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Do’s and Don’ts of How to Prevent a Chipped Tooth

A chipped tooth may cause you pain and discomfort if the
chip is deep enough. The appearance of a chip can also cause you to feel
self-conscious when you smile. When you take these steps, though, you reduce
your risk of chipping a tooth. Here’s what you should do and what you should
not do to prevent a chipped tooth.

Do Reduce Your Sugar Content

You want to limit the amount of sugar you consume, not only
for your overall health but also for your teeth.

The bad bacteria in your mouth feed on sugar. Once the bad
bacteria devour the sugar, they produce acidic waste that damages your tooth’s
enamel. This acid causes tooth decay, which weakens the enamel of your teeth.
Ultimately, if you have tooth decay, you have a greater chance of chipping a

Do Limit Acidic Food and Beverages

Foods and drinks with a high acidic level weaken the enamel
of your teeth and can cause tooth erosion. While your teeth undergo a process
known as remineralization (which repairs the damage), if you repeatedly expose
your teeth to acidic foods and drinks, your teeth can’t repair themselves as
easily. Basically, you weaken your teeth’s enamel and leave them vulnerable to

Some examples of foods and drinks you want to limit because
of their acid content include:

  • Soda
  • Oranges
  • Lemons
  • Limes
  • Wine
  • Tomatoes
    and tomato-based products

Many of these items have health benefits, so you don’t want
to exclude them completely. Instead, you should rinse your mouth out or brush
after you consume these items. When you drink any liquid with an acid content,
you should also use a straw to minimize your teeth’s exposure.

Don’t Chew Ice or Hard Candy

The enamel is a hard layer that protects your teeth. While
it’s strong, if you bite down on hard candy or ice, you can still chip this
layer of your teeth.

Rather than bite hard candy or ice, suck on it. Make sure
you brush your teeth soon after you eat candy to remove the sugar from your

Don’t Open Items With Your Teeth

Your teeth are a necessity for eating and chewing. They,
however, aren’t tools. Therefore, you should avoid opening items and packages
with them. While you might want to avoid the hassle of getting up for a pair of
scissors or another tool, you’ll protect your teeth from damage by getting the
right tool to open packages.

Do Get Treatment for Your Acid Reflux

Acid reflux may cause acid from your stomach to enter your
mouth. While you may tolerate the bouts of indigestion without the need for
treatment, your teeth experience the wrath of the acid. When the acid
comes in contact with your teeth, it wears away at your teeth’s enamel, just
like an acid beverage or food would.

Do Get Treatment for Teeth Grinding or Clenching

If you suffer from bruxism, more commonly known as teeth
grinding, or if you clench your teeth, you wear away and damage the enamel of
your teeth. You may even suffer from a chipped tooth as a result of your habit.
A dentist can help you prevent your top and bottom teeth from coming in contact
with one another, which reduces your chances of chipping a tooth.

Do Get Enough Vitamins and Minerals

As mentioned above, your teeth go through a remineralization
process that repairs damage to your enamel. For this process to occur, you need
an adequate amount of minerals such as the following:

  • Vitamin
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Vitamin

You want to take the necessary steps to decrease the change
that you’ll chip a tooth. Proactive steps include diet and habit changes. It
also helps to visit your dentist for more tips and routine dental care. Contact Rabel Family
Dental, serving Baker, LA, and the nearby region, if you crack a tooth or
want routine dental care.

Dental erosion – Better Health Channel

Dental erosion is the loss of the surface of your teeth due to acids you eat or drink, or acids coming up from your stomach. These acids can dissolve the crystals that make up your teeth, leading to tooth surface loss. These acids can also soften the tooth surface, making it easier for them to be worn away by abrasion or tooth grinding. This is known as acid wear.  

Stomach acids can cause dental erosion

The stomach contains many strong acids that are used to digest food. Vomiting and reflux can cause these stomach acids to enter your mouth.

Stomach acids are very strong and can cause substantial damage to the teeth. For example, people with bulimia, morning sickness or reflux (which can sometimes occur without you knowing) may experience this problem.

Dietary sources of acid can cause dental erosion

Many things that we eat and drink are acidic. One of the reasons for this is that acidic things taste nice. Common foods and drinks that contain high levels of acid, include: 

  • soft drinks (sugar-free and sugar-containing)
  • energy drinks
  • citrus fruits (lemons, limes, oranges)
  • kombucha
  • lemon-flavoured drinks or teas
  • fruit-flavoured lollies
  • most fruit juices
  • most cordials
  • vitamin waters
  • vitamin C tablets
  • vinegar
  • wine
  • pre-mixed alcoholic drinks.

Food acids are often added to processed foods and drinks. If you check the ingredient list of foods and drinks, you can see if food acids have been added. The ingredients are listed in order of their amount in the food, with the most being listed first. The closer any food acids are to the start of the list, the more acid the product will have in it. 

In particular, watch out for food acids 330 (citric acid), 331 (sodium citrate), and 338 (phosphoric acid) which are especially bad for teeth. For further information speak to your dental professional.

Symptoms of dental erosion

One sign of dental erosion is the loss of the surface of the tooth, leading to a smooth, shiny appearance. Dental erosion can also make any exposed tooth root (dentine) sensitive to hot, cold or sweet foods and drinks. 

When there is advanced dental erosion, the enamel may wear away to reveal the underlying dentine; these areas look like yellow depressions on the tooth surface (see below). Fillings may start to become more prominent if the surrounding tooth surface is dissolving away due to erosion.

Photo: Dr Nathan Cochrane

Complications of dental erosion

Dental erosion, if untreated, can lead to the progressive loss of the surface of the tooth. The loss of tooth structure can require complex and lengthy dental treatment involving fillings, veneers, crowns and potentially root canal treatment. 

When the signs of dental erosion are detected, it is very important to determine the cause and modify it. 

Preventing dental erosion

Dental erosion can be prevented by limiting contact of acids with the teeth. Some tips include: 

  • Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.
  • Drink fluoridated water rather than soft drink or juice.
  • Eat fruit rather than drinking fruit juice.
  • Eat fruit at meal times rather than between meals.
  • Reduce how often you eat or drink anything acidic and reduce the time it is in your mouth.
  • Seek medical treatment for management of reflux or vomiting.
  • Do not chew vitamin C tablets. If necessary, take vitamin C supplements that are swallowed whole.
  • Use sugar-free chewing gum after meals to promote saliva flow. Saliva is very important for protecting your teeth from erosion.
  • Consider using dental products containing ‘stannous fluoride’ [tin (II) fluoride]. Recent studies suggest stannous fluoride is effective in reducing tooth erosion. 

Following exposure to strong acids, you can help to neutralise the acid by: 

  • rinsing your mouth with water or a fluoride mouth rinse
  • rinsing your mouth with a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) mouth rinse (one teaspoon of baking soda in a glass of water)
  • consuming dairy products.

Tips to minimise tooth wear include: 

  • Use a soft-bristled tooth brush with fluoridated toothpaste.
  • Avoid using abrasive toothpastes (some whitening toothpastes and charcoal-based toothpastes are more abrasive).
  • Make sure you have neutralised any acid (described above) before brushing your teeth.
  • Wear a custom made dental splint if you grind your teeth at night.

Saliva can help reduce dental erosion

Saliva is a powerful natural defence against erosion. Saliva can wash acids out of your mouth into the stomach, it can neutralise acid, and it can repair the early stages of tooth softening by repairing tooth mineral. However, it cannot restore the lost tooth surface. A reduced flow of saliva (dry mouth) can increase your risk of dental erosion. 

Stay well hydrated, as this improves your saliva. Remember that dehydration can reduce the amount of saliva you make, so drink lots of fluoridated water.

If you have a constant dry mouth, you may be at increased risk of dental erosion. Talk to your dental professional to identify the cause. 

Causes of reduced saliva

Causes of reduced saliva (or dry mouth syndrome) may include: 

  • medications – some can affect your salivary glands and reduce the amount of saliva that they can make, leading to a dry mouth
  • dehydration – working in a dry environment and not rehydrating often enough can lead to a decrease in saliva production. Also, excessive intake of caffeine found in coffee, tea, chocolate and cola drinks can reduce fluid levels in the body and reduce saliva
  • some specific diseases or conditions can affect the saliva glands, such as Sjogren’s syndrome. 

Treatment for dental erosion

If your teeth have eroded, the lost surface of the tooth may need to be replaced with filling materials or crowns. It is important to visit your dental professional regularly so that they can identify dental erosion early, determine the cause, and then work with you to develop strategies to prevent further dental erosion and tooth wear. 

Where to get help

Most Common Causes of Chipped & Broken Teeth

A chipped or broken tooth is not a fun experience for anyone – especially a child. When it comes to a kid’s dental care, our practice offers everything from routine preventive services to same-day appointments for emergency care. Our children’s emergency dentist provides gentle treatment for those suffering with chipped and broken teeth. Following are some of the most common causes of broken teeth.

Enamel Erosion

Tooth enamel is the mineralized outer layer of teeth. It is made of strong minerals so that it can protect the softer structures inside a tooth from harmful bacteria that cause cavities. Because tooth enamel is so strong, it can help prevent chipped and broken teeth, too. While enamel is very strong, it is susceptible to damage when exposed to acid on a repeated basis. Acid will strip away the mineral content of enamel, which softens it and makes it weak. Over time, enamel loss can expose the underlying structure of teeth (dentin) to cavity-causing oral bacteria. Weakened tooth enamel leaves teeth vulnerable to decay, chipping, cracking, and breaking.

Facial Trauma

One of the most common ways that teeth become broken or chipped is by traumatic facial injuries. A facial injury can occur as a result of a car wreck, accidental fall, or blunt force trauma from contact sports. Blunt force to the face can lead to dislodged teeth as well as broken and chipped teeth. It is important to schedule an appointment with our children’s emergency dentist as soon as possible since facial trauma requires immediate professional attention.

Tooth Decay

In addition to enamel loss and facial trauma, untreated tooth decay is a common cause behind a child developing chipped or broken teeth. Tooth decay not only signifies that a portion of a tooth is weakened, it also means that a cavity has formed a depression in the tooth, leaving sensitive internal structures exposed. Teeth with untreated tooth decay can fracture and chip – especially when eating hard or crisp foods.

For more information about preventive care or emergency services, call our kid’s dental practice today at Fort Worth Children’s Dentistry.

Chipped Another Tooth? Here’s Why It Keeps Happening

A chipped tooth can happen to anyone. But for most people, it doesn’t happen very often. So if you find yourself chipping your teeth regularly, you should investigate what might be causing it.

Here are common reasons why some people experience more chipped teeth than others. Some of these are chronic conditions that lead to tooth damage over time. Others are acute situations that cause the actual trauma that chips the tooth. Some of these are controllable, while others are not. During your consultation, we will look at your teeth and assess the chips to determine what can be done to reduce chipping in the future.


Tooth enamel is very similar among people, but it’s not identical. Some people have genetic traits that undermine the strength of their tooth enamel, making it more likely to chip.

We haven’t mapped DNA well enough to be able to highlight all the genes that control tooth enamel formation, so we typically consider this after we’ve eliminated other potential causes.

The good news is that porcelain veneers are a great treatment if this is the cause of your chipped teeth. Modern veneers are made of advanced materials that are many times stronger than tooth enamel.


Teeth are built of minerals, and if you’re not supplying them with the minerals they need, they can’t be as strong as they should be. If your diet doesn’t have vital nutrients like calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and silicon, your teeth may be more susceptible to chipping. Make sure your diet includes fruits, vegetables, and other foods that supply these and other vital ingredients for healthy teeth.

In particular, getting the right diet is especially crucial during the years that your teeth are forming. If you don’t eat healthy when you’re young, you are more likely to experience chipped teeth when you get older. If your diet was especially bad during your youth, you might have defects in your enamel that aren’t just structural–they might be visible as well.

Decay and Erosion

On the other hand, you might have all the things necessary for healthy, strong teeth, but maybe some other things, too. In particular, an excess of sugar in your diet can put your teeth at risk by feeding oral bacteria.

Decay can weaken your teeth, even if you haven’t developed a cavity. Early decay can leach vital minerals from your teeth, making them weak.

But it’s not just oral bacteria that can leach minerals from your teeth. Acidic foods and drinks–especially carbonated sodas, energy drinks, fruit juices, and wines are acidic enough to take minerals from your teeth and make them susceptible to chipping.

If decay and erosion are responsible for weakened teeth, dental crowns are a great way to strengthen and protect them.


Your job may also be bad for your teeth. Accidents or violence in the workplace can lead to chipped teeth. You may also be clenching your teeth from workplace stress, causing your teeth to crack and chip.

Make sure you’re following all the safety guidelines and practices at work, and, if necessary, consider looking for a less stressful job. Plus you can take a pass on the office cake to help protect your teeth.


Many hobbies can also lead to more frequent tooth injuries. If you play any kind of sport, for example, you’re more likely to have your teeth injured. Contact sports are especially likely to result in oral injuries, but noncontact sports like bicycling  and show jumping can also put your teeth at risk. Amateur athletes are more likely to suffer tooth injuries in part because they don’t always wear a mouthguard.

A mouthguard can protect your teeth from sports-related injuries.<

Oral piercings can also chip your teeth. If you have piercings of the lip, cheek, or tongue, you’re more likely to chip your teeth.

Finally, any hobby is more likely to result in a chipped tooth if alcohol is involved. Avoid drinking when you are operating machinery or driving.<


An imbalanced bite related to TMJ and other conditions  can subject your teeth to excessive force. This can make your teeth chip, one by one. If you have experienced multiple chipped teeth, we’ll evaluate your bite to see if it’s properly balanced.

If not, we’ll use neuromuscular dentistry to bring your bite back into balance. This could be a necessary step no matter what else might be contributing to your chipped teeth. It will protect not only your teeth, but also any restorations that have been placed on those teeth.

A Comprehensive Solution

Are you tired of chipping one tooth after another? Do you want a treatment that looks for the root cause of your chipped teeth to stop future damage?

If so, then please call (910) 392-6060 today for an appointment with Wilmington, NC restorative dentist Dr. Michael Kuzma at Kuzma Advanced Dentistry.

Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems

In this section:

How can diabetes affect my mouth?

Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes can cause pain, infection, and other problems in your mouth. Your mouth includes

  • your teeth
  • your gums
  • your jaw
  • tissues such as your tongue, the roof and bottom of your mouth, and the inside of your cheeks

Glucose is present in your saliva—the fluid in your mouth that makes it wet. When diabetes is not controlled, high glucose levels in your saliva help harmful bacteria grow. These bacteria combine with food to form a soft, sticky film called plaque. Plaque also comes from eating foods that contain sugars or starches. Some types of plaque cause tooth decay or cavities. Other types of plaque cause gum disease and bad breath.

Gum disease can be more severe and take longer to heal if you have diabetes. In turn, having gum disease can make your blood glucose hard to control.

What happens if I have plaque?

Plaque that is not removed hardens over time into tartar and collects above your gum line. Tartar makes it more difficult to brush and clean between your teeth. Your gums become red and swollen, and bleed easily—signs of unhealthy or inflamed gums, called gingivitis.

When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to gum disease called periodontitis. In periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and form spaces, called pockets, which slowly become infected. This infection can last a long time. Your body fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line. Both the bacteria and your body’s response to this infection start to break down the bone and the tissue that hold the teeth in place. If periodontitis is not treated, the gums, bones, and tissue that support the teeth are destroyed. Teeth may become loose and might need to be removed. If you have periodontitis, your dentist may send you to a periodontist, an expert in treating gum disease.

Healthy gums                       Periodontitis

What are the most common mouth problems from diabetes?

The following chart shows the most common mouth problems from diabetes.

Problem What It Is Symptoms Treatment
  • unhealthy or inflamed gums
  • red, swollen, and bleeding gums
  • daily brushing and flossing
  • regular cleanings at the dentist
  • gum disease, which can change from mild to severe
  • red, swollen, and bleeding gums
  • gums that have pulled away from the teeth
  • long-lasting infection between the teeth and gums
  • bad breath that won’t go away
  • permanent teeth that are loose or moving away from one another
  • changes in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
  • sometimes pus between the teeth and gums
  • changes in the fit of dentures, which are teeth you can remove
  • deep cleaning at your dentist
  • medicine that your dentist prescribes
  • gum surgery in severe cases
thrush, called
  • the growth of a naturally occurring fungus that the body is unable to control
  • sore, white—or sometimes red—patches on your gums, tongue, cheeks, or the roof of your mouth
  • patches that have turned into open sores
  • medicine that your doctor or dentist prescribes to kill the fungus
  • cleaning dentures
  • removing dentures for part of the day or night, and soaking them in medicine that your doctor or dentist prescribes
dry mouth, called
  • a lack of saliva in your mouth, which raises your risk for tooth decay and gum disease
  • dry feeling in your mouth, often or all of the time
  • dry, rough tongue
  • pain in the mouth
  • cracked lips
  • mouth sores or infection
  • problems chewing, eating, swallowing, or talking
  • taking medicine to keep your mouth wet that your doctor or dentist prescribes
  • rinsing with a fluoride mouth rinse to prevent cavities
  • using sugarless gum or mints to increase saliva flow
  • taking frequent sips of water
  • avoiding tobacco, caffeine, and alcoholic beverages
  • using a humidifier, a device that raises the level of moisture in your home, at night
  • avoiding spicy or salty foods that may cause pain in a dry mouth
oral burning
  • a burning sensation inside the mouth caused by uncontrolled blood glucose levels
  • burning feeling in the mouth
  • dry mouth
  • bitter taste
  • symptoms may worsen throughout the day
  • seeing your doctor, who may change your diabetes medicine
  • once your blood glucose is under control, the oral burning will go away

More symptoms of a problem in your mouth are

  • a sore, or an ulcer, that does not heal
  • dark spots or holes in your teeth
  • pain in your mouth, face, or jaw that doesn’t go away
  • loose teeth
  • pain when chewing
  • a changed sense of taste or a bad taste in your mouth
  • bad breath that doesn’t go away when you brush your teeth

How will I know if I have mouth problems from diabetes?

Check your mouth for signs of problems from diabetes. If you notice any problems, see your dentist right away. Some of the first signs of gum disease are swollen, tender, or bleeding gums. Sometimes you won’t have any signs of gum disease. You may not know you have it until you have serious damage. Your best defense is to see your dentist twice a year for a cleaning and checkup.

Check your mouth for signs of problems from diabetes.

How can I prepare for a visit to my dentist?

Plan ahead. Talk with your doctor and dentist before the visit about the best way to take care of your blood glucose during dental work.

You may be taking a diabetes medicine that can cause low blood glucose, also called hypoglycemia. If you take insulin or other diabetes medicines, take them and eat as usual before visiting the dentist. You may need to bring your diabetes medicines and your snacks or meal with you to the dentist’s office.

You may need to postpone any nonemergency dental work if your blood glucose is not under control.

If you feel nervous about visiting the dentist, tell your dentist and the staff about your feelings. Your dentist can adapt the treatment to your needs. Don’t let your nerves stop you from having regular checkups. Waiting too long to take care of your mouth may make things worse.

If you feel nervous about visiting the dentist, tell your dentist and the staff about your feelings.

What if my mouth is sore after my dental work?

A sore mouth is common after dental work. If this happens, you might not be able to eat or chew the foods you normally eat for several hours or days. For guidance on how to adjust your usual routine while your mouth is healing, ask your doctor

  • what foods and drinks you should have
  • if you should change the time when you take your diabetes medicines
  • if you should change the dose of your diabetes medicines
  • how often you should check your blood glucose

How does smoking affect my mouth?

Smoking makes problems with your mouth worse. Smoking raises your chances of getting gum disease, oral and throat cancers, and oral fungal infections. Smoking also discolors your teeth and makes your breath smell bad.

Smoking and diabetes are a dangerous mix. Smoking raises your risk for many diabetes problems. If you quit smoking,

If you smoke, stop smoking. Ask for help so that you don’t have to do it alone. You can start by calling 1–800–QUITNOW or 1–800–784–8669.

How can I keep my mouth healthy?

You can keep your mouth healthy by taking these steps:

  • Keep your blood glucose numbers as close to your target as possible. Your doctor will help you set your target blood glucose numbers and teach you what to do if your numbers are too high or too low.
  • Eat healthy meals and follow the meal plan that you and your doctor or dietitian have worked out.
  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride protects against tooth decay.
    • Aim for brushing first thing in the morning, before going to bed, and after each meal and sugary or starchy snack.
    • Use a soft toothbrush.
    • Gently brush your teeth with the toothbrush angled towards the gum line.
    • Use small, circular motions.
    • Brush the front, back, and top of each tooth. Brush your tongue, too.
    • Change your toothbrush every 3 months or sooner if the toothbrush looks worn or the bristles spread out. A new toothbrush removes more plaque.
  • Drink water that contains added fluoride or ask your dentist about using a fluoride mouth rinse to prevent tooth decay.
  • Ask your dentist about using an anti-plaque or anti-gingivitis mouth rinse to control plaque or prevent gum disease.
  • Use dental floss to clean between your teeth at least once a day. Flossing helps prevent plaque from building up on your teeth. When flossing,
    • slide the floss up and down and then curve it around the base of each tooth under the gums
    • use clean sections of floss as you move from tooth to tooth
  • Another way of removing plaque between teeth is to use a dental pick or brush—thin tools designed to clean between the teeth. You can buy these picks at drug stores or grocery stores.
  • If you wear dentures, keep them clean and take them out at night. Have them adjusted if they become loose or uncomfortable.
  • Call your dentist right away if you have any symptoms of mouth problems.
  • See your dentist twice a year for a cleaning and checkup. Your dentist may suggest more visits if you need them.

    See your dentist twice a year for a cleaning and checkup.

  • Follow your dentist’s advice.
    • If your dentist tells you about a problem, take care of it right away.
    • Follow any steps or treatments from your dentist to keep your mouth healthy.
  • Tell your dentist that you have diabetes.
    • Tell your dentist about any changes in your health or medicines.
    • Share the results of some of your diabetes blood tests, such as the A1C test or the fasting blood glucose test.
    • Ask if you need antibiotics before and after dental treatment if your diabetes is uncontrolled.
  • If you smoke, stop smoking.

Top 6 Reason why porcelain Veneers Crack, Chip, Break, or Fail:: Enamel. General & Cosmetic Dentistry: General Dentistry

Top 6 Reason why porcelain Veneers Crack, Chip, Break, or Fail:


Lately our practice is seeing a lot of chipped and cracked porcelain veneers so I wanted to write an article on why it’s important to choose the right cosmetic dentist to do your porcelain veneers.  It’s always important to see before and after work before choosing your cosmetic dentist. It’s also important that your cosmetic dentist uses magnification (dental loupes) and electric handpieces to make sure the preparations are done well. 



  • The bite is done incorrectly on your porcelain veneers. 



The most important thing about veneers is to make sure the bite is done correctly. If you are biting on your veneers incorrectly this can put extra force and cause a chipped or cracked veneer. That’s why it is important to find a cosmetic dentist that can not only make the veneers look good but makes sure you can function with them by creating a nice balanced bite. A chip in the veneer might be able to be repaired but if the whole thing cracks in half and it needs to be redone. There is nothing worse than a veneer emergency because veneers are usually done on front teeth and no one wants a broken front tooth before an important business meeting. 



  • The porcelain veneers are bonded incorrectly



This is another step that is super important when getting veneers. The Cosmetic dentist must make sure to etch the porcelain veneer and etch the tooth to be able to create a perfect bond between the porcelain and tooth structure. If the Porcelain veneer is not bonded correctly this can cause bacteria to leak underneath the porcelain veneer and it will turn grey or black. The only way to fix this is to take the veneer off and replace it. 



  • The porcelain veneers do not have a perfect fit to the tooth.



We see a lot of advertisements with no prep veneers. This means that an impression is taken and the veneers are made without preparing the existing tooth. This sounds great in theory but if you think about it you cannot create a flush margin where the porcelain veneer meets the tooth and that can cause bacteria and plaque to sit under there. That will cause inflammation and bleeding in the gums and eventually you will have bone loss around those teeth which would be a failure of the porcelain veneer. 



  • The dental Lab made bad quality porcelain veneers. 



When choosing a cosmetic dentist it is also important to ask about the dental lab they are using. If a cosmetic dentist is using a poor dental lab you will get poor quality veneers. The veneers can look too opaque, too monochromatic, too bulky or most importantly the can be too weak to withstand everyday chewing. This can cause the veneers to chip, crack or debond. Dental emergencies like veneer repairs or redoing veneers can be expensive and stressful. This is why it is so important to us a good dental lab that knows how to fabricate strong and esthetic porcelain veneers. 


  • The patient used their porcelain veneers to bite on non food items. 


A common cause of people chipping teeth or porcelain veneers is because they use their teeth to open packages like bags of chips or other things. Also people chew on their nails or chew ice. If your teeth chip on things like these you can expect porcelain veneers to chip on non food objects too. It is important to not use your teeth as tools and only use them for eating. Teeth and veneers are not designed to but used on objects. 


  • Improper maintenance of the porcelain veneers. 


The last reason the veneers will fail is when patients do not keep up with their 6 month cleanings with the dentist. It is important for your cosmetic dentist or dental hygenist to clean around the veneers. Veneers are susceptible to periodontal disease just like teeth. Just because your cosmetic dentist makes your smile look great it doesn’t mean that you don’t need to keep up with your 6 month cleanings. 


To set up a free consultation with our office please give us a call and let us repair or replace old chipped or cracked porcelain veneers!

Bruxism | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is bruxism?

Bruxism is a problem in which you unconsciously grind or clench your teeth. You may clench and grind your teeth during the day. Or, at night while you sleep (sleep bruxism). You may not even realize you have it. Signs and symptoms vary, and can include:

  • Abraded teeth

  • Chipped or cracked teeth

  • Facial pain

  • Overly sensitive teeth

  • Tense facial and jaw muscles

  • Headaches

  • Dislocation of the jaw

  • Locking of the jaw

  • Wearing away of the tooth enamel, exposing the underlying dentin (inside of the tooth)

  • A popping or clicking in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

  • Tongue indentations

  • Damage to the inside of the cheek

  • Wear facets (flat smooth areas created on the biting surfaces of the teeth as they are rubbed together repeatedly)

The symptoms of bruxism may look like other conditions or health problems. See a dentist or your healthcare provider for a diagnosis and treatment.

What causes bruxism?

Oral health specialists often point to too much stress and certain personality types as causes of bruxism. Bruxism often affects people with nervous tension, such as anger, pain, or frustration. It also affects people with aggressive, hurried, or overly competitive tendencies. There is some proof that in some people, bruxism is caused by an imbalance in brain neurotransmitters. Also, some medicines, such as the antidepressants fluoxetine and paroxetine, can cause bruxism.

How is bruxism diagnosed?

During regular dental visits, your dentist will examine your teeth for signs of bruxism such as flattened tips of the teeth. If signs and symptoms are present, your dentist or other healthcare provider will watch the condition over the next few visits before treatment is started.

Treatment for bruxism

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment based on:

  • How old you are

  • Your overall health and medical history

  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Your opinion or preference

In most cases, bruxism can be successfully treated. Treatment may involve:

  • Behavior changes. You may be taught how to rest your tongue, teeth, and lips properly. You may also learn how to rest the tongue upward to relieve discomfort on the jaw while keeping the teeth apart and lips closed.

  • Mouthguard. You may be fitted for a plastic mouthguard that you can wear at night to absorb the force of biting. It can be worn in the day if you grind your teeth while awake. This mouthguard may help prevent future damage to the teeth and aid in changing behavior.

  • Biofeedback. Biofeedback involves an electronic instrument that measures the amount of muscle activity of the mouth and jaw. It then signals you when there is too much muscle activity so you can take steps to change that behavior. This is especially helpful for daytime bruxism. More research is needed to develop a treatment program for those who clench during the night.

  • Medicine. Some medicines may be helpful in regulating the neurotransmitters. Changing medicines may be needed if antidepressant medicines are found to be the cause of bruxism.

90,000 Peels and facials Dental clinic


Retinol peeling

It is considered one of the most demanded procedures due to its amazing effect and low trauma. This is a superficial-median peeling, which affects not only the stratum corneum, but also the epidermis layer.


  • high performance superior to softer peels
  • painlessness
  • fast recovery period
  • no unpleasant complications
  • the ability to perform the procedure in the summer without the risk of damaging the skin.

The disadvantage is that after exposure to retinol, the skin becomes yellow and flakes for several days.

Yellow peeling is most often used to rejuvenate the face, neck, décolleté and hands. The procedure is recommended for mature ladies, but it is not contraindicated even at a young age – with excessive formation of freckles or keratosis.


  • presence of mimic wrinkles
  • excessive pigmentation
  • photoaging
  • keratosis
  • acne marks or scars
  • acne


The procedure is strictly contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women, as well as for those planning pregnancy in the coming year – this is due to the teratogenic effect of retinol on the fetus.

The required course usually includes 3 to 5 procedures, depending on the type of skin, it is necessary to carry out once every two weeks. If peeling is intended rather for the prevention of aging, then one procedure can be dispensed with. The results are saved for at least five months, the course can be repeated only after six months.

Milk peeling

Peeling is based on the use of lactic acid in a high concentration, which is widely used in various cosmetics.Milk peeling is superficial, so it is suitable for all skin types, including the most sensitive. Since the action of lactic acid is superficial, it can only cope with minor problems. Milk peels are best suited for young girls with the first signs of aging.


  • dry skin
  • dull complexion
  • excess sebum production
  • superficial wrinkles
  • pigmentation
  • acne

These are the problems lactic acid can handle perfectly.Good results are noted already after the first procedures. For lasting results, it is recommended to complete a full course of 4 – 5 sessions with breaks of two weeks. If necessary, you can repeat the course after six months.

Pyruvic or fruit peeling.

Peeling with pyruvic acid can be referred to as superficial peels.


  • skin aging
  • seasonal pigmentation (freckles)
  • acne of any severity
  • atonic skin type;


  • pregnancy
  • the presence of open mechanical damage of any depth
  • infectious diseases of colds and other nature
  • increased sensitivity to component
  • inflammatory processes of internal organs
  • oncological pathologies

To obtain a good result, you need a course of 3-5 procedures with a frequency of 1 every 2 weeks.

Jessner Peel or Hollywood Peel

Refers to popular cosmetic procedures for the face. The product contains 3 components, each of which plays an important role in deep cleansing, healing and rejuvenation of the skin.


  • dry skin
  • dull complexion
  • excess sebum production
  • superficial wrinkles
  • pigmentation
  • acne

Three components are used for peeling:

  1. Concentrated salicylic acid.It has anti-inflammatory, keratolytic properties. Especially useful acid will be fatty and problematic type of epidermis.
  2. Concentrated lactic acid. It moisturizes, whitens, soothes, tones, stimulates the production of natural collagen and elastin.
  3. Resorcinol-has an exfoliating effect, and thus binds all 3 components into a single whole and enhances the effect.

Peeling PRX-T33 or without injection biorevitalization

Peeling developed by the Italian company WIQOmed, which almost does not affect the surface layer of the skin, and therefore does not require a long recovery period.This is a procedure for controlled damage to the skin in order to stimulate and restore it, while there is no violation of the integrity of the skin, there is no active peeling and there is no rehabilitation period. Excellent compatibility of the PRX-T33 with hardware and injection techniques.

Indication for use PRX-T33:

Prevention and treatment of photoaging of the skin; loss of firmness and elasticity of the skin; hyperkeratosis of the skin of the face; atrophic scars, stretch marks – an additional remedy in the treatment of hyperpigmentation of acne, post-acne (spots after acne).

Face care.

In our frantic rhythm, sometimes there is not enough time to thoroughly care for the skin of the face, so that it is always young and beautiful. A range of indispensable routine treatments will help keep your skin looking young and beautiful.

Ultrasonic cleaning. Deep cleansing of the skin, and then a nourishing mask will saturate the skin with vitamins, moisturize it, maintain water balance, preventing premature aging.

Express face mask.

In our clinic it is now possible to choose any face mask for yourself. Whether it’s preparing for an event to keep your skin glowing and flawless, or just wanting to hydrate and nourish it with vitamins after a tough week, we have one for your needs.

Alginate mask got its name from the sodium alginate it contains. Promotes rapid hardening of the mask, makes it plastic. The substance activates the protective properties of the skin, improves its tone, retains moisture well.Thanks to these properties, alginate masks help get rid of problems such as:

  • Skin aging, signs of aging;
  • dryness, water imbalance;
  • age spots;
  • vascular network;
  • inflammation and scaling on the face;
  • post acne, scars

Collagen Express Mask

Anti-aging mask. After 30 years, collagen production decreases significantly. So it is advisable to start making such masks at the age of 28-29 in order to prevent early aging.The first, and most accurate, signs of a lack of collagen in the body is the appearance of mimic wrinkles in the area of ​​the nasolabial fold and the corners of the eyes. If they occur, you need to immediately begin to support the skin with collagen from the outside.

Express gold mask

The gold mask makes you feel like an Egyptian queen, even if you make it in do. Cosmetologists have empirically found out that when applied externally, gold ions come into contact with the skin, penetrate into it and slow down aging.Collagen masks with biogold were based on this principle. They do not allow the skin to sag over time and promote active regeneration of the epidermis.

The cost of express masks can be found in the section Prices for cosmetology services.

Chemical face peeling in Moscow

Peeling PRX T 33


  • PRX-T33 peeling – chemical peeling for skin revitalization (rejuvenation).Produced by the Italian cosmetics company WIQOmed. Thanks to its formula, it does not destroy the skin, does not destroy its upper layer. There is no long-term rehabilitation, which allows you to do this procedure without interrupting your active life
  • PRX-T33 peeling is all-season, in summer and at other times of the year it can be done.
  • Recovery, skin rejuvenation without injections! Suitable for those who cannot inject drugs for revitalization.
  • The painless procedure is a significant plus for those people who cannot stand pain.The pain level is estimated at 2 points on a 10-point scale.
  • The duration of the procedure is less than 15 minutes.
  • Does not require rehabilitation (recovery) after the peeling procedure, without interruption from ordinary life. There is a slight burning sensation during the procedure and redness within 15 minutes after the procedure.

Purposes of the procedure:

  • Fight against fine wrinkles.
  • Fight against scars, stretch marks, post-acne, scars.
  • Dull complexion.
  • Skin imperfections (pigmentation, freckles).
  • Treatment of hyperkeratosis.
  • Prevention of photoaging.
  • Prevention of age-related aging.
  • Preparation for other cosmetic procedures.

Glycolic peeling TEOSYAL (Switzerland)

Superficial peeling.

Mechanism of action : The action of glycolic acid on the skin exfoliates dead cells of the epidermis, stimulates the synthesis of collagen and elastin, normalizes the processes of cell division, and promotes general skin rejuvenation.

Almond peeling – surface and chemical peeling. effective and safe rejuvenation procedure. This is a chemical peeling based on fruit acids, in particular mandelic acid, excessive pigmentation, deterioration of skin color. Peeling gently exfoliates dead skin cells . Indication : fine wrinkles, enlarged pores and acne, sensitive skin.


No redness after the procedure

the ability to carry out procedures on sunny days without consequences in the form of age spots

suitable for all skin phototypes

Recommended for use by the course.

Mechanical face cleansing:

The manual method of face cleansing is considered the most effective; it is more often carried out in conjunction with the ultrasound method, which gives the effect of deep cleansing of the skin. It is carried out with the help of special tools and various cosmetic products.

Benefits :

  • Thorough skin cleansing
  • Fast recovery. Only after mechanical cleansing of the face, there are no traces left the very next day!

Ultrasonic face cleaning (peeling) on ​​the device

SKIN MASTER PLUS is a face cleaning with ultrasound.The therapeutic effect occurs due to the mechanical, thermal and physicochemical effects caused by ultrasound, the ratio between which depends on the intensity of the impact and the conditions for its implementation.


  • Gentle, atraumatic, painless method
  • Suitable for irritated, sensitive skin

Effect of ultrasonic cleaning :

  • exfoliation of the stratum corneum;
  • Elimination of excess sebum;
  • Cleansing the top layer of the skin from dead cells;
  • Cleansing the skin from external contaminants;
  • Micro-massage of the skin under the influence of physical and chemical stimuli of ultrasonic waves, as a result of which the skin acquires a fresh, healthy appearance and an even complexion.

Lotty Microcurrents is a physiotherapeutic method of influencing the body, which is based on the use of an electric current of low amplitude and frequency. This procedure has an equally curative effect on the skin of the face and body, on muscle tissue, subcutaneous fat and regional blood circulation.

Indications for the procedure:

  • tightening (lifting) of the soft tissues of the face;
  • reducing the number and depth of wrinkles;
  • prevention of age-related skin changes;
  • restoration of skin turgor and facial contours;
  • production of collagen and elastin synthesis by stimulating fibroblasts;
  • Improving complexion and eliminating skin pigmentation due to the effect of electric current on melanocytes;
  • Improving skin hydration, especially at the first signs of aging;
  • Elimination of puffiness of the skin, edema and bruises under the eyes;
  • relief of various dermatological diseases: rosacea, rosacea, acne, atopic dermatitis;
  • for complex joint procedures: mesotherapy, biorevitalization;
  • after aggressive procedures of a mechanical or chemical nature: dermabrasion, peeling.

Effect after the procedure:

  • Humidification
  • Non-injection biorevitalization
  • Lymphatic drainage
  • Lifting
  • Anti-inflammatory therapy
  • Anti-couperous therapy

Complex face cleansing – a combination of mechanical and ultrasonic methods for cleansing the face. This type of cleansing is shown for owners of mixed skin type.

Complex of measures:

  • Makeup Remover
  • Washing
  • Disincrustation, cold steaming, enzymes (different products are used depending on the skin type)
  • Ultrasonic cleaning with Skin Master PLUS
  • Mechanical cleaning
  • Peeling Lotion
  • Alginate mask, ultrasound mask, chemical mask (depending on skin type)
  • Microcurrent Lottie
  • laser therapy

Cosmetic teeth whitening, carbon peeling, eyebrow microblading MyFant


Up to 60% discount on beauty studio services OK

  • Microblading eyebrows from a top master – 7000r.instead of 12000r.
  • Eyebrow dusting from a top master – 5000r. instead of 8000r.
  • Eyebrow tattoo removal – from 1500 rubles. up to 3000r. instead of 3000–5000 rubles.
  • Carbon peeling – 2000 rub. instead of 5000r.
  • Cosmetic teeth whitening Magic White – 2000 rub. instead of 3500r.


  • Coupon valid for one person
  • Get unlimited coupons
  • Each coupon can only be used once
  • Sign up by phone, provide the number and coupon code
  • Present a printed or electronic coupon at location
  • The discount cannot be combined with other special offers of the company
  • Information on the terms of the promotion can be specified by calling the company: +7 (929) 566-22-48, +7 (499) 390-23-88
  • Services are provided by: Individual entrepreneur Karmashkina Oksana Yurievna, INN 891104406750, OGRNIP 316774600321585

Coupon is valid from 07 September 2018, 00:00 to 06 September 2019, 23:59


This method of tattooing has recently become popular and is now the leader among all known techniques! The technique is a manual method of applying pigment.The master makes a drawing of each individual hair, controlling his movements throughout the entire process. This allows you to achieve the most natural and natural effect of curved eyebrows.

In the process of performing microblading, the master applies the finest permanent hairs in the shape of the eyebrows that you prefer. At the same time, these hairs follow the natural direction of eyebrow growth, which contributes to the creation of the most natural effect!

Carbon peeling

This is a modern method of skin rejuvenation and cleansing.The procedure allows you to fight the first signs of aging and relieves acne, redness, pigmentation, acne, oily sheen and other imperfections of the facial skin. By removing dead cells, the cosmetologist starts the process of new cell formation and skin regeneration.

Cosmetic teeth whitening

Magic White is a modern whitening technology that will cost several times less than a visit to the dentist, takes only 20 minutes, and is absolutely painless and harmless to your teeth!

The cosmetic gel contains an active brightener, which is activated by an LED lamp, the whitening component penetrates into the surface layer and reacts with the pigmented tooth enamel.The gel acts only on the surface of the tooth, without harming the tooth enamel and gums. Lightening can be carried out in stages, but after the first procedure the teeth become 4–12 shades lighter!

90,000 Face, neck, décolleté, back peels in Krasnodar are carried out by a professional cosmetologist

Exfoliation or peeling is a procedure that involves the removal of the upper epithelial layer. The manipulation allows for effective, safe, controlled uniform exfoliation of dead cells, stimulation of fibroblasts to start and activate the process of collagen and elastin synthesis by skin cells.In turn, this helps to trigger skin rejuvenation.

The procedure allows you to solve many problems: eliminates unhealthy skin tone, dullness and wrinkles, a predisposition to comedones, acne, reduces the severity of scars and stretch marks. Prevents early aging and a decrease in skin tone. The effect will not be long in coming: the functioning of the sebaceous glands improves, the skin becomes taut and smooth, the number and intensity of rashes decreases, greasy shine, age spots disappear, the number of wrinkles and stretch marks decreases, and powerful prevention of aging is carried out.

Varieties of manipulation: superficial, middle and deep. With a superficial one, rehabilitation is not needed, there are no restrictions on the season. In addition to the exfoliating effect, skin cells are stimulated. The middle layer affects the entire stratum corneum, affects all layers of the epidermis, effectively helps with hyperpigmentation and age-related changes. A deep type of peeling reaches the basement membrane, suitable for high-quality skin rejuvenation, combating wrinkles and stretch marks. Deep peeling is performed 1-2 times in life and is comparable in effectiveness with a surgical facelift and is accompanied by a long rehabilitation period.For the procedure, various acids are used (glycolic, ferulic, almond, lactic, pyruvic, salicylic, malic, trichloroacetic, retinoic) or their combinations.

The duration of one procedure takes from thirty minutes to two hours, it all depends on the clinical situation and the type of peeling. Frequency of repetitions: from once a week (superficial view) to once every six months (middle). As for the surface peeling, it will take at least four to ten professional sessions.The clinic uses only certified drugs of world brands (Innoaestetics, EnerPeel, Meillume)

Peelings in Novosibirsk | Medical Center Avanta-Med

Among modern cosmetic procedures designed to make the skin healthy and beautiful, various types of peelings are very popular. They can significantly improve the condition of the skin of the face and body, getting rid of many shortcomings without the help of a plastic surgeon.

The essence of the procedure is to remove the upper dead layer of the epidermis by various kinds of influences. It helps to improve the appearance of the skin and stimulates the process of cell regeneration, contributing to their rejuvenation.

In the clinic “Avanta-Med” you can make a high-quality peeling of the face and body at an affordable price, transferring the care of your beauty and health to the hands of experienced qualified specialists. Our employees are ready to provide each patient with a full range of professional services, using the latest achievements in the field of cosmetology.

Types of peeling

Depending on what means are used to affect the skin, the following types of peeling are distinguished:

  1. Chemical. Affordable, fast and low-traumatic procedure. Chemical peeling involves the use of various formulations that cause a slight burn and subsequent exfoliation of the upper layers of the epidermis. The concentration of the active ingredients determines how strong the effect on the skin will be. For example, a superficial peel improves and brightens the complexion, while a middle peel eliminates age-related wrinkles and the effects of acne.
  2. Mechanical. It involves the removal of the upper layers of the epidermis using special tools, which also differ in the strength of their effect on the skin.

The type of peeling and the degree of effect are selected individually for each patient, depending on the nature of the problem and the initial condition of the skin.

When a procedure is needed

The most common cosmetic defects can be eliminated with the help of various types of peels.A well-performed procedure allows:

  • smooth out the existing ones and prevent the appearance of new signs of age-related changes, first of all, wrinkles;
  • Get rid of acne marks, scars and scars;
  • restore a healthy color to the skin prone to hyperpigmentation;
  • to reduce the inflammatory reactions that provoke the appearance of acne and acne.

Healing effect

The procedure not only helps to cleanse the skin of dead cells, but also triggers the process of physiological renewal of the epidermis, increasing the skin tone and making it more elastic and elastic.

Service cost:

3,500 RUB

Pyruvic peeling (Mediderma, Spain)

3,500 RUB

Peeling Jessner (Mediderma, Spain)

3,500 RUB

Salicylic peeling (Mediderma, Spain)

3,500 RUB

Peeling Depigmenting (Mediderma, Spain)

This kind of exposure contributes to:

  • smoothing the relief and complexion, reducing areas with unhealthy pigmentation;
  • restoration of the protective properties of the epidermis;
  • enhance the natural production of collagen and hyaluronic acid;
  • intensive moisturizing of the skin;
  • Rejuvenation and elimination of stretch marks and scars.

For complete recovery of the skin after the procedure, 5 days are enough, and the therapeutic effect of one course lasts for about a year.

You can make an appointment in Novosibirsk for a peeling procedure with a professional cosmetologist by filling out an online application for a call back on the website of the Avanta-Med medical center or by contacting our administrators by phone: +7 (383) 230-95-44.

We are located at: Derzhavin st., 77/1.



Gel-like tooth cream. The gel contains cellulose (paper) granules that provide deep mechanical cleaning without damaging the enamel. It cleans well, evens out the color of teeth and removes plaque. It is enough to use 1-2 times a week as the main means for cleaning Uzbeks or as an additional care for any toothpaste.Also recommended for people wearing composite veneers and restorations.

DOES NOT CONTAIN: coarse abrasives, peroxides, aggressive acids, parabens, silicones, SLS, components that irritate the oral mucosa.

Bottles with an actuator and a movable diaphragm help to control the flow of funds with milliliter precision. Due to the pressure difference that is created when the actuator is pressed, the content rises upward towards the dispensing device. Separating the contents from the emptied container.As a result, the product is consumed to the last drop. The tightness of the bottle allows you to increase the shelf life of dental creams and reduce the amount of preservatives and stabilizers in the formulations.

Consists of: Sodium fluoride (1450 ppm fluoride), sodium benzoate, sodium saccharin, flavor, citric acid, RDA 90.

Volume: 30 ml


  • Type: Toothpaste
  • Volume: 30ml

2010 was marked by the presentation of innovative dental cosmetics offered by the MontCarotte Bureau.The company is based in England and provides marketing services. Today you can buy Montcarotte children’s toothpastes and other products at the BIOSPASHOP store.

Features of products

Production facilities are concentrated in the countries of the European Union. In the EU, an original formulation is also being developed, testing and clinical research are being carried out. The pharmaceutical research director is Ettore Thalia, MD.It is his knowledge of organic chemistry that makes it possible to achieve the maximum effectiveness of formulas while maintaining the complete safety of cosmetics. That is why Montcarotte pastes and brushes are of high quality.

The newest niche in dental care offers products in the Smart Luxe category. They successfully combine innovative technologies with design solutions. Montcarotte products, which you can easily buy in Moscow, are of high quality. The manufacturing company is focused on a creative and responsible approach in everything.

90,000 Facial peeling in salon

How can we define ourselves in all the variety of peelings that the modern cosmetology world offers us? When choosing “your” procedure, special attention should be paid to your skin type and, accordingly, existing problems with it.

What choice may be before you? You need to know that according to the method of exposure, facial peeling in the salon can be mechanical, chemical and physical.

Types of professional face peeling in the salon

Professional or cosmetic face peeling is available:

  • Mechanical;
  • Chemical;
  • Physical.

Mechanical peeling
Mechanical facial peeling in the salon includes microdermabrasion, classical dermabrasion. Such procedures are carried out either with the help of organic AHA acids found in plants (glycolic), fruits (citric, malic, tartaric), and milk (lactic), or based on salicylic or trichloroacetic acids. The cosmetologist applies the substances in a thin layer using different concentrations, depending on the problem. The result is a burn of varying severity.

The lightest and most gentle option is superficial peeling. It does not cause severe pain, except for a slight tingling sensation that disappears after applying a soothing mask. Superficial peeling is suitable for eliminating fine wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, dry skin and loss of tone. It should take a course of 4 to 10 procedures per year.

Chemical peels
Chemical peels can be chemical and enzymatic. Such cleaning should only be carried out in a medical institution after consulting a doctor.The procedure must be performed by a specialist dermatologist. During the operation, the skin is deeply exfoliated. Chemical peels – they are also called keratolics – are carried out in beauty salons, using products based on a low content of glycolic or phenolic acids. These peels are available in the form of a lotion or gel, which are applied with a brush and washed off after 10-15 minutes.

Physical peeling
Physical peeling includes two types: ultrasonic and laser.Ultrasonic peeling using an acoustic wave that penetrates to different depths, improves the flow of blood and fluid in the body, in addition, it helps to reduce congestion and swelling. Laser peeling is done in specialized centers using lasers. The beam heats the cells and thus reduces the presence of moisture. Laser resurfacing is performed under anesthesia, while deep peeling is performed under general anesthesia in the operating room.

Skin care after peeling

High-quality care after facial exfoliation in the salon is no less important than the procedure itself.Do not neglect the recommendations of the cosmetologist, otherwise you risk getting serious complications. The general rules of skin care include protecting the skin from direct sunlight. If this rule is not followed, stains and scars may form on the treated areas. Cosmetic care should consist in observing two principles – moisturizing the skin (to get rid of the feeling of tightness) and restoring its barrier layer (normalizing its water balance and reducing hypersensitivity).