Uses of zinc sulfate: zinc sulfate | Michigan Medicine
zinc sulfate | Michigan Medicine
What is the most important information I should know about zinc sulfate?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.
What is zinc sulfate?
Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues.
Zinc sulfate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency.
Zinc sulfate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking zinc sulfate?
Before using zinc sulfate, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. You may not be able to use zinc sulfate if you have certain medical conditions.
FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether zinc sulfate will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are pregnant.
It is not known whether zinc sulfate passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.
How should I take zinc sulfate?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Take zinc sulfate with a full glass of water.
Take zinc sulfate with food if it upsets your stomach.
Your healthcare provider may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best result. The recommended dietary allowance of zinc sulfate changes with age. Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions. You may also consult the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, or the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database (formerly “Recommended Daily Allowances”) listings for more information.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
Overdose symptoms may include nausea, severe vomiting, dehydration, and restlessness.
What should I avoid while taking zinc sulfate?
Avoid taking this medication with foods that are high in calcium or phosphorus, which can make it harder for your body to absorb zinc sulfate. Foods high in calcium or phosphorus include milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, dried beans or peas, lentils, nuts, peanut butter, beer, cola soft drinks, and hot cocoa.
What are the possible side effects of zinc sulfate?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Less serious side effects may include:
- nausea; or
- upset stomach.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What other drugs will affect zinc sulfate?
Other drugs may interact with zinc sulfate, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.
Where can I get more information?
Your pharmacist can provide more information about zinc sulfate.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 6.03. Revision date: 12/17/2013.
What Is Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate Used For
Zinc sulfate monohydrate is an inorganic compound that was historically known as “white vitriol,” and it has a variety of uses in medicine, industry, and more. In this guide from Bisley, we’ll take a look at a few common uses for this colourless, crystalline compound, and explain how it’s used.
1. Dietary Supplement For Humans
Zinc sulfate is a recommended dietary supplement for people who are suffering from zinc deficiency. It can help prevent zinc deficiency caused by medical conditions like sickle cell anemia, or from dietary zinc deficiencies caused by consuming mostly whole grains or processed foods. It’s estimated that up to 25% of the world’s population has some extent of zinc deficiency.
The recommended dose of zinc for a human is 8-11 mg per day, so beware of supplements that may have 50 mg or more of zinc. It can be taken alone, but zinc should be taken with food if it upsets your stomach.
Store at room temperature to prolong the supplement’s shelf life. If you miss a dose of zinc, you can simply skip the missed dose. You should call your doctor for medical advice about side effects, if present.
2. Supplement For Livestock
Just like humans, livestock like pigs, cows, chickens and other animals need adequate amounts of zinc in order to avoid the effects of zinc deficiency. Depending on the situation, it may be used in animal feeds, in fertilizers, on toothpaste, and as part of an agricultural spray.
Proper zinc supplementation ensures healthy livestock, and prevents the negative health effects associated with zinc deficiency, resulting in better overall agricultural output.
3. Natal Supplementation
Zinc is also commonly taken during pregnancy and after pregnancy. It can help with natal health and has been shown to reduce the risk of delivering a preterm baby. Zinc also readily passes into breast milk when breast feeding, so it’s commonly used as a component of prenatal vitamins.
4. Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)
Zinc sulfate is one of the World Health Organization (WHO) essential medicines, and is also recommended by organizations like the National Institutes of Health for Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT).
ORT is used to rehydrate individuals who have suffered serious dehydration due to diarrhea. Zinc sulfate helps inhibit and decrease the number of bowel movements when it’s used alongside ORT. This allows the body to absorb more water and prevents critical dehydration.
5. Moss Impairment For Roofs
Zinc sulfate, like lots of other zinc compounds, can be used to control and inhibit moss growth on roofs, and it’s used for this purpose in both commercial and residential settings, often as a component of roof cleaning soaps and antimoss/antifungal products.
6. Beer Brewing
Zinc sulfate is also commonly used as a zinc supplement during the beer brewing process. Zinc is a necessary nutrient to optimize yeast health and performance. This is more common in strongly-alcoholic beers that use grains that do not contain much natural zinc, as this pushes the yeast to the limits of fermentation and requires proper nutrition to ensure consistent results.
Need High-Quality Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate? Contact Bisley Today!
Bisley is a leading provider of industrial materials and supplies, including zinc sulfate monohydrate. To get started and learn more, contact us online. We’re always happy to discuss your needs and how we can help you get the wholesale industrial products you need.
Posted in Bisley News
Zinc sulphate tablets | Patient
About zinc sulfate tablets
|Type of medicine||A mineral|
|Used for||Zinc deficiency|
|Also called||Solvazinc®; AadZinc®|
|Available as||Effervescent (dissolvable) tablets|
Zinc is a mineral. It is involved in a number of body enzyme functions. It is important for wound healing and for the senses of taste and smell. However, if it is taken in large quantities, it can lead to toxicity. Because of this, zinc supplements should only be taken by people with conditions that cause a loss of zinc from the body, or where there is good evidence that zinc deficiency exists. Such conditions include large skin burns, following an injury, and in some metabolic diseases where there is interference in the way zinc is absorbed from food.
Another form of zinc, called zinc acetate dihydrate (brand name Wilzin®), is used in a completely different condition known as Wilson’s disease. This is a genetic disorder where there is a build-up of copper which causes serious symptoms because the body is not able to get rid of it. Treatment with zinc helps to remove the excess copper and/or prevent a further build-up. This is a specialist treatment and no further information about this brand of zinc is included below. If you have been prescribed Wilzin® capsules, please ask your doctor if you require information about your treatment.
Before taking zinc sulfate tablets
To make sure that this is the right treatment for you, before you start taking zinc sulfate it is important that your doctor or pharmacist knows:
- If you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
- If you have any problems with the way your kidneys work.
- If you have been told you have a copper deficiency.
- If you are taking or using any other medicines. This includes any medicines you are taking which are available to buy without a prescription, as well as herbal and complementary medicines.
- If you have ever had an allergic reaction to a medicine.
How to take zinc sulfate tablets
- Before you start this treatment, read the manufacturer’s printed information leaflet from inside the pack. It will give you more information about zinc sulfate and will provide you with a full list of the side-effects which you could experience from taking it.
- Your doctor or pharmacist will tell you what dose to take. The dose will also be printed on the label of the pack to remind you. As a guide, the dose for an adult or a child over 30 kg (approximately 10 years old) is one tablet, taken 1-3 times a day. If you are giving the tablets to a younger child, check the label carefully to make sure you are giving the correct dose for the weight of your child.
- Zinc sulfate tablets are effervescent, which means that you should dissolve them in a glass of water to take them. Take each dose with a snack or just after eating a meal.
- If you forget to take a dose, don’t worry, just take the next dose when it is due and then carry on as before. Do not take two doses together to make up for a forgotten dose.
Getting the most from your treatment
- Try to keep any regular appointments with your doctor. This is so your doctor can check on your progress.
- If you buy any medicines, please check with a pharmacist that they are suitable to take with zinc tablets. This is because medicines which contain either iron or calcium can interfere with the way zinc is absorbed by your body.
- If you need any antibiotics for an infection, please make sure that the doctor prescribing them for you is aware that you are taking zinc. This is because zinc supplements can stop some antibiotics from working properly.
Can zinc sulfate tablets cause problems?
Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below contains some of the most common ones associated with zinc sulfate. You will find a full list in the manufacturer’s information leaflet supplied with your medicine. The unwanted effects often improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine, but speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following continue or become troublesome.
|Side-effects of zinc sulfate||What can I do if I experience this?|
|Stomach pain or discomfort, indigestion, feeling sick (nausea) or being sick (vomiting)||Stick to simple meals – avoid rich or spicy foods|
|Diarrhoea||Drink plenty of water to replace any lost fluids|
|Headache||Drink plenty of water and ask your pharmacist to recommend a suitable painkiller. If the headaches continue, let your doctor know|
|Feeling tired or irritable||This should soon pass|
If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to the tablets, please speak with your doctor or pharmacist for further advice.
How to store zinc sulfate tablets
- Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.
- Store in the original container in a cool, dry place and away from direct heat and light.
Important information about all medicines
Never take more than the prescribed dose. If you suspect that you or someone else might have taken an overdose of this medicine, go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital. Take the container with you, even if it is empty.
If you are having an operation or dental treatment, tell the person carrying out the treatment which medicines you are taking.
This medicine is for you. Never give it to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours.
Do not keep out-of-date or unwanted medicines. Take them to your local pharmacy which will dispose of them for you.
If you have any questions about this medicine ask your pharmacist.
Zinc Sulfate – Introduction, Properties, Structure, Uses, its Doses and FAQs
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula ZnSO4. The nutritional supplement is Zinc Sulfate. It has been traditionally referred to as white vitriol. It is also known as Zincate, Sulfate of Zinc (1:1). This compound is listed on the List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization. You should avoid taking this medication with foods high in phosphorus or calcium because it may make it more difficult for your body to absorb it.
Properties of Zinc Sulfate
Zinc Sulfate has a white powder look and is odorless. Zinc Sulfate, which is soluble in water, is non-combustible. During decomposition, it releases poisonous gases of zinc oxide and sulfur oxides. It is commonly used in zinc deficiency prevention and treatment.
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound. It is used to treat zinc deficiency and to avoid the disease in those at high risk as a dietary supplement. Excess supplementation side effects can include stomach pain, vomiting, headache, and fatigue.
As the already mentioned formula of zinc sulfate ZnSO4. The most popular form, with the formula ZnSO4•7h3O, contains crystallization water as the heptahydrate. “Historically, it was known as “white vitriol”. Zinc sulfate and its hydrates are solids that are colorless.
Zinc Sulfate Structure
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Physical Properties of Zinc Sulfate
Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass
Zinc Sulfate Uses
It is used in medicine together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and astringent therapy.
The primary forms used commercially are hydrates, particularly heptahydrate. In the manufacture of rayon, the principal application is as a coagulant. It is also a precursor to lithopone, a pigment.
It is also used as an electrolyte for electroplating zinc, as a dye mordant, and as a skin and leather preservative.
Zinc sulfate is used in animal feed, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate can be used to regulate moss growth on roofs, like many zinc compounds.
In the brewing process, zinc sulfate can be used to replace zinc. For optimal yeast health and efficiency, zinc is a necessary nutrient, although it is not a necessary supplement for low-gravity beers, as sufficient zinc is already supplied by the grains widely used in brewing.
In practices like when pushing yeast to its limit by increasing the alcohol content outside their comfort zone, it is a more common practice. Zinc was steadily leached by the use of copper kettles before modern stainless steel, brewing kettles, fermenting pots, and after wood. In order to provide trace elements of zinc, a modern copper immersion chiller is speculated; so caution must be taken when adding supplemental zinc so as not to cause excess.
It is used as an astringent in eye drops and lotions.
It is used to treat acne.
You can take zinc sulfate with food if you are suffering from stomach upset.
Zinc and its Doses
When taken by mouth properly in the prescribed quantities, zinc is likely Healthy. When used in high concentrations, zinc is likely Dangerous.
Zinc is likely safe when used in the prescribed daily quantities for most pregnant and breast-feeding women (RDA). Zinc, however, is potentially unsafe when used by breast-feeding women at high doses and likely unsafe when used by pregnant women at high doses. No more than 40 mg of zinc should be taken per day by pregnant women over the age of 18; no more than 34 mg per day should be taken by pregnant women aged 14 to 18 years. No more than 40 mg of zinc per day should be taken by breastfeeding women over the age of 18; no more than 34 mg per day should be taken by breastfeeding women aged 14 to 18.
Excessive, long-term consumption of alcohol is related to low absorption of zinc in the body.
The risk of having kidney disease rises with low zinc in the diet. People with hemodialysis kidney disease are also at risk for zinc deficiency and may need zinc supplements.
Vegetarian diets are often associated with lower absorption of zinc. This form of diet is also seen as a risk factor for the depletion of zinc. But in the long term, the body adapts. Zinc absorption and zinc loss elimination are getting stronger.
Did You Know?
Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. The ingestion of trace amounts is considered healthy and, as a source of critical zinc, zinc sulfate is added to animal feed at rates of up to several hundred milligrams per kilogram of feed. Acute stomach pain results from excess consumption, with nausea and vomiting appearing at 2-8 mg/Kg of body weight.
Zinc for crop production | UMN Extension
Several sources can supply zinc when needed. Zinc sulfate (35% zinc) is usually used to supply the needed amount of zinc when dry fertilizer materials are used. This material can be either broadcast and incorporated before planting, or used in a starter fertilizer. It blends well with other dry fertilizer materials. Approximately 3 lb of the zinc sulfate material will supply 1 lb zinc per acre.
A zinc-ammonia complex (10% zinc) can be used to supply zinc when fluid fertilizers are used. This material mixes easily with other fluid fertilizers.
Zinc oxide (78-80% zinc) can correct a zinc deficiency but is slowly soluble and not effective in a granular form. To effectively correct a zinc deficiency, zinc oxide must be finely ground. Spreading any finely ground material is a problem in Minnesota because of the wind. So use of finely ground zinc oxide is limited to situations where suspension fertilizers are used.
Application of poultry manure can add considerable amount of zinc to the soil. For example, broiler litter contains 0.01-0.50 lb zinc/ton and laying hen litter contains an average of 0.15 lb zinc/ton. Because zinc content is variable in manure, it is suggested that manure sources be tested for zinc content before application.
Method of application
The addition of zinc to a starter fertilizer is the most economical approach to zinc fertilization. This method provides the nutrient the year it is needed. This is especially important when corn and edible beans are rotated with other crops. If use of a starter fertilizer is not an option, zinc fertilizers should be broadcast and incorporated before planting of either corn or edible beans.
Foliar applications of zinc have not been consistently effective in correcting deficiencies of this nutrient. This method of application should be used on a trial basis only. For foliar applications, powdered zinc sulfate can be dissolved in water and applied to the leaf tissue. The amount dissolved should supply 0.5 to 1.0 lb zinc per acre when a rate of 20 gallons of water per acre is used.
A zinc chelate can also be mixed with water. The amount of chelate mixed with water should supply 0.15 lb zinc per acre when water is sprayed at a rate of 20 gallons per acre.
Research has shown that all sources of zinc (except granular zinc oxide) have an equal effect on crop production. Consider cost before choosing a source of zinc for the fertilizer program.
Most crops are tolerant to high zinc levels in their tissue without any visible symptoms. Cereals are sensitive to zinc toxicity. Typical toxicity symptoms are iron chlorosis and lack of green color in the leaves.
- The potential for a response to zinc by crops has not changed in spite of increased zinc removal from high yield crops.
- Crops vary in the potential for a response to zinc when fertilizer is applied to soils with a marginal zinc soil test.
- A response to zinc is possible when the soil DTPA Zn soil test is 0.75 or less and is likely when the DTPA zinc soil test is 0.5 ppm or less.
- Current research does not support the widespread use of chelated zinc applied in-furrow for corn production.
- Banding low rates of zinc may give the greatest economic return for fields that test low in zinc.
Zinc Sulfate – an overview
As noted earlier, the use of oral zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) in treating smell and taste disorders is controversial. Interest in zinc treatment stemmed from observations that the administration of d-penicillamine, a chelating agent that depletes divalent cations such as copper and zinc, alters rat taste preferences and, in humans, taste thresholds (Henkin et al., 1967; Henkin and Bradley, 1969; Kare and Henkin, 1969). In the Henkin et al. (1967) study, treatment of four patients with oral copper, either as a dietary supplement or as CuSO4, reportedly returned taste function to normal within 4 weeks, although CuSO4 produced a bitter/metallic unpleasant taste, leading the patients to refuse further oral copper therapy.
Given the aversiveness of CuSO4, ZnSO4 became preferred to CuSO4 as an alternative treatment and was said to improve taste sensitivity (Henkin and Bradley, 1970). In 1972, a large-scale single-blind study was performed claiming efficacy of ZnSO4 in improving taste in hypogeusic patients (Schechter et al., 1972). In this study a placebo tablet was given from 1 week to 4 months, after which patients who had not improved were administered a 12-month course of progressively increasing doses of ZnSO4. Only 6% of the patients improved during the placebo period; more than 50% improved during the subsequent ZnSO4 period. Since no separate contemporaneous control group was tested, it was impossible to know whether the improvement would have occurred over time without the ZnSO4.
As mentioned earlier in this chapter, a double-blind ZnSO4/placebo crossover study of 106 patients found no statistically significant effects of zinc on either taste or smell function (Henkin et al., 1976). Others, also using double-blind protocols, have also failed to find zinc to be an effective therapy for general smell or taste problems (Lyckholm et al., 2012) or age-related taste deficits (Greger and Geissler, 1978). A large-scale clinical study of patients with chemosensory dysfunction revealed no differences in taste or smell scores between patients taking or not taking zinc supplements (Deems et al., 1991). Moreover, a double-blind study assessing the use of zinc sulfate in preventing taste alterations from radiation therapy for head and neck cancer patients proved negative (Halyard et al. , 2007). That being said, there is evidence that in some zinc deficient patients, such as ones with renal disease, zinc repletion may improve taste function (Burge et al., 1978; Sprenger et al., 1983).
Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate | AMERICAN ELEMENTS ®
SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION
Product Name: Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate
Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. ZN-SAT-02-C.1HYD
CAS #: 7446-19-7
Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development
10884 Weyburn Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351
Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America: +1 800-424-9300
International: +1 703-527-3887
SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Eye Dam. 1 h418 Causes serious eye damage.
Acute Tox. 4 h402 Harmful if swallowed.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
R22: Harmful if swallowed.
R41: Risk of serious damage to eyes.
N; Dangerous for the environment
R50/53: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause
long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
Hazards not otherwise classified
No data available
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is classified and labeled according to the CLP regulation.
Signal word: Danger
h402 Harmful if swallowed.
h418 Causes serious eye damage.
P280 Wear eye protection / face protection.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/. ..
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P315 Get immediate medical advice/attention.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.
D2B – Toxic material causing other toxic effects
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 1
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
CAS No. / Substance Name:
7446-19-7 Zinc sulfate monohydrate
EC number: 231-793-3
Index number: 030-006-00-9
SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES
Description of first aid measures
Supply patient with fresh air. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
In case of skin contact:
Immediately wash with soap and water; rinse thoroughly.
Seek immediate medical advice.
In case of eye contact:
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Consult a physician.
Seek medical treatment.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No data available
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No data available
SECTION 5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES
Suitable extinguishing agents
Product is not flammable. Use fire-fighting measures that suit the surrounding fire.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Sulfur oxides (SOx)
Metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Wear self-contained respirator.
Wear fully protective impervious suit.
SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Use personal protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
Ensure adequate ventilation
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without official permits.
Do not allow product to enter drains, sewage systems, or other water courses.
Do not allow material to penetrate the ground or soil.
Methods and materials for containment and cleanup:
Dispose of contaminated material as waste according to section 13.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information
SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE
Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
Prevent formation of dust.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
The product is not flammable
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Store away from strong bases.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well-sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No data available
SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION
Additional information about design of technical systems:
Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: Not required.
Additional information: No data
Personal protective equipment
Follow typical protective and hygienic practices for handling chemicals.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Avoid contact with the eyes.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment: Use suitable respirator when high concentrations are present.
Protection of hands: Impervious gloves
Inspect gloves prior to use.
Suitability of gloves should be determined both by material and quality, the latter of which may vary by manufacturer.
Eye protection: Tightly sealed goggles
Body protection: Protective work clothing.
SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Information on basic physical and chemical properties
Odor threshold: No data available.
Melting point/Melting range: No data available
Boiling point/Boiling range: No data available
Sublimation temperature / start: No data available
Flash point: N/A
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available.
Ignition temperature: No data available
Decomposition temperature: No data available
Autoignition: No data available.
Danger of explosion: Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Lower: No data available
Upper: No data available
Vapor pressure: N/A
Density: No data available
Relative density: No data available.
Vapor density: N/A
Evaporation rate: N/A
Solubility in Water (H2O): Soluble
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): No data available.
Other information: No data available
SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
No data available
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No data available
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume
Sulfur oxides (SOx)
SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity: Harmful if swallowed.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: No data
Skin irritation or corrosion: Causes mild irritant effect.
Eye irritation or corrosion: Causes serious eye damage.
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity: No effects known.
Carcinogenicity: No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Reproductive toxicity: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity – repeated exposure: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity – single exposure: No effects known.
Aspiration hazard: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
Zinc containing fumes may cause metal fume fever. Effects include dry throat, metallic taste, chest pain, dyspnea, rales and dry cough. Several hours later, chills may occur with lassitude, malaise, fatigue, headache, back pain, muscle cramps, blurred vision, nausea, fever, perspiration, vomiting and leukocytosis.
Subacute to chronic toxicity: No effects known.
Additional toxicological information: To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
No data available
Persistence and degradability
No data available
No data available
Mobility in soil
No data available
Very toxic for aquatic organisms
Additional ecological information:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without official permits.
Do not allow product to reach groundwater, water courses, or sewage systems, even in small quantities.
Danger to drinking water if even extremely small quantities leak into the ground.
Also poisonous for fish and plankton in water bodies.
May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Very toxic for aquatic organisms
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Other adverse effects
No data available
SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Waste treatment methods
Consult official regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.
Recommended cleansing agent:
Water, if necessary with cleansing agents.
SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION
DOT, IMDG, IATA
UN proper shipping name
Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n. o.s. (Zinc sulfate monohydrate)
ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S. (Zinc sulfate monohydrate), MARINE POLLUTANT
ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S. (Zinc sulfate monohydrate)
Transport hazard class(es)
DOT, IMDG, IATA
9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles.
9 (M7) Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
DOT, IMDG, IATA
Marine pollutant (IMDG):
Symbol (fish and tree)
Special marking (ADR):
Symbol (fish and tree)
Special marking (IATA):
Symbol (fish and tree)
Special precautions for user
Warning: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
Special marking with the symbol (fish and tree).
UN “Model Regulation”:
UN3077, Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s. (Zinc sulfate monohydrate), 9, III
SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION
Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
7446-19-7 Zinc sulfate monohydrate
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 – Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 – Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 – Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 – Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
This product contains zinc and is subject to the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know Act of 1986 and
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH – Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.
SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION
Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2021 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.
Zinc sulphate | reference book Pesticides.ru
Physical and chemical properties
Zinc sulfate – colorless crystals with the chemical formula ZnSO 4 .
- Density – 3.54 g / cm 3 .
- When heated to 600–800 ° C, decomposes to sulfur oxide SO 3 and oxosulfates.
- Forms zinc oxide (ZnO) above 930 ° C. Let’s well dissolve in water and glycerin.
- Water solubility depends on temperature:
- at –7 ° C 27.6% of the mass of the substance is dissolved in water,
- at +39 ° C – 41. 4%.
Crystallization of zinc sulfate heptahydrate (zinc sulfate) occurs in the same interval. At 39–70 ° C, the hexahydrate crystallizes. Above 70 ° C, a monohydrate is formed, and the solubility of zinc sulfate drops to 44% at 100 ° C. The monohydrate is dehydrated at 238 ° C. 
Aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate that do not contain free acid may become cloudy due to precipitation of basic zinc sulfate (3Zn (OH) 2 x ZnSO 4 x 4H 2 O). 
Zinc sulfate heptahydrate – white crystalline powder or crystals. Chemical formula – ZnSO 4 x 7H 2 O. It is eroded in dry air, soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol.
In terms of physical and chemical parameters, it meets the following requirements, depending on the brand (mass fraction):
- seven-water zinc sulfate – 98-99.5%,
- insoluble substances – no more than 0.003-0.01%,
- ammonium salts – no more than 0. 001%,
- nitrates – no more than 0.0005-0.005%,
- chlorides – no more than 0.0005-0.005%,
- iron – no more than 0.0005-0.001%,
- sodium and calcium – no more than 0.01-0.06%.
Mass fractions of other possible impurities (manganese, arsenic, copper, lead) are insignificant. The pH of a 5% solution of zinc sulfate seven-water is 4.4-6.
Seven-water zinc sulfate has an irritating effect on the skin and mucous membranes. 
Zinc vitriol is a substance presented in the form of crystals, flakes or granules of white color (premium grade) or various color shades (first grade). Chemical formula ZnSO 4 x nH 2 O, where n ≤ 7.
Complies with the following standards depending on grade (mass fraction):
- zinc – 39–37%,
- chlorine – no more than 0.3–0.4%,
- fluorine – no more than 0.3–0.4%.
No more than 0.03–0.05% of the residue insoluble in an acidic medium. The amount of heavy metals (lead, copper, nickel, cadmium) by weight is standardized. Zinc sulfate is fire and explosion proof. Belongs to the second class of hazard in terms of the degree of impact on the body. 
Fertilizers containing Zinc sulphate
Zinc sulfate is used to increase soil fertility as a fertilizer containing zinc and sulfur. In animal husbandry – as a mineral supplement to feed. 
As a fertilizer it is used for the main application, foliar dressing and for pre-sowing seed treatment. 
Zinc sulfate is used in various industries.
Very widely used in laboratory practice. In the chemical industry – for the production of zinc compounds, in the production of viscose fiber, mineral paints. In the pulp and paper industry – as a paper bleach. In medicine and pharmaceuticals – in the production of various drugs, as well as in dentistry. In addition, the substance is used in metallurgy and electroplating. 
Behavior in soil
When introduced into the soil, zinc sulfate dissociates into zinc cation Zn 2+ and SO 4 2- .
Zinc cation can be easily absorbed by the root system of plants or adsorbed by clays and soil organic matter. There are two different mechanisms of adsorption: the first is in an acidic medium and is associated with cation exchange, the other is in an alkaline medium and is considered as chemisorption.
The formation of zinc hydroxide particles on the surface of clays leads to a strong dependence of the retention of the zinc ion in the soil on the degree of soil acidity.
Zinc adsorption is attenuated at pH <7 due to the competition of other ions. This leads to the leaching of zinc from acidic soils.
With an increase in pH values in the soil solution, the concentration of organic matter increases. In this case, zinc organic complexes bind zinc ions. Soil organic matter is capable of binding zinc into stable forms. At the same time, its accumulation in organic horizons of soil and peat can be observed. 
Sulfur in the form of this anion is easily assimilated by plant roots, however, especially on light soils, it can migrate from the root layer with descending water flows. 
Application on various types of soil
Zinc sulphate is not effective in acidic soils. The best result is found on slightly acidic and neutral soils.
Another important factor that determines the effectiveness of zinc sulfate is the provision of soils with other nutrients.
The increased content of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil causes an increase in zinc deficiency in plants and increases the need for the use of zinc sulfate. 
Influence on agricultural crops
Seven-water zinc sulfate has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of many crops.
Corn. The feed value is increased.
Rye, oats, spring wheat. The productivity of the ear increases, the phosphorus content in the grain increases.
Salad. The yield increases, more ascorbic acid and chlorophyll accumulate.
Clover. The green mass is increasing.
Sugar beet. The yield of root crops increases.
Forage beet, flax. The seed yield is improved both qualitatively and quantitatively. In flax, the yield of long fiber increases.
Fruit, berry crops, grapes, citrus fruits suffer from a lack of zinc and, when added with zinc sulfate, improve the qualitative and quantitative indicators of yield. 
The most common method for producing zinc sulfate is dissolution of various materials containing zinc and zinc oxide with sulfuric acid.Undesirable impurities of copper, lead, tin are removed by cleaning solutions.
ZnO + H 2 SO 4 → ZnSO 4 + H 2 O + 25. 1 kcal
Zn + H 2 SO 4 → ZnSO 4 + H 2 + 40.0 kcal
In addition, zinc sulfate is obtained from cuprous zinc oxide:
CuSO + ZnO → ZnSO 4 + CuO
And also during sulphating burning of zinc blende in an atmosphere of sulphurous gases, at sulphating with sulphurous gas of zinc oxide or sulfuric acid of zinc sulphide:
ZnS + H 2 SO 4 → ZnSO 4 + H 2 S 
The article was drawn up using the following materials:
Anspok P.I. Microfertilizers: Handbook. – 2nd edition, revised and enlarged. – L .: Agropromizdat. Leningrad branch, 1990. – 272 p.
GOST 4174-77 – Reagents. Zinc sulfate 7-water. Specifications Official edition. IPK Standards Publishing House, Moscow, 2002 – 8 p.
GOST 8723-82 Zinc sulfate. Technical conditions. Official edition. SSR State Committee for Quality Management and Standards, Moscow, 1990 re-edition – 38 p.
State catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation, 2011. Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation (Ministry of Agriculture of Russia)
Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H. Trace elements in soils and plants: Translated from English.- M .: Mir, 1989.- 439 p., Ill.
Mineev V.G. Agrochemistry: Textbook. – 2nd edition, revised and supplemented. – Moscow: Moscow State University Publishing House, KolosS Publishing House, 2004.– 720 p.,  p. silt: ill. – (Classic university textbook).
Myazin N.G. Fertilization system: a tutorial. – Voronezh: FGOU VPO VGAU, 2009.- 350 p.
Pozin ME et al. Technology of mineral salts (fertilizers, pesticides, industrial salts, oxides and acids), part 1, edition 4 revised, L., Publishing house Chemistry, 1974 – 798 p.
Chemical encyclopedia in five volumes: Volume 5 Tri-yatr./ Editorial board: N.S. Zefirov (editor-in-chief) and others – Moscow: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 1998.- 786 p.
List of all sources
Zinc Sulphate – Plant Nutrition (10g) l Russian Seeds
Universal microfertilizer is used for zinc deficiency in the soil. With a lack of zinc, the leaves become small, their tops brighten, and rosettes are formed. The trace element zinc is necessary for plants throughout their life, especially at the beginning of their development and during the period of fruiting. With a lack of zinc in plants, small-leavedness is observed, on the affected branches there are either no fruits, or they are small and irregular in shape.Zinc sulfate is used for flower, fruit, berry and vegetable crops.
Sorry, this item is out of stock. You can get acquainted with the assortment in stock in our section Growth stimulants or in the Catalog
Dissolve the required amount (fruit crops, berries, flowers – 3 g, cabbage, cucumbers – 5 g, roots, tomatoes – 10 g) of the preparation in 10 liters of water. Spray the plants with a freshly prepared working solution of the drug in dry, calm weather in the morning or evening hours, evenly wetting the leaves. Spray the top and bottom surfaces of the leaves for better absorption of trace elements by the plant.
White cabbage and cauliflower
5 g / 10 l of water. Consumption of the solution – 1 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
10 g / 10 water. Solution consumption -1 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
10 g / 10 l of water. Solution consumption -1 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
3-5 g / 10 water. Solution consumption -1 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
10-20 g / 10 l of water. Consumption of the solution -1 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
10-15 g / 10 l of water. Solution consumption -1 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
(grapes, raspberries, strawberries, currants, gooseberries) 2-3 g / 10 l of water. Solution consumption -1-2 l / 10 m2. (Or 1-1.5 l per bush). Foliar feeding.
2-3 g / 10 l of water. Solution consumption -1-2 l / 10 m2. Foliar feeding.
(cherry, pear, plum, apple) 2-3 g / 10 l of water. Solution consumption – 2-10 l / tree. Foliar feeding.
ICSC 1698 – ZINC SULFATE
ICSC 1698 – ZINC SULFATE
|ZINC SULFATE||ICSC: 1698 (Nov 2007)|
| CAS #: 7733-02-0
| UN #: 3077
| EINECS #: 231-793-3
|SPECIAL HAZARDS||PREVENTIVE MEASURES||FIRE EXTINGUISHING|
|FIRE AND EXPLOSION||Non-combustible.||In case of fire in work area, use appropriate extinguishing media.|
|PREVENT DUST FORMATION!|
|SYMPTOMS||PREVENTIVE MEASURES||FIRST AID|
|Inhalation||Cough. Sore throat.||Use local exhaust or respiratory protection.||Fresh air, peace. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell.|
|Leather||Redness.||Protective gloves.||Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower.|
|Eyes||Redness. Pain.||Wear eye protection.||Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easy to do).|
|Ingestion||Abdominal pain. Nausea. Vomit.||Do not eat, drink or smoke while working.||Rinse mouth. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Seek medical attention.|
|SPILLAGE DISPOSAL||CLASSIFICATION AND MARKING|
|Personal protection: Respirator with particulate filter, suitable for airborne concentrations.Do NOT allow this chemical to enter the environment. Sweep spilled substance into closed containers. If necessary, wet first to avoid dust build-up.||
According to UN GHS criteria
Harmful if swallowed
|Keep dry. Prevent extinguishing products from entering wastewater. Store in an area without drain or access to sewerage|
Background information in English prepared by a group of international experts working on behalf of the ILO and WHO with financial support from the European Union.
|ZINC SULFATE||ICSC: 1698|
|PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES|
Aggregate Condition; Appearance
Formula: ZnSO 4
|EFFECTS ON THE BODY AND EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE|
Effects from short-term exposure
Risk of inhalation
Effects from prolonged or repeated exposure
|Maximum permissible concentration|
MAK: (respirable fraction): 0.1 mg / m 3 ; peak limitation category: I (4).
MAK: (inhalable fraction): 2 mg / m 3 ; peak limitation category: I (2).
MAK: pregnancy risk group: C
|The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. It is strongly recommended that the substance be prevented from entering the environment.|
|(en)|| Neither the ILO, WHO, nor the European Union are responsible for the quality and accuracy of the translation or for the possible use of this information.
© Version in Russian, 2018
|Products||Synonyms||CAS No.||GOST||Brand / grade||Package / Weight|
|Crystalline ammonium sulfate (ammonium sulfate)||ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, diammonium sulfuric acid||7783-20-2||113-03-10-18-91||50 kg bag|
|Potassium nitrate fertilizer||potassium nitrate, potassium nitrate||7757-79-1||2180-037-00203795-2009||25 kg bag|
|Potassium butyl xanthate||871-58-9||00204168-003-2009||highest, first, second|| Drum
45 – 65 kg
|Sodium bicarbonate E500 (ii)||sodium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, baking soda, baking soda, sodium bicarbonate||144-55-8|| 32802-2014,
|first, second||25 kg bag, 50 kg, 500 g pack|
|Sodium hydrosulfide||sodium sulfohydrate, sodium sulphide acid, sodium bisulfide||16721-80-5||imports||25 kg bag|
|Sodium sulfide||sodium sulphide||1313-82-2||imports||Bag 25 kg, 40 kg|
|Anhydrous sodium sulfite||sodium sulfite||7757-83-7|| BY 400069905. 031-2006,
|photographic, first||50 kg bag|
|Potassium chloride||potassium chloride, potassium salt, potassium chloride||7778-54-3|| 4568-95,
|first|| MKP 850 kg,
Bag 50 kg
|Commercial ammonium chloride (ammonium chloride)||ammonium chloride, ammonia||12125-02-9|| 2210-73,
|Bag 25 kg, 35 kg|
|Anionites for gold mining||analogs of AM-2B, ion-exchange resins, copolymers of styrene and divinylbenzene||60177-39-1||25 kg bag|
|Boric acid||orthoboric acid, boric acid||10043-35-3|| 18704-78,
|granular NS, powdery, low sulphate LS|| MKP 1000 kg,
Bag 25 kg
|Five-water borax||disodium tetraborate pentahydrate, sodium tetraborate pentahydrate, borax pentahydrate||12179-04-3||imports||Etibor-48|| MKP 1000 kg,
Bag 25 kg
|Iron vitriol (Iron sulfate seven-water)||iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, ferrous sulfate, iron sulfate heptahydrate||7782-63-0||6981-94||first, second||MKR 700-1000 kg, Bag 50 kg|
|Potassium nitrate technical||potassium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium salt of nitric acid||7757-79-1||P 53949-2010||B||50 kg bag|
|Potassium sulfate||potassium sulfate, dipotassium sulfate, purified potassium sulfate agrochemical, arcanite||7778-80-5|| 48-0114-66-91,
|40 kg bag|
|Urea||urea, carbonic acid diamide||57-13-6||2081 – 2010||grade A, first, B grade, superior||50 kg bag|
|Technical powder lignosulfonate (LSTP)||Sodium lignosulfonate, lignosulfonic acid sodium salt||8061-51-6|| 2455-028-00279580-2004,
|LSTP||20 kg bag|
|Magnesium sulfate 7-aqueous||magnesium sulfate, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate||7487-88-9||2141-016-32496445-00||technical||25 kg bag|
|Copper sulfate||copper sulfate, copper (II) sulfate 5-aqueous, copper sulfate pentahydrate||7758-99-8||19347-99||25 kg bag|
|Granular technical caustic soda||caustic soda, technical sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium alkali||1310-73-2|| 00203275-206-2007,
|GR / highest, first||25 kg bag|
|Caustic soda technical flakes||caustic soda, technical sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium alkali||1310-73-2|| 00203312-017-2011,
rev. No. 1,
|Bag 25 kg, 50 kg|
|Sodium nitrate technical||sodium nitrate, sodium nitrate, Chilean nitrate, sodium salt of nitric acid||7631-99-4||828-77||B||50 kg bag|
|Sodium fluorosilicate technical||disodium hexafluorosilicate, sodium fluorosilicate||16893-85-9||113-08-587-87||highest, first||50 kg bag|
|Technical soda ash||sodium carbonate, sodium carbonate, disodium carbonate||497-19-8||5100-85||A, B|| Bag 25 kg, 50 kg,
MKP 600 kg, 800 kg, 1250 kg
|Edible salt||sodium chloride, sodium chloride||7647-14-5||R 51574-2000||first, second|| MKP 1000 kg,
50 kg bag
|Tricalcium phosphate feed||calcium orthophosphate, calcium orthophosphoric acid, calcium phosphate, trisubstituted calcium phosphate||7758-87-4||3||120142-05-2010||first||50 kg bag|
|Activated crushed charcoal BAU-A||activated carbon, activated carbon, charcoal activated carbon||7440-44-0||6217-74||BAU-A||Bag 10 kg|
|Zinc sulfate technical 7-water||Seven-water zinc sulfate, zinc sulfate||7446-20-0||imports||25 kg bag|
Fertilizer Zinc sulfate (zinc sulfate), 1kg
Zinc sulfate (zinc sulfate) – universal mineral micronutrient fertilizer , used for all types of agricultural crops. Zinc sulfate is used to increase soil fertility as a fertilizer containing zinc and sulfur. In animal husbandry – as a mineral supplement to feed.
Zinc in plants activates the action of enzymes, is a part of enzymatic systems involved in respiration, synthesis of proteins and auxins, increases heat, drought and cold resistance of plants, plays an important role in regulating growth processes. The removal of zinc with the harvest of field crops ranges from 50 g to 2 kg / ha.
Fruit and citrus crops sensitive to zinc deficiency, grapes, corn, hops, soybeans, flax, tomato, sorghum, legumes; less sensitive – beets, sunflowers, clover, onions, potatoes, cabbage, cucumber, berries; almost insensitive – oats, rye, wheat, barley, carrots.Zinc is especially important for the development of rice, which is associated with the specificity of this culture.
With a lack of zinc in the soil, the formed leaves of plants acquire a yellow-green color, become stained and die off; young leaves are small, with wavy edges, asymmetrical; on trees, in particular on apple trees, pears, walnut trees, fruit buds are poorly laid, shoots with shortened internodes and small leaves are formed on the tops of the branches – the so-called rosette. However, zinc deficiency has a stronger effect on seed development than on the development of vegetative organs.Signs of zinc starvation are widely manifested in various fruits (apple, cherry, quince, walnut, pecan, apricot, avocado, lemon, grape), especially in citrus crops. The fruits become small, ugly, yield decreases, the juice acquires a watery and “woody” taste. High rates of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers increase the signs of zinc deficiency in plants. Zinc fertilizers are especially needed in the case of high phosphorus rates.
The value of zinc for plant growth is closely related to its participation in nitrogen metabolism.Zinc deficiency leads to a significant accumulation of soluble nitrogen compounds – amines and amino acids, disrupts protein synthesis.
Under the influence of zinc, the synthesis of sugars and starch, the total content of carbohydrates, protein substances, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll are improved, the drought, heat and cold resistance of plants increase.
An excess of zinc in plant nutrition is quite rare. At the same time, plant growth is weakened, young shoots die off, leaves are covered with rusty-brown spots. The high content of zinc in the soil reduces the absorption of copper by plants.
The use of zinc fertilizers is effective only when the content of mobile zinc in the soil is less than 0.2-0.3 mg / kg. If the soil contains 0.4-1.5 mg / kg zinc, it is recommended to carry out only with pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar feeding. The effectiveness of zinc fertilizers also depends on the rotation of crops in the crop rotation. For example, corn, the predecessor of which was sugar beet, is especially sensitive to the application of zinc fertilizers. The action of zinc is quite effective when applied against the background of phosphorus fertilizers.
Oral zinc supplementation to treat diarrhea in children
In low- and middle-income countries, millions of children suffer from severe diarrhea every year and many die from dehydration (dehydration). Taking fluids by mouth (using oral rehydration solution) has been shown to save children’s lives, but has no effect on how long children suffer from diarrhea. Zinc supplementation can help reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea, and therefore has additional benefits over oral rehydration solutions in reducing infant mortality.
What is oral zinc and how it can reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea
Zinc is commonly used in the form of zinc sulfate, zinc acetate or zinc gluconate, all of which are water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg zinc per day for children with diarrhea. There are several mechanisms of action of zinc in acute diarrhea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal tract: zinc restores the integrity of the mucosal barrier and the activity of enzymes in the brush border of enterocytes, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens and directly affects ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of chlorine secretion mediated by 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Cochrane researchers reviewed the evidence available as of September 30, 2016.
What evidence is presented in this review
Thirty-three trials, which included 10,841 children, met the inclusion criteria for this review.
We do not know if zinc treatment affects mortality or hospitalization among children with acute diarrhea ( very low certainty evidence ). In children over 6 months of age, zinc supplementation can reduce the mean duration of diarrhea by about half a day (90,095 low-certainty evidence 90,096) and is likely to reduce the number of children with diarrhea persisting by day 7 (90,095 moderate-certainty evidence 90,096).In children with symptoms of malnutrition, the effect was more pronounced, the duration of diarrhea was shortened by about a day (90,095 high certainty in evidence 90,096). Conversely, in infants less than six months of age, available evidence suggests that zinc supplementation may not affect the mean duration of diarrhea (90,095 low 90,096
90,095 confidence in evidence 90,096), or the number of children with persistent diarrhea on the seventh day (90,095 low 90,096
assurance of evidence ). Zinc supplementation increases the risk of vomiting in both age groups ( moderate certainty in evidence ). No other adverse effects were reported.
Among children with persistent diarrhea, zinc supplementation is likely to reduce the mean duration of diarrhea by about 16 hours (90 095 moderate certainty in evidence ) but is likely to increase the risk of developing vomiting ( moderate certainty in evidence ).
In areas with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency or malnutrition, zinc may be beneficial in children six months of age or older. Currently available evidence does not support the use of zinc supplementation in children younger than 6 months old, well-nourished children, and in settings where children have a low risk of zinc deficiency.
Background: Zinc is a metalloprotein. Two important functions of zinc: firstly, unlike other metals. zinc is practically non-toxic (1). The homeostatic mechanisms regulating its intake, excretion and excretion from cells and tissues are so well organized that no disturbances arise. known to be associated with its excessive accumulation, in contrast to iron, copper, mercury, and other metals. Second, its physicochemical properties, including its general stable relationship with macromolecules and its coordination flexibility, make it extremely adaptable to the needs of proteins and enzymes that perform various biological functions (2-4).Zinc is one of the most abundant metal ions, widespread in the cytoplasm, as well as building blocks for keratin-like structures and intracellular organelles such as chromosomes (5). The importance of zinc as an essential trace mineral is well known for its role in growth and development, protection against free radicals, endocrine, reproductive and cognitive functions (6). Globally, zinc deficiency is associated with 16% of the lower respiratory tract. tract infections and 10% of diarrheal diseases, respectively, with a higher fraction in sub-regions (7).Severe zinc deficiency is rare, whereas mild to moderate Zinc deficiency is fairly evident, mainly in children living in poverty and associated with an estimated 453,000 deaths annually (8, 9). However, diarrhea is the second most common cause of death under the age of five and is responsible for 800,000 deaths annually (10). A meta-analysis of 12 studies found an effect of zinc supplementation on the treatment of acute diarrhea, 11 studies showed a reduction in the duration of an episode of diarrhea.eight of them reported that the reduction in the number of episodes of diarrhea was statistically significant.Five of these studies also showed that zinc supplementation reduced stool excretion and data showed that zinc supplementation had a significant effect on the clinical course of acute diarrhea, reducing its duration and severity (11). A meta-analysis of 18 trials with 6165 enrolled participants showed that zinc reduced the duration of diarrhea in acute diarrhea (MD 12. 27 hours, 95% CI -23.02 to -1.52 hours; 2741 children, nine trials) and reduced the incidence of diarrhea by day 3 (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.81; 1073 children, two trials), fifth day (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.95; 346 children, two trials) and day 7 (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52–0.98; 4087 children, seven trials).also shortened the period of persistent diarrhea (MD -15.84 hours, 95% CI -25.43 to -6.24 hours; 529 children, five trials). Several trials reported severity, but the results were inconsistent (12). Zinc supplementation can significantly reduce the severity and duration of diarrhea, as well as prevent future occurrence of diarrhea and reduce the use of other drugs for diarrhea (13-16). studies have evaluated the effects of zinc supplementation on diarrhea and found prophylactic and long-term effects.They showed that 10 mg to 20 mg zinc per day for 10-14 days reduced episodes of diarrhea 2-3 months after supplementation (12). for this reason, WHO, UNICEF, USAID and experts around the world have jointly recommended zinc supplements. (10 mg for infants up to 6 months and 20 mg for children 6 to 59 months) in combination with low osmolarity ORS for the clinical management of acute diarrhea (17). The physiological effect of zinc on the transport of ions in the intestine has not yet been established. In recent in vitro studies of the ileum of rats, it was found that zinc inhibits cAMP-induced chloride-dependent fluid secretion by inhibiting basolateral potassium (K) This study also observed specificity of Zn for activated cAMP K channels because zinc did not block channels potasia mediated by calcium (Ca).not performed in animals with zinc deficiency, it suggests that zinc is likely to be effective in the absence of zinc deficiency (18, 19). Zinc also improves the absorption of water and electrolytes, improves intestinal epithelial regeneration, increases brush border enzymes and enhances the immune response, providing better cleansing Another recent report has shown evidence that zinc inhibits toxin-induced cholera, but not Escherichia coli, heat-stable, enterotoxin- induced secretion of ions in cultured Caco-2 cells (20). Thus, zinc plays an important role in modulating the host organism. resistance to infectious agents and reduces the risk, severity and duration of diarrhea diseases, and also plays an important role in metalloenzymes, polyribosomes and cells. membrane and cellular function, which gives confidence that it plays a central role in cell growth and in the function of the immune system (21). The main site of absorption of exogenous zinc in humans is in the proximal small intestine. in the distal duodenum or proximal jejunum ((22).Factors controlling absorption include the amount of zinc present in the intestinal lumen, the presence of dietary promoters (eg, breast milk, animal proteins) or inhibitors (eg, phytate, other minerals), zinc “status”, especially in relation to chronic zinc intake and physiological conditions (23). After absorption, zinc binds to the protein metallothionein in the intestine. Distributed throughout the body. It is mainly stored in red blood cells, white blood cells, muscles, bones, skin, kidneys, liver, pancreas, retina, and prostate. Zinc binding is 60-70% to plasma albumin, 30-40% to alpha-2-macroglobulins or transporters, and 1% to amino acids such as histidine and cysteine. Peak plasma zinc concentration is reached after about two hours. The reabsorption or excretion of endogenous zinc by the intestine has not been well studied in humans. There are several potential sources of endogenous zinc: secretion of the pancreas and biliary tract, secretion of the gastroduodenal zone, transepithelial efflux of enterocytes or other types of intestinal cells, and exfoliation of mucosal cells.(23) Zinc sulfate, acetate and gluconate are acceptable zinc salts. formulations in which zinc sulfate is inexpensive, effective, safe and therefore optimal for the national program. Zinc sulfate tablets can dissolve in breast milk, by mouth. with rehydration solutions or in water on a small spoon. Dispersible zinc sulfate tablets are also available on the market containing 20 mg of elemental zinc. childrens zinc sulfate tablets. also available (24). It was expected that a successful scale-up of zinc supplementation for childhood diarrhea could potentially save 400,000 deaths of children under five years of age per year (25).The Early Childhood Zinc Consumption Increase (SUZY) project was founded in 2003. with the aim of putting Bangladesh on the path to providing all children under the age of five with a zinc supplement for any episode of diarrheal illness. In December 2006, a national media campaign to promote a dispersible zinc tablet formulation, Baby Zinc, began to control childhood diarrhea. All media reports linked zinc treatment to the continued use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) (26), but by 2012zinc coverage was below 5% globally, although in some countries, such as Bangladesh, coverage was as high as 41% (27). According to the WHO, Bangladesh was the only country to achieve high treatment rates at the national level: as of 2014, almost 80% of children with diarrhea received ORS, and 34% received ORS and zinc (28). This was achieved through decades of government investment. , icddr, b, international development organizations, BRAC and other key stakeholders (29, 30).efforts included a large-scale project to increase the intake of zinc for young children (SUZY), which was initiated in 2003 and included partnerships with the government, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the private sector to improve the distribution of providers, the demand for caregivers, and availability of optimal, affordable goods (26, 31). But pooled data from five RCTs (n = 3156) showed that zinc significantly increased the likelihood of vomiting compared to a control agent (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.05–1.4) (32).Because of the strong metallic taste, zinc products are less tasty for children even after consumption. masking flavors in accordance with WHO recommendations. Since then, several companies have developed a product formula. WHO recommendations have been made, but still transient side effects such as vomiting and regurgitation remain evident (33-36). Despite careful counseling of caregivers, the expected adherence rate of up to 10 days of zinc supplementation has yet to be achieved (33, 35, 37, 38). A clinical trial of a new formulation of zinc sulfate for use in acute diarrheal disease will be conducted. conducted to achieve good adherence. The new improvised zinc preparation will be palatable, more dispersible and therefore acceptable for young children with diarrhea. Study design: prospective, open-label, interventional study. Study Site: The study will be conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr, b).Study Population: Stratum-I: 3 months – 6 to 59 months for older children. The tablet is dissolved in a teaspoon of pure water or breast milk and administered once a day for 10 days. Packaging and labeling: The investigated product will be sold in blister packs. containing 10 tablets. Carers will bring blister packs (even if all tablets are used) on day 11 (after check-in) for a follow-up visit to the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Dhaka Hospital in Dhaka.icddr, b, and during a repeat visit. The investigator will update the accounts of the investigated product in accordance with ICH E6, GCP guidelines. follow-up visit to the hospital, research staff will visit the orphanage after 12 days The investigational product will not be passed on to third parties. Recommendations: 1. 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