About all

Viral fever duration: The request could not be satisfied

Viral fever: Symptoms, causes, and diagnosis

A viral fever is a higher-than-average body temperature that a virus causes. Often, a person will experience symptoms that may include a runny nose, coughing, nausea, fatigue, and body aches.

While not every person experiences a fever when they have a virus, a fever can be a sign that the body is trying to fight off the infection.

Most viral illnesses will improve with time and supportive treatments such as cold compresses and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. However, having a body temperature that is too high may require medical attention.

A fever is the body’s natural reaction to exposure to disease-causing pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria.

The body’s increase in temperature can destroy the proteins in these pathogens to keep them from multiplying. Also, fever is an inflammatory response to the illness in the body.

The definition of a fever depends on a person’s age and where the temperature reading originates from.

According to the Seattle Children’s Hospital, the following are indicators of a fever in children:

  • Rectal, ear, or forehead: The temperature is higher than 100.4°F (38.0°C).
  • Oral: The temperature is higher than 100°F (37.8°C).
  • Under the armpit: The temperature is higher than 99°F (37.2°C).

The definition of fever can vary in adults. However, many doctors will consider a body temperature reading using an oral thermometer that is higher than 100°F (37.8°C) as a fever.

A viral fever can cause a person to feel fatigued, irritable, and achy. Additional symptoms may vary based on the virus causing the underlying illness.

For example, the roseola virus causes a fever for 2–3 days in children, followed by a rash that starts about 12–24 hours after the fever subsides.

There are many potential causes of viral illness, which may include cold and flu viruses.

Sometimes, a bacterial illness follows a viral one. This can make it difficult to tell the difference between the two and determine when a person may benefit from taking antibiotics.

Fevers without any other apparent underlying illness can be especially common in young children.

In a study of 75 children with a fever but no other signs of bacterial infection, the results of which appeared in the journal Pediatrics, an estimated 76 percent had one or more viruses in their system.

The most common viruses present were the adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6, enterovirus, and parechovirus. The paper estimated that less than 1 percent of fever-related illnesses with no appearance of a clear source in children under 3 were due to bacterial infections.

This means that viruses are an especially common cause of fevers among young children. Keeping this information in mind is important, as taking antibiotics will be ineffective in treating viral infections.

Prevention

An infected person can spread a viral illness by sneezing, breathing, or touching people or surfaces. Practices such as washing the hands frequently and often disinfecting surfaces can help keep these illnesses at bay.

A doctor will take a person’s health history and ask questions about their symptoms when diagnosing a potential viral fever. Examples of these questions may include when a person first noticed the symptoms and what makes these symptoms worse or better.

A doctor may order tests to identify the presence of viruses in a person’s blood, sputum, or urine.

For example, a rapid influenza diagnostic test involves taking cell samples from the back of the throat and testing them for the presence of influenza A or B proteins.

Not all tests for viral illnesses are available so quickly, however. In fact, some may require laboratory analysis to identify the specific virus.

However, it is not always necessary to send tests to the laboratory to diagnose a viral fever. A doctor may take into account a person’s symptoms to make this diagnosis.

According to Seattle Children’s Hospital, viruses cause an estimated 10 times the amount of infections that bacteria do.

Treatment for a viral fever depends upon the underlying cause, the degree of the fever, and other symptoms a person may be experiencing.

For example, a fever greater than 104°F (40°C) for children and 103°F (39.4°C) for adults can be a medical emergency. A person likely has a serious viral infection if their body temperature equals or exceeds these numbers.

For lower-grade fevers, treatments may include the following:

  • Taking OTC medications: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are both OTC medications that can relieve fever. Aspirin can also do this, but people under 18 should not take aspirin due to the risks of a condition called Reye’s syndrome. Antibiotics will not treat a fever due to viral illness.
  • Taking lukewarm baths: These can also soothe a feverish body.
  • Drinking cooled fluids: Sipping on cool water or electrolyte-containing solutions can help cool body temperatures and prevent dehydration related to illness.

A common misconception regarding fever is that using very cold water in a bath or applying it to the skin is effective. In actual fact, exposure to excessively cold temperatures can have an adverse effect on the body. A person should use lukewarm water for a bath instead.

If a person has a fever for longer than 3 days, or they have a temperature higher than 103°F (39.4°C) in adults, 102°F (38.9°C) in children, or 100.4°F (38°C) in infants, they should seek medical attention.

Body temperatures higher than this can cause seizures, hallucinations, and confusion, and they are symptoms of a more serious illness.

Viruses can cause fevers that may or may not result in other symptoms.

Most viruses will go away with time and supportive measures. However, if a viral fever is too high, a person should seek medical attention.

Viral fever: Symptoms, causes, and diagnosis

A viral fever is a higher-than-average body temperature that a virus causes. Often, a person will experience symptoms that may include a runny nose, coughing, nausea, fatigue, and body aches.

While not every person experiences a fever when they have a virus, a fever can be a sign that the body is trying to fight off the infection.

Most viral illnesses will improve with time and supportive treatments such as cold compresses and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. However, having a body temperature that is too high may require medical attention.

A fever is the body’s natural reaction to exposure to disease-causing pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria.

The body’s increase in temperature can destroy the proteins in these pathogens to keep them from multiplying. Also, fever is an inflammatory response to the illness in the body.

The definition of a fever depends on a person’s age and where the temperature reading originates from.

According to the Seattle Children’s Hospital, the following are indicators of a fever in children:

  • Rectal, ear, or forehead: The temperature is higher than 100.4°F (38.0°C).
  • Oral: The temperature is higher than 100°F (37. 8°C).
  • Under the armpit: The temperature is higher than 99°F (37.2°C).

The definition of fever can vary in adults. However, many doctors will consider a body temperature reading using an oral thermometer that is higher than 100°F (37.8°C) as a fever.

A viral fever can cause a person to feel fatigued, irritable, and achy. Additional symptoms may vary based on the virus causing the underlying illness.

For example, the roseola virus causes a fever for 2–3 days in children, followed by a rash that starts about 12–24 hours after the fever subsides.

There are many potential causes of viral illness, which may include cold and flu viruses.

Sometimes, a bacterial illness follows a viral one. This can make it difficult to tell the difference between the two and determine when a person may benefit from taking antibiotics.

Fevers without any other apparent underlying illness can be especially common in young children.

In a study of 75 children with a fever but no other signs of bacterial infection, the results of which appeared in the journal Pediatrics, an estimated 76 percent had one or more viruses in their system.

The most common viruses present were the adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6, enterovirus, and parechovirus. The paper estimated that less than 1 percent of fever-related illnesses with no appearance of a clear source in children under 3 were due to bacterial infections.

This means that viruses are an especially common cause of fevers among young children. Keeping this information in mind is important, as taking antibiotics will be ineffective in treating viral infections.

Prevention

An infected person can spread a viral illness by sneezing, breathing, or touching people or surfaces. Practices such as washing the hands frequently and often disinfecting surfaces can help keep these illnesses at bay.

A doctor will take a person’s health history and ask questions about their symptoms when diagnosing a potential viral fever. Examples of these questions may include when a person first noticed the symptoms and what makes these symptoms worse or better.

A doctor may order tests to identify the presence of viruses in a person’s blood, sputum, or urine.

For example, a rapid influenza diagnostic test involves taking cell samples from the back of the throat and testing them for the presence of influenza A or B proteins.

Not all tests for viral illnesses are available so quickly, however. In fact, some may require laboratory analysis to identify the specific virus.

However, it is not always necessary to send tests to the laboratory to diagnose a viral fever. A doctor may take into account a person’s symptoms to make this diagnosis.

According to Seattle Children’s Hospital, viruses cause an estimated 10 times the amount of infections that bacteria do.

Treatment for a viral fever depends upon the underlying cause, the degree of the fever, and other symptoms a person may be experiencing.

For example, a fever greater than 104°F (40°C) for children and 103°F (39.4°C) for adults can be a medical emergency. A person likely has a serious viral infection if their body temperature equals or exceeds these numbers.

For lower-grade fevers, treatments may include the following:

  • Taking OTC medications: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are both OTC medications that can relieve fever. Aspirin can also do this, but people under 18 should not take aspirin due to the risks of a condition called Reye’s syndrome. Antibiotics will not treat a fever due to viral illness.
  • Taking lukewarm baths: These can also soothe a feverish body.
  • Drinking cooled fluids: Sipping on cool water or electrolyte-containing solutions can help cool body temperatures and prevent dehydration related to illness.

A common misconception regarding fever is that using very cold water in a bath or applying it to the skin is effective. In actual fact, exposure to excessively cold temperatures can have an adverse effect on the body. A person should use lukewarm water for a bath instead.

If a person has a fever for longer than 3 days, or they have a temperature higher than 103°F (39. 4°C) in adults, 102°F (38.9°C) in children, or 100.4°F (38°C) in infants, they should seek medical attention.

Body temperatures higher than this can cause seizures, hallucinations, and confusion, and they are symptoms of a more serious illness.

Viruses can cause fevers that may or may not result in other symptoms.

Most viruses will go away with time and supportive measures. However, if a viral fever is too high, a person should seek medical attention.

Viral fever: Symptoms, causes, and diagnosis

A viral fever is a higher-than-average body temperature that a virus causes. Often, a person will experience symptoms that may include a runny nose, coughing, nausea, fatigue, and body aches.

While not every person experiences a fever when they have a virus, a fever can be a sign that the body is trying to fight off the infection.

Most viral illnesses will improve with time and supportive treatments such as cold compresses and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. However, having a body temperature that is too high may require medical attention.

A fever is the body’s natural reaction to exposure to disease-causing pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria.

The body’s increase in temperature can destroy the proteins in these pathogens to keep them from multiplying. Also, fever is an inflammatory response to the illness in the body.

The definition of a fever depends on a person’s age and where the temperature reading originates from.

According to the Seattle Children’s Hospital, the following are indicators of a fever in children:

  • Rectal, ear, or forehead: The temperature is higher than 100.4°F (38.0°C).
  • Oral: The temperature is higher than 100°F (37.8°C).
  • Under the armpit: The temperature is higher than 99°F (37.2°C).

The definition of fever can vary in adults. However, many doctors will consider a body temperature reading using an oral thermometer that is higher than 100°F (37. 8°C) as a fever.

A viral fever can cause a person to feel fatigued, irritable, and achy. Additional symptoms may vary based on the virus causing the underlying illness.

For example, the roseola virus causes a fever for 2–3 days in children, followed by a rash that starts about 12–24 hours after the fever subsides.

There are many potential causes of viral illness, which may include cold and flu viruses.

Sometimes, a bacterial illness follows a viral one. This can make it difficult to tell the difference between the two and determine when a person may benefit from taking antibiotics.

Fevers without any other apparent underlying illness can be especially common in young children.

In a study of 75 children with a fever but no other signs of bacterial infection, the results of which appeared in the journal Pediatrics, an estimated 76 percent had one or more viruses in their system.

The most common viruses present were the adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6, enterovirus, and parechovirus. The paper estimated that less than 1 percent of fever-related illnesses with no appearance of a clear source in children under 3 were due to bacterial infections.

This means that viruses are an especially common cause of fevers among young children. Keeping this information in mind is important, as taking antibiotics will be ineffective in treating viral infections.

Prevention

An infected person can spread a viral illness by sneezing, breathing, or touching people or surfaces. Practices such as washing the hands frequently and often disinfecting surfaces can help keep these illnesses at bay.

A doctor will take a person’s health history and ask questions about their symptoms when diagnosing a potential viral fever. Examples of these questions may include when a person first noticed the symptoms and what makes these symptoms worse or better.

A doctor may order tests to identify the presence of viruses in a person’s blood, sputum, or urine.

For example, a rapid influenza diagnostic test involves taking cell samples from the back of the throat and testing them for the presence of influenza A or B proteins.

Not all tests for viral illnesses are available so quickly, however. In fact, some may require laboratory analysis to identify the specific virus.

However, it is not always necessary to send tests to the laboratory to diagnose a viral fever. A doctor may take into account a person’s symptoms to make this diagnosis.

According to Seattle Children’s Hospital, viruses cause an estimated 10 times the amount of infections that bacteria do.

Treatment for a viral fever depends upon the underlying cause, the degree of the fever, and other symptoms a person may be experiencing.

For example, a fever greater than 104°F (40°C) for children and 103°F (39.4°C) for adults can be a medical emergency. A person likely has a serious viral infection if their body temperature equals or exceeds these numbers.

For lower-grade fevers, treatments may include the following:

  • Taking OTC medications: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are both OTC medications that can relieve fever. Aspirin can also do this, but people under 18 should not take aspirin due to the risks of a condition called Reye’s syndrome. Antibiotics will not treat a fever due to viral illness.
  • Taking lukewarm baths: These can also soothe a feverish body.
  • Drinking cooled fluids: Sipping on cool water or electrolyte-containing solutions can help cool body temperatures and prevent dehydration related to illness.

A common misconception regarding fever is that using very cold water in a bath or applying it to the skin is effective. In actual fact, exposure to excessively cold temperatures can have an adverse effect on the body. A person should use lukewarm water for a bath instead.

If a person has a fever for longer than 3 days, or they have a temperature higher than 103°F (39.4°C) in adults, 102°F (38.9°C) in children, or 100.4°F (38°C) in infants, they should seek medical attention.

Body temperatures higher than this can cause seizures, hallucinations, and confusion, and they are symptoms of a more serious illness.

Viruses can cause fevers that may or may not result in other symptoms.

Most viruses will go away with time and supportive measures. However, if a viral fever is too high, a person should seek medical attention.

Viral fever: Symptoms, causes, and diagnosis

A viral fever is a higher-than-average body temperature that a virus causes. Often, a person will experience symptoms that may include a runny nose, coughing, nausea, fatigue, and body aches.

While not every person experiences a fever when they have a virus, a fever can be a sign that the body is trying to fight off the infection.

Most viral illnesses will improve with time and supportive treatments such as cold compresses and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. However, having a body temperature that is too high may require medical attention.

A fever is the body’s natural reaction to exposure to disease-causing pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria.

The body’s increase in temperature can destroy the proteins in these pathogens to keep them from multiplying. Also, fever is an inflammatory response to the illness in the body.

The definition of a fever depends on a person’s age and where the temperature reading originates from.

According to the Seattle Children’s Hospital, the following are indicators of a fever in children:

  • Rectal, ear, or forehead: The temperature is higher than 100.4°F (38.0°C).
  • Oral: The temperature is higher than 100°F (37.8°C).
  • Under the armpit: The temperature is higher than 99°F (37.2°C).

The definition of fever can vary in adults. However, many doctors will consider a body temperature reading using an oral thermometer that is higher than 100°F (37.8°C) as a fever.

A viral fever can cause a person to feel fatigued, irritable, and achy. Additional symptoms may vary based on the virus causing the underlying illness.

For example, the roseola virus causes a fever for 2–3 days in children, followed by a rash that starts about 12–24 hours after the fever subsides.

There are many potential causes of viral illness, which may include cold and flu viruses.

Sometimes, a bacterial illness follows a viral one. This can make it difficult to tell the difference between the two and determine when a person may benefit from taking antibiotics.

Fevers without any other apparent underlying illness can be especially common in young children.

In a study of 75 children with a fever but no other signs of bacterial infection, the results of which appeared in the journal Pediatrics, an estimated 76 percent had one or more viruses in their system.

The most common viruses present were the adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6, enterovirus, and parechovirus. The paper estimated that less than 1 percent of fever-related illnesses with no appearance of a clear source in children under 3 were due to bacterial infections.

This means that viruses are an especially common cause of fevers among young children. Keeping this information in mind is important, as taking antibiotics will be ineffective in treating viral infections.

Prevention

An infected person can spread a viral illness by sneezing, breathing, or touching people or surfaces. Practices such as washing the hands frequently and often disinfecting surfaces can help keep these illnesses at bay.

A doctor will take a person’s health history and ask questions about their symptoms when diagnosing a potential viral fever. Examples of these questions may include when a person first noticed the symptoms and what makes these symptoms worse or better.

A doctor may order tests to identify the presence of viruses in a person’s blood, sputum, or urine.

For example, a rapid influenza diagnostic test involves taking cell samples from the back of the throat and testing them for the presence of influenza A or B proteins.

Not all tests for viral illnesses are available so quickly, however. In fact, some may require laboratory analysis to identify the specific virus.

However, it is not always necessary to send tests to the laboratory to diagnose a viral fever. A doctor may take into account a person’s symptoms to make this diagnosis.

According to Seattle Children’s Hospital, viruses cause an estimated 10 times the amount of infections that bacteria do.

Treatment for a viral fever depends upon the underlying cause, the degree of the fever, and other symptoms a person may be experiencing.

For example, a fever greater than 104°F (40°C) for children and 103°F (39.4°C) for adults can be a medical emergency. A person likely has a serious viral infection if their body temperature equals or exceeds these numbers.

For lower-grade fevers, treatments may include the following:

  • Taking OTC medications: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are both OTC medications that can relieve fever. Aspirin can also do this, but people under 18 should not take aspirin due to the risks of a condition called Reye’s syndrome. Antibiotics will not treat a fever due to viral illness.
  • Taking lukewarm baths: These can also soothe a feverish body.
  • Drinking cooled fluids: Sipping on cool water or electrolyte-containing solutions can help cool body temperatures and prevent dehydration related to illness.

A common misconception regarding fever is that using very cold water in a bath or applying it to the skin is effective. In actual fact, exposure to excessively cold temperatures can have an adverse effect on the body. A person should use lukewarm water for a bath instead.

If a person has a fever for longer than 3 days, or they have a temperature higher than 103°F (39.4°C) in adults, 102°F (38.9°C) in children, or 100.4°F (38°C) in infants, they should seek medical attention.

Body temperatures higher than this can cause seizures, hallucinations, and confusion, and they are symptoms of a more serious illness.

Viruses can cause fevers that may or may not result in other symptoms.

Most viruses will go away with time and supportive measures. However, if a viral fever is too high, a person should seek medical attention.

Is it a Bacterial Infection or Virus?

In some cases we become more concerned that the infection may be caused by a bacterial infection. Bacterial infections may be the result of “secondary infection” (meaning that the virus initiated the process but a bacteria followed) when the:

  • Symptoms persist longer than the expected 10-14 days a virus tends to last
  • Fever is higher than one might typically expect from a virus
  • Fever gets worse a few days into the illness rather than improving

Sinusitis, ear infections, and pneumonias are common examples of secondary infections. For example, a runny nose that persists beyond 10-14 days may be a sinus infection that would be best treated with an antibiotic. Ear pain and new onset fever after several days of a runny nose is probably an ear infection. Depending on your child’s age, these infections may or may not require an antibiotic.

Pneumonia may be detected by persistent cough, stomach ache, or difficulty breathing. Your physician may diagnose pneumonia by physical exam or may request a chest x-ray.

Other bacterial illnesses that we are concerned about include urinary tract infections (UTIs), which can be hard to detect and can cause kidney damage if they are untreated. If your child has a fever without a great source of infection, your doctor will likely want to check the urine. UTIs are more common in little girls and in baby boys under one year of age who are not circumcised.

More serious concerns are bacterial illnesses like sepsis (bacteria in the blood) and bacterial meningitis (bacterial infection in the lining of the brain and spinal cord). We become concerned about meningitis in older children with a stiff neck or changes in mental status. Babies are less likely to be able to show us these symptoms, and we are more likely to do more tests on them to make sure these infections are not part of the illness.

Remember that many of the vaccines that your child receives in the first years are meant to prevent these serious bacterial infections.

Do’s and Don’ts of Fighting a Viral Fever

It’s winter in Suffolk County! That means evenings by the fire, snowball fights, and sometimes, fever. A fever is your body’s response to an illness or infection. Keep in mind, unless it rises too high, a fever can be a good thing. Whether caused by a bacterial infection or a virus, a fever helps your body recover. Take a minute and read about the dos and don’ts of fighting a viral fever.

Do Take Medicine for a Viral Fever

One of the most common ways you can fight a viral fever is with over-the- counter (OTC) medications. Keep in mind a low-grade fever of between 98.7°F and 100.4°F may not need medication. If your fever is higher, you’re experiencing discomfort, or your fever lingers for longer than 24 hours, your doctor may suggest you take acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

Don’t Expect to Take Antibiotics

Sometimes patients feel a bit disappointed when they visit one of the urgent medical centers and go home without a prescription. Unless they suspect you have a bacterial infection such as strep throat, doctors don’t prescribe antibiotics to treat fevers. If your fever is caused by a virus, such as a cold or influenza, an antibiotic won’t cure it or relieve the symptoms. Rest assured, by not prescribing an unnecessary medication, your doctor is looking out for your health. Speaking of rest, it’s a great fever treatment!

Do Get Plenty of Rest

The funny thing about fevers is that activity can raise the body’s temperature. This means if you already have a fever and continue with your normal level of activity, you can interfere with your body and its attempts to fight the fever. It’s one reason why doctors prescribe rest as part of a fever treatment regimen. Fevers also tend to make you feel tired, so the need for rest makes sense.

Don’t Forget to Drink Water

When you have something higher than a low-grade fever, your body can easily lose fluids. This may result in dehydration. The best way to avoid dehydration is to drink plenty of water. If you’re a person who finds water a bit boring, you can drink clear soup broth, Pedialyte, very diluted juice, or suck on ice chips. The main drink should be water but don’t hesitate to include the others as well.

Do Keep Your Cool

Since a fever makes your body temperature rise, one of your goals is to cool your body down. Take off heavy layers of winter clothing. It might be cold outside, but a body with a fever prefers a lightweight shirt. You can also apply a cool cloth to your forehead or take a cool sponge bath.

If you think you have a fever that’s too high or you’re simply not feeling well and want to talk to the staff at a medical health center in Suffolk County, NY, contact Peconic Bay Medical Center at (631) 548-6000 and schedule an appointment.

Facts about Influenza (the Flu)

What is influenza?

Influenza, often called the flu, is an acute infection of the upper airway caused by an influenza A or B virus.

Getting sick with influenza also puts you at risk of other infections. These include viral or bacterial pneumonia which affect the lungs. The risk of complications can be life-threatening. Seniors 65 years and older, very young children, people who have lung or heart diseases, certain chronic health conditions or weakened immune systems are at greater risk.

Healthy pregnant women in the second half of their pregnancy are at greater risk of hospitalization following infection with influenza virus.

In Canada, thousands of people are hospitalized and may die from influenza and its complications during years with widespread or epidemic influenza activity.

How can you prevent influenza?

You can reduce the risk of getting influenza or spreading it to others by:

  • Washing your hands regularly
  • Cleaning and disinfecting objects and surfaces that a lot of people touch
  • Promptly disposing of used tissues in the waste basket or garbage
  • Coughing and sneezing into your shirt sleeve rather than your hands
  • Staying home when you are ill
  • Getting an influenza vaccine

Getting an influenza vaccine can help prevent you from getting sick with influenza and from spreading it to others.

How does influenza spread?

Influenza spreads easily from person to person through coughing, sneezing or face-to-face contact.

The virus can also spread when a person touches tiny droplets from a cough or a sneeze on another person or object and then touches their own eyes, mouth or nose before washing their hands.

An infected person can spread the influenza virus even before feeling sick. An adult can spread the virus from about 1 day before to 5 days after symptoms start. Young children may be able to spread the virus for a longer period of time.

What are the symptoms?

Influenza symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, runny nose, sore throat, extreme tiredness and cough. Children may also experience nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Although infections from other viruses may have similar symptoms, those due to the influenza virus tend to be worse.

Symptoms can begin about 1 to 4 days, or an average of 2 days, after a person is first exposed to the influenza virus. Fever and other symptoms can usually last up to 7 to 10 days, but the cough and weakness may last 1 to 2 weeks longer.

What is the home treatment?

If you get sick with influenza, home treatment can help ease symptoms. Follow the self-care advice below:

  • Get plenty of rest
  • Drink extra fluids to replace those lost from fever
  • Avoid smoking and ask others not to smoke in the house
  • Breathe moist air from a hot shower or from a sink filled with hot water to help clear a stuffy nose
  • Anti-influenza drugs or antivirals are available by prescription, but these must be started within 48 hours of the start of your symptoms to work best. These will shorten symptoms by about 3 days if given within 12 hours and by about 1.5 days if given within 2 days of the start of symptoms
  • Non-prescription cough and cold medications are available for relief of influenza symptoms but are not recommended for children under 6 years old

Acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol®) or ibuprofen* (e.g. Advil®) can be given for fever or soreness. ASA (e.g. Aspirin®) should not be given to anyone under 18 years of age due to the risk of Reye Syndrome.

*Ibuprofen should not be given to children under 6 months of age without first speaking to your health care provider.

For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.

When should I see a health care provider?

Consult your health care provider early if you develop flu-like symptoms and you have a condition that puts you at higher risk of complications.

You should also call your health care provider if your symptoms get worse, such as shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, chest pain or signs of dehydration (such as dizziness when standing or low urine output).

Is it influenza or a cold?

The following table can help you determine whether you have influenza or a cold.

For More Information

For more information, see the following HealthLinkBC Files:

Symptoms Cold Influenza (the flu)
Fever Rare Usual, sudden onset 39º to 40ºC (102.2 to 104ºF), lasts up to 3 to 4 days
Headache Rare Usual, can be severe
Aches and pains Sometimes mild Usual, often severe
Fatigue and weakness Sometimes mild Usual, may last 2 to 3 weeks or more
Extreme fatigue Unusual Usual, early onset, can be severe
Runny, stuffy nose Common Sometimes
Sneezing Common Sometimes
Sore throat Common Sometimes
Chest discomfort, coughing Sometimes mild to moderate Usual, can be severe
Complications Can lead to sinus congestion or earache Can lead to pneumonia, respiratory failure, and more complications in persons with chronic diseases
Prevention Frequent hand washing Yearly influenza vaccine and frequent hand washing
Treatment No specific treatment is available; symptom relief only Antiviral drugs by prescription, which can reduce symptoms

90,000 West Nile Virus

West Nile Virus (WNV) was discovered in 1937 in Africa, near the river
Nile. The virus belongs to the flavivirus family and it is relatively simple
arranged viruses that contain a small RNA molecule. Virus particle
about 60 nanometers in size, it consists of RNA, three proteins and a lipid membrane.
This structure of the viral particle is typical for all flaviviruses, and today
about 70 species are known. Most flaviviruses are capable of causing severe
diseases of humans and domestic animals.Most significant to humans
flavivirus infections are associated with Dengue, yellow fever, Japanese
encephalitis, West Nile and tick-borne encephalitis. These five viruses cause
annually up to 200 million human cases in various countries of the world.
Moreover, mortality from some of the most dangerous flaviviruses can reach
60%. A characteristic feature of these viruses is that they are
natural focal diseases, and a person, as a rule, becomes infected through a bite
mosquito or tick.Flaviviruses are also capable of forming foci of infection in
large cities and residents of large cities very often become victims
these serious infectious diseases.

For a long time, it was believed that VZN was not capable of causing significant outbreaks
diseases in humans, and is common only in Africa. Description of the first outbreaks
diseases of West Nile fever (WNF) in Israel was the impetus for
studies of the spread of this virus and it soon became clear that the virus
widespread in Africa, southern Europe and Asia.The virus was transmitted
a person through a mosquito bite and caused a benign viral fever,
which ended in recovery after a few days.

Today it is believed that the history of the spread of the modern VZN genovariant
started with an outbreak in Algeria in 1994 with 50 cases
diseases and 8 people died from severe viral encephalitis. Next
an outbreak of WNV was reported in Romania in 1996. Doctors recorded
453 cases of the disease and 9% of cases died.And “modern fame” came to
VZN in 1999. This year, a large outbreak of WNV was recorded in
Volgograd and Astrakhan, as well as fundamentally important that it was then
the appearance of WNV was also recorded on the American continent (an outbreak in
central New York in the United States). It took VZN only three years to
spread almost throughout the United States and the southern regions
Canada. Such a high rate of distribution of WNV in new geographic
areas was due to the fact that many species of birds were susceptible to
a new WNV genovariant, and the virus spread to new territories of the Northern
America with the speed of a bird.And in 2006-2007. VZN has already appeared in the countries
South America and reached the southern coast of this continent. Today in the North
America (USA and Canada) every year there are thousands of cases of severe
human diseases caused by this virus.

A similar picture was observed in our country. Employees of “Vector” already in
In 2002, the appearance of VZN was registered in the south of the Novosibirsk region near
migratory birds. This has been confirmed many times in the following years.Moreover, in
2004 the first cases of human disease were detected in our region. IN
samples collected on the territory of the Primorsky Territory and the city of Vladivostok in
2002-2004, WZN was also identified. This actually meant that the virus,
appeared in countries located near the Mediterranean in the mid-90s
years, for several years made an almost round the world trip and
widely, if not universally, spread in America, Africa, Asia and Europe.

These unusual findings stimulated active research into genetic
the structure of the RNA of the pathogen. Genetic analysis quickly allowed
to reconstruct the WZN propagation path. It was found that modern
VZN variant appeared in 1996 in Romania, then was identified in Israel, crossed
ocean and was discovered in the USA and Canada, followed by the countries of Central and
South America. Another branch of the spread of the virus was directed to the south of Russia
and further to the Pacific coast of Asia.Almost at the same time it was found out
that the Kunjin virus, previously considered a typical Australian virus, is
just a kind of VZN. This allowed us to conclude that under the conditions
modern civilization, practically before our very eyes, VZN won practically
all continents, except perhaps Antarctica, within just a few
years with the help of migratory birds. But the registration of the death of polar bears from VZN in
Canada allows us to say that the emergence of this virus can be expected even in
Arctic and Antarctica.

Leading employees of the Vector involved in work with
West Nile virus:

Doctor of Biological Sciences Kazachinskaya E.I .; Ph.D. Ternovoy V.A .; head department, prof., d.b.s. V.B. Loktev; Doctor of Biological Sciences Razumov I.A .;
Ph.D. Svyatchenko V.A .; Ph.D. E.V. Protopopova

This behavior is completely atypical for viruses, the circulation of which requires
the formation of a natural focus of the disease, and a person gets sick, only
invading this natural hearth, and at the same time is not a further
the distributor of the virus.Unusual success of WZN in the formation of new natural
foci of this infection on different continents of the planet are associated with a number
circumstances: this is the ability of the virus to reproduce in hundreds of bird species, in
dozens of mosquito and tick species, dozens of mammalian species, and even
reptiles; these are climatic and natural changes; is creating conditions for
breeding mosquitoes in rural and urban areas. Even a small increase
the average summer temperature for several weeks is enough to share
mosquitoes infected with WNV increased significantly and an outbreak of the disease occurred.

The main route of human infection is a mosquito bite. Therefore, most
diseases are recorded in the second half of summer and autumn. Incubation
the period of the disease is 6-8 days and the disease begins with an increase
temperature. Most often, viral fever of varying severity develops
and duration. This form of the disease is very similar to the usual viral
flu and very often the correct diagnosis is simply not made. 10-20 percent
patients develop viral encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, these are severe forms
diseases and they require treatment in a hospital setting.Clinic of the disease
very similar to tick-borne encephalitis and with this form of the disease
mortality can reach 10% or more. Correctly differentiate tick-borne
encephalitis and WNN are possible only with the help of laboratory methods. Special
poor prognosis in older and elderly people, children get sick
much easier.

A very important point of this infection is associated with the fact that many people after
the bite of an infected mosquito, the disease does not develop or disappears
asymptomatic form.The reasons for this are not entirely clear. As a rule, one
sick there are 4-5 people with an asymptomatic form of the disease. This people
may pose a threat to others if they donate blood or
using their organs for transplantation. Many deaths described,
when WNV developed after a blood transfusion or organ transplant. it
forced the US to introduce a compulsory VZN test for blood and organ products
for transplantation, since it is usually possible to establish the fact of infection only with
using laboratory diagnostic methods.

In our country, WNV cases were usually associated with the Caspian Sea region and
the Volga delta. Selective serological studies suggest that
the majority of the local population has been ill with PWN, in one form or another. Officially
in this region, from several dozen to several
hundreds of cases of WNV. These are, of course, severe forms of the disease that require treatment in
hospital conditions. Selective serological studies in the south of Siberia and
Primorsky Krai show that up to 20% of the local population were infected with WNV
or have had WNV.Unfortunately, cases of correct diagnosis of WNV remain
single. To solve this problem, the specialists of “Vector” in collaboration with
CJSC “Vector Best” has developed and is producing diagnostic kits for
diagnostics of WNV in patients and monitoring the circulation of WNV in nature. Sets
are used in various regions of the country with good reviews about their quality. AND
if the problems of diagnosing this new disease for us are already practically
are solved, the problems of treatment and prevention of WNV are still far from being solved.it
the problem is not only for our country, there is simply no money in the whole world now
vaccination and immunization of this new disease. Of course, in many
laboratories of the world are conducting intensive research to develop
vaccines and means of immunoprophylaxis of WNN. The staff of the Vector also proposed
a new method for the prevention and treatment of this infection based on gene therapy.
However, it is too early to expect its immediate implementation into practice. Required
additional tests of the drug and the creation of technology for its
production, which requires several more years of intense research.

Without a doubt, the West Nile virus is now a real threat to
domestic animals and the population of the vast regions of the south of our country. Appearance in
our area of ​​this new virus was an unpleasant surprise and today in
the list of highly pathogenic flaviviruses circulating in the south of Siberia is
tick-borne encephalitis virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and new for
us West Nile virus. Many flaviviruses are carried by birds, which
makes possible the appearance in the south of Siberia and other dangerous flaviviruses.These
the facts require continued monitoring of WNV and other flaviviruses in their
natural foci, assessing the direction of their evolution, genetic variability,
improving methods of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these dangerous
infectious diseases.

Head of the Department of Molecular Virology
flaviviruses and viral hepatitis

SSC VB “Vector”,

Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences,

full member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

Valery Borisovich Loktev


Lassa fever, for which there is no vaccine, is spreading in Nigeria

  • Dr. Charlie Weller
  • Wellcome Trust

Photo author, Alamy

Photo caption,

Lassa virus

From the beginning Nigeria is gripped by an outbreak of Lassa fever.This potentially fatal disease can cause epidemics, and there is currently no vaccine available against it.

Lassa fever is not a new disease, but the current outbreak is unprecedented in scale and speed of spread.

Medical staff are working to the limit, some of them themselves have become infected and become victims of the disease.

Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic disease that can affect various organs and destroy blood vessels.

In most of those infected, the disease is mild – fever, headache, general weakness – or no symptoms at all.

But in acute cases, the course of the disease can be similar to Ebola – another dangerous hemorrhagic fever – with bleeding from the nose, mouth and other parts of the body.

According to statistics, death occurs in about 1% of cases. However, with the current outbreak in Nigeria, the death rate is as high as 20% in confirmed and suspected infections, according to the National Center for Infectious Disease Control.

Since January, more than 1,000 suspected cases of Lassa fever have been reported in Nigeria, of which 317 have been confirmed.

According to rough estimates, the virus took about 90 lives, but in reality this number may be higher, since the disease is difficult to diagnose. In its early stages, it is almost indistinguishable from malaria and dengue.

For women who become infected late in pregnancy, the probability of losing a child or dying on their own is 80%.

Since there is no specific test for this virus, the only way to detect it is by examining a blood or tissue sample in one of the few specialized laboratories.

The disease was first discovered in 1969 in the Nigerian city of Lassa, after an outbreak occurred at a local hospital.

The virus has since been found in other countries in West Africa, including Ghana, Mali and Sierra Leone.

But the current outbreak is of particular concern, as the number of illnesses for this time of year is unprecedented.

Sanitary services are trying to establish what caused the epidemic.

Photo author, Science Photo Library

Photo caption,

Carriers of the Lassa virus are multi-nippled mastomis rats

The appearance of outbreaks can be influenced by seasonal changes in weather conditions, which affects the number of natural “hosts” of the virus – mastomis or Natal mice (Mastomys natalensis) – local rodents, combining traits of both mice and rats.

These small mammals are widespread in West Africa and can easily enter living quarters.

It is also possible that more diseases have become known due to the increased awareness of society. Or the virus itself has undergone some changes.

Most of the patients contracted the infection through food contaminated with mouse secretions – feces, urine or saliva, eating them or simply bringing them home.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Due to the threat of the spread of infection, officials have banned the popular in Nigeria harry grits, which is the basis for many national dishes

The infection can also be transmitted from person to person – by airborne droplets, therefore physicians working without protective equipment and family members of patients are especially at risk.

Lassa’s incubation period lasts up to three weeks.

Researchers are trying to understand whether Lassa, like Ebola, can remain in the body and be sexually transmitted over time – after the disease has receded.

Nigeria has a strong healthcare system with proven methods to cope with such epidemics.

The Nigerian authorities are working in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to coordinate protective measures. The British authorities dispatched a team of medical experts from the operational support team to the affected areas.

Residents in the affected areas are urged to follow basic precautions: plug the gaps through which mice can enter the house, close trash cans, and store food and water in tightly sealed containers.

Those caring for the sick are advised to wear protective gloves and to practice safe burial practices.

However, despite all the measures taken, the fight against the Lassa virus – as well as against other infectious diseases – is significantly complicated by the lack of medicines, including diagnostic materials, drugs and vaccines.

The Lassa fever vaccine is likely to be developed shortly to avoid the threat of a worldwide spread of the epidemic. But, as in the case of other infectious diseases, affecting mainly poor countries, this process is noticeably stalled.

Vaccine development is a long, complex and costly process. Especially when it comes to emerging epidemic diseases in which a prototype vaccine can only be tested during an outbreak.

In 2017, a new international initiative emerged – the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). With financial support from the Wellcome Trust, governments around the world, and Bill and Melinda Gates, the organization seeks to accelerate the development of vaccines, including those against the causative agent of Lassa fever.

The organization hopes that within five years it will be able to develop and prepare one or more vaccines for widespread testing.

Photo author, EPA

Photo caption,

In 2014-1015, Ebola claimed more than 11,000 lives in West Africa

WHO has compiled a list of other serious and often poorly understood diseases with the potential to cause outbreaks. Among them are Middle East Coronavirus Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Nipah virus, Rift Valley virus, and of course Ebola.

The organization plans to conduct research and fill knowledge gaps about these diseases. But research alone isn’t enough.

The countries most affected by epidemics need stronger health systems, including quality medical equipment and training for medical personnel.

In addition, community outreach is needed to educate people to understand how to detect outbreaks early and prevent their spread.

About This Story

This Story The BBC has asked for an expert from a third party to be trained.

Dr. Charlie Weller is Head of Vaccines at the Wellcome Trust, which positions itself as an international healthcare charity.

Viral Thread – BRICS Business Magazine

The virus that causes Ebola is a member of the filovirus family, named for its unique filamentous structure. Science knows at least six subtypes of the Ebola virus, of which the most dangerous for humans is Zaire, named after the place where the virus was isolated.Harmless – Lioviu and Reston.

Ebola fever is a natural focal infectious disease. People become infected, get sick and die mainly on the territory of its natural foci. Epidemiologists know the boundaries of secondary foci of the virus, delineated by diseases among humans, monkeys, bats, and antibodies in the serum of other mammals. Within these boundaries, infection occurs through the meat of sick monkeys, bats (which is still controversial among scientists) and human excreta.

We know a lot about Ebola.The genome of the virus has been completely deciphered, the morphology of the viral particle has been studied, all proteins included in it have been purified and investigated, the pathogenesis and immunology of the disease it causes are described in detail. Military specialists studied this virus in their own way and attributed it to potential agents of biological weapons.

However, we did not find out the main thing. Which living creature is its primary reservoir, thanks to which the virus is maintained in nature for millions of years; what are the real boundaries of primary natural foci and for what reasons can they quickly become active and form secondary foci that are fatal to humans on vast territories.

Human susceptibility to the Ebola virus is very high and poorly understood. Several viral particles that have entered the blood of a person are already causing the development of the disease. In this case, the probability of death reaches 60%. The chances of survival increase when an infection with a less dangerous subtype occurs and the dose of the virus that has entered the blood is lower than the certainly lethal one. Of course, a person’s genetic susceptibility to the virus, patient care in a hospital, the optimal treatment regimen, and so on are also important.

Time after infection may not play any role. The well-known case of intra-laboratory infection in the Novosibirsk “Vektor” was just that rare situation when the infected immediately reported the incident to the doctors. But the amount of the virus that got into the blood was so great that all the efforts of doctors were useless.

Until now, no specific treatment for fever has been developed, all medical measures are symptomatic and pathogenetic in nature.The recovery period after suffering a fever reaches three months. Complications can be very different: anorexia, psychosis, hepatitis, serum sickness (during treatment) and others. It happens that from African hospitals, having come to their senses, such patients run away, preferring to be treated by the sorcerers of their tribe.

No epidemic

Judging by the emotional statements of the Western media and politicians, the Ebola fever is about to sweep the entire planet. It seems that the authors of such hypotheses got an idea of ​​epidemics from the American action movie “Virus” starring Jimmy Curtis.In reality, epidemics are very complex natural disasters, and they do not arise from the emergence of a “new virus”. If the country does not have its natural foci of Ebola, then the catastrophic spread of the fever will not occur.

The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is very limited – not a pandemic. Some provinces of countries where the virus was widespread were not covered with fever at all. In addition, official statistics show that the Ebola outbreak is gradually dying down.

Fever does not cover all large and large areas, because the virus is not transmitted by airborne droplets, therefore, it cannot spread along the chain, as it happens, for example, with smallpox or influenza. All known imported cases of the disease reported in Europe and the United States occurred in medical institutions and were associated with violations of special safety measures by medical personnel.

Isolated cases of the penetration of the virus that causes Ebola fever into Europe or Russia will not lead to anything.Such patients will be identified and isolated. Persons who have been in contact with them will be subject to observation, that is, daily medical supervision without being quarantined.

In this respect, not everything in Russia is as badly organized as it is commonly believed. The local approach to fighting Ebola is correct: there is no panic or rush about fever. Anti-epidemic measures consist in the implementation of surveillance of persons entering the country from countries endemic for Ebola.Doctors from other countries do the same.

Meanwhile, Western politicians and the WHO, under the pretext of a pandemic, do not stop collecting money for the “vaccine” and “fight”. For example, the United States has criticized some countries for taking insufficient efforts in the fight against Ebola. The reasons are different. Some, perhaps, simply do not have the funds to develop the appropriate healthcare infrastructure: they need hospitals with special engineering systems, diagnostic equipment, medicines, doctors, elementary order in the country.But Russia has it all. The reason, in my opinion, is Washington’s selfish arrogance. Here they want to receive the title of saviors of mankind from Ebola in advance – therefore, they inflate its danger in every possible way – and at the same time give transnational corporations an opportunity to earn money. Judging by the development of the epidemic catastrophe that we are now witnessing in West Africa, the United States does not influence it in any way, and indeed cannot influence it. For the United States itself, Ebola does not threaten anything serious, except for isolated imported cases.But when the epidemic dies down on its own, then American politicians will declare their victory over the fever.

No medicine

Scientists in many countries continue to search for a cure for Ebola, but so far, unfortunately, unsuccessfully. 20 years ago, Russian military researchers created a means of specific emergency prophylaxis – immunoglobulin, which allows an infected person to survive. This drug must be administered immediately in case of infection, while the virus has not yet had time to settle in macrophages.However, such a reaction is only possible with laboratory infection. Which of the people who have fallen ill in the outbreak of Ebola knows the moment of their infection? The incubation period of the disease reaches 20 days. For treatment, immunoglobulin is not suitable, since specific antibodies to the virus cause an increase in the infection.

Despite the current magnitude of the outbreak, Ebola is declining with
September and has already “left” from many territories of the states of West Africa, in
She will not come to Russia. The situation will soon return to its previous level
morbidity of the population in the region – 100-200 cases per year.But the problem
will remain: we still don’t know when and why it is returning

Judging by the increase in the number of publications in scientific journals, the current outbreak of Ebola has become a powerful impetus for its study. Perhaps there will be new breakthrough ideas, but it is important to move away from the established template. I noticed an interesting press report. A certain Dr. Gobi Logan, desperate to treat people with Ebola, began giving his patients in a clinic in the Liberian city of Tubmanburg the drug lamivudine, usually used to treat patients with HIV infection.According to him, he treated 15 people in this way, and 13 of them survived. This is a very interesting result and should not be hastily declared inconsistent with scientific knowledge.

Prospects for a vaccine capable of protecting against infection with the Ebola virus are greatly undermined by the phenomenon of antibody-dependent intensification of infection, which is characteristic of this particular infection. Antibodies to the virus bind it and spread it to the cells of the immune system – macrophages. Moreover, the intensification of the infectious process occurs even before the concentration of antibodies reaches the threshold required to neutralize the virus.The same mechanism underlies the hemorrhagic syndrome. Developers of such vaccines can achieve protective effects in animal experiments. Several vaccinations, and if you infect an animal at a time when the level of specific antibodies reaches a maximum, then the protective effect of the vaccine will be proven, which means that the experiment can be stopped and the creation of a vaccine can be announced. But in the outbreak of the disease, when the population will be vaccinated en masse and as necessary, nothing can be stopped. As soon as the amount of antibodies decreases to a subneutralizing level, the phenomenon of antibody-dependent intensification of the infection will start.And the number of cases among the vaccinated will be greater than among the unvaccinated. It would be good to take this into account for vaccine developers.

Despite the current scale of the outbreak, Ebola has been fading away since September and has already “left” many territories of West African states; it will not come to Russia. Soon the situation will return to the previous level of morbidity in the region – 100-200 cases per year. But the problem will remain: we still do not know when and why it returns.

Mikhail Supotnitsky – microbiologist, candidate of biological sciences.Deputy Director of the Center for Planning and Coordination of Research Work of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Scientific Center for the Expertise of Medicinal Products” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Author of the books “Microorganisms, Toxins and Epidemics”, “Essays on the History of Plague”, “Dictionary of Genetic Terms”, “Evolutionary Pathology”, “Biological Warfare. Introduction to the Epidemiology of Artificial Epidemic Processes and Biological Infections.

90,000 Mosquito Diseases – Andalab Phuket

Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne diseases are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes.They can transmit disease without being affected by them. About 700 million people fall ill with mosquitoes each year, killing over a million people each year.
Mosquito-borne diseases include malaria, dengue fever, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, tularemia, dirofilariasis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, encephalitis encephalitis of eastern horses fever, La Crosse encephalitis, and Zika fever.

Dengue
Dengue is a rapidly developing viral disease prone to pandemic in many parts of the world. Dengue thrives in poor urban areas, suburbs and rural areas, but also affects more affluent areas in tropical and subtropical countries.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that causes severe flu-like illness and sometimes causes a potentially fatal complication called severe dengue.Over the past 50 years, the incidence of dengue has increased 30 times. It is now estimated that up to 50-100 million infections occur annually in more than 100 endemic countries, putting almost half of the world’s population at risk. Severe dengue fever (formerly known as dengue haemorrhagic fever) was first discovered in the 1950s during dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand. Today it affects countries in Asia and Latin America and has become the leading cause of hospitalization and death among children and adults in these regions.
The complete life cycle of dengue virus includes the mosquito’s role as a carrier (or vector) and humans as the primary victim and source of infection.
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the main carrier of the viruses that cause dengue fever. Viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of a female Aedes mosquito, which infects the virus by feeding on the blood of an infected person.
Once infected, humans become the main carriers and propagators of the virus, serving as a source of the virus for uninfected mosquitoes.The virus circulates in the blood of an infected person for 2-7 days, around the same time the person has a fever. Patients who are already infected with dengue can transmit the infection through the Aedes mosquito after the first symptoms appear (within 4-5 days; maximum 12).
In humans, recovery from infection with dengue virus alone confers lifelong immunity against that particular serotype of the virus. However, this immunity provides only partial and temporary protection against subsequent infection by the other three serotypes of the virus.Evidence indicates that sequential infections increase the risk of developing severe dengue. The time interval between infections and the specific viral sequence of infections can also be important.
A person infected with the dengue virus develops severe influenza symptoms. The disease, also called fracture fever, affects infants, children, and adults alike and can be fatal.

Malaria
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.It is preventable and treatable. Malaria is an acute febrile illness. In non-immune people, symptoms usually appear 10 to 15 days after being bitten by an infectious mosquito. The first symptoms – fever, headache, and chills – may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. Children with severe malaria often develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anemia, respiratory distress due to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multiple organ involvement is also common.In malaria-endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, resulting in asymptomatic infections.
Most cases of malaria are transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are over 400 different species of Anopheles mosquitoes; about 30 are the most important vectors of malaria. All important vector species bite between dusk and dawn. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host and the environment.
Anopheles mosquitoes lay eggs in water, from which larvae hatch, which eventually develop into adult mosquitoes.Female mosquitoes seek blood meal to feed their eggs. Each species of Anopheles mosquito has its own preferred aquatic habitat; for example, some prefer small, shallow freshwater bodies such as puddles and hoof prints, which are abundant in tropical countries during the rainy season. Malaria in Thailand.

Japanese encephalitis
Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia.It is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and belongs to the same genus as dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses.
Most JE infections are mild (fever and headache) or asymptomatic, but approximately 1 in 250 infections result in severe clinical illness. Severe illness is characterized by a rapid onset of fever, headache, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, seizures, spastic paralysis, and eventually death.Mortality among people with symptoms of the disease can be as high as 30%.
Of those who survived, 20–30% suffer from persistent intellectual, behavioral, or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures, or inability to speak.
JVE is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Once infected, humans do not develop enough viremia to infect feeding mosquitoes. The virus exists in a cycle of transmission between mosquitoes, pigs and / or waterfowl (enzootic cycle).The disease occurs predominantly in rural and suburban areas, where people live in close proximity to these vertebrate hosts. Visit or contact us.

Chikungunya
Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. This causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and a rash.
Joint pain is often debilitating and can vary in duration.
The disease shares clinical features with dengue and Zika virus and may be misdiagnosed in areas where they are common.
There is no cure for the disease. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms.
The proximity of mosquito breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for chikungunya. Visit or contact us.

Filariasis
Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is an overlooked tropical disease.Infection occurs when a person is transmitted by filamentous parasites through mosquitoes. When a mosquito with infectious stage larvae bites a person, the parasites are deposited on the skin of the person, from where they enter the body. The larvae then migrate to the lymphatic vessels, where they develop into adult worms in the human lymphatic system.
Infection is usually transmitted during childhood, but painful and severely disfiguring visible manifestations of the disease appear later in life. While acute episodes of the disease lead to temporary disability, lymphatic filariasis leads to permanent disability.
Infection with lymphatic filariasis is asymptomatic in acute and chronic conditions. Most infections are asymptomatic with no outward signs of infection. These asymptomatic infections continue to damage the lymphatic system and kidneys, and alter the body’s immune system.
Acute episodes of local inflammation of the skin, lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels often accompany chronic lymphedema or elephantiasis. Some of these episodes are caused by the body’s immune response to the parasite.However, most are the result of a bacterial skin infection where the normal defenses are partially lost due to underlying lymphatic damage.
When lymphatic filariasis becomes chronic, it leads to lymphatic edema (tissue edema) or elephantiasis (thickening of the skin / tissues) of the extremities and hydrocele (fluid accumulation). Breasts and genitals are often affected.
Mosquito control is a measure that can be used to suppress transmission.Measures such as insecticide-treated nets or indoor residual spraying can help protect populations in endemic areas from infection.

Source: World Health Organization

Share this link:

90,000 Top 10 most dangerous epidemics in human history

17.04.

Fortunately, the coronavirus infection of a new type of COVID-19 is very far from those deadly pandemics that in the past claimed millions of human lives, and sometimes even brought the entire population of people on the planet to the brink of survival.Sometimes the duration of such pandemics was only a few years, sometimes they stretched for centuries, and some continue to this day.

Malaria

Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted to humans through the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes (“malaria mosquitoes”). Malaria is also transmitted through blood, from person to person (one example is transmission to a child while still in the womb). The course of the disease can be both mild and severe, leading to death, but it is necessarily characterized by fever, sweating, muscle pain and headaches.The mosquito-borne malaria parasite is believed to have originated 600 million years ago. Therefore, our most ancient ancestors suffered from malaria, and this disease often put humanity on the brink of extinction. In 2000 alone, between 350 and 500 million cases of malaria were registered, of which up to three million were fatal. Even today, every 30 seconds in the world, someone dies from malaria, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. The first clinically successful malaria vaccine was not created until 2017.

Typhus

Typhus is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, which is accompanied by a specific rash, fever, damage to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Scientists believe that the first epidemic of typhus imported from Egypt and Ethiopia was described by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides: it broke out in Athens in 40 BC. Subsequently, the disease became widespread in Europe, and later spread to the territory of our country and the New World.The numerous epidemics of typhus in the past centuries have always accompanied wars, natural disasters, hunger, devastation, and social upheaval. In Mexico in 1576-1577 from typhus killed more than 2 million Indians. In post-revolutionary Russia, between 1917 and 1921, typhus killed about 3 million people.

Cholera

Cholera is a particularly dangerous acute intestinal infection with high mortality that occurs when a person is affected by cholera vibrio. The disease is manifested by severe frequent diarrhea, profuse repeated vomiting, which leads to significant loss of fluid and dehydration.Cholera periodically spread from the Ganges valley in India, where the disease has been well known since ancient times, to many countries of the world and entire continents (mainly in Africa and southern Asia). Since 1817, a wave of continuous cholera pandemics began, which claimed more lives in the 19th century than any other disease outbreak. The last, seventh, pandemic was noted in 1961. The first cholera vaccines were developed in the 19th century.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever is an acute natural focal viral infection characterized by a severe course with a predominance of intoxication, icteric and hemorrhagic syndrome.It is called “yellow” because some patients develop jaundice. Mosquitoes carry the infection. Outbreaks occur primarily in tropical countries in Africa and South America. The history of the disease begins with a description of the yellow fever epidemic in the Yucatan Peninsula in Central America in 1648. Large epidemics of yellow fever occur when infected people bring the virus into densely populated areas with high mosquito populations and little or no immunity to the disease in the majority of the population due to lack of vaccination.Under these conditions, human-to-human transmission of the virus by infected mosquitoes begins. In Philadelphia, from the end of the 17th to the beginning of the 20th century, 20 epidemics of yellow fever were recorded, in Texas – 19, in New York – 15. During the military expedition of Napoleonic troops to Haiti in 1802, over 50 thousand soldiers died from the epidemic of this disease. Yellow fever was introduced to Europe in 1723. Outbreaks were first described in Lisbon, then in Spain and port cities in England. High mortality was observed everywhere.

Spanish flu

The influenza virus, which would later be called “Spanish”, was first introduced to North America from East Asia, where it began to spread as early as 1916, but has not been described as a separate disease. “Spanish flu” had two features: high infection rate and the rapid development of complications, from which death occurred. The disease is characterized by an acute headache, a sharp drop in blood pressure, tachycardia, a temperature jump to critical levels, a cough with impurities of blood and phlegm.The first officially confirmed case of “Spanish flu” was recorded in 1918 in Kansas (USA). Further, the flu, together with soldiers and Chinese workers, began to massively spread throughout Europe – France, Great Britain and other countries that participated in the First World War at that time. According to rough estimates of historians, in 1918 – 1920 more than 500 million people fell ill with the “Spanish flu” – almost a third of the world’s population. The number of victims of influenza, according to the most conservative estimates, amounted to more than 40 million people.The Spanish flu epidemic has become the deadliest in human history.

Smallpox

Smallpox (smallpox) is an especially dangerous highly contagious infectious disease of viral origin. It is transmitted by airborne droplets, characterized by severe intoxication, the staged appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of a thick vesicular-pustular rash, after the resolution of which characteristic deep scars (pockmarks) remain. The first epidemics of smallpox swept across the countries of the East – China, Korea, Japan.Then the virus began to penetrate into Europe, later – with the European colonialists to the American continent, where it devastated the Indian population, many tribes completely died out. Since the 15th century, Europe has already represented, as it were, a continuous smallpox hospital: the virus did not recede for several centuries, until a vaccine was developed at the end of the 18th century. Smallpox has terrorized humanity for three thousand years and claimed 400 to 600 million lives worldwide. The World Health Organization announced the complete elimination of smallpox in 1979.

Justinian’s plague

Plague is an acute natural focal infectious disease that occurs with an extremely serious general condition, fever, damage to the lymph nodes, lungs and other internal organs. The causative agent of the disease is the plague bacillus; fleas carry it on various rodents, cats and even camels. If during epidemics of smallpox, cholera, typhus, Spanish flu, with rare exceptions, no more than 30% of those who fell ill died, then the plague meant certain death.Plague epidemics have been proven to occur in prehistoric times.

The three largest pandemics are known in history. The first – the “plague of Justinian”, arose in the 6th century, during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian, who himself died from this disease. The plague came from Egypt and devastated almost all the countries of the Mediterranean. During the period from 532 to 580, more than half of the population of the Eastern Roman Empire died – almost 100 million people.

“Black Death”

The second plague pandemic swept across North Africa, the Middle East and Western Europe in the middle of the 14th century and was called the Black Death.The conditions for the unhindered spread of the disease created overcrowding of the population, dirt, poverty and a lack of basic hygiene skills. The Black Death was brought to Europe through the Italian port cities of Genoa, Venice and Naples. Starting in Asia, it devastated Thrace, Macedonia, Syria, Egypt, Sicily, the territory of the modern states of Italy, Greece, France, England, Spain, Germany, Poland, affecting the Russian principalities. The pandemic raged from 1346 to 1348, according to various estimates, from 25 to 50 million people became its victims.The Black Death ushered in a period of epidemics that had not left Europe alone for five centuries.

Third plague pandemic

The third plague pandemic is believed to have begun in 1855 in the Chinese city of Canton. As soon as the plague reached the coast, ships (this time with steam engines) quickly spread the infection to all parts of the world. The epidemic affected not so much Europe as overseas colonies. Plague outbreaks were reported in 87 port cities. The plague was especially raging in Hong Kong and Bombay.In India, it began in 1892, claiming more than 6 million human lives; at the beginning of the 20th century, it echoed in the Azores, South America and other regions of the world. At the same time, these local epidemics were incomparable in scale with the colossal in mortality and coverage of the pandemics of the Middle Ages.

White Plague

Tuberculosis (the old name is consumption) is one of the most common infectious diseases, most often it affects the lungs, but it can nest in other organs as well.The disease is caused by bacteria that are transmitted from infected people and animals by airborne droplets. Symptoms include coughing, intoxication, weight loss, and excessive sweating. Tuberculosis has threatened the human population throughout history. DNA testing revealed the presence of tuberculosis even in Egyptian mummies. The largest European tuberculosis epidemic, known as the Great White Plague, began in the 1600s and has raged for over 200 years, with one in seven infected dying.Despite the wide range of antibacterial drugs created by the end of the 20th century, tuberculosis remains one of the main enemies of mankind, claiming about 1.8 million lives annually.

Author:
Pavel Kober

VIRAL FEVER TRANSMITTED BY MEMBERS AND VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (A90-A99) “INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD-10)” (approved by Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No.

arthropods, unspecified

N / A

N / A N / A

Excluded

90

90

A98.2 Kyasanur forest disease
Dengue [classic dengue]
Excludes: dengue haemorrhagic fever (A91)
A91 Dengue haemorrhagic fever
A92 Other

Excludes: Ross River disease (B33.1)
A92.0 Chikungunya virus disease
A92.1 O’Nyong Nyong fever
A92.2 Venezuelan horse fever
A92.3 West Nile fever
A92.4 Rift Valley Fever [Rift Valley]
A92.8 Other specified mosquito viral fever
A92.9 Mosquito viral fever, unspecified
A93 Other viral non-transmissible fevers classified elsewhere
A93.0 Oropush virus disease
A93.1 Mosquito fever
A93.2 Colorado tick fever
A93.8 Other specified arthropod-borne viral fevers
A94
A95 Yellow fever
A95.0 Forest yellow fever
A95.1 Urban yellow fever
A95.9 Yellow fever, unspecified
A96 Arenavirus hemorrhagic fever
A96.0 Junin hemorrhagic fever
A96.1 Hemorrhagic fever 2 Lassa fever
A96.8 Other arenavirus haemorrhagic fevers
A96.9 Arenaviral haemorrhagic fever, unspecified
A98 Other viral haemorrhagic fevers

Chikungunya haemorrhagic fever (A92.0)
dengue haemorrhagic fever (A91)
A98.0 Crimean haemorrhagic fever (caused by Congo virus)
A98.1 Omsk haemorrhagic fever
A98.3 Marburg virus disease
A98.4 Ebola virus disease
A98.5 Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
A98.8 Other specified viral haemorrhagic fevers
A99 Viral haemorrhagic fever, unspecified

EBOLA FEVER | Markin | Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology and Immunobiology

1. Baron R.K., McCormick D.V., Zubeir O.A. Nosocomial and intrafamilial transmission of Ebola in southern Sudan. Bull. WHO. 1983, 61 (6): 83-89.

2. Markin V.A. Methodology for collecting pathogens. Vopr. virusol. 2010, 5: 4- 9.

3. Markin VA Pathogenetic approach for the selection of promising ways of antiviral therapy. Journal. microbiol. 2014, 3: 114-124.

4. Pokrovsky V.I., Pak S.G., Briko N.I., Danilkin B.K. Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology. GEOTAR-Media, 2008.

5. Baize S., Leroy E. M., Georges A.J. et al. Inflammatory responses in Ebola virus-infected patients. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2002, 128 (1): 163-168.

6. Basler C.F. Portrait of a Killer: Genome of the 2014 EBOVoutbreak strain. Cell. Host. Microbe.2014, 16 (4): 419-421.

7. Becquart R, Wauquier N., Mahlakoiv T. et al. High prevalence of both humoral and cellular immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among rural populations in Gabon. PLoS One. 2010, 5 (2): e9126.

8. Discussions and decisions of the 2012 – 2014 International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Filoviridae study group.Jan 2013. Arch. Virol. DOI 10.1007 / s00705-013-1846-9.

9. Ebola update. A ProMed-mail post. URL //www.promedmail.org (date of access – 20.12.2015).

10. Ebola vims haemorrhagic fever. Pattin S.R. (ed.). Antwerpen. 1978.

11. Eggo R.M., Watson C.H., Camacho A. et al. Duration of Ebola vims RNA persistence in semen of SUR level estimates and projections. Eurosurveillance. 2015, 20 (48): art. 21326.

12. Fauci A.S. Ebola – underscoring the global disparities in health care resources Anthony. N. Engl. J. Med. 2014, 371: 1084-1086.

13. Feldman H., Geisbert T.W. Ebola haemorrhagic fever.Lancet. 2011, 377: 849-862.

14. Filoviridae: Vims Ebola – vims Marburg / Raport sur le fonctionnement technique 1984-85. Inst. Pasteur, Bangui, 1985, p. 17-59.

15. Hughes M., Slenczka W., Neppert J. Serologic evidence for the occurrence of human infections with Marburg and Ebola vims in the Republic of Liberia. Zbl. Microbiol.Ugd. 1987, 1: 128 – 130.

16. Johnson E.D., Gonzales J.P., Georges A. Filovims activity among selected ethnic groups inhabiting the tropical forest of equatorial Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1993.87 (5): 536-538.

17. Johnson K.M. African haemorrhagic fever due to Marburg and Ebola vimses. Viral infection of humans.Epidemiology and Control. Evans A.S. (ed.). N.Y., 1989, p. 85-94.

18. Johnson K.M. African haemorrhagic fever caused by Marburg and Ebola vimses. Viral infection of humans. Epidemiology and Control. Evans A.S. (ed.). N.Y., 1989, p. 95-104.

19. Kilgore P.E., Grabenstein J.D., Salim A.M. et al. Treatment of Ebola vims disease.Pharmacotherapy. 2015, 35 (1): 43-53.

20. Lahm S. A., Kombila M., Swanepoel R. et al. Morbidity and mortality of wild animals in relation to outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Gabon, 1994-2003. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2007, 101: 64-78.

21. Leroy E.M., Rouquet R, Formenty P. Multiple Ebola vims transmission events and rapid decline of Central African wildlife.Science. 2004.303: 387-390.

22. Leroy E. M., Epelboin A., Mondonge V. et al. Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vect. Bom. Zoon. Dis. 2009, 9 (6): 723-728.

23. Michak J.H., Bressler D.S., Rossi C.A. Short report: Lack of virus replication in arthropods after intrathoracic inoculation of Ebola Reston vims.Am. J. Trap. Med. Hyg. 1996,55 (1): 89-90.

24. Olival KJ., Hayman D. T. Filovirusesinbats: Current knowledge and future directions. Vimses. 2014.6: 1759-1788.

25. Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Vims Disease. URL http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/ history / chronology.html (date of access -20.12.2015).

26.Pourrut X., Souris M., Towner J.S. et al. Large serological survey showing with circulation of Ebola and Marburg vimses in gabonese bat populations and a high seroprevalence of both vimses in Rousettus aegyptiacus. BMC Infect. Dis. 2009, 9: 159-165.

27. Prescott J., Bushmaker N., Fischer R. et al. Postmortem stability of Ebola vims. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2015, 21 (5): 58-65.

28.Reiter P., Turell M., Coleman R. et al. Field investigations of an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Arthropod studies. J. Infect. Dis. 1999,179: 148-154.

29. Schumann M., Gantke T., Muhlberger E. Ebola vims VP35 antagonizes PKR activity through its C-terminal interferon inhibitory domain. J. Virol. 2009, 83: 8993-8997.

30.Simmons G., Wool-Lewis R. J., Baribaud F. et al. Ebola vims glycoproteins induce global surface protein down-modulation and loss of cell adherence. J. Virol. 2002, 76: 2518-2528.

31. Surean P. Infections a vims Marburg et Ebola / Inst. Pasteur – Cours de Microbiologie Systematique (virologie) 1982-83. Bangui, 1983, p. 85-94.

32.Vims taxonomy: The classification and nomenclature of vimses. The seventh report of the international committee on taxonomy of vimses. van Regenmortel M.H. V. et al. (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, 2000.

33. Vims taxonomy: The classification and nomenclature of vimses. Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of vimses. King A.M.Q. et al. (ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2012.

34.Wahl-Jensen V, Kurz S. K., Hazelton P. R. et al. Role of Ebola vims secreted glycoproteins and vims-like particles in activation of human macrophages. J. Virol. 2005, 79: 2413-2419.

35. Weik M., Modrof J., Klenk H. D. et al. Ebola vims VP30-mediated transcription is regulated by RNA secondary stmcture formation. J. Virol. 2002, 76: 8532-8539.

36.Westwood J.C.N. The hazard from dangerous exotic diseases. McMillan Press, 1980.

37. WHO Ebola Response Team. Ebola Vims Disease in West Africa – The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections. N. Engl. J. Med. 2014, 371: 1481-1495.

38.