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Types of salmonella: Salmonella Homepage | CDC


Questions and Answers | Salmonella

How is

Salmonella infection diagnosed?

Salmonella infection is diagnosed when a laboratory test detects Salmonella bacteria in a person’s stool (poop), body tissue, or fluids.

How is infection treated?

Most people recover from Salmonella infection within four to seven days without antibiotics. People who are sick with a Salmonella infection should drink extra fluids as long as diarrhea lasts.

Antibiotic treatment is recommended for:

  • People with severe illness
  • People with a weakened immune system, such as from HIV infection or chemotherapy treatment
  • Adults older than 50 who have medical problems, such as heart disease
  • Infants (children younger than 12 months).
  • Adults age 65 or older

Can infection cause long-term health problems?

Most people with diarrhea caused by Salmonella recover completely, although some people’s bowel habits (frequency and consistency of poop) may not return to normal for a few months.

Some people with Salmonella infection develop pain in their joints, called reactive arthritis, after the infection has ended. Reactive arthritis can last for months or years and can be difficult to treat. Some people with reactive arthritis develop irritation of the eyes and pain when urinating.

How do people get infected?

Salmonella live in the intestines of people and animals. People can get Salmonella infection from a variety of sources, including

  • Eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water
  • Touching infected animals, their feces, or their environment

Who is more likely to get an infection and severe illness?

  • Children under 5 years old are the most likely to get a Salmonella infection.
  • Infants (children younger than 12 months) who are not breast fed are more likely to get a Salmonella infection.
  • Infants, adults aged 65 and older, and people with a weakened immune system are the most likely to have severe infections.
  • People taking certain medicines (for example, stomach acid reducers) are at increased risk of infection.

What should I know about antibiotic resistance and


Resistance to essential antibiotics is increasing in Salmonella, which can limit treatment options for people with severe infections.  One way to slow down the development of antibiotic resistance is by appropriate use of antibiotics.

What can be done to prevent antibiotic resistance and resistant bacteria?

Appropriate use of antibiotics in people and animals (use only when needed and exactly as prescribed) can help prevent antibiotic resistance and the spread of resistant bacteria.

How common is

Salmonella infection?

CDC estimates Salmonella cause about 1.35 million illnesses, 26,500 hospitalizations, and 420 deaths in the United States every year.

What Is Salmonella? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Your treatment for salmonella will depend on factors such as your symptoms, age, and your general health. Most cases of salmonella get better within a week without any treatment. The main concern when you have food poisoning — from salmonella or other infectious organisms — is dehydration caused by vomiting and diarrhea, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Below are some tips your doctor may recommend to treat your symptoms at home.

1. Drink plenty of fluids, such as:

  • Water
  • Diluted fruit juice
  • Sports drinks (which can help replace lost electrolytes)
  • Clear broths
  • Pedialyte or similar electrolyte replacement drinks (but speak to your doctor before consuming or administering them)

2. If you’re having trouble keeping anything down, try sipping small amounts of water or sucking on ice chips.

3. Eat saltine crackers or pretzels to help replace electrolytes (sodium is an electrolyte)

4. Eat small meals throughout the day.

5. Do not take anti-diarrheal medicine unless your doctor recommends it; these medications may prolong diarrhea from a salmonella infection.

If your doctor is concerned that you may be at risk for severe dehydration, or if you have a high fever or severe abdominal pain, he or she may recommend you go to the hospital for treatment with intravenous fluids and monitoring.

Medication Options

If you have a weakened immune system or if your symptoms are severe and are not getting better, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat your salmonella infection. According to the CDC, antibiotics may be recommended for:

  • People with severe illness (such as high fever, severe diarrhea, or bacteria that has spread to their bloodstream)
  • Adults older than 50 with underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease
  • Adults 65 and older
  • Infants younger than 12 months old
  • People with compromised or weakened immune systems (such as cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy or people with HIV/AIDS)

Doctors may prescribe antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone to treat patients with severe salmonella infections. But worryingly, antibiotic-resistant salmonella has become a problem in recent years. Infections from these “multi-drug-resistant strains” of salmonella can be more severe and result in higher rates of hospitalization.

According to the CDC, as many as 16 percent of the salmonella strains that cause foodborne illness are now identified as being resistant to at least one essential antibiotic — resulting in an estimated 212,500 cases a year. Another frightening stat: an estimated 2 percent of salmonella has been shown to be resistant to three or more essential antibiotics, which translates into approximately 20,800 cases a year.

Alternative and Complementary Therapies

Probiotics are one potential complementary or alternative treatment that’s being explored for salmonella. These are live microbes, usually bacteria, that may be similar to the kind we normally have in our gut. Studies have suggested that some probiotics may help shorten a bout of diarrhea.

Researchers are still studying how probiotics may help treat food poisoning such as salmonella infections — so be sure to always talk to your doctor before using probiotics or any other treatment for your gastrointestinal problem. But given the increasing problem of antibiotic-resistant salmonella strains, potential alternative treatments such as probiotics are becoming more important today.

Prevention of Salmonella

Most salmonella infections are caused by contaminated food. The best way to reduce your risk for getting salmonella is to follow good food safety measures and take steps to prevent food poisoning.

Follow the four rules of food safety recommended by the CDC:

  • Clean Wash your hands and surfaces such as cutting boards and countertops often and rinse fruits and vegetables under running water.
  • Separate Avoid cross-contamination by using a separate cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood, and by keeping these items separated from other food
  • Cook Make sure food is cooked to the recommended internal temperature to kill germs.
  • Chill Keep your refrigerator temperature at 40 degrees F or below and never leave perishable food out of the fridge for more than two hours. Thaw frozen food in the refrigerator or in the microwave, because leaving food out on the counter to defrost can allow bacteria to multiply rapidly.

Remember, too, to always wash your hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing diapers and to wash your hands after contact with animals.

Salmonella (non-typhoidal)

Salmonella is a gram negative rods genus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Within 2 species, Salmonella bongori and Salmonella enterica, over 2500 different serotypes or serovars have been identified to date. Salmonella is a ubiquitous and hardy bacteria that can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water.

While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, a few are host-specific and can reside in only one or a few animal species: for example, Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin in cattle and Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in pigs. When these particular serotypes cause disease in humans, it is often invasive and can be life-threatening. Most serotypes, however, are present in a wide range of hosts. Typically, such serotypes cause gastroenteritis, which is often uncomplicated and does not need treatment, but disease can be severe in the young, the elderly, and patients with weakened immunity. This group features Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the two most important serotypes of Salmonella transmitted from animals to humans in most parts of the world.

The disease

Salmonellosis is a disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella. It is usually characterized by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and sometimes vomiting.

The onset of disease symptoms occurs 6–72 hours (usually 12–36 hours) after ingestion of Salmonella, and illness lasts 2–7 days.

Symptoms of salmonellosis are relatively mild and patients will make a recovery without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, particularly in children and elderly patients, the associated dehydration can become severe and life-threatening.

Although large Salmonella outbreaks usually attract media attention, 60–80% of all salmonellosis cases are not recognized as part of a known outbreak and are classified as sporadic cases, or are not diagnosed as such at all.

Sources and transmission

  • Salmonella bacteria are widely distributed in domestic and wild animals. They are prevalent in food animals such as poultry, pigs, and cattle; and in pets, including cats, dogs, birds, and reptiles such as turtles.
  • Salmonella can pass through the entire food chain from animal feed, primary production, and all the way to households or food-service establishments and institutions.
  • Salmonellosis in humans is generally contracted through the consumption of contaminated food of animal origin (mainly eggs, meat, poultry, and milk), although other foods, including green vegetables contaminated by manure, have been implicated\r\n in its transmission.
  • Person-to-person transmission can also occur through the faecal-oral route.
  • Human cases also occur where individuals have contact with infected animals, including pets. These infected animals often do not show signs of disease.


Treatment in severe cases is electrolyte replacement (to provide electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium and chloride ions, lost through vomiting and diarrhoea) and rehydration.

Routine antimicrobial therapy is not recommended for mild or moderate cases in healthy individuals. This is because antimicrobials may not completely eliminate the bacteria and may select for resistant strains, which subsequently can lead to the drug becoming ineffective. However, health risk groups such as infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may need to receive antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobials are also administered if the infection spreads from the intestine to other body parts. Because of the global increase of antimicrobial resistance, treatment guidelines should be reviewed on a regular basis taking into account the resistance pattern of the bacteria based on the local surveillance system.

Prevention methods

Prevention requires control measures at all stages of the food chain, from agricultural production, to processing, manufacturing and preparation of foods in both commercial establishments and at home.

Preventive measures for Salmonella in the home are similar to those used against other foodborne bacterial diseases (see recommendations for food handlers below).

The contact between infants/young children and pet animals that may be carrying Salmonella (such as cats, dogs, and turtles) needs careful supervision.

National and regional surveillance systems on foodborne diseases are important means to know and follow the situation of these diseases and also to detect and respond to salmonellosis and other enteric infections in early stages, and thus to prevent them from further spreading.

Recommendations for the public and travellers

The following recommendations will help ensure safety while travelling:

  • Ensure food is properly cooked and still hot when served.
  • Avoid raw milk and products made from raw milk. Drink only pasteurized or boiled milk.
  • Avoid ice unless it is made from safe water.
  • When the safety of drinking water is questionable, boil it or if this is not possible, disinfect it with a reliable, slow-release disinfectant agent (usually available at pharmacies).
  • Wash hands thoroughly and frequently using soap, in particular after contact with pets or farm animals, or after having been to the toilet.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables carefully, particularly if they are eaten raw. If possible, vegetables and fruits should be peeled.

Recommendations for food handlers

WHO provides the following guidance for people handling food:

  • Both professional and domestic food handlers should be vigilant while preparing food and should observe hygienic rules of food preparation.
  • Professional food handlers who suffer from fever, diarrhoea, vomiting or visible infected skin lesions should report to their employer immediately.
  • The WHO Five keys to safer food serve as the basis for educational programmes to train food handlers and educate consumers. They are especially important in preventing food poisoning. The five keys to Safer Food are:
    • keep clean
    • separate raw and cooked
    • cook thoroughly
    • keep food at safe temperatures
    • use safe water and raw materials.

Recommendations for producers of fruits, vegetables and fish

The WHO Five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables: promoting health by decreasing microbial contamination and the Five keys to safer aquaculture products to protect public health provide rural workers, including small farmers who grow fresh fruits and vegetables and fish for themselves, their families and for sale in local market with key practices to prevent microbial contamination.

The Five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables are:

  • Practice good personal hygiene.
  • Protect fields from animal faecal contamination.
  • Use treated faecal waste.
  • Evaluate and manage risks from irrigation water.
  • Keep harvest and storage equipment clean and dry.

The Five keys to safer aquaculture products to protect public health are:

  • Practice good personal hygiene.
  • Clean the pond site.
  • Manage water quality.
  • Keep fish healthy.
  • Use clean harvest equipment and containers.

WHO response

In partnership with other stakeholders, WHO is strongly advocating the importance of food safety as an essential element in ensuring access to safe and nutritious diets. WHO is providing policies and recommendations that cover the entire food chain from production to consumption, making use of different types of expertise across different sectors.

WHO is working towards the strengthening of food safety systems in an increasingly globalized world. Setting international food safety standards, enhancing disease surveillance, educating consumers and training food handlers in safe food handling are amongst the most critical interventions in the prevention of foodborne illnesses.

WHO is strengthening the capacities of national and regional laboratories in the surveillance of foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter and Salmonella.

WHO is also promoting the integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of pathogens in the food chain, collecting samples from humans, food and animals and analysing data across the sectors.

WHO, jointly with FAO, is assisting Member States by coordinating international efforts for early detection and response to foodborne disease outbreaks through the network of national authorities in Member States.

WHO also provides scientific assessments as basis for international food standards, guidelines and recommendations developed by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission to prevent foodborne diseases.

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Salmonella Infections | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What are salmonella infections?

Salmonella is caused by the bacteria salmonella. Salmonella is a group of bacteria that can cause diarrhea in humans. There are many different kinds of salmonella bacteria.

What causes salmonella infections?

Salmonella infection is caused by a group of salmonella bacteria called Salmonella. The bacteria are passed from feces of people or animals to other people or animals. Contaminated foods are often animal in origin. They include beef, poultry, seafood, milk, or eggs. However, all foods, including some unwashed fruits and vegetables can become contaminated.

Salmonella typhi is the one type of salmonella that lives only in humans. It is passed only from human to human through contaminated food or water. It tends to cause a serious and life-threatening infection called typhoid fever. Treatment often needs antibiotics. A small number of people who are treated may feel better after treatment, but will continue to carry the organism and pass it through their feces to others through contaminated food or water.

Who is at risk for salmonella infections?

Certain factors can increase your risk for getting salmonella. These factors include:

  • Eating raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and beef, or unwashed fresh fruits and vegetables, including raw alfalfa sprouts
  • Handling animals or pets, such as turtles, snakes, and lizards

What are the symptoms of salmonella infections?

The following are the most common symptoms of salmonella. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms develop 12 to 72 hours after infection and may include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting

The symptoms of salmonella infections may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are salmonella infections diagnosed?

Since many different illnesses have symptoms similar to salmonella, diagnosis depends on lab tests that identify salmonella in your stool.

How are salmonella infections treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:

  • How old you are
  • Your overall health and past health
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

These infections generally run their course in 4 to 7 days. Often no treatment is needed. However, if you have severe diarrhea, you may need rehydration with intravenous (IV) fluids. If the infection spreads from the intestines to the blood stream, prompt treatment with antibiotics will be necessary.

What are the complications of salmonella infections?

Most people recover completely from a salmonella infection. Some people may develop a condition called reactive arthritis also known as Reiter’s syndrome weeks or even months later. This causes joint pain, eye irritation, and painful urination.

Can salmonella infections be prevented?

Since foods of animal origin pose the greatest threat of salmonella contamination, do not eat raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, seafood, or meats. Remember that some sauces and desserts use raw eggs in their preparation, so be cautious of these, particularly in foreign countries. Also, follow these recommendations by the CDC:

  • Make sure all poultry, meats, seafood, and eggs, are well-cooked. Cook food containing any of these ingredients to an internal temperature of 165° F (73.8° C).
  • Do not consume raw or unpasteurized milk or other dairy products.
  • Do not consume raw or undercooked eggs. Discard cracked eggs. Keep eggs refrigerated.
  • Thoroughly wash produce before eating it.
  • Avoid cross-contamination of foods. Keep uncooked meats separate from produce, cooked foods, and ready-to-eat foods.
  • Thoroughly wash all utensils, including cutting boards, knives, and counters, after handling uncooked foods.
  • Thoroughly wash hands before handling foods and between handling different food items.
  • Thoroughly wash hands after contact with feces.
  • Thoroughly wash hands after handling any reptiles or birds, since reptiles and birds are particularly likely to carry salmonella.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

If your symptoms get worse or you get new symptoms, let your healthcare provider know. If your diarrhea continues more than a few days or gets worse, you may get dehydrated and need IV fluids.

Key points about salmonella infections

  • Salmonella infections are diarrheal infections caused by the bacteria salmonella.
  • Symptoms of a salmonella infection may include diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection chills, headache, nausea, or vomiting.
  • Treatment may not be necessary unless dehydration happens or the infection spreads to the blood stream.
  • Prevention includes cooking foods properly, avoiding raw milk and eggs, washing food, utensils, hands, and kitchen surfaces properly.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Salmonella infection – Symptoms and causes


Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.

Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours. Most healthy people recover within a few days without specific treatment.

In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be so dehydrating as to require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications also may develop if the infection spreads beyond your intestines. Your risk of acquiring salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

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Salmonella infection is usually caused by eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. The incubation period ranges from several hours to two days. Most salmonella infections can be classified as stomach flu (gastroenteritis). Possible signs and symptoms include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Blood in the stool

Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last two to seven days. Diarrhea may last up to 10 days, although it may take several months before bowels return to normal.

A few varieties of salmonella bacteria result in typhoid fever, a sometimes deadly disease that is more common in developing countries.


Salmonella bacteria live in the intestines of people, animals and birds. Most people are infected with salmonella by eating foods that have been contaminated by feces. Commonly infected foods include:

  • Raw meat, poultry and seafood. Feces may get onto raw meat and poultry during the butchering process. Seafood may be contaminated if harvested from contaminated water.
  • Raw eggs. While an egg’s shell may seem to be a perfect barrier to contamination, some infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella before the shell is even formed. Raw eggs are used in homemade versions of mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
  • Fruits and vegetables. Some fresh produce, particularly imported varieties, may be hydrated in the field or washed during processing with water contaminated with salmonella. Contamination also can occur in the kitchen, when juices from raw meat and poultry come into contact with uncooked foods, such as salads.

The Food and Drug Administration also indicates that some salmonella outbreaks have been traced to contaminants in spices. The agency is seeking ways to increase the safety of spices.

Many foods become contaminated when prepared by people who don’t wash their hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing a diaper. Infection also can occur if you touch something that is contaminated, including pets, especially birds and reptiles, and then put your fingers in your mouth.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of salmonella infection include activities that may bring you into closer contact with salmonella bacteria and health problems that may weaken your resistance to infection in general.

Increased exposure
  • International travel. Salmonella infection, including varieties that cause typhoid fever, is more common in developing countries with poor sanitation.
  • Owning a pet bird or reptile. Some pets, particularly birds and reptiles, can carry salmonella bacteria.
Stomach or bowel disorders

Your body has many natural defenses against salmonella infection. For example, strong stomach acid can kill many types of salmonella bacteria. But some medical problems or medications can short-circuit these natural defenses. Examples include:

  • Antacids. Lowering your stomach’s acidity allows more salmonella bacteria to survive.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease. This disorder damages the lining of your intestines, which makes it easier for salmonella bacteria to take hold.
  • Recent use of antibiotics. This can reduce the number of “good” bacteria in your intestines, which may impair your ability to fight off a salmonella infection.
Immune problems

The following medical problems or medications appear to increase your risk of contracting salmonella by impairing your immune system.

  • AIDS
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Malaria
  • Anti-rejection drugs taken after organ transplants
  • Corticosteroids


Salmonella infection usually isn’t life-threatening. However, in certain people — especially infants and young children, older adults, transplant recipients, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems — the development of complications can be dangerous.


If you can’t drink enough to replace the fluid you’re losing from persistent diarrhea, you may become dehydrated. Warning signs include:

  • Decreased urine output
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Sunken eyes
  • Reduced production of tears

If salmonella infection enters your bloodstream (bacteremia), it can infect tissues throughout your body, including:

  • The tissues surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
  • The lining of your heart or valves (endocarditis)
  • Your bones or bone marrow (osteomyelitis)
  • The lining of blood vessels, especially if you’ve had a vascular graft
Reactive arthritis

People who have had salmonella are at higher risk of developing reactive arthritis. Also known as Reiter’s syndrome, reactive arthritis typically causes:

  • Eye irritation
  • Painful urination
  • Painful joints


The Department of Agriculture has created a Salmonella Action Plan, which involves updating the poultry slaughter inspection system and enhancing sampling and testing programs for poultry and meat. The plan’s purpose is to cut the number of salmonella infections in the United States.

You can also take care to avoid spreading bacteria to others. Preventive methods are especially important when preparing food or providing care for infants, older adults and people with weakened immune systems. Be sure to cook food thoroughly and refrigerate or freeze food promptly.

Wash your hands

Washing your hands thoroughly can help prevent the transfer of salmonella bacteria to your mouth or to any food you’re preparing. Wash your hands after you:

  • Use the toilet
  • Change a diaper
  • Handle raw meat or poultry
  • Clean up pet feces
  • Touch reptiles or birds
Keep things separate

To prevent cross-contamination:

  • Store raw meat, poultry and seafood away from other foods in your refrigerator
  • If possible, have two cutting boards in your kitchen — one for raw meat and the other for fruits and vegetables
  • Never place cooked food on an unwashed plate that previously held raw meat
Avoid eating raw eggs

Cookie dough, homemade ice cream and eggnog all contain raw eggs. If you must consume raw eggs, make sure they’ve been pasteurized.

Oct. 11, 2019

Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention


What is salmonella?

Salmonella is one of the most common types of food poisoning caused by bacteria in the United States. The US Centers for Disease Control gets about 42,000 reports of salmonella each year. Experts there believe the total number of cases actually may be more than 1.2 million. Salmonella is more common in the summer than the winter.

Salmonella usually is a brief illness with stomach cramps and diarrhea that lasts four to seven days. In some people, the diarrhea can be severe or last longer. In general, children are more likely to get salmonella than other age groups.

Who is at risk for severe salmonella?

Symptoms and Causes

How does a person get salmonella?

Salmonella are a type of bacteria that can live in the digestive tract (intestines) of humans and other animals. Salmonella can pass out of the intestines into poop (feces/stool). A person can get infected with Salmonella by:

  • Eating undercooked foods contaminated with animal feces.
    • Cooking food destroys Salmonella. Eating raw or undercooked beef, poultry (like chicken or duck), and seafood are a risk. Foods that contain raw eggs also are a risk (like cookie dough or homemade mayonnaise).
    • Milk and unwashed, raw vegetables and fruit also can carry Salmonella.
  • Eating food prepared on surfaces that were in contact with raw meat (such as a cutting board, or countertop).
  • Eating foods contaminated with human feces.
    • This can happen if a food worker does not wash his or her hands before handling food.
  • Holding, kissing or petting turtles, snakes, lizards, chicks and baby birds.
    • These animals are likely to carry Salmonella. People can get infected if they do not wash their hands after they handle these animals or touch their feces or environment (cage, pen, ground, etc. ).
    • FYI: In 1975 the US Food and Drug Administration banned the sale of small turtles in the United States because of the risk of salmonella.

What are the symptoms of salmonella?

Diagnosis and Tests

How is salmonella diagnosed?

Salmonella symptoms are vague and can be caused by many illnesses. The only way to know for sure that diarrhea, cramps, and fever are caused by Salmonella infection is by a lab test on the sick person’s stool.

There are more than 2,000 different types of salmonella bacteria that cause people to get sick. Certain antibiotics do not work against some of these types. If the sick person goes to the doctor, the doctor may order additional lab tests on the bacteria in the stool sample to identify the type of salmonella. This information will help the doctor decide what antibiotic to use if that person needs treatment.

Management and Treatment

What is the treatment for salmonella?

Most people with salmonella recover in four to seven days and do not need treatment. During the illness, the person should drink plenty of fluids to replace the fluid lost by diarrhea.

A person who has severe diarrhea or is sick for longer than a week may need to be hospitalized. In the hospital, he or she will be treated with intravenous (IV) fluids. Antibiotics may be used to treat infants, people over age 65, people with a weak immune system (like cancer patients), and those who have severe diarrhea and a high fever and have the bacteria in their bloodstream.

What are the complications of salmonella?

Most people who get salmonella feel better within a week and recover completely. It may take a few months before their bowel system is back to normal.

In severe cases, Salmonella bacteria can get into the bloodstream and travel to the liver, kidneys, or other organs. When this happens, the person must be treated with antibiotics. If treatment is not started soon enough, the infection can cause death. About 400 people a year die from salmonella in the United States.

Reiter’s syndrome is a rare complication of salmonella. In this condition, the person develops joint pain, irritation of the eyes, and pain on urination. Reiter’s syndrome can last for months or years and can lead to arthritis that is difficult to treat.


Are there other risk factors for salmonella?

Anything that changes the digestive tract to make it easier for Salmonella bacteria to survive can increase the risk of getting the infection. These include:

  • Recent or extended antibiotic use. Antibiotics kill off many of the “good” bacteria in the stomach and intestine, making it harder to fight off salmonella infection
  • Antacids. Antacids lower the stomach’s acid level, which lets Salmonella survive better.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. These diseases damage the intestine lining, making it easier for Salmonella to attach and stay there.
  • Pets. Be especially mindful when there are both infants and pets in the house because salmonella can be transmitted by animals to people.

What are some tips for preventing salmonella?

  • When cooking, wash your hands, cutting boards, utensils, and countertops after they have been in contact with raw meat or poultry. Wash your hands in between handling different kinds of food (meat and vegetables, for example).
  • Wash fresh vegetables and fruit thoroughly before eating.
  • Cook food to the recommended safe temperature:
    • 145°F for roasts
    • 160°F for ground meats
    • 165°F for all poultry
  • Keep the refrigerator below 40°F.
    • Put prepared food in the refrigerator within 30 minutes after eating.
    • Keep foods that can spoil refrigerated.
    • Put fresh foods in the refrigerator promptly after grocery shopping.
  • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.
  • Do not eat or drink foods containing raw eggs or raw (unpasteurized) milk.
  • Wash your hands with soap after handling snakes, lizards, or other reptiles; birds; or baby chicks.
    • Do not allow an infant or person with a weak immune system to touch reptiles or their environment.

Living With

When is it time to call the doctor if I have salmonella?

Call the doctor if:

  • Illness lasts longer than a few days
  • Diarrhea is severe or bloody
  • A fever over 101.5°F that lasts longer than a day
  • The sick person is at risk for severe salmonella:
    • a person age 65 or older
    • an infant
    • someone with a weak immune system
    • someone with inflammatory bowel disease

Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections – Infectious Diseases

Salmonella infection may manifest as

Gastroenteritis usually starts 12 to 48 hours after ingestion of organisms, with nausea and cramping abdominal pain followed by diarrhea, fever, and sometimes vomiting. Usually, the stool is watery but may be a pastelike semisolid. Rarely, mucus or blood is present. The disease is usually mild, lasting 1 to 4 days. Occasionally, a more severe, protracted illness occurs. About 10 to 30% of adults develop reactive arthritis Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis is an acute spondyloarthropathy that often seems precipitated by an infection, usually genitourinary or gastrointestinal. Common manifestations include asymmetric arthritis… read more weeks to months after diarrhea stops. This disorder causes pain and swelling, usually in the hips, knees, and Achilles tendon.

Bacteremia is relatively uncommon in patients with gastroenteritis, except in infants and older people. However, S. Choleraesuis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Heidelberg, among others, can cause a sustained and frequently lethal bacteremic syndrome lasting ≥ 1 week, with prolonged fever, headache, malaise, and chills but rarely diarrhea. Patients may have recurrent episodes of bacteremia or other invasive infections (eg, septic arthritis) due to Salmonella. Recurrent or multiple episodes of Salmonella infection in a patient without other risk factors should prompt HIV testing.

Focal Salmonella infection can occur with or without sustained bacteremia, causing pain in or referred from the involved organ—the gastrointestinal tract (liver, gallbladder, appendix), endothelial surfaces (eg, atherosclerotic plaques, ileofemoral or aortic aneurysms, heart valves), pericardium, meninges, lungs, joints, bones, genitourinary tract, or soft tissues. Preexisting solid tumors are occasionally seeded and develop abscesses that may, in turn, become a source of Salmonella bacteremia. S. Choleraesuis and S. Typhimurium are the most common causes of focal infection.

Anti-Salmonella, determination of antibodies to serovars A, B, C1, C2, D, E

This is a study that allows you to detect antibodies to the O-antigen in the blood of the absolute majority of Salmonella species.

Russian synonyms

Antibodies of class IgG and IgM to Salmonella A, B, C1, C2, D, E, immunoglobulins of classes G and M to causative agents of salmonellosis A, B, C1, C2, D, E.

English synonyms

Salmonella A, B, C1, C2, D, E – antibodies, IgG, IgM, anti-Salmonella A, B, C1, C2, D, E – IgG, IgM.

Research method

Indirect hemagglutination reaction (RNGA).

What biomaterial can be used for research?

Blood serum.

How to properly prepare for the study?

Do not smoke for 30 minutes prior to examination.

General information about the study

Salmonellosis is an acute intestinal infection transmitted by the fecal-oral route.It is caused by various bacteria of the genus Salmonella (Salmonella enterica). Most often it develops when drinking water, eggs or meat containing the causative agent of the infection. The incubation period lasts from several hours to 2-3 days.

Salmonellosis is accompanied by intestinal damage: diarrhea, abdominal cramping and fever. With the spread of infection (in 5-10% of cases) there is a risk of life threatening: salmonella sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, endarteritis, endocarditis, pyelonephritis and thromboembolic complications are possible.

The consequences of the transferred salmonellosis can be Reiter’s syndrome and dysbiosis. Bacteria carriers are possible – acute (excretion of the pathogen within 3 months after recovery), chronic (excretion of the pathogen more than 3 months after recovery) and transient (single positive result of bacteriological or serological research in the absence of symptoms of the disease). Specific antibodies in salmonellosis appear in the blood on the 4-6th day of infection, and their concentration reaches a maximum on the 8-10th day.

Salmonella has the following antigens: flagellar (H-antigen) and somatic (O-antigen), which determines the degree of pathogenicity of bacteria. By the type of O-antigen (somatic), Salmonella are divided into groups (A, B, C, D, E, etc.), within the same group – into serovars for the H-antigen. There are over 2000 serotypes of Salmonella, and of those that cause diseases in humans and animals, about 95% belong to serogroups A-E, therefore, for the diagnosis of salmonellosis, as a rule, the determination of antibodies to the O-antigen of Salmonella of these groups is used.

What is the research used for?

  • To identify patients with salmonellosis.
  • For the detection of bacteria carriers, including among workers in food processing.

When is the study scheduled?

  • When examining persons with symptoms of food poisoning, on the 4-5th and 10-14th days from the onset of the disease.
  • When examining employees of food companies in order to identify bacteria carriers – when new employees are hired.
  • For differential diagnosis of diseases with similar symptoms: cholera, shigellosis, escherichiosis, campylobacteriosis, typhoid-paratyphoid diseases, gastroenteritis caused by rotaviruses, adenoviruses, etc.

What do the results mean?

Reference values: “negative” or ”

An increase in the antibody titer in paired sera by 2-4 times indicates an acute infection. The minimum diagnostic titer in children under 1 year of age is 1: 100, in the rest – 1: 200 and indicates acute or previous salmonellosis, as well as chronic bacterial carriers. The absence of an increase in dynamics or a low titer of antibodies means that there is no disease or bacterial carriage.

Reasons for an increase / high titer of antibodies

  • Acute or postponed salmonellosis.
  • Chronic carrier of bacteria.

Reasons for a decrease / low antibody titer

  • Lack of an immune response to salmonellosis pathogens due to the fact that there is no infection.
  • Lack of an immune response or a weak immune response to salmonellosis pathogens due to disorders in the immune system or a severe course of the disease.

What can influence the result?

  • In children under 1 year of age, the study is not informative, because they do not develop antibodies to the causative agent of salmonellosis.
  • In case of severe disease or mixed infection, a false negative result is possible.

State Institution “Minsk City Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology”

Salmonella infections are acute intestinal infections that are caused by various types of microbes from the genus Salmonella and occur in the form of acute and protracted gastrointestinal diseases.

Etiology. This disease is registered everywhere, including in highly developed countries. The reason for this is the widespread among farm animals and poultry, the intensification of livestock and poultry farming on an industrial basis.

Salmonellosis is caused by bacteria called salmonella. More than 700 of their varieties have been identified in humans.

The causative agents of salmonellosis persist for a long time in the external environment: in milk for up to 20 days, in kefir for up to 2 months, in meat and sausages from 2 to 4 months, in butter for up to 4 months, in water for up to 5 months, in frozen meat for about 6 months, in poultry carcasses for more than a year, in cheeses up to 1 year, in soil up to 18 months.

In some products (milk, meat products), salmonellosis pathogens can not only persist, but also multiply without changing the appearance and taste of the products.

Milk from sick cows contains salmonella, but the milk of healthy cows can contain germs by the hands of milkmaids. Boiled milk is safe. For a long time (several months) Salmonella are able to remain viable in butter. For a long time, Salmonella live in the external natural environment: in soil, manure, in water contaminated with organic substances.

Salting and smoking have very little effect on them, and freezing even increases the survival time of microbes in food. Contaminated meat, even if stored in the refrigerator, is not cleared of Salmonella. The latter can persist even in ice.

Only high temperatures, starting from 80 ° C, and boiling (100 ° C) have a detrimental effect on Salmonella. From this follows an important requirement for the correct culinary heat treatment of meat and other meat products.

Epidemiology.Their main source is animals and livestock products (meat, milk), poultry (poultry meat, eggs, especially duck eggs), while humans (sick and bacterial carriers) additional source

The occurrence of salmonellosis is mainly associated with contaminated meat food (food transmission route of infection). However, there are other products (milk, butter, vegetables, fruits), which, being secondarily infected, can also become an additional factor in human infection.

Accumulating in the body of animals in huge quantities, Salmonella is carried by the blood stream from the intestine to the muscles, various internal organs, even to the bone marrow.

Healthy animals become infected from sick animals in various conditions as a result of close contact. This happens in the stable, cowshed, pastures, when transporting animals in wagons, on the way to the slaughterhouse. They become infected through feces, especially if the feed is contaminated with them. In this regard, animals and meat are inspected in slaughterhouses and meat processing plants in accordance with existing veterinary and sanitary rules.

Human-to-human transmission (contact and household transmission of infection) is less common, but also likely.From the very first day of illness, feces, urine, vomit, even the saliva and sputum of patients are contagious. At the same time, the hands of people caring for them are infected with the secretions of patients, and food and various household items are contaminated with microbes through the contaminated hands.

People often become bacteria carriers after suffering salmonellosis, regardless of the severity of the disease. It happens that a person becomes a carrier of bacteria even after transferring erased, asymptomatic forms of salmonellosis.A person who, for one reason or another, has become a carrier of bacteria, needs to know that carrier can be of different duration. Cases of long-term carriage of Salmonella are known.

It is especially necessary to emphasize the role of bacteria carriers working in the food industry, shops selling food products (sellers of meat, dairy products, sausages). Carriers of Salmonella working in child care are dangerous.

Identification of carriers, their removal from work in such institutions, reorganization (rehabilitation) until the complete elimination of the carrier is mandatory.

The incidence of salmonellosis is recorded in all seasons of the year with an increase in the level in the spring and summer. More often children under 6 years of age and adults suffer from salmonellosis.

Clinic. The incubation period for salmonellosis (the time from the moment of infection to the first clinical manifestations of the disease) depends on the abundance of microbial contamination of food. The more food is contaminated with microbes, the sooner toxins are produced and absorbed into the bloodstream. This can be from a few hours to one to two days after a meal.

In case of salmonellosis, the patient complains of fever, abdominal pain, loose and watery dark green stools, chills, headache, nausea and vomiting. In humans, salmonellosis is often difficult. Then the disease begins with a high temperature (39-40 ° C), severe headache, general weakness. As a result of poisoning with microbial toxins, nausea, vomiting, and often diarrhea occur. Complications of the disease in a severe course of the disease can be vascular collapse, hypovolemic shock, acute heart and renal failure, purulent erythritis, endocarditis, abscesses of the brain, spleen and liver, as well as peritonitis and pneumonia.

Prevention and anti-epidemic measures. In case of salmonellosis, the organization of joint supervision of the sanitary-veterinary and sanitary-epidemiological services is of decisive importance.

The Sanitary and Veterinary Service constantly monitors the morbidity of animals with salmonellosis, as well as the frequency and characteristics of salmonella secreted from animals, from feed for them, etc. Controls the slaughter of domestic animals and birds (selection of animals for slaughter, compliance with slaughter technology).Of particular importance is the control over the epizootic state of livestock, including pig-breeding, complexes, as well as the products emanating from these complexes (meat, including birds, eggs), since the possibility of epizootic development in them is especially great. In cases where there is a threat of the development of an epizootic of salmonellosis, appropriate measures are taken (isolation of sick animals, cleaning and disinfection of premises for livestock and birds, or even destruction of the latter, seizure of contaminated feed, etc.).NS.).

The Sanitary and Epidemiological Service monitors the incidence of salmonellosis in people (its level, dynamics, age structure), the characteristics of salmonella excreted from people and from products supplied to human food. Supervision provides for monitoring compliance with the sanitary and epidemiological regime in public catering facilities, the technological regime for the preparation of products and dishes.

For personal prevention of salmonellosis, the following rules must be strictly observed:

Perishable food should be kept in the refrigerator

Raw food and prepared food should be handled separately.

Heat treatment of food must be sufficient

Do not eat raw or undercooked eggs.
And of course, personal hygiene rules must be followed.

symptoms and treatment, signs and diagnosis of the disease

Salmonellosis is the defeat of the human digestive system by a bacterial infection of the genus Salmonella. Infected patients experience extensive intoxication, profuse dehydration, or severe septicemia. The pathogen is often found in chicken eggs, lactic acid products and ready-to-eat meat products.

Reasons for the development of pathology

The bacterium Salmonella, the causative agent of salmonellosis, is resistant to aggressive environmental conditions. Microorganisms remain viable in water for several months, and in the soil can be up to 1.5 years. Thermal processing of food is the most reliable way to combat pathogens. Bacteria die at 70 ° C within 10 minutes.

The routes of transmission of salmonellosis are typical – the fecal-oral mechanism is involved.In an urban environment, an air-dust method of infection is added to it. Livestock, poultry, and wild animals remain carriers of pathogens. Bacteria enter the victim’s circulatory system and actively multiply in organs and tissues. Human infection occurs when caring for sick individuals or when eating infected products.

A person is susceptible to salmonellosis – the symptoms and severity of damage to the digestive system depend on the number of pathogens that have entered the body and the state of the child’s or adult’s immune system.The most severe bacterial infections are infants and the elderly. Immunity to salmonellosis remains unstable and lasts no more than 12 months.


The symptoms of salmonellosis in adults and children are identical. The incubation period lasts from several hours to 2 days. The most common form of infection remains the gastroenteric type. It is characterized by a violation of water-salt metabolism and extensive intoxication.The body temperature rises sharply, there is a pronounced pain syndrome, heaviness in the head, weakness.

Stool disorder with salmonellosis is one of the main symptoms. The stool becomes watery, foamy, and extremely offensive. Defecation is accompanied by the urge to vomit.

The patient’s skin is pale. The mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue are dried out and covered with a white coating. Bloating is observed in children.Palpation causes moderate pain. The heart rate is higher than the age norm.

Do you have symptoms of salmonellosis?

Only a doctor can accurately diagnose the disease.
Do not delay the consultation – call

+7 (495) 775-73-60


Diagnostic measures involve the collection and microscopy of vomit and feces after bacterial sowing. Laboratory tests can detect the presence of the pathogen bacteria in the patient’s biological materials.If a generalized form of salmonellosis is suspected, a blood test is performed.

Laboratory tests allow doctors to determine the degree of dehydration of the patient’s body, blood viscosity, and electrolyte balance. These data are necessary for the formation of an effective strategy for the treatment of salmonellosis. In case of a complicated course of infection, it may be necessary to consult a cardiologist, nephrologist, urologist and doctors of other specializations.

Therapeutic measures

Patients suffering from severe salmonellosis or complications must be hospitalized.Adults and children with mild infections are treated at home.

The basic procedure is washing the stomach and intestines of an infected person, the so-called. “Siphon enemas”. The next stage in the treatment of salmonellosis is to restore the balance of electrolytes in the patient’s body and correct the water-salt balance. Dehydration is eliminated by frequent (but not plentiful) intake of saline solution by mouth. For severe dehydration, intravenous fluid therapy is performed, which includes polyionic solutions.

Antibiotic therapy is indicated for patients with generalized salmonellosis. Doctors prescribe drugs of the fluoroquinolone group. Gastrointestinal forms of infection require the use of antibiotics if the pathogen is immune to other drugs. In the standard treatment regimen, patients are prescribed enzymes (pancreatin, dry bile). In the period of acute attacks of salmonellosis, the clinical recommendations provide diet No. 4. After eliminating the intestinal manifestations of the infection, the patient can switch to diet No. 13.

Preventive measures

Prevention of salmonellosis is based on compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards. Owners of livestock and poultry should carefully monitor the storage conditions of the products produced and the timeliness of their heat treatment. It is important to remember the importance of washing your hands before eating and after returning home.

When preparing homemade meals, you need to monitor the temperature regime. Products that are past their expiration date should be disposed of promptly.Adults should have preventive conversations with children of preschool and primary school age.

Specific measures for the prevention of salmonellosis – in the form of vaccination – are not applied due to their low effectiveness. The causative agent is heterogeneous, and the acquired immunity has low resistance.

Questions and Answers

How not to get infected from an infected relative with whom you live in the same apartment?

The main precaution will be the consistent adherence to the rules of personal hygiene.Each family member must use an individual set of dishes during the outpatient treatment of a relative. Toilet and bathroom needs daily cleaning.

Is it possible to find out about the presence of the bacterium-causative agent of salmonellosis in food?

Only laboratory staff can confirm the presence of pathogenic microflora in food after appropriate research.Customers of popular retail chains should choose goods with a valid expiration date and individual packaging in sealed containers or bags.

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90,000 1.1. Meat, incl. semi-finished products, paired, chilled, slightly frozen, frozen (all types of slaughter, game and wild animals)

1.1. Meat, incl. semi-finished products, paired, chilled, slightly frozen, frozen (all types of slaughter, game and wild animals), including:









Antibiotics (excluding wild animals):

chloramphenicol (chloramphenicol)

not allowed

<0.01 mg / kg

<0.0003 s 01.01.2012

tetracycline group

not allowed

<0.01 mg / kg


not allowed

<0.02 mg / kg


HCHCG (,, -isomers)


DDT and its metabolites



0.000003 beef, lamb (calculated as fat)

0.000001 pork (calculated as fat)

(as amended bydecisions of the Commission of the Customs Union from 17.08.2010 N 341, from 07.04.2011

N 622)

1.1.1. Meat (all types of slaughter animals):

Microbiological indicators:

– steam in carcasses, half carcasses, quarters, cuts

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than


BGKP (coliforms) in 1.0 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

– frozen meat in carcasses, half carcasses, quarters, cuts

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

1 x 10 3

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.1 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

– chilled meat in carcasses, half carcasses, quarters, cuts

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

1 x 10 3

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.1 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

Proteus – 0.1 g for products with a shelf life of more than 7 days;

not allowed

– in 1.0 g for baby, dietary and therapeutic-and-prophylactic nutrition

not allowed

– chilled meat in cuts (boneless and on the bone), packed under vacuum or in a modified gas atmosphere

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

1 x 10 4

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.01 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

yeast, CFU / g, no more than

1 x 10 3

sulfite-reducing clostridia in 0.01 g

not allowed

1.1.2. Frozen meat for slaughter animals:

Microbiological indicators:

– in carcasses, half carcasses, quarters, cuts

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

1 x 10 4

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.01 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

– blocks of boneless meat, boneless, trimmed

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

5 x 10 5

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

– meat mass after additional deboning of the bones of slaughter animals

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

5 x 10 6 (sample preparation without surface flaming)

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.0001g

not allowed (same)

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed (same)

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed (same)

1.1.3. Boneless semi-finished meat products (chilled, slightly frozen, frozen), including pickled ones:

Microbiological indicators:

– large lump

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

5 x 10 5

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

– small lump

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

1 x 10 6

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

1.1.4. Semi-finished minced meat products (chilled, frozen):

Microbiological indicators:

– molded, incl. breaded

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

5 x 10 6

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.0001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

Molds, CFU / g (for breaded semi-finished products with a shelf life of more than 1 month), no more than


– in a dough casing, stuffed (cabbage rolls, zucchini), minced meat-containing semi-finished products

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

2 x 10 6

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.0001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

Molds, CFU / g (for semi-finished products with a shelf life of more than 1 month), no more than


– minced beef, pork, from meat of other slaughter animals

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

5 x 10 6

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.0001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

1.1.5. Semi-finished meat and bone products (lumpy, portioned, small lumpy)

Microbiological indicators:

QMAFAnM, CFU / g, no more than

5 x 10 6

BGKP (coliforms) in 0.0001 g

not allowed

pathogenic, incl.including salmonella in 25 g

not allowed

L. monocytogenes in 25 g

not allowed

Laboratory diagnostics of salmonellosis in St. Petersburg

Salmonella is a group of pathogens that cause intestinal infections such as typhus, paratyphoid fever and, in fact, salmonellosis.The differences lie in the subspecies of bacteria that have entered the patient’s body. This affects the clinical picture, diagnostic features, the choice of treatment method and epidemiological actions. Consider the features of pathogens and diseases that they cause.

S. paratyphi causes paratyphoid fever, they differ in the type of disease and are divided into A, B and C. Salmonellatyphi causes typhoid fever. These infectious diseases are accompanied by the circulation of the pathogen in the blood, high body temperature, lymph node reactions and toxic manifestations.Salmonella causes salmonellosis, which is somewhat easier than typhoid and paratyphoid fever. These pathologies are difficult to distinguish based only on clinical phenomena – laboratory research methods are used for this. They are united by the fact that they are tropic to the digestive tract and most of the symptoms are observed precisely from these organs.

Epidemiological features of pathologies

An important point in the diagnosis is the peculiarities of the penetration of the pathogen into the body.Depending on this, several types of infections are distinguished. For example, the bacteria that lead to the development of typhoid and paratyphoid fever are anthroponous – transmission of infection is observed from people who are sick and are carriers. Salmonellosis and some paratyphoid fevers are zooanthroponoses – infections that are common to animals. and for people.

The structure of Salmonella allows them to survive environmental conditions and continue their life cycle in water and soil. To destroy them, it is necessary to use disinfectants and other aggressive substances.Bacteria enter sewage and soil mainly with feces, therefore the transmission route is called fecal-oral. In addition to feces and urine, a significant amount of bacteria contains the patient’s saliva, from which it is also possible to draw conclusions about the transmission of the disease.

When is the diagnosis necessary?

Analyzes must be taken by those who work in the food production, visit the children’s team or work in it. This is necessary in order to exclude the fact of the carrier of the bacteria.The food industry is epidemiologically dangerous, since the pathogen feels great on nutrient media that are used in the production of ready-made meals or products. Children’s groups also have their own peculiarity – in childhood, hygiene measures are not so seriously observed, poor-quality hand washing is more often observed, contact of dirty surfaces with the oral mucosa. Diagnosis is especially important for pregnant women. In other cases, tests are carried out in the presence of the following symptoms:

  • acute temperature rise;
  • growing intoxication, which is manifested by weakness, headache, aching bones and joints;
  • abdominal pain, which is spastic in nature, localized around the umbilical ring and in the place where the costal arches converge;
  • nausea followed by repeated vomiting;
  • diarrhea, in which there may be a greenish tinge of stool and their unpleasant odor;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • dry mucous membranes;
  • Small-spotted red rash that gradually becomes paler.

There are various forms and features of the course of the disease, so the symptoms may differ slightly. As a rule, in case of a suspicious clinical picture, patients turn to a doctor, and he directs them to take tests. Laboratory diagnostics is also used retrospectively – after recovery, to determine the immunological picture, as well as to identify persistent forms of pathology.

go to analyzes

Types of research for these infectious diseases

Laboratory diagnostics of typhoid fever

The beginning of the diagnosis is the sampling of material.Body fluids and tissues must be properly collected, depending on the phase of development of the disease. It is best to do this before starting antibiotic therapy.

Typhoid fever is diagnosed by the following methods:

Bacteriological diagnostics.

These methods are relevant for early diagnosis. The pathogen can be detected in blood, bone marrow tissues, duodenal contents, in feces and in urine.Sowing typhus sticks provides accurate information for making a diagnosis.

Blood culture method

For the study, the patient’s blood is taken, 10 ml, venous. Sowing is carried out on specific nutrient media. In some cases, some of the blood is used for culture and the serum for serological testing. The growth of cultures is expected, which is identified by macro- and microscopic examination.

Myeloculture method

At certain stages of the pathological process, the pathogen can be isolated from the bone marrow – for this, sternal puncture and a small amount of material are taken.It is safe and painless as it goes away with anesthesia. Sowing takes place on nutrient media. A feature of the method is its high sensitivity. The technique has diagnostic accuracy even with erased forms of the disease, which cannot be determined by blood culture.

Biliculture method

Bile is taken by probing the duodenum. 3 portions of intestinal contents are sown. A feature of the technique is its effectiveness in the search for carriers or resistant forms of the disease in carriers.

Research of rose cultures

The material is found in the elements of the rash – it is a clear liquid in the center of the roseola. It is used in case of a negative response to other research methods and in the presence of a characteristic rash. For blood sampling, it is necessary to treat the skin and scarify it with a scalpel tip. The contents of the rash element are applied to the nutrient medium, as in other cases.

Urinoculture method

The determination of cultures in urine is more aimed at finding bacteria carriers than patients with an active form of the disease.The urine is collected after a thorough toilet, or even better with a catheter. Otherwise, the study proceeds in the same way as in the case of the rest of the biological material.

Coproculture analysis

The technique is not used so often, since the pathogen appears in the feces after a time after the disease. The study is used for healthy individuals and carriers.

Water testing can be used to detect typhoid microorganisms.

In order to identify the microorganism itself, a special staining method is used – it allows you to see under a microscope typical red sticks, which have rounded formations at the ends. Examine its shape, size, biochemical properties and identify the type of microorganism. Phage typing is also performed, that is, the determination of a specific type of pathogen.

Serological methods

Used to determine the carriage or the presence of a pathological process.In the diagnosis of typhoid, the Vidal reaction is used, as well as RIGA. Another serological method is enzyme immunoassay.

Vidal’s reaction allows you to isolate the pathogen from the blood serum. The reaction is specific, starting from 7-10 days of illness. A feature of typhoid fever is the different rate of increase of certain types of antigens. Determination of all antigens allows you to correctly diagnose the process. The reaction has specific features in terms of the collection of material and the setting of the study, therefore its accuracy depends on the conditions of the laboratory.

Hemagglutination test is widely used to diagnose typhoid and paratyphoid fever. The technique for determining the carriage of bacteria is especially important. The reliability of the reaction is confirmed by the isolation of a pure culture of microorganisms. For carriers, methods of examination of urine, bile or feces are used.

Serological tests are more reliable if you use the paired sera technique and monitor the dynamic change in the amount of antibodies.Also, determining the type of antibodies allows you to say which stage of the process occurs in the body.

Allergy test for typhoid is based on the effects of typhin, which has an allergen. It triggers a reaction if the body has antibodies to it. The reaction is accompanied by a slight local edema, redness. The sample is used for convalescents and is required retrospectively.

Salmonellosis is diagnosed using the following procedures:

Bacteriological examination of feces is used along with a similar study of vomit, urine, bile, gastric lavage.Sowing is carried out on nutrient media in which the most favorable conditions for the growth of crops are created. Such reagents are created based on the biochemical properties of the pathogen. If the test material contains a Salmonella culture, under favorable conditions it will grow on the environment. The researcher waits for the required number of days (from 7 to 10) and examines the reagents. Salmonella has a characteristic growth, which gives rise to a diagnosis.

Coprogram for salmonellosis is one of the fastest methods of diagnosis.Macroscopic examination gives reason to suspect pathological changes in the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. This is indicated by undigested fiber particles, inflammatory cells, mucus and blood secretion along with feces, starch grains. This suggests that the digestive function is impaired and many food components are not broken down to their units. These changes, together with clinical findings, allow diagnosis and treatment to be initiated. The collection of feces should not be carried out after taking laxatives.

The patient’s blood is used to stage the polymerase chain reaction. Modern diagnostic methods make it possible to detect particles of genetic material and compose a nucleic acid fragment from them. The resulting sample is compared with that of the desired pathogen and, if they match, a diagnosis is made. The method has a high sensitivity, it is an accurate basis for the diagnosis.

Serological diagnostic methods are based on the search for antibodies in the patient’s blood.If there are antibodies in the body, they will create an immunocomplex together with the antigen, which is added to the biological material. If a reaction occurs, it is repeated over time to see a dynamic picture of the disease. This is called the paired sera method, and the rise in antibody titer is determined. There are types of antibodies that are in the acute stage, in carriers, in patients with a convalescent form of pathology. Serological methods include enzyme immunoassay, hemagglutination reactions, and immunofluorescence techniques.They differ in the addition of additional reagents, the targeted study of erythrocytes.

Each of the diagnostic methods is used under certain circumstances – depending on the patient’s condition, the day since the onset of the disease, as well as for different diagnostic purposes. This is important both for prescribing drug tactics and for obtaining epidemiological data.

Acute intestinal infections are dangerous because they lead to intoxication and rapid dehydration.Together with the fluid, useful minerals, salts and other substances are excreted from the body. In a short time, a critical state of the body can occur, because moisture loss also occurs due to high temperature, rapid breathing, sweating and other processes. This is especially dangerous for those who have a weakened immune system, for children. Therefore, timely and high-quality diagnostics is so important, because it is on its basis that the necessary treatment can be prescribed, which will lead to a positive result.

Which Salmonella inherited

Associate Professor of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology of the Belarusian State Medical University, Candidate of Medical Sciences. Veronica Slizen conducts MLVA analysis for molecular genetic typing of Salmonella. Photo by author

A bit of history

If you look back at the not very distant past, you can see that the most common acute bacterial intestinal infection today – salmonellosis – became known a little over 130 years ago.This happened thanks to the efforts of American veterinarians Daniel Salmon and Theobald Smith, who first isolated the pathogen. Since then, microorganisms of a new group that cause disease in humans and animals have been receiving increased attention from physicians and specialists in animal husbandry and poultry farming.

It has been noticed that since the 1960s, the share of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis among the causative agents of salmonellosis in Belarus and some other countries has been rapidly increasing. In the 1970s and 1990s, this serovariant already provided up to 90% of the morbidity.Such a triumphant procession of the pathogen is associated with its ability to covertly manage poultry farms and penetrate eggs.

The second most important microorganism – Salmonella serovar Typhimurium – has a different “specialization”. It is distributed mainly with animal products – beef, pork. And if you look at the scope of development of poultry farming in our country, it is easy to understand why Salmonella serovar Enteritidis has become dominant.

What bacteria are good for

In Belarus, salmonellosis gives a high incidence among bacterial intestinal infections – 45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.According to doctors, this trend is directly related to the intensification of agricultural production, the enlargement of the catering network, the globalization of the food market, the expansion of geography and the development of international trade. In addition, bacteria and the fashion for the consumption of raw and semi-prepared meat products “play into the hands”.

But the question of how to resist a microorganism is still not completely clear. Salmonella fights for life, develops resistance to antibacterial drugs, and strenuously adapts to changing environmental conditions.

To find out how she succeeds, – this goal was set by the scientists of the BSMU – specialists from the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology and the Laboratory of Nosocomial Infections, as well as their colleagues from the RCHEiOZ.

Within the framework of the project of the state program of scientific research “Medicine and Pharmacy”

(subprogram “Fundamental and Applied Medicine”), the research group of the Belarusian State Medical University, consisting of the head of the research department Elena Gudkova, associate professor of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology Veronika Slizen, head of the laboratory of nosocomial infections Gennady Skorokhod and the leading researcher of the laboratory of VBI Zhanna Tsirkunova -genetic typing of Salmonella.They studied the genetic variants circulating in the country, made a map of their distribution by regions, and assessed the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics.

Find Environment Fingerprint

Salmonella have territorial features, subtle differences within one species or serovariant. Contacting with other microorganisms, they are involved in the exchange of genes and acquire distinctive features – a kind of imprint of the habitat. Such information should facilitate the search for an answer to the question: where do they come from? Now it is possible to obtain genetic profiles of Salmonella, which are found only in specific poultry farms and industries.

– The study of genetic variants of salmonellosis pathogens circulating in the country and the development of methods for determining the origin of bacteria make it possible to raise sanitary and epidemiological control and food safety to a new level, – believes the executive in charge of the assignment Veronica Slizen. – Until recently, there was an outbreak of salmonellosis in a cafe, samples of bacteria were taken from sick people, from products, from objects in the external environment, and it is difficult to prove the similarity between the secreted salmonella.And this is despite the fact that molecular genetic approaches for typing the main causative agents of salmonellosis, in principle, are known, but have not yet been introduced into the practice of domestic health care. Phenotypically, all Salmonella – both Salmonella serovar Enteritidis and serovar Typhimurium – are the same. Our methods allow us to see the genetic difference or similarity of pathogens and to judge the possible origin.

Both methods are approved by the instructions of the Ministry of Health and are successfully used in the Republican Center for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Public Health, in the practice of sanitary services, which are very interested in officially registered high-precision technology for conducting epidemiological investigations.

By the way, according to the authors, the experience of using domestic approaches says that outbreaks of salmonellosis in catering organizations should be considered as a marker of trouble, first of all, at enterprises – suppliers of raw materials, which requires prompt investigation and response, including from veterinary services.

PCR and tandem repeats

The first method is based on the polymerase chain reaction, but if anyone thinks that scientists have invented the wheel, the authors have a reasonable objection to this.Yes, the PCR method is known, but the project implementers adapted it to a specific task, proposed original primers, new fluorescent probes for genes, their own genetic sequences, on the basis of which the identification of serovariants is carried out or genetic variants are determined.

In other words, innovation in complementing known targets for identifying Salmonella with non-traditional ones, which has expanded the possibilities of laboratory diagnostics. At the same time, PCR has remained the same proven method of molecular biology, well mastered by the sanitary services, which successfully operate this “workhorse”.

The second method – modern and more laborious – is based on the use of a sequencer – a device that determines the sequence of nucleotides in DNA. Thanks to it, differences in microorganisms are revealed by the variable number of tandem repeats. The latter, like choruses in songs, are repeatedly repeating fragments of the same type in the DNA of microorganisms, and by their number in different parts of DNA, one can describe the genetic profile of the pathogen, compare microorganisms circulating in Belarus, Europe, and the world.

Within the framework of the project, a method was also developed for the simultaneous identification using real-time PCR of the main causative agents of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis and serovar Typhimurium.

“Genetic identification,” explains Veronica Sluzen, “is becoming cheaper, there are domestic manufacturers of PCR consumables, many research centers are equipped with appropriate devices. Therefore, the genetic method for identifying Salmonella to identify key serovariants that provide up to 95% of the incidence can be completely replaced by a serological method, however, requiring the purchase of diagnostic sera outside the country.Serological identification could be retained for other Salmonella serovariants other than Enteritidis and Typhimurium.

Thus, the developed approaches to the recognition of the main causative agents of salmonellosis and their molecular-epidemiological typing made it possible to obtain information on the territorial distribution of genetic variants of the pathogen and to obtain information on the sources of infection, transmission factors. It is possible to establish or exclude links between individual cases of diseases, to differentiate epidemic outbreaks against the background of sporadic infection, to track the path of its spread, to monitor the epidemiological well-being in medical institutions.

Not all antibiotics are effective

With regard to the development of new methods of treatment, such a goal has not yet been set before scientists. However, researchers who have studied the resistance of Salmonella to beta-lactam antibiotics have made interesting observations and advise doctors in scientific publications. For example, a study of more than 400 Salmonella strains isolated in different regions of the republic showed: pathogens resistant to ampicillin circulate, which is associated with the production of beta-lactamase enzymes of the TEM and ACC classes.At the same time, resistant forms with ACC genes may be immune to both inhibitor-protected penicillins and 1–2 generation cephalosporins.

The positive point, scientists say, is that while among Salmonella, there are virtually no variants that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (cefotaximases, which break down 3rd generation cephalosporins, and carbapenemases, which break down carbapenems). Therefore, the use of ampicillin, as well as protected penicillins, under the prevailing conditions may be ineffective in pediatric practice.In any case, they cannot be considered as starting therapy for salmonellosis.

But ciprofloxacin, used to treat adults, continues to be active. Monitoring has shown that Salmonella does not yet have resistance to it. All tested cultures of bacteria retain sensitivity to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins – cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, as well as fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol.

On the territory of Belarus, salmonella that counteract tetracycline, especially among Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, began to occur with a high frequency, since preparations of the tetracycline series are widely used in animal husbandry.The latter may not give the desired result in therapy.

Within the framework of the project, serovariants of Salmonella, which cause an increase in the incidence in Europe and Asia, were also monitored – S. Mikawasima and S. Stanley. They did not bypass us either, but so far in the republic there are isolated “imported” cases associated with these options.

The scientists also analyzed the circulation of S. Typhimurium with ACSSuSpT pentoresistance, ie ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, spectinomycin and tetracyclines.Several years ago, this microorganism became epidemic in many countries. But during the entire observation period, only 5 isolates with such a profile were registered in Belarus.

Key to international projects

New typing methods fit perfectly into the technologies used in the leading countries. The results obtained in the republic can immediately be included in the world banks of genetic variants of Salmonella, and this will make it possible to count on effective international cooperation.Since the beginning of 2000, WHO has operated an international salmonellosis surveillance program (WHO Global Salm-Serv

– WHOGSS), and on its basis operates a global system for monitoring the sensitivity of these bacteria to antimicrobial drugs (External Quality Assuarance System – EQAS).

At the end of last year, the project was completed, but research continues thanks to the efforts of the regional and republican CGEiOZ, the work of scientists from the Department of Microbiology, Virology, Immunology and the Laboratory of Nosocomial Infections of the Belarusian State Medical University.

To be continued …

Members of the Belarusian State Medical University, first of all, students of the Faculty of Medicine, participate in the scientific work on the genetic study of Salmonella. Starting from the 2nd year, they master all the wisdom of genetic research methods and bioinformatics – computer analysis of genetic information, acquire the skills of molecular epidemiological typing of Salmonella, and by the end of their studies they are perfectly oriented in DNA technologies. And also, which is extremely important, this is how the love for the future profession is instilled.

Studies of Salmonella, conducted by students of the Faculty of Medicine Maria Yakimova, Maria Kostenko, Ksenia Bogdanovich, Anastasia Shulga, Ksenia Chervyakovskaya, of the Faculty of Pediatrics – Victoria Nazarova, far from student – won prizes at the Republican competition of scientific works, and Maria Yakimova’s report on Salmonella was awarded the 1st place in the section at the international conference “Youth in Science”, which is held by the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.


According to international monitoring 2012–2016., the source of salmonella may be:


Salmonellosis in animals

At the reception at the Kalinin veterinary hospital, they asked for a veterinary certificate with an iguana to export it from Moscow. But before issuing the accompanying veterinary document, the veterinarian gave the owner of the animal a referral to the city veterinary laboratory to conduct a study for salmonellosis. Visits to veterinary clinics with reptiles are not uncommon, and veterinary specialists know that cases of salmon bearing in these species of animals are also not uncommon.Currently, more than 2,200 serotypes of Salmonella enteritidis are known, divided by antigenic properties into 52 serogroups. The well-known Salmonellosis is a whole group of diseases that affect humans and animals. Many serotypes of Salmonella are specific to different animal species. Some of them are pathogenic for humans, proceeding in the form of severe intestinal toxicoinfections. There are salmonellosis specific exclusively to humans – typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Causative agents of salmonellosis – bacteria of the genus Salmonella – non-spore-forming aerobic gram-negative rods with peritrichial flagella.The name Salmonella is given in honor of the American veterinarian Salmon, who isolated Salmonella cholerae suis in 1885. From modern data, it follows that the number and variety of identified serotypes is constantly growing. An explanation for this phenomenon should be sought in the existence of conditions conducive to the active movement of pathogens with animals, people and food over long distances. Along with this, it is noted that salmonella, specific for humans – the causative agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, regress, and alimentary toxic infections common to humans and animals – progress.Recently, a case of alimentary toxicoinfection caused by S. gallinarum was noted, which was not assumed to be pathogenic in humans.

Salmonella species in different geographic areas, countries and even within the same localities are different. The most common causes of infections in animals and are transmitted to humans are Salmonella cholerae suis, Salmonella tythimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella bovis morbificaus. The most common Salmonella tythimurium is due to its ability to adapt to many species of mammals and birds.Agricultural (pigs, cattle, horses, sheep) and wild (wild boars, birds, especially waterfowl, turtles) animals are susceptible to salmonella infection. Cattle are infected with Salmonella tythimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, pathogenic for humans. Pigs are often infected with Salmonella cholerae suis, horses with Salmonella abortus equi, which are pathogenic only for horses, sheep are susceptible to Salmonella abortus ovis, which practically does not infect humans. Domestic and wild birds are infected with Salmonella tythimurium, Salmonella anatum.Mice and rats are often infected with Salmonella cholerae suis, Salmonella tythimurium, Salmonella enteritidis types. Animals excrete pathogens with excrement.

The large number of affected animal species and the high survival rate of pathogens in the external environment are the factors that determine the widespread occurrence of salmonellosis in nature. Human and animal carriers and the source (excretors) of Salmonella are significant factors in the spread of the disease.

Meat, milk, eggs – the main food products through which salmonellosis is transmitted. Meat of pigs, poultry, livestock, as well as internal organs (liver, lungs) consumed half-baked, smoked, in the form of minced meat , are the most dangerous in terms of transmission of the pathogen. These foods may be contaminated with salmonella from people (sick and carriers) during handling and cooking or from water due to poor hygiene practices. A feature of products contaminated with salmonella is the absence of changes perceived organoleptically: appearance, color, smell, taste – remain unchanged.Egg products and eggs, especially duck eggs, used fresh, canned or in cream, mayonnaise, ice cream, often cause salmonellosis in humans. Milk and dairy products (cottage cheese, sour cream) contain salmonella if they are obtained from sick animals or were infected during milking by the secretions of sick animals or by a worker who is sick or a carrier of salmonella. Milk is often contaminated during transportation, cooking and even when serving the final product.Foods that are semi-cooked or undercooked are an important contributor to the transmission of Salmonella. For the survival and reproduction of Salmonella in any food product, the storage and processing temperature during canning and the chemical composition of the product are of exceptional importance. So, in meat dishes, which include eggs, Salmonella tythimurium can survive and multiply for 6 days at a temperature of + 2 + 7C. An increase in temperature up to 47C favors the reproduction of pathogens, therefore, food should be stored in the refrigerator and freezer in warm weather.In recent years, with the start of the production of milk powder and egg powder, the risk of transmission of salmonellosis has increased many times over, since sometimes these products, especially if the heat treatment and storage regime is violated, can contain a significant amount of Salmonella. An important role in the infection of food with Salmonella is played by patients and carriers of mice and rats, which contaminate food products with excrement: cottage cheese and sausages, ready-made meals, etc. Contaminated objects, dishes and dirty hands are one of the ways Salmonella spreads.

Salmonella can also spread with surface waters of rivers and lakes, contaminated with feces and urine of sick animals. The ingress of these sewage into drinking water, as well as for watering vegetable crops, contributes to the spread of infection. Wastewater from livestock complexes is also a source of Salmonella distribution. The use of such feeds as bone, meat and blood meal that have not passed the necessary bacteriological control can also lead to infection with salmonellosis and the emergence of new types of Salmonella.

Salmonella have a complex antigenic structure, including a high temperature-resistant somatic group antigen, heat-labile flagellar H-antigen, virulence antigen, which is part of the pathogen envelope – i-antigen. The virulence of Salmonella is determined in white mice and by the severity of the disease in humans. In the external environment, salmonella persist for a very long time: for weeks in cottage cheese, on cereal grains and in water, for months in milk, up to 5 months in soil. It is especially important to note their long-term survival in meat, bone, meat and feed meal.At temperatures above 5C, they actively multiply, but are less stable in salt solutions and acidic media. Antiseptics and disinfectants also work effectively on them. Salmonella is able to survive in aquarium water for 89 days, 120 days in wet soil, 28 months in bird droppings and 30 months in cow dung. Turtles can become infected in crowded housing (this is how they are most often transported). In clinically healthy turtles, asymptomatic disease can “intensify” after simple dehydration in 10-14 days, stress, change of housing and feeding conditions.

Therefore, we recommend that everyone who maintains houses of turtles, lizards, geckos, iguanas and other reptiles and amphibians to observe hygiene and examine their pets for salmonella and, if necessary, carry out their treatment under the supervision of a veterinarian. Periodic isolation of Salmonella for lower vertebrates is very typical and treatment of bacteria carriers is often futile, but despite this, the prevention of zoonosis in these cases is mandatory. In the treatment of drugs of choice are amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline and baytril, reserve drugs – metronidazole, trimethoprim, semi-synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins, but it should be noted that optimal results can be obtained only after isolating the pathogen and titrating its antibiotic sensitivity.

Salmonellosis is the most common zoonosis of bacterial etiology in reptiles, but Salmonella in the body of these animals is not always pathogenic, although salmonella in reptiles reaches 85% of the studied animals.