various aspects of the musculoskeletal system, our practice has the capacity to treat any orthopaedic condition, and offer related support services, such as physical therapy, WorkLink and much more.

If you need orthopedic care in Albuquerque New Mexico contact New Mexico Orthopaedics at 505-724-4300.

Blood Clot in Leg | Center for Vascular Medicine

Blood Clot Causes

A blood clot can be much more than something that forms when you get a cut or scrape, and can actually become a serious medical problem. The discovery of a blood clot in your leg can lead to severe health problems if left untreated.

What are the Common Causes?

Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), commonly known as a blood clot, occurs when a gel-like mass consisting of platelets and fibrin forms in the blood to stop bleeding. If a blood clot forms incorrectly inside a deep artery or vein, especially in your leg, it can hinder blood flow and create further problems.

A blood clot may form in your veins if you:

  • Have long periods of immobility
  • Are a smoker
  • Are 65 or older
  • Are currently undergoing cancer treatment, or are a survivor
  • Are taking hormone medications such as birth control
  • Have had a recent surgery
  • Have had a stroke or are paralyzed
  • Have an existing heart condition
  • Have had a blood clot before, or have an inherited blood-clot disorder

As you can see, blood clots can affect nearly anyone. The CDC said anyone who is on a flight for 4 hours or more is susceptible to being diagnosed with DVT. 

If you suspect or discover there is a blood clot in your leg, you will need to get a professional diagnosis and decide on a treatment plan.


You may have a blood clot in your leg if you see or feel swelling, skin redness, soreness, pain, or an area warm to the touch. Life-threatening complications can arise from an untreated blood clot, and you should seek treatment as soon as possible if you suspect you have one.

Upon visiting your doctor, they will go over your medical history and perform a physical evaluation. If they suspect you have a blood clot, it will be confirmed using an imaging test called duplex ultrasonography. It uses sound waves to look at blood flow and detect blockages or blood clots in deep veins and arteries.

Treatment Options

Not everyone goes through the same treatment for a deep-vein blood clot. Treatment can include:

  • Anticoagulants: The most common treatment for a blood clot is anticoagulants or blood thinners. They work by reducing the body’s ability to form new clots and preventing existing clots from growing larger. Anticoagulants can be given in the form of pills or intravenous injections. Some individuals may take them only for the clot’s duration, or longer to prevent new clots from forming.
  • Thrombolytics: Thrombolytics are only recommended for individuals whose blood clots did not respond to basic anticoagulants or have extensive clots. They work by dissolving blood clots but can increase the risk of bleeding. Thrombolytics are only administered by a catheter or intravenous injections.
  • Surgery: Very rarely, an individual may have to undergo surgery. A surgical thrombectomy may be necessary for massive clots or clots that are damaging the surrounding tissues. As long as you seek early treatment for a suspected blood clot, this treatment is easily avoided.

You and your doctor will make the best choice while considering factors such as your age, overall health, and clot location. 

What to Expect with CVM When Treating a Blood Clot?

At the Center for Vascular Medicine, our mission is to help patients with their vascular diseases in a cost-effective and compassionate manner. We specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of venous and arterial diseases in the legs, feet, and pelvis. Our world-class providers are the most experienced in the specialty and work with patients to develop a treatment plan that is custom-tailored to their unique situation.

Typically, this process involves an initial consultation and ultrasound scan at one of our accredited facilities. After reviewing the results of your scan and obtaining a thorough medical history, our providers will discuss the results with you and help you decide on the next steps.

Our health care providers use several diagnostic tests to help determine what vascular diseases may be causing your symptoms. Our initial evaluations utilize ultrasound because this non-invasive imaging modality helps us verify our suspicions on whether your symptoms are caused by underlying vascular disease.

Post-Thrombotic Syndrome – Vascular Cures

What is Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS)?

Post-Thrombotic Syndrome is when you have the ongoing symptoms of a blood clot, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the leg. Some people who have had DVT or blood clots in the leg recover completely, but others still experience symptoms, and these symptoms are called PTS.

Why is PTS a problem?

PTS can cause leg pain and discomfort, as well as leg ulcers. These symptoms may last for many years, or for the rest of your life. PTS can interfere with some of your regular activities, such as walking or standing, and it can make your life less enjoyable. Treatment for PTS and PTS ulcers can be expensive and time-consuming.

What causes PTS?

The veins deep within the legs have tiny valves that control the direction of blood flow. A blood clot in a leg vein can cause inflammation and block blood flow, which damages the valves. When the valves are damaged, they can leak or cause blood to flow the wrong way, which creates pressure and fluid retention that people with PTS most often notice as swollen ankles or feet. The pressure makes the leg painful, swollen, and sometimes red in color. As PTS gets worse, poor blood flow through the leg can cause leg ulcers, which can be painful and difficult to treat. Ulcers occur in 5-10% of patients who have had a DVT.

What is the chance I will get PTS?

PTS occurs in 20-40% of patients after an episode of lower extremity DVT, so it is a common complication. One out of ten patients may develop severe PTS with leg ulcers.

You are more likely to get PTS if you:

  • are over age 65 years
  • have a blood clot in the deep veins above the knee (a condition called proximal DVT)
  • have more than one blood clot in the same leg at least twice
  • have blood clot symptoms one month after being diagnosed with the blood clot
  • are very overweight
  • have trouble keeping your blood thinner levels stable during your first three months of treatment
How soon after my blood clot can I get PTS?

It is difficult to predict who may or may not get PTS, but it may be any time in the first six months to two years after the blood clot develops in the leg.

How do I know if I have PTS?

These are the most common signs and symptoms of PTS that occur in the leg with the blood clot:
• Pain
• Swelling that gets worse after walking or standing for a long time, but feels better after resting or raising the leg
• Aching or heaviness in your leg or foot
• Cramping
• Itching
• Tingling
• Bluish or brownish pigmentation in the leg or foot
• An ulcer (sore) on the leg
• New varicose veins
• Skin that is flaky, dry, or red

These problems are different for every patient – you may have all of these problems or only a few. You may notice these problems all the time or the feelings may come and go.

What should I do if I think I have PTS?

Many of the signs of PTS are the same as those for new blood clots in the leg, so it is very important
for you to ask your health care provider to look at your leg. Only a health care provider can tell you if your problems are from a new blood clot or from PTS.

How is PTS diagnosed?

Your health care provider will look at your leg and ask you some questions about how your leg feels. Then he or she will tell you if you have PTS. You do not need any special scans or blood tests to find out if you have PTS.

How can I prevent PTS?

Since PTS can be such a long-term problem, prevention is very important. Here are some things you can do to prevent PTS:

  • Prevent blood clots. Blood clots cause the damage to the leg veins that causes PTS. If you prevent blood clots, you will prevent PTS.
  • Some people are at higher risk of getting blood clots, especially patients in the hospital who have had recent surgery or are confined to bed. Patients are often given compression boots, compression stockings, or medicine to prevent blood clots while in the hospital and when they go home. If you are in the hospital and you are not given any of these things, ask your health care provider if you need blood clot prevention.
  • If you have already had a blood clot in the leg, you are at increased risk of getting a second blood clot. The best way to prevent a second blood clot is to take your blood thinner medication correctly and follow your health care provider’s instructions for having blood tests.
  • Do not stop taking your blood thinner medication until your health care provider tells you to stop.

Lose weight if you are overweight.
Increased weight puts more strain on the legs and leg veins.

Wear graduated (elastic) compression stockings.
Wearing a special elastic stocking on the leg with the blood clot may help prevent PTS. See the flyer called “Focus on Elastic Compression Stockings” for information on how to get stockings and how to wear them correctly. See your health care provider regularly.

See your health care provider regularly
Your health care provider can examine your leg at every appointment to look for signs of PTS. He or she can also advise you about wearing elastic compression stockings and about taking your blood thinner medication correctly.

What is the treatment for PTS?

PTS can be a difficult health condition to treat, so your health care provider may tell you to use one or all of these possible treatments:

Leg elevation.
Often elevating your leg correctly can help with the pain and swelling from PTS.

Your healthcare provider may prescribe either graduated compression stockings or a device worn on the leg (or both) to improve blood flow and control pain and swelling.

Some studies have shown that herbal supplements such as aescin (horse chestnut extract) and rutosides can be helpful in relieving leg pain and swelling caused by PTS, but this preparation has not been approved by the FDA. Your health care provider may recommend these supplements if compression stockings are not enough to help your leg pain and swelling.

Special care for ulcers.
If you get a leg ulcer because of PTS, you should see a special health care provider who has extra training in helping ulcers to heal. That health care provider may give you special medications or bandages for the ulcer.

How can I tell the difference between PTS and a new blood clot?

It can often be difficult to tell whether your leg problems are caused by PTS or a new blood clot. Sometimes it takes 3-6 months for your blood clot symptoms to get better. Anytime you have new problems with your leg, you should see your health care provider. In most cases of PTS, leg pain and swelling will get better when you rest or elevate your leg. By contrast, if you have a blood clot, the pain and swelling will not get better with elevation and rest.

Why is PTS a problem?

PTS is a frequent side effect of DVT. Symptoms can come and go over time, but PTS is a chronic, lifelong condition. PTS leads to suffering and disability and is costly to society. Severe PTS can cause painful venous ulcers or sores on the arms or legs that are difficult to treat and tend to recur. Ulcers occur in 5-10% of patients who have PTS.

Why does PTS occur?

When a clot forms in a vein, the valves inside the vein can be damaged by the clot or by the surrounding inflammation. The damaged valves (as well as residual clot) block blood returning from the leg veins back to the heart, which results in increased venous pressure in the leg.

What is the difference between postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) and post-phlebitic syndrome?

Nothing – these are two names for the same condition. Another term sometimes used is “venous stress disorder.”

Does having varicose veins make me more likely to get PTS?

Varicose veins occur in the small, superficial veins just under the skin. These veins can appear for many different reasons. People may get varicose veins even if they have never had a blood clot. By contrast, PTS is caused by blood clot damage in the valves in the deep veins. If you have had a blood clot in your leg, you might develop varicose veins. Your health care provider will look for varicose veins to help determine whether you have PTS.

Are there medications or surgery to remove the blood clot in my leg so that my veins are not damaged?

Yes. This procedure is either called a thrombectomy, which is a surgery to remove the blood clot, or a thrombolysis, which is a surgery to dissolve the clot. These are risky procedures, and they are usually reserved for the most severe clots that may stop blood flow to the leg. It is not known whether these procedures would help prevent PTS.

If I already have PTS, can I have surgery to fix my veins?

Currently there is no safe or effective surgery which will replace or repair damaged deep vein valves.

Can I do special exercises to treat PTS?

Yes. Certain types of exercise that keep your leg stronger and more flexible will improve your overall physical fitness and might help treat PTS.

If I have a blood clot in my arm, can I get PTS?

Yes. This type of PTS is called upper-extremity PTS. It is less common than PTS of the leg, but the symptoms and treatments are similar. Patients with upper-extremity PTS have pain and swelling in the arm. The treatment is to wear a special compression sleeve on the arm, similar to compression stockings for the legs.

If my blood clot was only in my lungs, can I get PTS?

Based on what doctors know now, PTS only affects patients who have had a blood clot in the leg or arm. Sometimes the blood clot starts in the leg and then breaks off and moves to the lungs. If a blood clot was found in your leg as well as you lungs, you may still be at risk for getting PTS. If you have never had any blood clot symptoms in your leg, and a blood clot was not found in your leg, it is unlikely you will get PTS.

90,000 6 Signs of Thrombosis You Must Know

Most often, thrombosis is formed in the legs
Photo: pixabay.com

The earlier it turns out to detect the formation of blood clots, the higher the chances of maintaining health, and even life, doctors warn.

The health consequences of thrombosis are catastrophic. A blood clot formed in a vein can break off at any time and block blood access, leading to a stroke, heart attack, or death.

Thrombosis can be recognized by certain symptoms. The main thing to remember is that blockage of veins can form in different parts of the body, but most often it occurs in the legs or hip part of the body.

Six signs of thrombosis, knowledge of which can save life

  1. If there is a blood clot, the inside of the foot, calf, or leg is usually very painful.The pain subsides a little when you lift your leg.

  2. Soreness or severe muscle tension is felt in the leg.

  3. Swelling may occur in the area where the blood clot has formed.

  4. Pain in the calf muscles that occurs when the foot is bent or when the calf is pressed.

  5. Veins are strongly inflated with bumps.

  6. Burning sensation in the leg, as if from fire.

Attention! With arm thrombosis, the symptoms are usually more noticeable. In addition, the signs mentioned above may appear unevenly, depending on the general condition of the person.

What you need to know about thrombosis

  • Most often, blood clots occur in the veins connected to the heart – these are the pelvis and legs.

  • Pulmonary embolism is a dangerous consequence of thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot breaks down and travels through the veins, through the heart, to the lungs.

  • In some cases, the blood clot can also be infected with bacteria. They can then spread, resulting in blood poisoning.

  • As a result of thrombosis, skin inflammation may occur, ulcers may appear, or edema of the legs and arms may occur.

Earlier “Kubanskie Novosti” told about the danger of varicose veins.

90,000 5 signs of thrombosis | PHARMACY Weekly

Blood clots can help “close” a wound and stop excessive bleeding, but this process can be very dangerous if it occurs in the deep veins of the body.It often occurs in the vessels of the lower extremities, which is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

“When blood clots form in deep vessels, they can cause pain and health risks,” said Dr. Luis Navarro, founder of the Vein Treatment Center in New York, USA. … The most serious complication can occur if the clot travels to the lungs and blocks systemic blood flow.It is important to know the symptoms of thrombosis, because they can often be subtle or imperceptible at all, ”said L. Navarro.

These 5 signs can help identify the presence of a blood clot.

  1. Swelling of one leg

In most cases, deep vein thrombosis results in edema in the affected limb. It becomes noticeably below the knee and rarely affects both legs. “When a blood clot forms in a vein, blood cannot return to the heart, which causes swelling of the limb,” explains Dr. Patricia Vassallo, assistant professor of cardiology at Northwestern University, USA.

  1. Skin discoloration

When blood flow is blocked in the veins, the color of the skin over that area may change. You can see shades of blue, magenta, or even red. If this area also feels itchy or feels warm to the touch, it is highly recommended to seek the advice of a specialist.

  1. Shortness of breath

Due to the effect of the formed blood clot on the circulatory system, the oxygen level may begin to fall.As a result, you can feel an increase in heart rate, a suffocating cough appears and breathing becomes difficult.

This may be a sign that a blood clot has moved to the lungs, especially if on top of that there is dizziness. If these symptoms appear, you must immediately call an ambulance.

  1. Pain in one leg

This pain may occur on its own or be accompanied by signs of discoloration of the skin and swelling in the limb. “Unfortunately, the pain caused by a blood clot can easily be mistaken for muscle cramps or overexertion, so the problem is often misdiagnosed and especially dangerous,” said Dr. L.Navarro.

  1. Acute chest pain

When a blood clot travels to the lungs, it can cause pulmonary embolism and produce symptoms similar to a heart attack.

According to Dr. Thomas Maldonado of NYU Langone Medical Center, dull pain that is concentrated in the chest but radiates to surrounding parts of the body is most likely a heart attack. On the other hand, he noted that pulmonary embolism can manifest itself as acute pain, which seems to the patient to get worse with each breath.

Based on materials from www.medicaldaily.com

Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities

Added: 03/07/2016

Life story: On the way home from work, a woman stumbled and fell. At the hospital, she was diagnosed with a fracture, put in a plaster cast, and a couple of days later was sent home to recover. During the week everything went well … Sudden death made everyone who knew her shudder, and first of all her relatives and friends.An autopsy revealed that the cause was a detached blood clot that blocked the pulmonary artery. It was just that the woman had deep vein thrombosis in the legs, which did not cause her much inconvenience and therefore remained unattended. Very sorry. But a woman could still live and please her relatives and loved ones.

There are a million such stories. Very few people are serious about the health of veins and the first time they go to a phlebologist only when spider veins and “grape bunches” of unhealthy veins appear.Few pay attention to signs of thrombosis such as rare pain, stiffness, a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the leg muscles. Such a frivolous attitude to one’s own health leads to bad consequences.

Unfortunately, it is often impossible to determine in time the initial symptoms of thrombosis of the leg vessels and many do not know that this type of thrombosis is almost asymptomatic, and therefore it is very dangerous , however, if the skin changes color, and where the blood clot is located, swelling occurs – these are signs of vascular disease.In a healthy person, venous blood moves from the bottom up: from the legs – to the organs located higher: lungs, heart, etc. If a blood clot blocks the lumen of a vein, then blood will hardly flow from the lower extremities, and edema appears. Since a blood clot can be located in different places, edema can also occur on the lower leg, ankle, and thigh. Sometimes the entire leg swells. When thrombosis of the lower extremities progresses, its symptoms are more pronounced. Sharp pain appears and heaviness in the legs increases. These symptoms are triggered by venous congestion below the site of thrombosis. As a result of the complete closure of the lumen of the vein, edema increases, metabolism in soft tissues is disrupted. This can lead to gangrene. Swelling and pain in the legs can be not only signs of vascular insufficiency, but also many other diseases. Sometimes acute thrombosis occurs. A person who moved normally today may not get out of bed tomorrow due to huge swelling. It is extremely serious if, due to the latent form of the course of thrombosis, a patient suddenly has pulmonary embolism. It occurs because a blood clot breaks off and migrates from the affected vessels of the legs into the artery of the lungs, where it is blocked. It only seems that the legs are far from the heart and lungs. But in fact, a vein is a direct road for a blood clot. If it breaks off, it literally flies up in seconds and enters the pulmonary artery, which is very dangerous. At the same time, it is not possible to save everyone … Therefore, do not risk it.For the successful treatment of deep vein thrombosis, its timely diagnosis is necessary. Today there is an accurate way to diagnose the condition of the veins – ultrasound. If you have something wrong with your legs, you have varicose veins, see a specialist. An experienced surgeon with a specialization in phlebology, Vladimir Sorokin, accepts at the Latgale Medical Center, who will diagnose the vessels of the legs and give valuable recommendations, and, if necessary, prescribe treatment. In order to prescribe the correct course of treatment, whether it is drug therapy or surgery, it is necessary to accurately diagnose the disease and comprehensively study the parameters of the thrombus (size, localization and the possibility of separation).If your doctor detects a deep vein clot during an ultrasound scan, he or she may refer you to a hospital for further treatment. Do not refuse hospitalization or postpone it for later: a blood clot can come off at any time. So, if you observe swelling of the extremities, a feeling of heaviness in the lower extremities, sharp pains, blue skin, fever and chills, then immediately consult a specialist.

It is also worth remembering that the risk of serious problems is exacerbated by:

  • Smoking.
  • Trauma contributes to the development of acute thrombosis. It leads to the fact that the vascular wall is affected and the process of hemostasis is activated. As a result, a blood clot forms.
  • Overweight.
  • Pregnancy contributes to the compression of the iliac veins, and sometimes the inferior vena cava. This leads to an increase in vascular pressure in the veins below.
  • During childbirth, the fetus, which moves through the birth canal, has many opportunities for squeezing the iliac veins.
  • Very high risk of clogged veins after caesarean section.
  • Infection causes blockage of blood vessels in men. This is due to the activation of blood clotting factors in response to the vascular walls being affected.
  • Long trips and flights.
  • Advanced age.
  • Taking medications that increase blood clotting.
  • Joint operations, abdominal operations. The high prevalence of venous thrombosis is associated with the fact that the number of operations using general anesthesia is increasing every year, as well as an increase in the number of operated elderly people with severe concomitant diseases.
  • Complicated bone fractures.
  • Cancer diseases.
  • The occurrence of vascular thrombosis is facilitated by bed rest (for a long time). The reason is the absence of muscle contraction, a slowdown in blood flow and venous congestion.
  • Healthy people also get sick if they sit or stand for a long time (traveling by car, working at a computer).

Recommendations of the surgeon Vladimir Sorokin:

  • Periodic visits to a specialist will help you detect thrombosis in time and begin timely and effective treatment.
  • Gels, creams, ointments available in pharmacies improve venous blood flow and relieve fatigue and heaviness in the legs. But such remedies are good only as an aid, they bring temporary relief, but do not solve the problem.
  • Elastic compression methods that are prescribed for a long time are effective. Elastic stockings act on the superficial veins of the lower extremities, increasing blood flow in the deep veins.
  • When sedentary work, you need to walk more often, walk at least within your office every 15–20 minutes.
  • When you go to bed, place a pillow under your feet so that they have an elevated position and there would be no swelling.
  • Do special exercises and diet. Do not be afraid to change your usual lifestyle! This will benefit not only the veins, but the entire body.

You can make an appointment with Vladimir Sorokin at Latgale Medical Center (20 Rigas Street, Daugavpils) or by calling 25251010. The cost of a phlebologist consultation is 35EUR.

In Latgale Medical Center, phlebologist consultation includes:

– Doppler ultrasonography of the veins and arteries of the lower extremities;
– phlebologist consultation, drawing up a treatment plan and specialist recommendations;
– phlebologist’s conclusion;
– help in choosing compression products.

We will be glad to help you quickly, efficiently and confidentially!

90,000 Thrombus separation: causes, symptoms and consequences.Why death from a blood clot occurs | ufa1.ru

Where to go for treatment

– Who usually suffers from thrombophilia?

– Thrombophilia is a separate condition associated with a bleeding disorder. It can be acquired and congenital – and there are quite a few such cases. These people, due to genetic abnormalities, have an increased risk of thrombosis, mainly venous.

– When do you need to see a doctor and to which one?

– If we talk about varicose veins, then the following reasons will be the reason to see a doctor:

  • dilated convex veins on the legs are visible,
  • there are spider veins.Spider veins are mainly a cosmetic problem, but it is better to see a vascular surgeon or phlebologist.
  • if the legs swell in the evening,
  • with cramps, severe tiredness of the legs.

These are all planned moments.

There are emergency moments associated with thrombosis, if a person has noticed that one leg has swollen sharply, if there are bursting pains in the leg, some change in the skin – redness, blue discoloration. In this case, acute thrombosis can be suspected, and this is already a reason for calling an ambulance and emergency hospitalization in the department of cardiovascular surgery.This is a dangerous situation – thrombosis.

– What does a phlebologist treat?

Phlebology is a branch of vascular surgery. A vascular surgeon is a vascular specialist who treats blood vessels, arteries, and veins. A phlebologist is a narrower specialist who treats narrower venous pathologies. Moreover, the concept of phlebologist is somewhat vague. These include both vascular surgeons and surgeons who can treat varicose veins.We do not yet have such an official specialization – phlebologist. And there is no such certificate, it is just a popular, traditionally established name for doctors who deal with venous diseases.

I have a certificate of a vascular surgeon, I have a certificate of a cardiovascular surgeon, and there are surgeons of a more general profile.

– Can you find such specialists in public clinics?

– Yes, of course. But in any case, these are more likely vascular surgeons, but they also deal with varicose veins.

In Ufa, the reception of a vascular surgeon is organized in the cardiology center, in the clinic of the medical university, in the republican hospital. It is planned to open an appointment for a vascular surgeon in the 21st hospital and in the emergency hospital, in the city of Sterlitamak there is a vascular surgeon.

– Does the disease have age-related features?

Since this is a genetically determined disease, adolescents can get sick with it, but, naturally, with age, the disease becomes more common, takes on more advanced forms.The older the person, the greater the risk.

– How to treat vascular diseases?

– If the patient has thrombophilia, then you need to seriously understand. Moreover, this will be done not only by a vascular surgeon, but also by a blood specialist – a hematologist. It is necessary to understand what exactly happened to the blood, to clotting, why there is such a tendency to thrombosis. To identify either other concomitant diseases, against the background of which thrombosis occurs, or to identify genetic abnormalities (donate blood for genetics) and there it is already to determine the treatment.

There is even such a branch – hemostasiologists who deal with blood clotting. There are even entire research institutes studying this issue.

There are venous thrombosis. Part of the thrombosis occurs against the background of varicose veins, as a rule, it is thrombophlebitis of the superficial veins. This is a complication of varicose veins.

Varicose disease itself affects the superficial veins. If a blood clot forms in these veins, then this is a potentially dangerous condition that can progress, the blood clot can go up, go to deep veins, break off and go into the pulmonary artery, this will end in thromboembolism and death.

And there is deep vein thrombosis, it has nothing to do with varicose veins. This is a pathology against the background of some other condition – oncology, an immobilized patient, strokes, trauma or a bleeding disorder.

– What modern methods of treatment exist?

– In the last 10 years, there has been a transformation in the treatment of the disease. If earlier there was definitely an operation, anesthesia, incisions. Now these methods have been replaced by a minimally invasive technique – laser technology, radio frequency technology, which is performed under local anesthesia.

Previously, patients were simply afraid to go to vascular surgeons for fear of surgery. Now, finally, new technologies have been waited for and patients have begun to visit doctors more often. Therefore, there are quite a few patients with an advanced form.

Treatment of the disease depends on the stage. With varicose veins, the blood supply to the tissues suffers. The reason is that the valve veins are affected. There are valves in the veins every 10 centimeters so that blood flows from the leg to the heart. The blood overcomes atmospheric pressure, the muscle contracts and pushes the blood up the valves, like up steps.If one valve breaks, then the next valve has a pressure of 20 centimeters, the load increases, and it also wears out faster. Therefore, the venous pressure in the legs becomes quite high. The metabolism in the leg follows a pressure gradient: blood flows through the arteries, and flows through the veins. For an adequate blood supply, blood must flow normally. If the outflow of blood through the veins suffers, then the metabolism of the tissue begins to suffer. Puffiness is formed due to a violation of trophism (a set of cellular nutrition processes that ensure the preservation of the structure and function of a tissue or organ.- Approx. ed. ) tissue forms eczema and ulcers. These are already medical reasons, this pathology needs to be removed. Therefore, our task in the treatment of varicose veins is to remove the pathological discharge of superficial veins. A superficial vein that interferes with the normal flow of blood from the body must be removed.

If earlier it was openly removed, cut out with a scalpel, now, with the help of a laser or with the help of a high frequency, this vein is simply sealed, its lumen is removed, and within six months it is overgrown and absorbed.

Six stages of varicose veins

– Tell us more about the stages of varicose veins.

– At the first stage, there are simply spider veins and there are no pathological processes. In theory, they do not need to be treated, this is a purely cosmetic defect. They can be removed at the request of the patient.

In the second stage, veins become visible, there may be night cramps, fatigue in the legs. Starting from the second stage, varicose veins already need to be treated.

Puffiness joins the third.

At the fourth, trophic disorders are added: maceration (swelling of tissues. – Approx. Ed. ) of the skin, eczema.

The fifth stage is a closed ulcer, the sixth is an already open ulcer.

Varicose veins last for years and decades, it is not an emergency condition like appendicitis. The higher the stage, the more indications for surgery. For example, if there is an open ulcer, then it is better not to hesitate.

In the second stage, when the patient has visible veins, but nothing bothers him, in this case there is no urgency. There are conservative methods. The goal of treatment is that a vein that is dilated must be reduced to a normal state so that the valves touch. This is done using compression hosiery. That is, we remove the pathological discharge.

Darkening of the skin

Structural changes in the epidermis indicate a severe stage of the pathology, so in no case delay your visit to the doctor.Lack of oxygen and tissue death can lead to gangrene.

Darkening of the skin of the legs and feet can appear with chronic venous insufficiency, thrombosis or varicose veins. The main cause is stagnation of blood, slow blood flow or lack of oxygen in the tissues. That is why you need to deal with the problem from the inside. It is impossible to get rid of the defect with the help of cosmetics and procedures.

Often, this symptom is a sign of diabetes mellitus, because blood flow throughout the body is significantly impaired.This slows down wound healing, especially in the affected area. Infection is a serious complication, as it weakens the body as a whole, and the penetration of nutrients into tissues is complicated due to slow blood flow.

Darkening of the skin of the legs and feet may indicate gangrene. As soon as the veins expand and change their structure, and the blood begins to stagnate, circulation and oxygen supply to the tissues becomes more difficult. The same darkening of the skin of the legs and feet refers to thrombosis, because blood clots lead to narrowing of the lumen and gradual death of the vein.All this leads to external manifestations in the form of puffiness, darkening, pallor of the epidermis, etc.

When varicose veins occur, the operation of the valves changes. They do not cope with their functions, so the blood cannot rise up (does not overcome the force of gravity). Expansion occurs gradually due to stagnation of blood. This not only causes darkening of the skin of the legs and feet, but also provokes the onset of edema. The stronger the swelling, the more difficult it is to lead a habitual lifestyle (mobility decreases).

For what reasons do these diseases appear?

  1. Work – if you are on your feet all day and cannot take a break, then this negatively affects the condition of the veins and blood vessels of the lower extremities. This includes the following professions: hairdresser, dentist, sales consultant, security guard, etc.
  2. Genetics – genetic predisposition is an important factor that causes darkening of the skin of the legs and feet. If there are people in the family with chronic venous insufficiency or varicose veins, then you are at risk.
  3. Injuries are not only injuries, but also surgical interventions. If the wall of a vessel or vein is damaged, then the body starts recovery processes. This can lead to the formation of blood clots, and then to a discoloration of the epidermis.
  4. Hormonal changes – occur during adolescence, during pregnancy or taking contraceptives. Changes in the hormonal system can lead to thrombosis, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency, or spider veins.
  5. Sports – Sports activities can have serious impact on the lower extremities. This is especially true for heavy sports such as powerlifting (work with critical weights).

Make an appointment with a specialist

If you notice darkening of the skin of the legs and feet, then consult a professional. The phlebology center “First Phlebological Center” conducts a comprehensive examination and uses the best methods of treatment that are practiced abroad.By contacting us, you will get rid of the cause of this pathology and receive further recommendations to exclude relapses. Call us now to make an appointment. 90,000 Vascular Diseases: Symptoms, Treatment, Specialists

What is vascular disease?

Vascular disorders, also called angiopathies in medical language, are mainly understood as diseases of the arterial, venous and lymphatic vessels.

In industrialized countries, diseases associated with arteries and blood flow from the heart are one of the leading causes of death in the population.In the case of arterial vascular diseases, a distinction is made between narrowing (stenosis) or occlusion (obturation) and expansion (delitation) of the vessel or stratification (dissection) of its wall. An increase in vessel wall thickness is the most common occurrence in vascular arterial disease. This is usually caused by


and can lead to complete or partial closure of the vessel.

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart.Diseases of the veins are very common and belong to the diseases of the eyelid. They mainly affect the legs. The main diseases of the veins are

varicose veins



Diseases of the lymphatic vessels are also referred to as vascular diseases. Here, the most serious problem is considered


, which occurs due to stagnation of lymphatic fluid.

What vascular diseases exist?

Arterial vascular disease

Vascular stenosis and obstruction:

narrowing and ultimately complete occlusion of an arterial blood vessel can have different causes. Atherosclerosis is the most common form of blood flow damage. In colloquial language, it is also called hardening of the arteries. It is caused by an inflammatory reaction of the vessel wall. Many factors play a role in the development of atherosclerosis.These include high blood pressure, nicotine intake, diabetes, lack of exercise, or lipid metabolism disorders.

On average, atherosclerosis develops in men earlier than in women, and increases with age. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells of our body. Due to the narrowing or blockage of the vessel, the blood supply to the tissues is reduced or stopped, leading to a lack of nutrition. Atherosclerosis occurs in different areas of the vascular system and can cause different symptoms depending on the location.This leads to many different consequences.

Arterial stenosis can have other causes besides arteriosclerosis. For example, it can be caused by vascular inflammation, damage to the vessel wall by external factors (drugs, radiation therapy, current damage), or a congenital disorder of the structure of the vessel wall.

Vascular dilation and dissection:

pathological vasodilation occurs when destabilization of the vascular wall leads to an increase in the diameter of the vessels.Stratification of blood vessels is associated with the splitting of the layers of their walls. Again, the main cause is atherosclerosis described above.

Non-atherosclerotic causes include congenital diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. They cause changes in the connective tissue and thus also affect the condition of the blood vessel walls. In addition, an important role in the development of stretching and dissection of the arteries is played by


Venous diseases

Increased pressure in the veins can lead to varicose veins. Blood clots that stick in the veins and clog them can cause thrombosis.

What consequences can arise and what symptoms do they cause?

Angina pectoris

Angina pectoris – This term refers to recurring symptoms that result from insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle. The cause is often the narrowing of the coronary arteries in atherosclerosis.The coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with blood. Chest pain is described by patients as a feeling of heaviness, pressure, constriction, or suffocation.

Although occasional angina episodes are usually triggered by exercise or intense emotion and relaxation, they can also occur during periods of rest or during sleep. Running angina is dangerous because it can lead to complete closure of the coronary arteries and, therefore, heart attack.

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction

– life-threatening condition.It is caused by complete occlusion of a coronary vessel, which can occur, for example, due to severe narrowing or blood clots. Due to occlusion of the affected coronary artery, the heart muscle can no longer be supplied with oxygen. If the lumen of the damaged blood vessel is not restored within a few hours, the wasted muscle tissue dies. This dead tissue is called the infarction area. The larger the blocked coronary vessel, the larger the infarction area.

The symptoms of a heart attack can vary greatly from person to person.Persistent chest pain is typical and may radiate to the neck, lower jaw, shoulder region, and left arm. Feelings of weakness, anxiety, sweating, nausea and vomiting are also common.



cause circulatory disorders in the brain as a result of the closure or rupture of a vessel, which leads to a sudden loss of function in some areas of the brain. Circulatory disorders are usually caused by abnormal changes in blood flow in the brain (for example, in atherosclerosis).

Disturbances of language, movement, sensory perception, consciousness and psyche are characteristic symptoms. In this case, the person concerned should seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral arterial obliterans atherosclerosis (OAPA) is a condition caused by narrowing of the aorta or arteries. The disease is also called intermittent claudication or “shop window disease” because the patient often stops due to repetitive pain, and it looks like he is looking at the shop windows.

When the arteries are narrowed, the legs are not supplied with sufficient blood volume, and pain occurs with physical exertion. If the disease progresses, pain may also appear at rest. Most people with OAPA also have narrowed blood vessels in the heart and brain.



Is a pathological saccular or fusiform expansion of a blood vessel. It can develop during life in the weak points of the vessel wall and is irreversible.Aneurysms are caused by congenital or acquired vascular changes. The risk of developing aneurysms is that they can rupture. If this happens, life-threatening internal bleeding will occur.


Varicose veins, also known as varicose veins, are the appearance of enlarged, convoluted superficial veins. They are clearly visible as they are usually located directly under the skin. If a patient suffers from varicose veins, then they say that he has varicose veins.This condition is the most common of all venous diseases, affecting approximately 20% of all adults.

The role of the veins is to carry blood from the vascular system back to the heart. In the legs, blood must be pumped against gravity. This happens in the limbs due to muscle tension. When the muscles relax again, the blood in the legs drops. For this reason, there are valves inside the veins called venous valves, which can be compared to valves. They prevent blood from flowing back.When the venous valves do not close properly, blood flows more slowly, builds up in the vessels, and becomes visible under the skin.

Varicose veins are not just a cosmetic issue. Symptoms often include dull pain or a feeling of heaviness in the legs after prolonged exertion.

Fatigue, heaviness and tension in the legs develops, which disappear after the patient lies down or moves. Leg cramps may appear at night. Sometimes there is so-called edema, that is, swelling of the lower leg and ankles.With severe varicose veins, skin ulcers over the ankles, bleeding, and thrombosis may appear.



This is a blockage of a vein by a blood clot. Blood clots are called blood clots in medical terms. They are caused by the protective function of our body as a result of blood clotting. When damaged, this mechanism protects the body from bleeding by forcing the blood to thicken, closing the wound. When these clots enter the bloodstream, they can close the vessel lumen and cause complications.This is mainly venous thrombosis, especially deep veins of the lower extremities.

If the blood’s ability to clot in the body increases, the risk of thrombosis also increases. Risk factors here are taking birth control pills, smoking, pregnancy, dehydration, being overweight, etc.

Symptoms of leg vein thrombosis include pain, swelling, heaviness and tension, overheating, and redness or blueness of the legs.

The most dangerous complication of thrombosis is that the clot can break off and migrate to the lungs.This condition is called pulmonary embolism, which can lead to death.

Which doctors are specialists in vascular diseases?

Specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of blood vessel diseases are angiologists and vascular surgeons. Angiology is a branch of internal medicine and studies the functions and diseases of arterial, venous and lymphatic vessels. Vascular surgeons are specialists in the field of vascular surgery.

Interviewing patients, a thorough examination and additional methods of examination with the help of medical devices make it possible to establish a diagnosis.Specialized medical examinations include ultrasound and other imaging techniques such as angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography.

Angiologists and vascular surgeons very often collaborate with cardiologists, neurologists, dermatologists and specialists in the lymphatic system.

Venous thrombosis – what is it, symptoms

Venous thrombosis is referred to as acute diseases. There are many reasons for its occurrence, the main ones are a violation of the structure of the venous wall during surgery, trauma, radiation and chemotherapy, slowing down the blood flow rate, and increased blood clotting.

For reasons for the occurrence of venous thrombosis are divided into several types:

  • congestive (typical for varicose veins of the lower extremities due to blood pressure on the veins)
  • inflammatory (appear after previous infections, trauma, injections, immunoallergic processes)
  • thrombosis in violation of the hemostasis system (accompanying oncology, metabolic diseases, liver pathology, thrombophilia)

Vein thrombosis can also be classified according to localization:

  • thrombosis superficial (saphenous) veins of the lower extremities (in clinical practice it is referred to as thrombophlebitis , is a frequent complication of varicose veins – inflammation in the walls of the veins increases the tendency to form blood clots)
  • deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities

Characteristic symptoms of superficial vein thrombophlebitis:

  • Constant drawing, burning pain along the thrombosed veins, which can restrict movement in the affected limb
  • Skin redness in the area of ​​the affected vein
  • Local (local) temperature rise in the area of ​​the affected vein
  • Hypersensitivity in the affected area of ​​the limb
  • Moderate swelling in the area of ​​the ankles and lower third of the legs
  • Dilation of small saphenous veins

Thrombus formation can begin anywhere in the venous system, but most often in the deep veins of the leg.

Typical symptoms seen in deep vein thrombosis include:

  1. Swelling of the entire limb or part of it
  2. Discoloration of the skin (development of cyanosis – cyanosis
    skin of the lower extremities) or strengthening of the pattern of the saphenous veins
  3. Bursting pain in the limb

Blood clots are usually localized in the veins of the legs, thighs and pelvis. A person may not be aware that they have a blood clot until the clot causes significant obstruction to blood flow or particles of the clot break off.With the development of thrombosis in the veins of the lower extremities, edema and pain in the leg may appear.

Venous thrombosis is very dangerous and poses a great threat to human life and health. A blood clot formed in the deep veins of the leg can travel with blood to the pulmonary artery, causing partial or complete disruption of blood flow in it (this condition is called pulmonary embolism). Venous thrombosis does not always pass without a trace, and after a thrombosis, a person may develop the so-called post-thrombotic disease, which manifests itself in constant edema of the limb and the formation of trophic ulcers.

Venous thrombosis and its most dangerous complication – pulmonary embolism (PE) – are the most frequent companions of many patients in medical and surgical hospitals.

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a severe life-threatening disease in which there is a complete or partial closure of the lumen of the pulmonary artery by a thrombus. As a rule, PE is a complication of deep vein thrombosis of the legs.

Signs observed in PE are varied and not very specific.

Most common:

  • Dyspnea of ​​varying severity (from mild to severe)
  • Chest pain (in most cases “pleural”, aggravated by breathing)
  • Hemoptysis is a rare symptom, body temperature may rise, later cough may join (as a rule, these signs are observed with a small embolism of small branches of the pulmonary artery)
  • Shock or a sharp decrease in pressure with the development of a massive lesion of the pulmonary artery, impaired consciousness may be noted

If you find the symptoms described above, you should immediately seek medical help from the nearest medical institution!


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