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What are the health benefits of coq10: Health Benefits, Dosage, & Side Effects

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Coenzyme Q10 – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that your body produces naturally. Your cells use CoQ10 for growth and maintenance.

Levels of CoQ10 in your body decrease as you age. CoQ10 levels have also been found to be lower in people with certain conditions, such as heart disease, and in those who take cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins.

CoQ10 is found in meat, fish and nuts. The amount of CoQ10 found in these dietary sources, however, isn’t enough to significantly increase CoQ10 levels in your body.

CoQ10 dietary supplements are available as capsules, chewable tablets, liquid syrups, wafers and by IV. CoQ10 might help prevent or treat certain heart conditions, as well as migraine headaches.

Evidence

Research on CoQ10 use for specific conditions and activities shows:

  • Heart conditions. CoQ10 has been shown to improve symptoms of congestive heart failure. Although findings are mixed, CoQ10 might help reduce blood pressure. Some research also suggests that when combined with other nutrients, CoQ10 might aid recovery in people who’ve had bypass and heart valve surgeries.
  • Diabetes. Although more studies are needed, some research suggests that CoQ10 may help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in people with diabetes, lowering their risk of heart disease.
  • Parkinson’s disease. Recent research suggests that even high doses of CoQ10 don’t seem to improve symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Statin-induced myopathy. Some research suggests that CoQ10 might help ease the muscle weakness and pain sometimes associated with taking statins.
  • Migraines. Some research suggests that CoQ10 might decrease the frequency of these headaches.
  • Physical performance. Because CoQ10 is involved in energy production, it’s believed that this supplement might improve your physical performance. However, research in this area has produced mixed results.

Our take

Generally safe

CoQ10 supplements might be beneficial for treating conditions such as congestive heart failure and preventing migraines. CoQ10 is considered safe, with few side effects. However, be sure to take this supplement under your doctor’s supervision.

Safety and side effects

CoQ10 supplements appear to be safe and to produce few side effects when taken as directed.

Mild side effects might include digestive problems such as:

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Other possible side effects may include:

  • Headaches and dizziness
  • Insomnia
  • Fatigue
  • Skin itching or rashes
  • Irritability or agitation

The safety of use of CoQ10 during pregnancy and breast-feeding hasn’t been established. Don’t use CoQ10 if you’re pregnant or breast-feeding without your doctor’s approval.

Interactions

Possible interactions include:

  • Anticoagulants. CoQ10 might make blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin (Jantoven), less effective. This could increase the risk of a blood clot.

Nov. 10, 2020

Show references

  1. Coenzyme Q10. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/coenzyme-q10. Accessed Oct. 18, 2020.
  2. Pizzorono JE, et al., eds. Coenzyme Q10. In: Textbook of Natural Medicine. 5th ed. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 18, 2020.
  3. Coenzyme Q10 (PDQ)-Health Professional Version. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/coenzyme-q10-pdq#section/all. Accessed Oct. 18, 2020.
  4. Coenzyme Q10. IBM Micromedex. https://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed Oct. 18, 2020.
  5. Dluda PV, et al. The impact of coenzyme Q10 on metabolic and cardiovascular disease profiles in diabetic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism. 2020; doi:10.1002/edm2.118.
  6. Goudarzi S, et al. Effect of vitamins and dietary supplements on cardiovascular health. Critical Paths in Cardiology. 2020; doi:10.1097/HPC.0000000000000212.
  7. Ubiquinone. Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. https://www.wolterskluwercdi.com/facts-comparisons-online/. Accessed Oct. 18, 2020.
  8. Coenzyme Q10. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Oct. 18, 2020.
  9. Arenas-Jal M, et al. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation: Efficacy, safety, and formulation challenges. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2019; doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12539.


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CoQ10: What are the Heart Health Benefits?

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) ranks among the bestselling supplements, with global sales predicted to reach $849 million by 2020, according to a recent study. Researchers report that CoQ10 may have significant benefits for people with cardiovascular disease (CVD), from reducing risk for repeat heart attacks and improving outcomes in patients with heart failure to lowering blood pressure and helping combat side effects of cholesterol-lowering statins.

There is also evidence that CoQ10 may have “significant cardiovascular protective effects” that could help prevent CVD, the world’s leading cause of death, reports a recent study published in Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access.

While these are exciting findings, messaging to patients about CoQ10, particularly in the popular media, is often confusing, leading to less than optimal results and poor supplement choice. Here’s a guide to the latest discoveries about the heart health benefits of CoQ10 and how to make smart choices in selecting supplements.

What is Coenzyme Q10?

Found in almost every cell of the body, CoQ10 is a fat-soluble, vitamin-like substance that helps convert food into energy. A powerful antioxidant that protects against damage from toxic free radicals, CoQ10 is produced by the body and is also found in many foods, with higher levels in organ meats, such as liver or kidneys; as well as sardines, mackerel, chicken, cauliflower, broccoli and asparagus.

What are the different forms of CoQ10?

There are two forms of CoQ10: ubiquinone and ubiquinol. Ubiquinol, the active antioxidant form of CoQ10, is made in the body from ubiquinone. As we age, the levels of both forms drop. As early as age 20, the amount of ubiquinone our bodies produce begins to drop. Compounding the problem, the body also loses its ability to make ubiquinol from ubiquinone. Most dietary supplements contain ubiquinone and are relatively cost effective, while ubiquinol supplements, which may be of most benefit as we age, can be harder to find and more expensive.

A simple blood test is available to measure CoQ10 levels. A shortage of this antioxidant may lead to oxidative stress, which increases the risk for a range of disorders, including CVD. Recent research links low blood levels of CoQ10 with low levels of heart-protective “good” cholesterol which in turn may further increase risk for heart disease. Cholesterol-lowering statins may also reduce blood levels of CoQ10.

How does CoQ10 affect heart health?

Recent studies suggest that CoQ10, either alone or combined with other therapies, may be beneficial for the following conditions. However, as with all supplements, patients should consult their medical provider before taking CoQ10 to check if it’s appropriate for them.

  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show that CoQ10 supplements can significantly increase HDL-C and ApoA1 levels, even in people taking statins, and may help reduce risk for CVD.  CoQ10 supplementation also lowers levels of inflammatory biomarkers shown to be risk factors for CVD, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.  Finally, low CoQ10 levels have been associated with greater tissue damage to the heart during a heart attack and the brain during stroke.
  • Statin-related muscle symptoms. Although statin therapy can significantly reduce heart attack and stroke risk, up to 25 percent of patients quit treatment within six months due to side effects, such as muscle aches and weakness. In a 2014 randomized clinical study published in Medical Science Monitor, 75 percent of statin users with muscle symptoms reported reduced pain after taking CoQ10 twice a day for 30 days, versus zero improvement in the placebo group. The researchers concluded that combining statin therapy with CoQ10 supplements could lead to higher compliance with treatment.
  • Heart failure (HF). CoQ10 was hailed as “the first new drug to improve heart failure mortality in over and decade” after a multi-center randomized study of 420 patients found that taking it reduced deaths in patients with severe HF by half, compared to a control group. The researchers tracked the patients for two years. The study was presented at the Heart Failure 2013 congress in Lisbon and later published in Journal of the American College of Cardiology Heart Failure.
  • After a heart attack. In a randomized clinical trial, patients who received CoQ10 soon after a heart attack had a much lower rate of subsequent cardiac events over the next year than a control group (24. 6 percent versus 45 percent). About half the patients in both groups were also taking a statin medication, prompting the researchers to report that, “treatment with CoQ10 in patients with recent [heart attack] may be beneficial in patients with high risk of atherothrombosis, despite optimal lipid lowering therapy.”
  • High blood pressure. In an analysis of 12 clinical studies, researchers reported that CoQ10 has the potential to lower systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by 10 mm Hg without significant side effects.

Five key things to remember about CoQ10

  1. Take CoQ10 with a meal. CoQ10 is fat-soluble and is best absorbed when taken with food.
  2. All CoQ10 supplements are not created equal. Younger people may benefit more from ubiquinone while older people may benefit more from ubiquinol (the active form).
  3. Test CoQ10 levels. Measuring CoQ10 in the blood is the only way to determine if you need CoQ10 supplementation.
  4. Check “good cholesterol” levels. If CoQ10 levels are low, ApoA1 and/or HDL-C levels may be low as well.  Likewise, if ApoA1 and/or HDL-C levels are low, CoQ10 levels may be low.
  5. Compliance is key. CoQ10 supplementation may improve compliance if you’re on statin therapy and experience muscle pain and weakness.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): Miracle Supplement or Not?

How Much CoQ10 We Need

The body naturally produces coenzyme Q10 in quantities sufficient to prevent deficiency, and no symptoms related to CoQ10 deficiency have been observed in the general population. About one-quarter of the CoQ10 in a person’s blood is believed to come from dietary sources, with the rest produced internally.

“Meat, poultry, and fish are the predominant food sources of coenzyme Q10,” Anding says. But amounts of the antioxidant in those foods are not high enough to significantly boost levels in the body.

Potential Health Benefits of CoQ10 Supplements

CoQ10 is available as a dietary supplement in several forms, including hard shell and soft gel capsules, an oral spray, and tablets. And while there is some evidence that CoQ10 supplements may help a number of diseases, other research has yielded conflicting results. That means more studies need to be done to reach conclusions about who might benefit most from taking a CoQ10 supplement — whether to treat or prevent various diseases.

For example, CoQ10 supplements are commonly prescribed to people taking cholesterol-lowering statins who complain about muscle pain, Anding notes. And while several small studies support the use of CoQ10 supplements for this purpose, two more recent studies found contradictory evidence. A randomized trial followed 120 patients taking statins for high cholesterol. Muscle pain was confirmed in just over a third of the patients (by comparing muscle pain associated with the statin use with muscle pain associated with a placebo drug). For those patients who did have muscle pain, CoQ10 supplements did not help, according to the trial data, published in the February 2015 issue of Atherosclerosis.

A meta-analysis of several randomized controlled trials found no significant benefit for improving individuals’ muscle pain associated with statin use, but concluded larger, better-designed trials were needed to confirm that. That research was published in the January 2015 issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

So far, according to the Mayo Clinic, other potentially promising uses for CoQ10 supplements (with varying levels of supporting evidence) include:

  • Helping treat high blood pressure and heart failure
  • Enhancing immune system function in people with HIV or AIDS
  • Improving symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Reducing high cholesterol levels in the blood
  • Assisting in the treatment of cancer or the protection of organs from toxic chemotherapy drugs
  • Treating gum disease
  • Treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition that causes vision loss in older adults
  • Helping patients with Alzheimer’s disease
  • Treating Parkinson’s disease
  • Increasing sperm count and motility
  • Preventing or treating migraine headaches

None of these uses for CoQ10 supplements have been proven to work, but research suggests taking CoQ10 in appropriate doses (30 to 200 mg daily for adults) is relatively safe. It’s important to note that the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) does not recommend that children take CoQ10 unless under the supervision of a doctor.

As noted by several institutions, including NIH and the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, CoQ10 supplements may interact with other medications you’re taking or cause other side effects, so experts recommend that anyone considering using the supplement consult with a healthcare provider first.

Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient

Sir,

Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10 or Ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring quinone that is found in most aerobic organisms from bacteria to mammals. It was first identified in 1940, and isolated from the mitochondria of the beef heart, in 1957. Coenzyme Q10 is also known as Coenzyme Q, CoQ, CoQ10, Ubiquinone, Ubiquinone-Q10, Ubidecarenone, or Vitamin Q10. The various types of Coenzyme Q can be distinguished by the number of isoprenoid side-chains they have. The most common Coenzyme Q in human mitochondria is CoQ10. The 10 refers to the number of isoprene repeats. CoQ10 is ubiquitous in human tissues, although its level is variable. The level of CoQ10 is the highest in organs with high rates of metabolism such as the heart, kidney, and liver (114, 66.5, and 54.9g/g tissue, respectively), where it functions as an energy transfer molecule. The primary biochemical action of CoQ10 is as a cofactor in the electron-transport chain, in the series of redox reactions that are involved in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. As most cellular functions are dependent on an adequate supply of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), CoQ10 is essential for the health of virtually all human tissues and organs. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the most significant lipid antioxidants, which prevents the generation of free radicals and modifications of proteins, lipids, and DNA. In many disease conditions connected with increased generation and the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the concentration of coenzyme Q10 in the human body decreases[1,2] and the deficiency of coenzyme Q10 leads to the dysfunction of the respiratory chain, which is due to the insufficient production of highly energetic compounds, which decrease the efficiency of cells. To protect the cells and organ systems of the body against ROS, humans have evolved a highly sophisticated and complex antioxidant protection system. It involves a variety of components, both endogenous and exogenous in origin, which function interactively and synergistically to neutralize free radicals and include nutrient-derived antioxidants (Vitamin C and E, beta carotene, and polyphenols), antioxidant enzymes (bilirubin, thiols, ubiquinones, and uric acid), metal-binding proteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and myoglobin), and numerous other antioxidant phytonutrients (plant-derived substances) present in a wide variety of plant foods.[3] Antioxidants, such as CoQ10, can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause. CoQ10 improves energy, augments the immune system, and acts as an antioxidant. The potential use of coenzyme Q10 supplements alone or in combination with other drug therapies and nutritional supplements may help prevent or treat some of the following conditions: cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, cancer, periodontal diseases, mitochondrial disorders, radiation injury, obesity, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), gastric ulcers, allergy, migraine headaches, kidney failure, muscular dystrophy, and aging. CoQ10 plays a significant role in boosting the immune system and physical performance, as tissues and cells involved with immune function are highly energy-dependent and therefore require an adequate supply of CoQ10 for optimal function. Primary dietary sources of CoQ10 include oily fish (such as salmon and tuna), organ meats (such as liver), and whole grains. Most individuals obtain sufficient amounts of CoQ10 through a balanced diet, but supplementation may be useful for individuals with particular health conditions. CoQ10 is available as a supplement in several forms, including soft gel capsules, oral spray, hard shell capsules, and tablets. A typical CoQ10 dosage is 30 to 90 mg per day, taken in divided doses, but the recommended amount can be as high as 200 mg per day. CoQ10 is fat-soluble, so it is better absorbed when taken with a meal that contains oil or fat. The clinical effect is not immediate and may take up to eight weeks. Side effects of CoQ10 may include diarrhea and rash; safety of Co q10 in pregnant or nursing women, or children has not been established. It is concluded that Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone/ubiquinol) is a fat-soluble quinone with a structure similar to that of vitamin K. It is an effective antioxidant both on its own and in fusion with vitamin E and is fundamental in powering the body’s energy production ATP cycle. CoQ10 is found throughout the body in cell membranes, especially in the mitochondrial membranes, and is chiefly abundant in the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, and adrenal glands. The whole body content of CoQ10 is only about 500-1500 mg and decreases with age. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the most significant lipid antioxidants that prevents the generation of free radicals and modifications of proteins, lipids, and DNA.

The Truth About 4 Popular Heart Health Supplements

Watching your cholesterol levels is a smart idea, especially since one in
three people have high levels of “bad” cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein
(LDL). If you’re facing an increased risk for high cholesterol and you’re
struggling to manage it, you might consider reaching for supplements or
other over-the-counter products. But you should think twice before you do
that, says

Seth Martin, M.D., M.H.S

., Johns Hopkins cardiologist and co-director of the Advanced Lipid
Disorders Center. 

“Some people try supplements instead of prescription medications because they think it’s a safer way to address health issues,” he says. “But many of those supplements don’t benefit the heart like people think.”

Fish Oil

Advocates of fish oil supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids (nutrients found in foods such as fish that are important for normal metabolism) say they’re good for heart health and prevent heart attacks , strokes , heart failure and coronary heart disease . But there is no substantial evidence that proves over-the-counter fish oil supplements can do any of those things.

Prescription fish oils are used in medical practice. However, they’re prescribed to help people with severe triglyceride disorders, not high cholesterol. Omega-3 therapy with prescription fish oil can reduce triglycerides by 30 to 50 percent in those with levels that are at 500 mg/dL or more, and who are at an increased risk of getting pancreatitis.

“Typically, you wouldn’t get that kind of triglyceride lowering with over-the-counter supplements. That’s because the dose of active ingredients is substantially less than what’s in prescription fish oil and can even be less than advertised,” Martin says. “Over-the-counter fish oil supplements may also contain large amounts of other unwanted saturated fats, which could increase your bad cholesterol.”

Over-the-counter supplements aren’t regulated for quality and contents, so you don’t know what you’re really getting. Rather than taking a supplement, Martin notes that eating a heart-healthy diet that includes fish, unsaturated fats and limited simple sugars, and performing regular physical activity, is the safest way to control triglycerides and cholesterol.

Red Yeast Rice

Red yeast rice is used in foods such as Peking duck and in Chinese medicine. When red rice is fermented with certain strains of yeast, it creates a very low-dose statin. Statin drugs are commonly prescribed for reducing high levels of bad cholesterol.

Although some people want to take red yeast rice because they feel it’s more natural and safer than prescription statin drugs, it’s not regulated by the FDA or tested in any way to make sure it’s safe.

“I don’t feel comfortable recommending red yeast rice because each formulation may vary in strength and have other unknown contaminants that could be toxic,” says Martin.

An analysis of red yeast rice supplements found that four out of 11 products contained a substance called citrinin. This develops during the culturing process if the environment isn’t carefully controlled. Citrinin has been found to cause kidney failure in animals and genetic damage in human cells.

On the other hand, prescription statins are heavily regulated and have a proven track record of being safe and well tolerated by the vast majority of people.

CoQ10 Supplements

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a nutrient produced by the body and used for cellular energy, is often touted as being vital if you’re taking statin drugs to lower cholesterol. Proponents of CoQ10 say it helps reduce muscle pain, which can be a side effect of statin use, and is an important energy source that the body needs.

“No solid evidence supports benefits of taking CoQ10 supplementation while taking statins,” Martin says. “If you’re taking statin drugs and have muscle aches, the next step is talking to your doctor about changing your prescription.”

There are several different statin drugs and they can be given at various doses. Finding the one that works for you is a better route than taking a supplement to try to counteract ill effects of your current prescription.

Aspirin

When cholesterol and other substances build up on your artery walls, they create something called plaque, which narrows the passageways and restricts blood flow. Even worse is when a blood clot forms on a ruptured plaque and blocks the artery entirely, cutting off the flow of oxygen to part of your body. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to your heart is cut off. When the blocked artery leads to your brain, a stroke is the result.

Studies show that aspirin can help prevent heart attacks and strokes caused by blood clots because it reduces your blood’s ability to form clots. “Taking a low-dose aspirin is most effective if you’ve already had a heart attack or stroke. Also, if you’ve had a stent or heart surgery, you should be on platelet blocking therapy,” advises Martin. “But if you’re someone who is more likely to have heart disease because of certain risk factors, you may or may not need aspirin therapy. It’s an individualized decision to make together with your health care provider.”

Talking to your doctor before starting any new supplement or taking aspirin is always advised. Your health care provider can offer insight about whether they are right for you.

Coenzyme Q10 | Linus Pauling Institute

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Summary

Introduction

Coenzyme Q10 is a member of the ubiquinone family of compounds. All animals, including humans, can synthesize ubiquinones, hence, coenzyme Q10 is not considered a vitamin (1). The name ubiquinone refers to the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in living organisms and their chemical structure, which contains a functional group known as a benzoquinone. Ubiquinones are fat-soluble molecules with anywhere from 1 to 12 isoprene (5-carbon) units. The ubiquinone found in humans, ubidecaquinone or coenzyme Q10, has a “tail” of 10 isoprene units (a total of 50 carbon atoms) attached to its benzoquinone “head” (Figure 1) (1).

[Figure 1 – Click to Enlarge]

Biological Activities

Coenzyme Q10 is soluble in lipids (fats) and is found in virtually all cell membranes, including mitochondrial membranes. The ability of the benzoquinone head group of coenzyme Q10 to accept and donate electrons is a critical feature to its function. Coenzyme Q10 can exist in three oxidation states (Figure 1): (i) the fully reduced ubiquinol form, CoQ10H2; (ii) the radical semiquinone intermediate, CoQ10H·; and (iii) the fully oxidized ubiquinone form, CoQ10.

Mitochondrial ATP synthesis

The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats to ATP, the form of energy used by cells, requires the presence of coenzyme Q10 in the inner mitochondrial membrane. As part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, coenzyme Q10 accepts electrons from reducing equivalents generated during fatty acid and glucose metabolism and then transfers them to electron acceptors. At the same time, coenzyme Q10 contributes to transfer protons (H+) from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The energy released when the protons flow back into the mitochondrial interior is used to form ATP (Figure 2) (1). In addition to its role in ATP synthesis, mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 mediates the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

[Figure 2 – Click to Enlarge]

Lysosomal function

Lysosomes are organelles within cells that are specialized for the digestion of cellular debris. The digestive enzymes within lysosomes function optimally at an acidic pH, meaning they require a permanent supply of protons. The lysosomal membranes that separate those digestive enzymes from the rest of the cell contain relatively high concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Research suggests that coenzyme Q10 plays an important role in the transport of protons across lysosomal membranes to maintain the optimal pH (2, 3). 

Antioxidant functions

In its reduced form (CoQ10H2), coenzyme Q10 is an effective fat-soluble antioxidant that protects cell membranes and lipoproteins from oxidation. The presence of a significant amount of CoQ10H2 in cell membranes, along with enzymes capable of reducing oxidized CoQ10 back to CoQ10H2 (i.e., NAD(P)H oxidoreductases), supports the idea that CoQ10H2 is an important cellular antioxidant (4). CoQ10H2 has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation when cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are exposed to oxidizing conditions. When LDL is oxidized, CoQ10H2 is the first antioxidant consumed. In isolated mitochondria, coenzyme Q10 can protect membrane proteins and mitochondrial DNA from the oxidative damage that accompanies lipid peroxidation (5). Moreover, when present, CoQ10H2 was found to limit the formation of oxidized lipids and the consumption of α-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E with antioxidant properties) (6). Indeed, in addition to neutralizing free radicals directly, CoQ10H2 is capable of regenerating antioxidants like α-tocopherol and ascorbate (vitamin C) (4). Finally, the role of coenzyme Q10 as an antioxidant is also exemplified by recent evidence showing that mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 deficiency causes an increased production of mitochondrial superoxide radical anion (O2•–) which might be driving insulin resistance in adipose and muscle tissues (7).

Nutrient interactions

Vitamin E

α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) and coenzyme Q10 are the principal fat-soluble antioxidants in membranes and lipoproteins. When α-tocopherol (α-TOH) neutralizes a free radical, such as a lipid peroxyl radical (LOO·), it becomes oxidized itself, forming α-TO·, which can in turn promote the oxidation of lipoproteins under certain conditions in the test tube, thus propagating a chain reaction. However, when the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) reacts with α-TO·, α-TOH is regenerated and the semiquinone radical (CoQ10H·) is formed. It is possible for CoQ10H· to react with oxygen (O2) to produce superoxide anion radical (O2·), which is a less reactive pro-oxidant than LOO·. However, CoQ10H· can also reduce α-TO· back to α-TOH, resulting in the formation of fully oxidized coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which does not react with O2 to form O2· (Figure 3) (6, 8).

 

[Figure 3 – Click to Enlarge]

Deficiency

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency has not been described in the general population, so it is generally assumed that normal biosynthesis, with or without a varied diet, provides sufficient coenzyme Q10 to sustain energy production in healthy individuals (9).

Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in coenzyme Q10 biosynthetic pathway. To date, mutations in at least nine of these genes have been identified (1). As a result, primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency is a clinically heterogeneous disorder that includes five major phenotypes: (i) severe infantile multi-systemic disease, (ii) encephalomyopathy, (iii) cerebellar ataxia, (iv) isolated myopathy, and (v) nephrotic syndrome. Whereas most mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are hardly amenable to treatments, oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation has been shown to improve muscular symptoms in some (yet not all) patients with primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency (10). Neurological symptoms in patients with cerebellar ataxia are only partially relieved by coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) supplementation (10).

Secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency results from mutations or deletions in genes that are not directly related to coenzyme Q10 biosynthetic pathway. Evidence of secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency has been reported in several mitochondrial disorders, such as mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, or multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) (10). Secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency has also been identified in non-mitochondrial disorders, such as cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and Niemann-Pick-type C disease (11). Because the therapeutic potential of supplemental coenzyme Q10 is limited to its capacity to restore electron transfer in a defective mitochondrial respiratory chain and/or to increase antioxidant defense, patients with secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency may fail to respond to supplementation (see Disease Treatment).

Coenzyme Q10 concentrations have been found to decline gradually with age in a number of different tissues (5, 12), but it is unclear whether this age-associated decline constitutes a deficiency (see Disease Prevention) (13). Decreased plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 have been observed in individuals with diabetes mellitus, cancer, and congestive heart failure (see Disease Treatment). Lipid-lowering medications that inhibit the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase (statins), a critical enzyme in both cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis, decrease plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations (see HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [statins]), although it remains unproven that this has any clinical implications.

Disease Prevention

Aging

According to the free radical and mitochondrial theories of aging, oxidative damage of cell structures by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in the functional declines that accompany aging (14). ROS are generated by mitochondria as a byproduct of ATP production. If not neutralized by antioxidants, ROS may damage mitochondria over time, causing them to function less efficiently and to generate more damaging ROS in a self-perpetuating cycle. Coenzyme Q10 plays an important role in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and functions as an antioxidant in mitochondrial membranes (see Biological Activities). One of the hallmarks of aging is a decline in energy metabolism in many tissues, especially liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Tissue concentrations of coenzyme Q10 have been found to decline with age, thereby accompanying age-related declines in energy metabolism (12). Early animal studies have not been able to demonstrate an effect of lifelong dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 on the lifespan of rats or mice (15-17). Nonetheless, more recent studies have suggested that supplemental coenzyme Q10 could promote mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration (18, 19) and delay senescence in transgenic mice (19). Presently, there is limited scientific evidence to suggest that coenzyme Q10 supplementation prolongs life or prevents age-related functional declines in humans. In a small randomized controlled trial, elderly individuals (>70 years) who received a combination of selenium (100 µg/day) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg/day) for four years reported an improvement in vitality, physical performance, and quality of life (20). Further, a 12-year follow-up of these participants showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality with supplemental selenium and coenzyme Q10 compared to placebo (21).

Atherosclerosis

Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in arterial walls is thought to represent an early event leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Reduced coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits the oxidation of LDL in the test tube (in vitro) and works together with α-tocopherol (α-TOH) to inhibit LDL oxidation by regenerating α-TO· back to α-TOH. In the absence of a co-antioxidant, such as CoQ10H2 or vitamin C, α-TO· can, under certain conditions, promote the oxidation of LDL in vitro (6). Supplementation with coenzyme Q10 increases the concentration of CoQ10H2 in human LDL (22). Studies in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis, found that coenzyme Q10 supplementation with supra-pharmacological amounts of coenzyme Q10 inhibited lipoprotein oxidation in the blood vessel wall and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions (23). Interestingly, co-supplementation of these mice with α-TOH and coenzyme Q10 was more effective in inhibiting atherosclerosis than supplementation with either α-TOH or coenzyme Q10 alone (24).

Another important step in the development of atherosclerosis is the recruitment of immune cells known as monocytes into the blood vessel walls. This recruitment is dependent in part on monocyte expression of cell adhesion molecules (integrins). Supplementation of 10 healthy men and women with 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 for 10 weeks resulted in significant decreases in monocyte expression of integrins, suggesting another potential mechanism for the inhibition of atherosclerosis by coenzyme Q10 (25). Although coenzyme Q10 supplementation shows promise as an inhibitor of LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis, more research is needed to determine whether coenzyme Q10 supplementation can inhibit the development or progression of atherosclerosis in humans.

Disease Treatment

Primary and secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiencies

Inherited coenzyme Q10 deficiencies are rare diseases that are clinically and genetically heterogeneous (see Deficiency). In individuals with primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency, early treatment with high-dose coenzyme Q10 supplementation (10–30 mg/kg/day in children and 1.2–3.0 g/day in adults) may improve the pathological phenotype, yet the effectiveness depends on the type of mutations affecting the coenzyme Q10 biosynthetic pathway (1, 26). Early treatment with pharmacological doses of coenzyme Q10 is essential to limit irreversible organ damage in coenzyme Q10-responsive deficiencies (1).

It is not clear to what extent coenzyme Q10 supplementation might have therapeutic benefit in patients with inherited secondary Q10 deficiencies. For example, multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), caused by mutations in genes that impair the activity of enzymes involved in the transfer of electrons from acyl-CoA to coenzyme Q10, is usually responsive to riboflavin monotherapy yet patients with low coenzyme Q10 concentrations might also benefit from co-supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and riboflavin (27). Another study suggested clinical improvements in secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency with supplemental coenzyme Q10 in patients presenting with ataxia (28). Because the cause of secondary coenzyme Q10 in inherited conditions is generally unknown, it is difficult to predict whether improving coenzyme Q10 status with supplemental coenzyme Q10 would lead to clinical benefits for the patients.

Finally, coenzyme Q10 deficiency can be secondary to the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statin drugs (see Deficiency). A 2015 meta-analysis of six small, randomized controlled trials found no reduction in statin-induced muscle pain with 100 to 400 mg/day of supplemental coenzyme Q10 for one to three months (29). The trials failed to establish a diagnosis of relative coenzyme Q10 deficiency before the intervention started, hence limiting the conclusion of the meta-analysis. While statin therapy may not necessary lead to a reduction in circulating coenzyme Q10 concentrations, further research needs to examine whether secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency might be predisposing patients to statin-induced myalgia (30).

Cardiovascular disease

Congestive heart failure

Impairment of the heart’s ability to pump enough blood for all of the body’s needs is known as congestive heart failure. In coronary heart disease (CHD), accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries may prevent parts of the cardiac muscle from getting adequate blood supply, ultimately resulting in heart damage and impaired pumping ability. Heart failure can also be caused by myocardial infarction, hypertension, diseases of the heart valves, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases. Because physical exercise increases the demand on the weakened heart, measures of exercise tolerance are frequently used to monitor the severity of heart failure. Echocardiography is also used to determine the left ventricular ejection fraction, an objective measure of the heart’s pumping ability (31).

A study of 1,191 heart failure patients found that low plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration was a good biomarker of advanced heart disease (32). A number of small intervention trials that administered supplemental coenzyme Q10 to congestive heart failure patients have been conducted. A 2014 literature review identified seven small randomized controlled trials examining the effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation (60-200 mg/day for ≤3 months in most trials) in heart failure patients (33). Pooling data from some of the trials showed an increase in serum coenzyme Q10 concentrations (three studies) but no effect on left ventricular ejection fraction (two studies) or exercise capacity (two studies) (33). However, a recent meta-analysis of 14 randomized, placebo-controlled trials in 2,149 participants with heart failure found that supplemental coenzyme Q10 (30-300 mg/day) resulted in a 39% reduction in mortality (seven studies), improved exercise capacity (four studies), but had no effect on left ventricular ejection fraction (nine studies) compared to placebo (34).

A trial is presently being conducted to assess the value of supplemental coenzyme Q10 and/or D-ribose in the treatment of congestive heart failure in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (35).

Ischemia-reperfusion injury

The heart muscle may become oxygen-deprived (ischemic) as the result of myocardial infarction or during cardiac surgery. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when the heart muscle’s oxygen supply is restored (reperfusion) might be an important contributor to myocardial damage occurring during ischemia-reperfusion (36). Pretreatment of animals with coenzyme Q10 has been found to preserve myocardial function following ischemia-reperfusion injury by increasing ATP concentration, enhancing antioxidant capacity and limiting oxidative damage, regulating autophagy, and reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis (37). Another potential source of ischemia-reperfusion injury is aortic clamping during some types of cardiac surgery, such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Early placebo-controlled trials found that coenzyme Q10 pretreatment (60-300 mg/day for 7-14 days prior to surgery) provided some benefit in short-term outcome measures after CABG surgery (38, 39). In a small randomized controlled trial in 30 patients, oral administration of coenzyme Q10 for 7 to 10 days before CABG surgery reduced the need for mediastinal drainage, platelet transfusion, and positive inotropic drugs (e.g. dopamine) and the risk of arrhythmia within 24 hours post-surgery (40). In one trial that did not find preoperative coenzyme Q10 supplementation to be of benefit, patients were treated with 600 mg of coenzyme Q10 12 hours prior to surgery (41), suggesting that preoperative coenzyme Q10 treatment may need to commence at least one week prior to CABG surgery to improve surgical outcomes. The combined administration of coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium orotate, and selenium at least two weeks before CABG surgery and four weeks after was examined in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 117 patients with heart failure (42). The treatment resulted in lower concentration of troponin-I (a marker of cardiac injury), shorter length of hospital stay, and reduced risk of postoperative transient cardiac dysfunction compared to placebo (42).

Although trials have included relatively few people and examined mostly short-term, post-surgical outcomes, the results are promising (43).

Periprocedural myocardial injury

Coronary angioplasty (also called percutaneous coronary intervention) is a nonsurgical procedure for treating obstructive coronary heart disease, including unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and multivessel coronary heart disease. Angioplasty involves temporarily inserting and inflating a tiny balloon into the clogged artery to help restore the blood flow to the heart. Periprocedural myocardial injury that occurs in up to one-third of patients undergoing otherwise uncomplicated angioplasty increases the risk of morbidity and mortality at follow-up.

A prospective cohort study followed 55 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (a type of heart attack characterized by the death of some myocardial tissue) who underwent angioplasty (44). Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration one month after angioplasty was positively correlated with less inflammation and oxidative stress and predicted favorable left ventricular end-systolic volume remodeling at six months (44). One randomized controlled trial has examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty (45). The administration of 300 mg of coenzyme Q10 12 hours before the angioplasty to 50 patients reduced the concentration of C-reactive protein ([CRP]; a marker of inflammation) within 24 hours following the procedure compared to placebo. However, there was no difference in concentrations of two markers of myocardial injury (creatine kinase and troponin-I) or in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events one month after angioplasty between active treatment and placebo (45). Additional trials are needed to examine whether coenzyme Q10 therapy can improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

Angina pectoris

Myocardial ischemia may also lead to chest pain known as angina pectoris. People with angina pectoris often experience symptoms when the demand for oxygen exceeds the capacity of the coronary circulation to deliver it to the heart muscle, e.g., during exercise. Five small placebo-controlled studies have examined the effects of oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation (60-600 mg/day) in addition to conventional medical therapy in patients with chronic stable angina (46). In most of the studies, coenzyme Q10 supplementation improved exercise tolerance and reduced or delayed electrocardiographic changes associated with myocardial ischemia compared to placebo. However, only two of the studies found significant decreases in symptom frequency and use of nitroglycerin with coenzyme Q10 supplementation. Presently, there is only limited evidence suggesting that coenzyme Q10 supplementation would be a useful adjunct to conventional angina therapy. 

Hypertension

Very few high-quality trials have examined the potential therapeutic benefit of coenzyme Q10 supplementation in the treatment of primary hypertension (47). A systematic review identified two small randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that found little evidence of a reduction in systolic or diastolic blood pressure following the administration of coenzyme Q10 (100-200 mg/day) for three months (47). In contrast, a meta-analysis that used less stringent selection criteria included 17 small trials and found evidence of a blood pressure-lowering effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with cardiovascular disease or metabolic disorders (48). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood pressure needs to be examined in large, well-designed clinical trials.

Cardiovascular risk factors

Endothelial dysfunction: Normally functioning vascular endothelium promotes blood vessel relaxation (vasodilation) when needed (for example, during exercise) and inhibits the formation of blood clots. Atherosclerosis is associated with impairment of vascular endothelial function, thereby compromising vasodilation and normal blood flow. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in individuals with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, as well as in patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus. A 2012 meta-analysis examining the results of five small randomized controlled trials in 194 subjects in total found that supplemental coenzyme Q10 (150-300 mg/day for 4 to 12 weeks) resulted in a clinically significant, 1.7% increase in flow-dependent endothelial-mediated dilation (49). Evidence from larger studies is needed to further establish the effect of coenzyme Q10 on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. 

Inflammation: Several small randomized controlled trials in patients at increased cardiovascular disease risk or with established cardiovascular disease have examined the effect of supplemental coenzyme Q10 for ≤3 months on circulating inflammation markers i.e., CRP, interleukin-6, and/or tumor necrosis factor-α. Recently published pooled analyses of these trials have given mixed results (50-52). Larger studies are needed to examine the effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on low-grade inflammation.

Blood lipids: Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A meta-analysis of six controlled trials (of which five were randomized) in 409 participants found a reduction in plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration with coenzyme Q10 supplementation (100-300 mg/day for 4-12 weeks) (53). Other effects of coenzyme Q10 on blood lipids have not been reported (51, 53, 54).

A therapeutic approach combining coenzyme Q10 with other antioxidants might prove to be more effective to target co-existing metabolic disorders in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease (55).

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a condition of increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism. Plasma concentrations of reduced coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) have been found to be lower in diabetic patients than healthy controls after normalization to plasma cholesterol concentrations (56, 57). Randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation found little evidence of benefits on glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis of six trials in participants with type 2 diabetes and one trial in participants with type 1 diabetes found that 100 to 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 for three to six months lowered neither fasting plasma glucose nor levels of glycated hemoglobin ([HbA1c]; a measure of glycemic control). Maternally inherited diabetes mellitus-deafness syndrome (MIDD) is caused by a mutation in mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited exclusively from one’s mother. MIDD accounts for less than 1% of all cases of diabetes. Some early evidence suggested that long-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation (150 mg/day) may improve insulin secretion and prevent progressive hearing loss in these patients (58, 59). 

Of note, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus involves the early onset of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia associated with the progressive loss of tissue responsiveness to insulin. Recent experimental studies tied insulin resistance to a decrease in coenzyme Q10 expression and showed that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 could restore insulin sensitivity (7). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation might thus be a more useful tool for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes rather than for its management.

Neurodegenerative diseases

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative neurological disorder characterized by tremors, muscular rigidity, and slow movements. It is estimated to affect approximately 1% of Americans over the age of 65. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra may play a role in the development of the disease (60). Decreased ratios of reduced-to-oxidized coenzyme Q10 have been found in platelets of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (61, 62). One study also found higher concentrations of oxidized coenzyme Q10 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with untreated Parkinson’s disease compared to healthy controls (63). Additionally, a study in postmortem Parkinson’s disease patients found lower concentrations of total coenzyme Q10 in the cortex region of the brain compared to age-matched controls, but no differences were seen in other brain areas, including the striatum, substantia nigra, and cerebellum (64).

A 16-month randomized, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of 300, 600, or 1,200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 in 80 people with early Parkinson’s disease (65). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation was well tolerated at all doses and resulted in a slower deterioration of function in Parkinson’s disease patients in the group taking 1,200 mg/day. A phase III clinical trial was then designed to further examine the effect of high-dose coenzyme Q10 (1,200-2,400 mg/day) and vitamin E (1,200 IU/day) supplementation on both motor and non-motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease. This trial was prematurely terminated because it was unlikely that such a treatment was effective in treating Parkinson’s disease (66). A smaller placebo-controlled trial showed that oral administration of 300 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 for 48 to 96 months moderately improved motor symptoms in treated patients (with Levodopa) with re-emerging symptoms but not in patients at an early stage of the disease (67). Two recent meta-analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials found no evidence that coenzyme Q10 improved motor-related symptoms or delayed the progression of the disease when compared to placebo (68, 69). 

Huntington’s disease

Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective degeneration of nerve cells known as striatal spiny neurons. Symptoms, such as movement disorders and impaired cognitive function, typically develop in the fourth decade of life and progressively deteriorate over time. Animal models indicate that impaired mitochondrial function and glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity may be involved in the pathology of Huntington’s disease. Some, but not all, studies in mouse models of Huntington’s disease have suggested that coenzyme Q10 supplementation could improve motor performance, overall survival, and various hallmarks of Huntington’s disease, i.e., brain atrophy, ventricular enlargement, and striatal neuronal atrophy (70, 71). Interestingly, co-administration of coenzyme Q10 with remacemide (an NMDA receptor antagonist), the antibiotic minocycline, or creatine led to greater improvements in most biochemical and behavioral parameters (70-72).

To date, only two clinical trials have examined whether coenzyme Q10 might be efficacious in human patients with Huntington’s disease. A 30-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 (600 mg/day), remacemide, or both in 347 patients with early Huntington’s disease found that neither coenzyme Q10 nor remacemide significantly altered the decline in total functional capacity, although coenzyme Q10 supplementation (with or without remacemide) resulted in a nonsignificant trend toward a slower decline (73). A 20-week pilot trial examined the safety and tolerability of increasing dosages of coenzyme Q10 (1,200 mg/day, 2,400 mg/day, and 3,600 mg/day) in eight healthy subjects and in 20 patients with Huntington’s disease; 22 of the subjects completed the study (74). All dosages were generally well tolerated, with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most frequently reported adverse effect. Blood concentrations of coenzyme Q10 at the end of the study were maximized with the daily dose of 2,400 mg (74). This dose was tested in a multicenter phase III clinical trial in 609 participants with early-stage Huntington’s disease. Participants were randomized to receive either 2,400 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 or placebo for five years (75). The trial was prematurely halted because it appeared unlikely to demonstrate any health benefit in supplemented patients — about one-third of participants completed the trial at the time of study termination (75). Although coenzyme Q10 is generally well tolerated, there is no evidence that supplementation can improve functional and cognitive symptoms in Huntington’s disease patients.

Inherited ataxias

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA): FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the gene FXN that encodes for the mitochondrial protein, frataxin. Frataxin is needed for the making of iron-sulfur clusters (ISC). ISC-containing subunits are especially important for the mitochondrial respiratory chain and for the synthesis of heme-containing proteins (76). Frataxin deficiency is associated with imbalances in iron-sulfur containing proteins, mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and lower ATP production, and accumulation of iron in the mitochondria, which increases oxidative stress and oxidative damage to macromolecules of the respiratory chain (77). Clinically, FRDA is a progressive disease characterized by ataxia, areflexia, speech disturbance (dysarthria), sensory loss, motor dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, and scoliosis (77). A pilot study administering coenzyme Q10 (200 mg/day) and vitamin E (2,100 IU/day) to 10 FDRA patients found that energy metabolism of cardiac and skeletal muscle was improved after only three months of therapy (78). Follow-up assessments at 47 months indicated that cardiac and skeletal muscle improvements were maintained and that FRDA patients showed significant increases in fractional shortening, a measure of cardiac function. Moreover, the therapy was effective at preventing the progressive decline of neurological function (79). Another study reported both coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E deficiencies among FRDA patients and suggested that co-supplementation with both compounds, at doses as low as 30 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 and 4 IU/day of vitamin E, might improve disease symptoms (80). Large-scale, randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine whether coenzyme Q10, in conjunction with vitamin E, has therapeutic benefit in FRDA. At present, about one-half of patients use coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E supplements despite the lack of proven therapeutic benefit (77).

Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs): SCAs are a group of rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases characterized by gait difficulty, loss of hand dexterity, dysarthria, and cognitive decline. SCA1, 2, 3, and 6 are the most common SCAs (81). In vitro coenzyme Q10 treatment of forearm skin fibroblasts isolated from patients with SCA2 was found to reduce oxidative stress and normalize complex I and II-III activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (82). A multicenter prospective cohort study that followed 319 patients with SCAs (≥15 years) found no difference in the rate of disease progression over two years between those taking supplemental coenzyme Q10 (median dose, 600 mg/day) and nonusers (81).

Cancer

Early interest in coenzyme Q10 as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer was stimulated by an observational study that found that individuals with lung, pancreas, and especially breast cancer were more likely to have low plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations than healthy controls (83). Two randomized controlled trials have explored the effect of coenzyme Q10 as an adjunct to conventional therapy for breast cancer. Supplementation with coenzyme Q10 failed to improve measures of fatigue and quality of life in patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer (84) and in patients receiving chemotherapy (85).

Performance

Athletic performance

There is little evidence that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 improves athletic performance in healthy individuals. A few placebo-controlled trials have examined the effects of 100 to 150 mg/day of supplemental coenzyme Q10 for three to eight weeks on physical performance in trained and untrained men. Most did not find significant differences between the group taking coenzyme Q10 and the group taking placebo with respect to measures of aerobic exercise performance, such as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and exercise time to exhaustion (86-90). One study found the maximal cycling workload to be slightly (4%) increased after eight weeks of coenzyme Q10 supplementation compared to placebo, although measures of aerobic power were not increased (91). Two studies actually found significantly greater improvement in measures of anaerobic (87) and aerobic (86) exercise performance with a placebo than with supplemental coenzyme Q10. More recent studies have suggested that coenzyme Q10 could help reduce both muscle damage-associated oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation induced by strenuous exercise (92-95). Studies on the effect of supplementation on physical performance in women are lacking, but there is little reason to suspect a gender difference in the response to coenzyme Q10 supplementation.

Sources

Biosynthesis

Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in most human tissues. The biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 involves three major steps: (1) synthesis of the benzoquinone structure from 4-hydroxybenzoate derived from either tyrosine or phenylalanine, two amino acids; (2) synthesis of the polyisoprenoid side chain from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) via the mevalonate pathway; and (3) the joining (condensation) of these two structures to form coenzyme Q10. In the mevalonate pathway, the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase, which converts HMG-CoA into mevalonate, is common to the biosynthetic pathways of both coenzyme Q10 and cholesterol and is inhibited by statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs; see Drug interactions) (1).

Of note, pantothenic acid (formerly vitamin B5) is the precursor of coenzyme A, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6), in the form of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate, is required for the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid that constitutes the first step in the biosynthesis of the benzoquinone structure of coenzyme Q10. It is not known to what extent the coenzyme Q10 biosynthetic pathway may be affected by inadequate pantothenic acid and/or vitamin B6 nutritional status.

Food sources

It has been estimated that dietary consumption contributes to about 25% of plasma coenzyme Q10, but there are currently no specific dietary intake recommendations for coenzyme Q10 from the US National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) or other agencies (96). The extent to which dietary consumption contributes to tissue coenzyme Q10 concentrations is not clear. 

Based on studies employing food frequency questionnaires, the average dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 is about 3 to 6 mg/day (97). Rich sources of dietary coenzyme Q10 include mainly meat, poultry, and fish. Other good sources include soybean, corn, olive, and canola oils; nuts; and seeds. Fruit, vegetables, eggs, and dairy products are moderate sources of coenzyme Q10 (97). Some dietary sources are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Coenzyme Q10 Content of Selected Foods (98-100)
Food Serving Coenzyme Q10 (mg)
Beef, fried  3 ounces*  2.6 
Herring, marinated  3 ounces  2.3 
Chicken, fried  3 ounces  1.4 
Soybean oil  1 tablespoon  1.3 
Canola oil  1 tablespoon  1.0 
Rainbow trout, steamed  3 ounces  0.9 
Peanuts, roasted  1 ounce  0.8 
Sesame seeds, roasted  1 ounce  0.7 
Pistachio nuts, roasted  1 ounce  0.6 
Broccoli, boiled  ½ cup, chopped  0.5 
Cauliflower, boiled  ½ cup, chopped  0.4 
Orange  1 medium  0.3 
Strawberries  ½ cup  0.1 
Egg, boiled  1 medium  0.1
*A three-ounce serving of meat or fish is about the size of a deck of cards.

Supplements

Coenzyme Q10 is available without a prescription as a dietary supplement in the US. Doses in supplements for adults range from 30 to 100 mg/day, which are considerably higher than typically estimated dietary coenzyme Q10 intakes. Coenzyme Q10 is fat-soluble and is best absorbed with fat in a meal. Doses higher than 100 mg/day are generally divided into two or three doses throughout the day (101). Less than 5% of orally administered coenzyme Q10 is thought to reach the circulation (102). Therefore, pharmacological doses of coenzyme Q10 as high as 1,200 to 3,000 mg/day for adults and 30 mg/kg/day for children are usually needed to relieve symptoms in patients with coenzyme Q10 deficiency (26).

Does oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation increase tissue concentrations?

Oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 is known to increase blood and lipoprotein concentrations of coenzyme Q10 in humans (2, 15, 22). Plasma coenzyme Q10 appears to reach a plateau following supplementation with a dose of 2,400 mg/day (103, 104). Yet, under normal circumstances, uptake of supplemental coenzyme Q10 from peripheral tissues/organs is likely limited because coenzyme Q10 is ubiquitously synthesized (105). Nonetheless, under certain physiological circumstances (e.g., aging) or in pathologies, coenzyme Q10 status might be compromised and it is then presumed that supplementation might increase coenzyme Q10 concentrations in tissues that are deficient (106). For example, a study in 24 older adults supplemented with 300 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 or placebo for at least seven days prior to cardiac surgery found that the coenzyme Q10 content of atrial tissue was significantly increased in those taking coenzyme Q10, especially in patients greater than 70 years of age (38). In another study of patients with left ventricular dysfunction, supplementation with 150 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 for four weeks before cardiac surgery increased coenzyme Q10 concentrations in the heart but not in skeletal muscle (107). Finally, a 2007 review of the literature highlighted that plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations higher than ‘normal’ were likely needed to promote coenzyme Q10 uptake by peripheral tissues and different tissues may indeed require different plasma thresholds for the uptake of coenzyme Q10 (102).

Safety

Toxicity

There have been no reports of significant adverse side effects of oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation at doses as high as 3,000 mg/day for up to eight months (103), 1,200 mg/day for up to 16 months (65), and 600 mg/day for up to 30 months (73). According to the observed safe level (OSL) risk assessment method, evidence of safety is strong with doses up to 1,200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 (108). Some people have experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, diarrhea, appetite suppression, heartburn, and abdominal discomfort, especially with daily doses ≥200 mg (109). These adverse effects may be minimized if daily doses >100 mg are divided into two or three daily doses (101). During pregnancy, the use of coenzyme Q10 supplements (100 mg twice daily) from 20 weeks’ gestation was found to be safe (110). Because reliable data in lactating women are not available, supplementation should be avoided during breast-feeding (110).

Drug interactions

Warfarin

Concomitant use of warfarin (Coumadin) and coenzyme Q10 supplements has been reported to decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin in a few cases (111). An individual on warfarin should not begin taking coenzyme Q10 supplements without consulting the health care provider who is managing his or her anticoagulant therapy. If warfarin and coenzyme Q10 are to be used concomitantly, blood tests to assess clotting time (prothrombin time; PT/INR) should be monitored frequently, especially in the first two weeks. 

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins)

HMG-CoA reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a biochemical reaction that is common to both cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 biosynthetic pathways (see Biosynthesis). Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that are widely used as cholesterol-lowering medications. Statins can thus also reduce the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10. Therapeutic use of statins, including simvastatin (Zocor), pravastatin (Pravachol), lovastatin (Mevacor, Altocor, Altoprev), rosuvastatin (Crestor), and atorvastatin (Lipitor), has been shown to decrease circulating coenzyme Q10 concentrations (112-121). However, because coenzyme Q10 circulates with lipoproteins, plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration is influenced by the concentration of circulating lipids (122, 123). It is likely that circulating coenzyme Q10 concentrations are decreased because statins reduce circulating lipids rather than because they inhibit coenzyme Q10 synthesis (124). In addition, very few studies have examined coenzyme Q10 concentrations in tissues other than blood such that the extent to which statin therapy affects coenzyme Q10 concentrations in the body’s tissues is unknown (118, 120, 125). Finally, there is currently little evidence to suggest that secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency is responsible for statin-associated muscle symptoms in treated patients. In addition, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 failed to relieve myalgia in statin-treated patients (see Disease Treatment) (126, 127).


Authors and Reviewers

Originally written in 2003 by:
Jane Higdon, Ph.D.
Linus Pauling Institute
Oregon State University

Updated in February 2007 by:
Victoria J. Drake, Ph.D.
Linus Pauling Institute
Oregon State University

Updated in March 2012 by:
Victoria J. Drake, Ph.D.
Linus Pauling Institute
Oregon State University

Updated in April 2018 by:
Barbara Delage, Ph.D.
Linus Pauling Institute
Oregon State University

Reviewed in May 2018 by:
Roland Stocker, Ph.D.
Centre for Vascular Research
School of Medical Sciences (Pathology) and
Bosch Institute
Sydney Medical School
The University of Sydney
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Copyright 2003-2021  Linus Pauling Institute


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5 CoQ10 Benefits to Keep Your Heart & Brain Healthy

With health becoming a main priority for many consumers, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplements have been on the rise due to their many health benefits. From heart to brain health, CoQ10 promotes the maintenance of healthy cells in our bodies and is shown to play an important role in metabolism. Here is a breakdown of what CoQ10 does and its main health benefits.

What is CoQ10?

CoQ10 is a nutrient naturally produced by our body that helps our cells produce the energy they need to function and can be found in your body’s organs including the heart, lung, liver, and kidneys. It has been known to act as an antioxidant, protecting cells the body from free radicals, reducing oxidative damage in our bodies, and improving the mitochondrial function in our cells that support energy production. Though its production decreases with age, CoQ10 can be received through dietary supplements or foods; however, the amount of CoQ10 is much lower in food in comparison to supplements.

5 Benefits of CoQ10

Improves Heart Health

The heart contains a high concentration of CoQ10 in the body. Some studies have shown that low CoQ10 levels served as an indicator of the severity and long term outcome of heart diseases. As such, supplementing your diet with CoQ10 can improve heart health*. CoQ10 can limit oxidative stress and any inflammation of the veins and arteries, allowing the body to restore optimal levels of energy production to the cells in your heart.

Reduces Migraines

Chronic migraines are often due to the inflammation of blood vessels around the brain, which can lead to low energy production in your brain cells. Since CoQ10 can decrease inflammation and increase the production of energy, CoQ10 may be effective in reducing migraines*. A study with 42 migraine patients showed CoQ10 was three times more likely than a placebo to reduce the number of migraines.

Protects the Brain

As CoQ10 levels naturally decrease with age, the mitochondrial function may decrease as well. With lower levels of CoQ10, the number of free radicals in the brain can increase and cause oxidative stress. As such, CoQ10 supplements may reduce free radicals in the brain and protect cells from oxidative damage*.

Improve Blood Sugar Levels

Studies have shown that abnormal mitochondrial function can adversely affect insulin sensitivity in cells, leading them to be resistant to insulin. As such, enhancing your CoQ10 levels with dietary supplements may be able to increase insulin sensitivity and improve blood sugar levels*. While researching the effects of CoQ10 on Type 2 Diabetes, researchers in a 2014 study found that CoQ10 significantly reduced fasting blood sugar levels.

Aids with Exercise Performance

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction can affect exercise performance, muscle pain, and muscle energy. This makes it hard for your body to sustain long periods of exercise. By focusing on your CoQ10 intake, the compound can neutralize free radicals in the body so you can have a higher exercise capacity to perform better and with more energy*.

CoQ10 is a nutrient that can provide a myriad of health benefits, from the heart to brain health. Since its levels decrease with age, CoQ10 supplements can be especially beneficial to older patients. Looking to start your own supplement brand or elevate your current supplement business? Contact us and learn how we can manufacture the highest quality supplements for your brand.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Coenzyme Q10 for stable and proper functioning of the body

Coenzyme Q10 is a useful substance that improves the state of the body at the cellular level and slows down the aging process

The article describes the history of the appearance of coenzyme Q10. Its functions, advantages, and useful properties are listed.

Coenzyme Q10 is an important constituent of every cell. This is a useful substance that does not belong to vitamins, dissolves well in water, has no side effects and does not harm the human body.

Attention! The largest amount of this ubiquinone is found in the heart.

Origin history

The appearance of this substance, similar to vitamins, in medicine was noted in 1957. When examining the mitochondria of the beef heart, which contains the maximum amount of this component, Frederic Kren established the chemical structural formula of ubichonone.

Coenzyme is found not only in the human body, but also in the tissues of plants and all animal organisms. It plays the role of transporting energy from mitochondria to every cell in need of replenishment.

In 1978, Peter Mitchell proved the necessity of using this substance in medicine and received the Nobel Prize for discovering the mechanism of its synthesis. As such, research has been steadily increasing since the 1980s on a potent antioxidant that does not harm human health.

Attention! The main functions of coenzyme are preservation of the integrity of mitochondria and activation of redox reactions in the body.When used in sufficient quantities, it stimulates the production of cellular energy.

Thanks to this transformation of nutrients, free radicals are blocked, which speeds up the brain’s performance, slows down the aging process and improves human health.

Coenzyme Benefits

The benefits of ubiquinone for the human body are obvious. This substance:

  • normalizes blood pressure, heart function;
  • promotes rapid recovery of the body;
  • is an essential tool in the prevention of diabetes;
  • helps reduce the risk of gum disease;
  • in combination with other drugs has the property of activating wound healing processes;
  • helps to remove toxins and toxins;
  • protects the human body from harmful substances, which makes it possible to increase the rate of fat burning during sports;
  • has antioxidant properties;
  • transfers energy to the cells of the body, replenishing their energy reserves;
  • has a positive effect on the mitochondria of cells;
  • reduces the risk of developing hereditary and genetic diseases;
  • slows down aging;
  • improves immunity;
  • helps to strengthen hair;
  • improves the condition of the skin.

What causes coenzyme Q10 deficiency

With a lack of coenzyme Q10 in the human body, memory impairment, a feeling of discomfort, mental state, and exacerbation of various diseases are observed. It is possible to provide adequate protection of organs, tissues and the whole organism at the cellular level by using appropriate supplements, which contain the maximum amount of useful ubiquinone.

Scientific and medical research has repeatedly proven the benefits of using coenzyme Q10, which has many positive properties and can increase human life expectancy.

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What is coenzyme Q10 for

Coenzyme Q10: benefits for the body, pros and cons


Do you know why the body needs coenzyme Q10? One of the first to ask this question was the British biochemist Peter Mitchell, who revealed the mechanism of formation of the transmembrane potential required for energy production in the cell and the role of coenzyme (coenzyme) Q10 in this process. Peter Mitchell was awarded the Nobel Prize for his research.Thanks to his experiments, the role of coenzyme Q 10 is beyond any doubt. It has been proven that the substance is a powerful antioxidant, plays a huge role in energy production and has a beneficial effect on many organs and systems, especially those where the need for energy is especially high, such as the heart muscle.

Functions and properties of coenzyme

CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone, belongs to the benzoquinone group and is involved in oxidative phosphorylation (generation of energy in the cellular mitochondria).As an important link in the electron transport chain, it contributes to the maintenance of energy balance and is considered indispensable for normal human life. In addition, the beneficial properties of coenzyme Q10 are due to the antioxidant effect of the agent, which neutralizes the negative effect of free radicals on cells.

In simple words, the functions of this substance are as follows:

  • strengthening and restoration of the vascular walls;
  • regulation of the immune system;
  • normalization of blood circulation;
  • restoration of cell membranes;
  • acceleration of oxygen circulation;
  • neutralization of reactive oxygen species that damage cell structures

It is noteworthy that, unlike other antioxidants, the coenzyme is able to be regenerated by the human body.Before figuring out what coenzyme Q10 is good for, it’s worth noting that it is a fat-soluble compound, so it is absorbed in the same way as other similar substances. When it enters the gastrointestinal tract, the agent is emulsified by bile, after which, as part of the micelles, it enters the small intestine, where its final absorption takes place.

The degree of digestibility of the coenzyme largely depends on the particle size and the content of other fats in the food used. Coenzyme absorption is known to improve when combined with lipids, which is why many manufacturers put the substance in oil capsules when making supplements with CoQ10.


What is coenzyme Q10 for the body

To understand why our body needs coenzyme, we must first find out the mechanisms of its work. The main role of ubiquinone is to initiate a wide range of chemical reactions that lead to the acceleration of the breakdown of consumed food and their transformation into energy necessary for a person.

The action of the coenzyme begins with the synthesis from mevalonic acid, the metabolic products of tyrosine and phenylalanine.By participating in energy transfer, CoQ10 captures electrons from the electron transport chain, transforming into an active substance with high bioavailability. In the production of dietary supplements, coenzyme Q10 looks like yellow crystals, odorless and tasteless.

When a person is at a young age, ubiquinone is produced naturally in the body, but after 20 years, its production begins to decline. By about 60 years old, it is synthesized by 60% less, and the properties of coenzyme become less noticeable.Bad habits, prolonged exposure to the sun, illness, stressful situations also contribute to a decrease in the production of this component. A decrease in the intensity of energy exchange and a corresponding lower level of coenzyme Q10 in the body begins to manifest itself as an energy decline, rapid aging of the skin, and the development of age-related pathologies.

Since Coenzyme Q10 is a key element in the energy generation process, it affects almost all human organs and organ systems:

  • The remedy is useful for the heart due to its ability to thin the blood, enrich the blood flow with oxygen, and eliminate congestion in the vessels.
  • For the skin, ubiquinone is vital for its ability to halt the aging process. Coenzyme rejuvenates the skin at the molecular level, smoothes wrinkles, and tightens problem areas.
  • When considering why the pancreas needs coenzyme Q10, it is important to note that it can help normalize blood glucose levels, and therefore is often attributed to people with diabetes as one of the elements of therapy.
  • Since the substance has the ability to fight free radicals, it is an excellent tool in the prevention of cancer.
  • Such a function of ubiquinone as strengthening blood vessels helps to normalize blood pressure, which is especially important for people suffering from hypertension.
  • Due to the fact that CoQ10 is responsible for energy metabolism, it is indicated for athletes and people with increased physical activity. Adequate supply of ubiquinone to muscles reduces fatigue and energizes.

Studies show that the properties of coenzyme allow it to be used as an effective remedy in the fight against obesity.The coenzyme helps in the breakdown of lipids and the burning of subcutaneous fat, improves metabolism, and promotes the elimination of toxins. At its core, it is a natural fat burner that is actively used by athletes during drying.

Coenzyme Q10 – Women’s Benefit

For many women, CoQ10 is a real panacea for aging. As a natural antioxidant, coenzyme neutralizes free radicals that negatively affect the skin, making it less firm and elastic.When released into cells and tissues, it promotes the production of collagen and elastin, which can reduce the rate of wrinkle formation and the risks of sagging skin.

If you find out the effect on women of coenzyme ku 10, why is it needed more? It is known to improve fertility and egg quality when taken regularly. Its use increases the chances of successful conception and has a positive effect on the embryo. Another beneficial quality of ubiquinone is weight loss aid. Even in small doses, it improves metabolism and allows you to get rid of excess fat.Thanks to coenzyme, you can give up fasting and exhausting diets, which are not the best way for women’s health.

Unfortunately, the amount of CoQ10 found in food is not enough to fully support the body. To achieve positive results, an adult needs at least 60 mg of ubiquinone per day, and this cannot be achieved only by taking it with the daily food consumed. And here supplements come to the rescue, which contain the necessary amount of a substance to achieve the desired effect of coenzyme Q10 for women.

KWC Coenzyme Q10

The Japanese drug KWC Coenzyme Q10 is an effective remedy to support health, youth and beauty. Its use helps to prevent aging processes, reduce fatigue during exertion, and improve the functioning of the heart and brain. The use of the supplement accelerates energy metabolism in cells and provides the following effects:

  • improves performance;
  • stimulates the immune system;
  • cheers up;
  • corrects weight;
  • speeds up metabolism;
  • reduces the likelihood of allergies;
  • reduces the level of “bad” cholesterol;
  • reduces fatigue with mental or physical fatigue;
  • normalizes blood pressure;
  • prevents the development of cardiovascular pathologies;
  • has an antioxidant effect.

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If we consider why the drug Coenzyme Q10 is useful, it should be mentioned that in addition to ubiquinone, the supplement contains vitamin E and ascorbic acid, which enhance the effect of the main substance. Additionally, vitamin C helps to improve heart function and normalize cholesterol levels, while tocopherol regenerates tissue, improves blood flow and helps lower blood pressure.

The drug is available in the form of capsules containing safflower oil.As mentioned above, the presence of fats in dietary supplements accelerates the breakdown of the coenzyme and ensures its maximum efficient absorption in the digestive tract. In addition, the manufacturer adds bioperine to the product, which allows CoQ10 to be absorbed twice as fast.

Rules for taking the drug

To get the expected effect, CoQ10 must be taken in strict adherence to dosage. The standard dose is about 100 mg of coenzyme per day, but may vary depending on age and general condition of the body:

  • for prevention and health promotion, it is enough to take up to 80 mg;
  • over the age of 40 – 100 mg;
  • with professional sports – up to 400 mg (on the recommendation of a doctor)

Please note that the daily dosage may vary significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer.Specifically, KWC recommends taking two capsules (60 mg) of the product daily, in the morning and evening with meals.

Often, after finding out what coenzyme is for, people begin to take it uncontrollably. However, it must be borne in mind that the tool has a number of limitations and side effects. It is not recommended to use it in case of individual intolerance to the coenzyme or additional components contained in the capsules, as well as during pregnancy and lactation.With an elevated sugar level and blood clotting disorders, it is advisable to consult with your doctor before taking the drug.

Side effects from the use of ubiquinone are extremely rare. If we take into account the beneficial properties of coenzyme Q10 and the minimum percentage of such phenomena, we can confidently assert the safety and absence of harm from the use of coenzyme.

Effect from application

A number of studies conducted by European experts have established that ubiquinone can halve the manifestations of heart failure.On the basis of one of the trials, it was proved that it qualitatively reduces the indicators of the biomarker NT-poMHP and significantly reduces mortality from diseases of the heart muscle.

Scientists from Germany have found that this natural component has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels. By studying the effects of coenzyme Q10, researchers have confirmed its ability to target genes that are associated with inflammation and cell differentiation. As their tests show, when taking ubiquinone for two weeks, the level of “bad” cholesterol is reduced by more than 12%.

The property of the coenzyme to protect organs from the effects of obesity is also important. By using supplements containing CoQ10, it is possible to slow down the fatty infiltration of the liver caused by the consumption of fatty foods. Of course, with improper nutrition, the substance will not save you from further accumulation of excess weight, but it will reduce inflammation of the liver against the background of obesity.

Thus, the unique properties of coenzyme have been confirmed by scientists from different parts of the world, and the indications for the use of the agent cover a wide range of diseases and pathological conditions:

  • high blood pressure;
  • heart failure, angina pectoris, arrhythmias and other heart diseases;
  • mental and physical stress;
  • constant stress;
  • pathology of the respiratory organs;
  • diabetes;
  • infectious diseases that negatively affect immunity;
  • obesity;
  • bleeding gums;
  • the appearance of signs of skin aging.

Taking dietary supplements with ubiquinone will be beneficial for everyone over the age of 20. The drugs will help to fill the lack of this substance in the body, will have a beneficial effect on blood vessels and the heart, and normalize metabolic processes. Thanks to the properties of coenzyme Q10, it is possible to prevent premature wear of organs and significantly slow down the aging of the skin.

Coenzyme Q10 – more strength for life

Author: O.S. Medvedev, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov

I am a happy person, because more than 10 years ago my colleagues and I at Moscow State University began to study coenzyme Q10. This compound turned out to be so interesting that many employees of the Faculty of Medicine of Moscow State University, having received data on its positive effect on the body, began to take it from time to time in courses with health benefits. What is Q10 and what is the use of it?

Energy and Protection

Coenzyme Q10 (ubidecarenone, ubiquinone) is a natural fat-soluble vitamin-like substance, an important biochemical catalyst necessary for providing cells with energy.It is found in all cells of the human body (“ubiquinone” – from the English. Ubiquinone, “ubiquitous”). The more intensively the organ works, the more energy it needs, the more the content of coenzyme Q10 in the tissues. So, in the heart muscle of this substance is twice as much as in any other organ or tissue.

In addition to its important role in the process of energy supply of cells, coenzyme Q10 has a powerful antioxidant activity – it increases the resistance of cells to the damaging action of free radicals, helps to fight the effects of oxidative stress.

In 1978, Professor Peter Mitchell was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contribution to understanding the process of biological energy transfer and for his discovery of the role of coenzyme Q10 in the electron transport chain in the synthesis of energy-intensive ATP molecules in mitochondria. In 1997, the International Association for the Study of Q10 was established. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the most extensively studied natural compounds. To date, more than 3500 scientific articles have been devoted to the properties of coenzyme Q10 and its effectiveness in the treatment of various diseases.

Replenish the gap

In young years, a healthy person has a high level of Q10 in cells, but then the amount of its own coenzyme decreases. By the age of 40, the Q10 deficiency is up to 30%, in people over 60 years old – up to 50% and above. Weakness, lethargy, fatigue, a state of “no strength at all” can be, among other things, signs of a lack of Q10 in the body. The liver, kidneys, pancreas, lungs and other organs and tissues suffer from Q10 deficiency. But first of all, the heart suffers from this, which has to commit more than 100 thousand per day.reductions. Q10 deficiency can increase under the influence of illness, stress, intense physical activity, hormonal imbalance.

It is practically impossible to compensate for the deficiency of Q10 by increasing its consumption with food, since its content in most products is low. So, to get the daily rate, you need at least 1 kg of beef, 30 eggs or 1 kg of peanuts. Therefore, preparations containing coenzyme Q10 come to the rescue.

Heart will be grateful

Coenzyme Q10 deserves special attention for patients with cardiovascular diseases.According to the results of the international multicenter randomized placebo-controlled study Q-SYMBIO1, conducted in 2014 with the participation of 420 patients, it was proved that the addition of coenzyme Q10 to standard therapy in patients with CHF (chronic heart failure) (III-IV FC) increases the tolerability physical activity, can improve the prognosis and quality of life, as well as reduce the number of hospitalizations and mortality.

It is important to note the high safety of the preparation of coenzyme Q10, the intake of which, even in a large dose (1200 mg per day) for 16 months, did not cause clinically significant side effects2.

Based on the data of pilot clinical studies, coenzyme Q10 can be recommended as part of the complex therapy of diseases of the cardiovascular system – for example, in chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease (IHD), arrhythmias. In clinical trials, the use of Q10 drugs in patients with arterial hypertension contributed to a mild decrease in blood pressure, which makes it possible to recommend it in addition to a selected treatment regimen with the main classes of antihypertensive drugs without fear of a sharp decrease in blood pressure.A positive effect on the endothelium allows you to restore its function to expand the artery with an increase in the organ’s demand for increased blood flow. This, together with the energy support of cardiomyocytes, helps to protect the myocardium from the development of heart failure. Animal studies have shown the ability of coenzyme Q10 to reduce excess lipid peroxidation, thus contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis13.

Statins and Chronic Fatigue

Particular attention should be paid to coenzyme Q10 in patients taking statins.There is evidence that these drugs may decrease the level of endogenous Q10 synthesis, since cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 share common biochemical precursors9,10. The existing deficiency of coenzyme Q10 may also contribute to the appearance of general weakness in cardiac patients receiving statins.

In recent years, the positive effect of Q10 has been shown in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. In a number of small clinical trials, administration of coenzyme Q10 150 mg daily for two months reduced depression, improved sleep quality, and improved mental counting ability4.I believe that coenzyme Q10 preparations can act in a similar way under conditions of emotional stress, especially given their good tolerance and the absence of clinically significant side effects.

Cardiologists recommend

In connection with a decrease in the content of Q10 in the blood in people over 20 years of age12 and the development of atherosclerotic lesions of the vessels of the heart and brain in old age, it is possible to recommend prescribing drugs containing coenzyme Q10 in doses of 60 mg per day or more for the vast majority of patients over 50-60 years in order to increase exercise tolerance and maintain normal endothelial function.Of course, taking them should be in addition to the main drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Based on the analysis of world studies of the effects of coenzyme Q10, American cardiologists recommend prescribing its drugs as an adjunct to basic therapy for coronary heart disease, heart failure, arterial hypertension, as well as when taking statins in order to increase exercise tolerance and improve overall well-being5.

Currently, Japan, Russia, the United States and European countries consume 85% of all coenzyme Q10 produced.In Japan, the drug was registered as an additional agent for the treatment of heart failure back in 1974, and in 1982 it entered the top five most widely used dietary supplements5.

For children and adults

In Russia, the drug Kudesan®, presented in the form of a 3% coenzyme Q10 solution, is of particular interest. Coenzyme Q10, fat-soluble in nature, has been converted into a water-soluble form with the help of a special patented technology, the bioavailability of which is several times higher.This has been proven both by the studies of our laboratory at Moscow State University on laboratory animals6 and by foreign scientists during pharmacokinetic studies in humans7,8,11.

It is important to add that Kudesan® is the only coenzyme Q10 drug approved for use in children from 1 year of age for the complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases, as well as for asthenic syndrome, neurocirculatory dystonia, in the recovery period after serious illnesses and surgical interventions.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the results obtained and the high safety of the drug Kudesan® make it possible to recommend it to a wide range of patients as part of the complex therapy of diseases of the cardiovascular system, to improve adaptation to increased physical activity, to prevent and replenish coenzyme Q10 deficiency. In our opinion, coenzyme Q10 has a great future, because it provides energy to all organs and systems, so that the body gets more strength for life.

References:

  1. Mortensen SA, Rosenfeldt F, Kumar A et al., The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC Heart Fail. 2014 Dec; 2 (6): 641-9.
  2. Shults CW Oakes D, Kieburtz K et al., Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Arch Neurol. 2002 Oct; 59 (10): 1541-50.
  3. Ajda Skarlovnik, Miodrag Jani, Mojca Lunder, et al., Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Decreases Statin-Related Mild-to-Moderate Muscle Symptoms: A Randomized Clinical Study. Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20: 2183-2188.
  4. Sanae Fukuda, Nojima J. Osami Kajimoto O., et al., Ubiquinol-10 supplementation improves autonomic nervous function and cognitive function in chronic fatigue syndrome, Biofactors. 2016 Apr 29.
  5. 6. Kalenikova E.I., Gorodetskaya E.A., Medvedev O.S. Bioavailability of coenzyme Q (10) in various pharmaceutical formulations Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers (United States), 2009 Volume 43, No. 8, pp.468-471
  6. Žmitek J. Šmidovnik A, Fir M. et al., Relative Bioavailability of Two Forms of a Novel Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10. Ann Nutr Metab 2008; 52: 281-287
  7. Nukui K, Yamagishi T, Miyawaki H, et al. Comparison of uptake between PureSorb-Q40 and regular hydrophobic coenzyme Q10 in rats and humans after single oral intake. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007; 53: 187-90.
  8. Larsen, S., Stride, N., Hey-Mogensen, M., et al.,. 2013. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle: relation to decreased mitochondrial function and glucose intolerance.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 61, 44-53.
  9. Ghirlanda G, Oradei A, Manto A, Lippa S, Uccioli L, Caputo S, et al. Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993; 33 (3): 226-229.
  10. DiNicolantonio J, Bhutani J, McCarty M, O’Keefe J. Coenzyme Q10 for the treatment of heart failure: a review of the literature. Open Heart. 2015; 2 (1): e000326.
  11. Mantle D. Coenzyme Q10 and cardiovascular disease: an overview.October 2015. British J. Cardiology. 2015; 22: 160.
  12. Yamamoto Y. Coenzyme Q10 redox balance and a free radical scavenger drug. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2016: 595, 132-135

Proper nutrition. Healthy food

Why is proper nutrition important, what we can get in the end and how to act to achieve the desired result….

What goals will help you achieve healthy eating?

Nutrition is a vital process for our body; if you want to live, you need to eat.As a result of this process, we receive energy, building material for the renewal (growth) of the body, biologically active nutrients, and a certain effect on the psyche.

Proper nutrition can give us health, longevity and beauty. It assumes that many nutrients – proteins, carbohydrates, fats, water, minerals and vitamins – must be supplied to the body regularly, in the required amount and in optimal proportions.

A deficiency, as well as an excess of nutrients, first become the cause of temporary inconvenience, then the source of the development of diseases, a factor in premature aging and early death.

Thus, vitamin deficiency affects health, mind and youth much more than a number of other reasons. At the heart of most diseases is a lack of any vitamin. An unsatisfactory amount of minerals is the main mechanism of aging in the body, as is the process of dehydration. Imbalances in the diet of other nutritional components, such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins, act in a similar way on the body.

That is, on the basis of the above, we can conclude that it is necessary to have some information about the nutritional components, what they are, how much the body requires, what effect they have.And it is also desirable to understand the mechanisms of the digestive system, the process of digestion, assimilation. For example, why is it important to chew food thoroughly, which affects the absorption of nutrients; how you can save your own energy by optimizing your nutrition, etc.

Also healthy nutrition will provide an opportunity to stabilize weight without violent restrictions, will help get rid of diseases and prevent their development, will help restore intellectual and physical energy.That is, simply put, proper nutrition is one of the main paths that will lead us to health. And health, in turn, will give, first of all, good health, as well as a wonderful appearance and time so that we can achieve the goals that we set for ourselves in life.

Power Problems

The problem of nutrition at the global and state level is quite serious today. And you need to know about this and take it into account.

Deficiency of essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, etc.) is associated with a number of reasons:

  1. Due to a decrease in the physical activity of the population and, accordingly, a decrease in energy costs, the amount of food consumed has sharply decreased (2 – 3 times). That is, instead of 5,000 – 6,000 kcal, 2,000 – 3,000 kcal are consumed.
  2. The problem with the environment, on the one hand, is soil depletion, on the other, environmental pollution. That is, this leads to a lack of necessary biologically active substances in food for a person and to the concentration of toxic substances in his body.
  3. Modern production technologies (pasteurization, conservation, introduction of hormones, emulsification, refining, etc.) at all production stages cause the loss of minerals, vitamins and other biologically valuable elements. The main goal of these technologies is to increase the quantity in order to increase the profits of manufacturers, but not the quality of products.
  4. The use of high-temperature cooking modes provokes the loss of essential nutrients.For example, refining vegetable oils.
  5. Violation of the diet and structure, when they eat on the go, fatty, carbohydrate, monotonous, refined food with plentiful meals in the evening.

In Russia, the problem of nutrition is even larger in comparison with the leading developed countries. In fact, a rather sad situation, but quite solvable, if only there is a desire and you can make an effort.

Scientists have found a way to make up for the total lack of nutrients in the human body – biologically active additives have been developed, which for many decades have been successfully used in the leading developed countries of the world, among them Japan, the USA and others.

How to eat right?

Learning to eat right is not easy, you need an integrated approach, you need knowledge, certain skills.

Researchers, specialists in nutrition have developed various theories, concepts, nutrition programs. There is no single theory and system for all, but we have the opportunity to study information, disadvantages, advantages, principles, consequences, learn about reviews, etc. Choose for yourself the most suitable option and thus rationally organize your meals.This is in case you want to figure it out on your own. Alternatively, you can turn to dietitians and nutritionists for optimal dietary choices healthy nutrition .

It is also advisable to be interested in:

  • which foods are harmful, which ones are useful and why;
  • on the basis of what modern production technologies were these or those food products made, what food additives are in their composition;
  • which cooking technologies should be used and which not, after the use of which of them there will be more necessary nutrients;
  • diet and why it is important;
  • what dietary supplements are, their types, application, etc.d.

Most the correct nutrition will be the one that is selected for an individual specific person, taking into account his age, constitution, major and secondary diseases and other factors. This is very individual.

But in order to improve our health, feel good, preserve youth, beauty – it is reasonable to think about what we eat and wonder what to do in order to know more today and be better than yesterday

Recommended Reading:

Modern recommendations for healthy eating from American doctors

What is Coenzyme Q-10 | Phytopharmacy

Coenzyme Q-10

For the first time they started talking about Q 10 in the middle of the last century.Many chemists around the world have worked on it. And in 1978, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to the American scientist Peter Mitchell for the study of coenzyme Q10, its properties and how it affects the human body. And since 1997 a whole International Center for its study has been working. In Japan, a person may not even be hired if he does not accept him. What is this substance, and why is its study so highly appreciated? Let’s figure it out.
What is coenzyme Q10: Short spelling of coenzyme Q10 – CoQ10.Another name is ubiquinone. Translated from Greek, the name means “universal”, “omnipresent”. This substance is similar to vitamins, it is present in every cell of the body, where there is more, where less. It is directly involved in the formation of energy, regulates the use of oxygen, and inhibits aging. Under its influence, the action of many enzymes is enhanced. It is a great antioxidant and immunomodulator. In a word, this substance is urgently needed by the body. And at a young age, a person has it in the required amount.But with age, the amount of CoQ10 decreases. And because of its deficiency, periodontal disease, muscular dystrophy, hormonal and endocrine diseases can occur. This means that it needs to be replenished. And you can replenish it either with food, or by using preparations containing it directly. Muscles need CoQ10 most of all, because they are most involved in energy metabolism. First of all, this applies to the heart and the entire cardiovascular system. There is still a lot of it in the liver and kidneys – these organs carry a huge load to cleanse the entire body.
Contraindications Benefits to humans will be undeniable from coenzyme q10. Harm can only be in some cases, but complications can be expressed in the form of a short-term gastrointestinal upset. Before taking medications with him, you need to consult a doctor, especially for cardiac diseases, oncology, kidney disease. The doctor can adjust the amount of the drug you need personally.

How to take CoQ10 Remember that CoQ10 is a fat-soluble vitamin and must be taken with something high in fat, such as vegetable oil or oily fish.Otherwise, the body will only be able to assimilate a maximum of 10% CoQ10. If you eat even a slice of bread and butter with it, the benefits of coenzyme Q10 will be complete. Where CoQ10 is Found This coenzyme is found in high amounts in fatty fish, especially liver, fatty meats, organ meats, whole grain breads and bran. Some of it is found in brown rice, eggs, and greens. In addition, the human body itself is able to synthesize this substance. The synthesis takes place with the participation of a complex of vitamins of group B, A, C and tyrosine.But if a sufficient amount of these substances is not supplied with food, then coenzyme will not be produced enough. And this can lead to the development of various pathologies and diseases that cannot be cured only by taking drugs with coenzyme.
Benefits of Coenzyme Q10 Since CoQ10 is usually produced by the body itself in sufficient quantities until the age of 20-25 in a healthy person, there is no urgent need to take it additionally. Young people should take it in small amounts – 10-15 mg per day.It should be borne in mind that the effect of dietary supplements with CoQ10 can be mutually leveled if you take cholesterol-lowering drugs with them. For those who are engaged in hard physical labor. They consume this substance quickly, requiring constant replenishment. In stressful situations. It will not hurt students at all during the session. During any illness, even a minor cold. People with cardiac problems and hypertension. They need elevated levels of CoQ10 to support their heart function.It was found that before difficult operations, those who used CoQ10 tolerated them much easier, and postoperative recovery was faster. People with lowered immunity. It has a positive effect on AIDS patients and those with HIV. With atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. People over 40. They already produce this compound in insufficient quantities, and it is difficult to replenish the amount necessary for the body with food. Women require slightly more CoQ10 than men. CoQ10 in cardiovascular diseases CoQ10 has been found to significantly improve the condition of a person in cardiovascular diseases.With these diseases, blood circulation in the body worsens, especially in the capillaries. Stagnation forms in small vessels. And coenzyme Q10 promotes blood thinning, it moves better, is more oxygenated, better nourishes all tissues, including the heart. It reduces the risk of heart attack complications very well. Studies have shown that those patients who received CoQ10 supplements for a week recovered much sooner and almost never relapsed. CoQ10 has been shown to provide relief for people with ischemic stroke.Increased intake of this coenzyme helped patients recover in a shorter time. CoQ10 is good for hypertension and hypotension. Studies have confirmed that coenzyme Q10 is able to regulate blood pressure

How much CoQ10 does a person need On average, a healthy adult needs 30-50 mg per day. With various diseases, this amount increases. In case of cardiac problems, it is necessary to double the dose. With heavy physical exertion, even three to five times.It is essential for athletes during training. It can alleviate the condition even with such a terrible ailment as Parkinson’s disease, but it already requires almost 1500 mg per day. Preparations with coenzyme Q 10 are necessary to prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease. If you manage to “catch” it in the early stages, it can even be delayed for several years, but you will have to take drugs constantly. Cases of CoQ10 intake by women in the second half of pregnancy and during lactation have been described – no harm caused by coenzyme Q10 to the newborn baby.However, full studies have not been conducted, so pregnant women should use CoQ10 with caution. And before use, consult a doctor. Coenzyme Q10 for Skin As CoQ10 is an excellent antioxidant, it cleanses and rejuvenates the cells of the body, not only inside, but also outside. It copes well with the effects of free radicals, prevents the skin from aging and sagging. This compound is included in all anti-aging creams, lotions, serums – they perfectly nourish the skin of the face. It is also added to hair care products.But this amount is not enough – for the best effect it is necessary to take this drug in the form of food supplements and capsules – so it is absorbed much faster and more completely. In addition, when taken orally, CoQ10 acts throughout the body as a whole. So, on the skin too. When you use preparations with coenzyme Q10, instructions will be attached to it. And don’t be afraid to overdose. They are all harmless. A teaspoon of cream a day is often enough. How does coenzyme Q10 work for the face? The cream provides excellent mitochondrial function.This ensures the elasticity of the skin, it dries less, the depth of wrinkles decreases, the important hyaluronic acid is retained, which means that the skin stays young and blooming longer. In addition to coenzyme, the composition of cosmetics necessarily includes vitamin E – it helps CoQ10 to penetrate deeper into the body and not break down, to provide maximum benefit. In addition, he himself is necessary for the body.
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Features and benefits of coenzyme Q10

The first mentions of Q10 date back to the middle of the last century.The perspective of the direction attracted many scientists, but the Nobel Prize for the study of coenzyme Q10 was received by an American scientist named Peter Mitchell. It happened in 1978. And in 1997, the International Center for the study of the beneficial properties of substances was opened. The discoveries made over the years have led to the fact that, for example, in Japan, a job seeker may even be denied a job if he does not accept it. Why is coenzyme Q10 so valuable? Let’s take a closer look at this.

What is Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

The substance has an alternative name – ubiquinone. In Greek, it means “omnipresent” or “universal.” The name is due to the fact that coenzyme is structurally similar to vitamins, present in every cell of the body. It can be more or less, it depends on the purpose of the cell. CoQ10 is essential for maintaining human health. It inhibits aging, regulates oxygen distribution, and is involved in the formation of energy in cells.By interacting with a substance, many enzymes gain additional strength. It is also an excellent immunomodulator and antioxidant. The value of CoQ10 for the body can hardly be overestimated.

When a person is young, there is enough coenzyme Q10 in his body. However, with age, a lack of substance begins to affect. Its deficiency can lead to a number of severe pathologies. These are, for example, periodontal disease, endocrine and hormonal disorders, muscular dystrophy. The latter is the most common manifestation of CoQ10 deficiency.Without it, a full-fledged energy metabolism in muscle tissues is impossible. Coenzyme is equally important for vascular and heart health. And the kidneys and liver, without enough CoQ10, are unable to cope with the elimination of toxins from the body. It turns out that the activity of the whole organism depends on this important substance. And an adult can get it only with preparations containing CoQ10.

Contraindications for taking drugs with CoQ10

There are no absolute contraindications to taking the substance, but there are certain nuances associated with the condition of a particular person.When starting with CoQ10 medications, you should consult your doctor. Based on the patient’s condition, the presence of certain pathologies, the specialist will adjust the course of drugs. However, the worst consequence of improper intake of coenzyme is a short-term gastrointestinal upset.

Features of taking CoQ10

In order for the coenzyme to be absorbed in full, it must be taken correctly, not forgetting that it is a fat-soluble vitamin.Without fat, the body can assimilate a maximum of 10% of the substance. But if you take drugs with any oil or, for example, oily fish, CoQ10 is fully absorbed.

The human body independently synthesizes CoQ10 using vitamins of groups A, C, B, as well as tyrosine. But this is provided that these elements in sufficient quantities come from food. If there is a shortage of these vitamins, then the rate of production of CoQ10 will decrease. To avoid this, you need to eat a sufficient amount of rice, herbs, eggs, whole grain bread, fatty fish and meat, by-products.If you refuse food rich in these vitamins, then the production of coenzyme will stop. And this cannot be corrected solely by taking drugs containing CoQ10.

Benefits of taking CoQ10

Normally, the human body independently produces the required amount of CoQ10. But this lasts up to 20 – 25 years, then the amount of coenzyme begins to decline steadily. At a young age, you can additionally take CoQ10 in preparations, 15 mg / day will be enough.It is especially needed by people whose activities are associated with regular getting into stressful situations.

It is advisable to take drugs with CoQ10 for people engaged in physical labor, in which coenzyme is consumed with a vengeance, its amount simply does not have time to recover. Students preparing for challenging exams should also support themselves with coenzyme supplementation. The substance is necessary for people with any diseases, even if it is a common cold. Practice shows that people with sufficient CoQ10 content are much easier to tolerate any pathologies or surgical interventions, while the recovery period is shortened, and the risk of relapse is reduced.In addition, coenzyme is necessary for the weakness of the immune system, for example, in AIDS.

The positive role of CoQ10 in the treatment of any pathologies of the heart and blood vessels has been noted. With these diseases, the intensity of blood circulation in the vessels is noticeably reduced. Most of all, capillary blood circulation suffers, which leads to the development of stagnation. CoQ10 affects the consistency of blood by thinning it. With good circulation, there is a full supply of oxygen to all organs and systems, the heart is no exception.The recovery period after heart attacks and strokes is shortened, blood pressure is normalized in people with chronic hypertension and other problems associated with blood pressure.

After 40 years, coenzyme is produced in insufficient quantities, even with proper nutrition it is difficult to compensate for its deficiency. It has been noted that men require slightly less CoQ10 than women. In addition, you need to take into account that the amount of coenzyme decreases when taking drugs that affect the level of cholesterol in the body.Therefore, people who have reached adulthood are strongly advised to take drugs containing CoQ10.

How much CoQ10 does a person need

If a person who is in adulthood is absolutely healthy, he needs 30 – 50 mg / day. This number increases in the presence of various pathologies. Heart and vascular problems require a twofold increase in the dose. Heavy exercise can require up to 5x the amount of CoQ10.Therefore, the substance is vital for athletes who have reached adulthood. Without this, full-fledged training is impossible.

Parkinson’s disease is considered incurable, but taking coenzyme can help even with this terrible ailment. But this requires about 1500 mg / day. In addition, it has been observed that taking the substance prevents the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. This works only in the early stages of the disease, but it can significantly slow down its development, ensuring a full life.This requires constant intake of drugs containing CoQ10.

Cases of CoQ10 intake by pregnant and lactating mothers have been reported. There was no negative impact on the child, and the pregnancy also proceeded normally. However, there have been no full-fledged studies substantiating the advisability of taking coenzyme in pregnant women. Therefore, you need to take the substance with caution, constantly consulting your doctor.

It is difficult to imagine modern cosmetology without CoQ10.It has been proven that external use of coenzyme is no less effective than internal use. The substance turned out to be an excellent antioxidant, perfectly combating the effects of free radicals. CoQ10 fights skin aging and prevents sagging. Therefore, it is included in many skin care products. Their effectiveness is due to the effect on mitochondria, which helps to retain hyaluronic acid, giving the skin a blooming appearance. Creams and lotions contain vitamin E, which helps the coenzyme penetrate as deeply as possible into the skin for maximum benefits.

Hair care products are also not complete without CoQ10. In addition, you should buy coenzyme in preparations, then the effect will be complete. Tablets or capsules in combination with external agents have a healing effect not only on the hair, but on the entire body as a whole.

While taking CoQ10, you should not be afraid of overdose. The drugs are completely analogous to the substance produced by the body. In addition, instructions are attached to each of them, where the exact dosage is prescribed.But a consultation with a doctor will still not be superfluous.

Benefits of using coenzyme Q10 / Co-Q10 / ubiquinol in cancer

Highlights

Several small clinical studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 / ubiquinol supplementation may have potential benefits in various types of cancer such as breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, and liver cancer, either by lowering blood markers of inflammatory cytokines, or by improving the quality of treatment.life by reducing treatment side effects such as cardiotoxicity, decreasing relapses, or improving survival. Therefore, consuming foods rich in CoQ10 / CoQ10 may be beneficial for these cancer patients. Results need to be confirmed in larger studies.



What is Coenzyme Q10 / Co-Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) is a naturally occurring chemical in our bodies that is essential for growth and maintenance.It has strong antioxidant properties and also helps provide cells with energy. The active form of Co-Q10 is called ubiquinol. As we age, our body’s production of Co-Q10 decreases. It has been found that the risk of many diseases, especially in old age, is associated with a decrease in coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) levels.

Food Sources Coenzyme Q10 / Coq10

Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10 can also be obtained from foods such as:

  • Fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel.
  • Meats such as beef and pork
  • Vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower.
  • Nuts such as peanuts and pistachios.
  • sesame seeds
  • Meat by-products such as chicken liver, chicken heart, beef liver, etc.
  • Fruits such as strawberries
  • Soybeans

Besides natural food sources, Coenzyme-Q10 / CoQ10 is also available in the form of food additives in the form of capsules, chewable tablets, liquid syrups, wafers, and also in the form of intravenous injections.

General Health Benefits of Coenzyme Q10 / Co-Q10 / Ubiquinol

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is known to have a wide range of health benefits. Below are some of the common health benefits of Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10):

  • May help reduce the risk of heart disease
  • May help reduce migraines
  • May be beneficial for the brain and may help reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
  • May help treat infertility
  • May help lower cholesterol
  • May help improve physical performance in some people with muscular dystrophy (a group of conditions that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass).
  • May help prevent diabetes
  • May stimulate the immune system
  • May protect the heart from damage caused by certain chemotherapy drugs

Some studies also show that high levels of coenzyme Q10 may provide benefits associated with reducing the risk of certain diseases, including some types of cancer.

Foods to Eat After Cancer Diagnosis!

No two cancers are the same.Go beyond general dietary guidelines for everyone and make individual decisions about food and supplements with confidence.

Coenzyme Q10 / Ubiquinol Side Effects

Coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 rich foods are generally safe and tolerated. However, overuse of coenzyme Q10 can cause some side effects, including:

  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Upset stomach
  • Heartburn
  • Abdominal pain
  • Insomnia
  • Loss of appetite

Some people have also reported other side effects of coenzyme Q10, such as allergic skin rashes.

Coenzyme Q10 / Ubiquinol and Cancer

Coenzyme Q10 has generated some interest in the scientific community as older adults and people with medical conditions tend to have lower levels of CoQ10. Since cancer was also common in older people, and the risk of cancer increased with age, this has led to various studies to assess what effect this enzyme may actually have on the body. Below are examples of some of the studies done to evaluate the link between coenzyme Q10 and cancer.Let’s take a quick look at these studies and find out if consuming foods rich in coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 may benefit cancer patients or not.

Use of Co-Q10 / ubiquinol in breast cancer patients

Use of Co-Q10 / ubiquinol may reduce inflammatory markers in breast cancer patients.

In 2019, researchers from Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Health Sciences in Iran conducted a study to evaluate the potential effects / benefits that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) / ubiquinol supplementation may have on breast cancer patients.Chronic inflammation is known to increase tumor growth. Thus, they first tested the effect / benefit of CoQ10 / ubiquinol supplementation on certain inflammatory markers such as the cytokines Interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-8 (IL8), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the blood of 30 breast cancer patients. … receiving tamoxifen therapy, and 29 healthy subjects. Each group was divided into two: one group of breast cancer patients and healthy subjects received a placebo, and the other group received 100 mg of CoQ10 once a day for two months.

A study showed that CoQ10 supplementation reduced serum IL-8 and IL-6, but not VEGF, compared to placebo. (Zahrooni N et al., Ther Clin Risk Manag., 2019). Based on the results of this very small group of patients, CoQ10 supplementation may be effective in lowering inflammatory cytokine levels, thereby reducing the effects of inflammation that is caused in breast cancer patients. …

Co-Q10 / ubiquinol use may improve the quality of life in breast cancer patients.

For the same cohort of 30 breast cancer patients aged 19-49 years who took tamoxifen, divided into 2 groups, one of which took 100 mg / day of CoQ10 for two months, and the other group took a placebo, the researchers evaluated the effect on the quality of treatment. life (QoL) of breast cancer patients. After analyzing the data, the researchers concluded that CoQ10 supplementation has a significant effect on the physical, social and mental well-being of women with breast cancer.(Hosseini S.A. et al., Psychol Res Behav Manag., 2020).

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Use of Co-Q10 / ubiquinol may improve survival in end-stage cancer patients.

A study by N Hertz and RE Lister from Denmark assessed the survival of 41 end-stage cancer patients who received coenzyme Q supplements (10) and a blend of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, selenium, folic acid, and beta-carotene…. Primary cancers in these patients were localized to the chest, brain, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, colon, prostate, ovaries, and skin. The study found that the median actual survival was more than 40% greater than the median predicted survival. (N Hertz and RE Lister, J Int Med Res., Nov-Dec)

Researchers have concluded that coenzyme Q10 supplementation with other antioxidants may have potential benefits in terms of increasing the survival rate of patients with end-stage cancer, and have proposed larger clinical trials to confirm these benefits.

Coenzyme Q10 / ubiquinol may be beneficial in reducing the side effects of anthracyclines-induced cardiotoxicity in children with leukemia and lymphoma.

A study conducted by scientists from the Medical Surgical Institute of Cardiology, 2nd University of Naples in Italy, evaluated the effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy on cardiotoxicity in 20 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma who received anthracyclines. A study showed a protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on cardiac function during ANT therapy in these patients.(D. Yarussi et al., Mol Aspect Med., 1994)

The use of recombinant interferon alfa-2b and coenzyme Q10 as adjuvant postoperative therapy for melanoma may reduce relapses

A study by scientists from the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy, evaluated the effect of 3-year treatment with low doses of recombinant interferon alpha-2b and coenzyme Q10 on relapse after 5 years in stage I and II patients. melanoma (a type of skin cancer) and surgically removed lesions.(Luigi Rushiani et al., Melanoma Res., 2007)

Research has shown that long-term use of an optimized dose of recombinant interferon alfa-2b together with coenzyme Q10 significantly reduces relapse rates and has few side effects.

Low serum coenzyme Q10 levels may be associated with higher markers of inflammation after liver cancer surgery

In a study conducted by researchers from Taichung General Hospital for Veterans and Zhongshan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, they assessed the relationship between coenzyme Q10 levels and inflammation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) after surgery.The study found that liver cancer patients had significantly lower levels of coenzyme Q10 and significantly higher levels of inflammation after surgery. Thus, the researchers concluded that coenzyme Q10 could be considered an antioxidant therapy for liver cancer patients with more severe inflammation after surgery. (Xiao-Tian Liu et al., Nutrients., 2017)

Low levels of coenzyme Q10 may increase the risk of specific cancers

A study by scientists from Yuzunju Yil University, Van, Turkey showed that coenzyme Q10 levels were significantly lower in patients with lung cancer.(Ufuk Kobanoglu et al., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev., 2011)

Another study from the University of Hawaii at Manoa assessed the association of plasma CoQ10 levels with breast cancer risk in a case-control study of Chinese women as part of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and found that exceptionally high health women were low CoQ10 levels have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. (Robert W. Cooney et al., Biomarker Excess in Cancer Epidemiology, 2011.)

Conclusion

Impact on quality of life is an important area of ​​research as it affects virtually every aspect of a patient’s life. Many cancer survivors have a poor quality of life and deal with issues of fatigue, depression, migraines, inflammatory conditions, etc. Ingestion of foods rich in coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 / ubiquinol has the potential to benefit by stimulating the patient’s oxidative metabolism, which gives the patient more energy at the cellular level.Various small clinical trials have evaluated the effects of coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 / ubiquinol supplementation in patients with various types of cancer. They found that CoQ10 / ubiquinol supplementation has potential benefits for various types of cancer, such as breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, and liver cancer. CoQ10 has shown positive effects (benefits) by reducing levels of inflammatory cytokine markers in the blood and improving the quality of life of breast cancer patients, reducing treatment side effects such as anthracycline cardiotoxicity in children with leukemia and lymphoma, and reducing relapses in children.patients with melanoma; or improved survival in patients with end-stage cancer. However, much larger clinical trials are needed to make an actual conclusion on the efficacy / benefits of coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 / ubiquinol.

What food you eat and what supplements you take is your decision. Your decision should include consideration of cancer gene mutations, type of cancer, ongoing treatments and supplements, any allergies, lifestyle information, weight, height, and habits.

Nutrition planning for cancer from the add-on is not based on Internet searches. It automates the molecular science decision-making process implemented by our scientists and software developers. Whether you want to understand the underlying biochemical molecular pathways or not, this understanding is essential for cancer nutrition planning.

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Foods to Eat After Cancer Diagnosis!

No two cancers are the same. Go beyond general dietary guidelines for everyone and make individual decisions about food and supplements with confidence.