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Waves of pain in abdomen: Abdominal pain: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia


Abdominal Pain in Appendicitis | Everyday Health

Possible Causes of Abdominal Pain, Including Appendicitis

Aside from appendicitis, some of the most common causes of abdominal pain include:

The severity of the pain doesn’t always correspond to the seriousness of the condition that’s causing the pain. Life threatening conditions such as colon cancer may cause only mild pain, while a minor bout of gas may cause painful cramping. (1) Looking at the specific type of pain you’re experiencing can help you zero in on the condition you may have.

For example, cramping abdominal pain is commonly due to gas and bloating. It’s generally not caused by something serious (such as appendicitis), and may be followed by diarrhea. (1)

“Colicky pain,” or abdominal pain that’s severe and comes and goes in waves, is typically the result of kidney stones or gallstones. (1)

If your pain isn’t localized to a specific area, and instead you feel it in more than half of your belly, you may have a stomach virus, indigestion, or gas. Sometimes stress or anxiety causes vague, nonlocalized abdominal pain as well. (1)

If that pain becomes more severe over time, or your abdomen becomes swollen, it could be the result of something obstructing or blocking your large intestine.

On the other hand, if your pain is only found in one area of your belly, it’s possibly due to an issue with one of your organs, such as the gallbladder, pancreas, appendix, or stomach.

The way the pain evolves over time can also be useful in determining what’s causing it. Certain conditions tend to cause acute pain over the course of hours or days, while other conditions cause pain that comes and goes but doesn’t necessarily worsen over time. (2)

Is It Appendicitis Pain or Something Else?

Most often, the pain you feel when you have appendicitis begins as a dull ache around your belly button that shifts to your lower right abdomen, where your appendix is located.

Additionally, appendicitis pain:

  • Begins suddenly; it often wakes people up at night
  • Becomes significantly sharper in a matter of a few hours
  • Starts before other co-occurring symptoms, such as fever, nausea, and vomiting
  • Is associated with loss of interest in eating
  • Worsens when you move around, breathe deeply, cough, or sneeze
  • Spikes when you drive over a speed bump or experience other jarring motions (3)

To diagnose appendicitis, your doctor will perform a physical exam, which will investigate the finer points of your abdominal symptoms.

If you have appendicitis, you will likely: (4)

  • Hurt when someone applies and then quickly releases pressure in your lower right abdomen, a symptom called “rebound tenderness”
  • Experience rebound tenderness in your lower right abdomen when someone applies and quickly releases pressure on the lower left side of your abdomen
  • Unconsciously guard your lower right abdomen when someone tries to touch it
  • Feel pain when someone applies resistance to your right knee as you try to lift that leg up while lying down on your back
  • Ache in your abdomen when you move your bent right knee to the left and right while lying down on your back

Abdominal Pain – Clinical Methods


It is imperative to analyze abdominal pain with particular emphasis on six features: onset, progression, migration, character, intensity, and localization.


Abdominal pain may be of sudden, rapid, or gradual onset. Pain of sudden onset occurs within a second. The patient will relate the time of onset at a precise moment, usually stating exactly what activity was going on at the time the pain began. Sudden onset of pain is commonly associated with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract from a gastric or duodenal ulcer, a colonic diverticulum, or a foreign body. Other common causes include a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, mesenteric infarction, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and embolism of an abdominal vessel.

Pain of rapid onset begins with a few seconds and steadily increases in severity over the next several minutes. The patient will recall the time of onset in general but without the precision noted in pain of sudden onset. Pain of rapid onset is associated with cholecystitis, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis, appendicitis, ureteral stone, and penetrating gastric or duodenal ulcer.

Pain of gradual onset is pain that slowly becomes more severe only after a number of hours or even days have elapsed. The patient’s memory as to the time of onset of the pain is vague; he or she can pinpoint only the day or possibly the week of onset. Pain of gradual onset is commonly associated with neoplasms, chronic inflammatory processes, and large bowel obstruction. Many other intra-abdominal conditions are associated with pain of gradual onset, making an accurate diagnosis from the history more difficult with this symptom than in pain of sudden or rapid onset.


It is of real diagnostic significance to determine the progression of the pain over the interval from the time of onset until the patient seeks medical attention. Has the pain abated, or has it increased? Have there been intervals of total absence of the pain, or has the pain always been present, changing only in character? From this information the clinician may be able, for example, to identify a perforated ulcer that has produced pain of sudden onset that subsequently abates dramatically if the perforation seals and no further leak occurs.

Intermittent attacks of abdominal pain that progress to a steady, constant ache suggest a small bowel obstruction with vascular compromise that will lead to the grave complication of necrosis of the involved incarcerated bowel.


Pain that “shifts” from the original site of onset to another location in the abdomen is most often associated with acute appendicitis where periumbilical or epigastric pain (visceral) that is present early in the course of the disease is replaced with right lower quadrant (somatic) pain later in the illness when the parietal peritoneum becomes involved with the inflammatory process.

Pain produced by irritation of the parietal peritoneum by duodenal contents leaking from a perforated duodenal ulcer may begin in the epigastrum and may migrate to the lower quadrants of the abdomen or pelvis depending on the pathway that the leaking material takes through the abdominal cavity.


Determining the character, or what kind of pain the patient is experiencing, is of prime importance in discovering the pathologic process responsible for it. Since the patient’s description of the pain must be purely subjective, it is essential that the clinician and the patient communicate clearly so that the precise character of the pain can be identified. The patient will usually need help from the doctor in describing the pain by suggesting similarities or comparisons, such as hunger pain, burning pain, sticking pain. It is especially important that the presence or absence of cramping pain be established. The term cramp has many interpretations, so the patient will need to have an example of a cramplike pain that leaves no room for misinterpretation. One such example is to liken the pain to the wringing out of a washcloth with intense pain corresponding to wringing of the washcloth and abating when the washcloth is untwisted.

Abdominal pain can be characterized as cramping, dull, or aching and as either constant or intermittent.

Cramping abdominal pain is characterized by pain that increases in intensity in short waves to a maximum and then abruptly ceases for a period of complete absence of pain. Repetition of the pain occurs at intervals. This type of pain is associated with mechanical small bowel obstruction, and when clearly present, it is pathognomonic of that condition. The interval between cramping pain helps locate the site of the obstruction with short pain-free intervals in more proximal obstructions and longer pain-free intervals in more distal obstruction.

Constant dull or aching abdominal pain is usually caused by distention or edema of the wall of a hollow viscus. Pain from stretch of the capsule of the liver and the spleen may also be perceived as dull or aching pain.

When a hollow viscus such as the gall bladder is distended, as is most common, from obstruction of the cystic duct, constant, dull, aching pain is experienced. When the gall bladder contracts against the obstruction, the stretch of the gall bladder wall is suddenly intensified, producing a crescendo of pain in addition to the constant dull ache already present (gall bladder colic).


Each individual perceives pain intensity differently. The intensity of pain in an individual patient can often be assessed by the way in which the patient physically responds to it. Patients with peritonitis (somatic pain) invariably lie still, perhaps on one side or the other with the knees and hips flexed, whereas patients with pain arising from the hollow or solid viscera (visceral pain) do not lie still but constantly change position or move about.

Take, for example, a patient with the sudden onset of chemical peritonitis secondary to a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient will immediately stop whatever activity he or she was doing at the moment of perforation, quickly sit or lie down, and remain as still as possible.

By contrast, a patient who has the onset of abdominal pain caused by acute distention of the gall bladder will not be able to find comfort by lying down in any position, but will move from chair to bed to the bathroom, where numerous attempts to relieve the pain by enemas, cathartics, self-induced vomiting, antacids, or other home remedies for “gas” pains are characteristic responses to visceral pain.


Visceral pain resulting from stretch of smooth muscle is localized in one of the three midline zones of the abdomen: epigastric, midabdominal, and lower abdominal. This midline zone pain, the sum of pain from the right and left splachnic pathways, is poorly localized, covers several body segments and, depending on its cause, varies from dull, aching, constant pain to cramping pain. Nausea, vomiting, pallor, and sweating are commonly associated with visceral pain.

Somatic pain is well localized. It is located asymmetrically and is intensified by jarring, deep inspiration or pressure on the abdominal wall.

One of the most useful physical examination procedures to identify the presence of abdominal pain of somatic origin is to ask the patient to distend his abdomen alternately by “pushing out” his umbilicus to touch the examiner’s hand (held a few inches above the abdomen) and then to “suck in” his umbilicus to touch his spine. These subjective parietal peritoneum stretching procedures often identify the site of somatic pain by simple observation. It is especially useful in examination of children, as the subjective location of the pain without actual palpation of the abdomen by the physician may obviate misinterpretation from the child’s anxiety. Since the cerebrospinal nerves that supply sensation to the anterior and lateral peritoneal surfaces are unilateral, any stimulation of the parietal peritoneal surfaces are lateralized quite well. Nausea, vomiting, pallor, and sweating are seldom associated with somatic pain.

It is well to have the patient indicate the site of the pain while standing and in the prone position to be certain of the true location.

Referred Pain and Accompanying Symptoms

Three cerebrospinal nerves, the phrenic, obturator and genitofemoral, are of particular importance because of the characteristic referred pain carried over these pathways in certain intra-abdominal conditions. Irritation, stretch, or injury of the dorsal or ventral aspects of the dome of the diaphragm produces referred pain in the supraclavicular fossa (Kehr’s sign) corresponding to the sensory branches of the phrenic nerve (C3 through C5). Irritation of the genitofemoral nerve from such retroperitoneal inflammatory processes as retrocecal appendicitis or retroperitoneal perforation of the duodenum produces pain in the labia, testicle, or shaft of the penis on the involved side.

Irritation of the obturator nerve in the obturator fossa, usually from an incarcerated obturator hernia, produces pain along the medial aspect of the thigh to the knee (Howship–Romberg’s sign).

Clearly, symptoms that accompany abdominal pain are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Among the most important are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, diarrhea, constipation, obstipation, tarry stools, chills, fever, urinary frequency, hematuria, and jaundice.

Clinical Significance

There is no substitute for a careful history of the type, onset, location, and progression of abdominal pain, as these symptoms closely match the pathogenesis of each disease process within the abdomen. This, coupled with understanding of the splanchnic and cerebrospinal innervation of the abdominal viscera, is essential for arriving at an accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

Differences in the location and rate of progression of lesions within the abdominal cavity may be summarized as outlined by Smith (1961) in terms of five possible components.

  1. Visceral pain alone is a symmetric pain located in the midline anteriorly, with or without associated vasomotor phenomena.

  2. On occasion, when visceral pain is of rapid onset and of great severity, at the peak intensity of the pain it may “spill over” at the spinal cord level by viscerosensory and visceromotor reflexes into the corresponding cerebrospinal pathways, producing somatic findings without pathologic involvement of somatic receptors.

  3. Visceral and somatic pain often become combined as the causative lesion progresses from the viscus to involve adjacent somatic nerves. Visceral pain may continue, but a new and different pain is added.

  4. Somatic pain may be so severe that it overshadows the visceral pain of origin in the affected viscus, making an accurate diagnosis difficult.

  5. Referred pain due to irritation of the phrenic, obturator, and genitofemoral nerves are unique and diagnostically important findings remote from the abdomen that may provide clues to the source of abdominal pain.

The clinical significance of the pathways and stimuli responsible for the production of abdominal pain can perhaps best be appreciated by an analysis of the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis, as that disease process correlates with symptoms and physical findings common to that disorder.

The initiating event that starts the pathogenesis of the most common type of appendicitis is obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by a calcified concretion of fecal material called a fecolith. With obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, the continued production of large amounts of mucus from the rich concentration of goblet cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn distends the appendix. At this stage in the pathogenesis of appendicitis, the pathologic diagnosis is an acute appendiceal mucocoele. Since stretch and distention are the only stimuli appreciated by the splanchnic (visceral) nerves, the characteristic midline, upper abdominal visceral pain of distention of a hollow viscus of embryologic origin from the midline, the classic periumbilical pain of early appendicitis begins. Although the appendix may be located almost anywhere in the abdominal or pelvic cavity due to its variable length as well as to rotation of the midgut, it is important to recognize that the epigastric or periumbilical visceral pain produced by distention will always be in the same midline upper abdominal location.

Since peristalsis in the appendix is absent, or at best ineffective, as demonstrated by the presence of a fecolith that otherwise would be extruded from the lumen, the visceral pain of distention of the appendix is characteristically a steady, dull, aching pain without intermittent waves of intensity.

It is of great value in the diagnosis of abdominal pain to attempt to establish both a pathologic and an anatomic diagnosis. For example, the pathologic diagnosis of “acute appendicitis” is not nearly as meaningful as a pathologic and anatomic diagnosis such as “acute suppurative right iliac fossa appendicitis.” Understanding of the pain pathways and the types of stimuli responsible for initiating pain responses from the abdomen make precise pathologic and anatomic diagnoses possible.

The upper abdominal visceral pain of early appendicitis continues to increase gradually in intensity as the steady mucous production causes further distention of the obstructed appendiceal lumen. Intraluminal pressure progresses until the veins in the submucosa of the appendix become occluded by entrapment between the mucous membrane and the rigid, unyielding lamina propria in the appendiceal wall. At this stage in the pathogenesis, edema of the wall secondary to venous outflow occlusion rapidly ensues. This swelling, in addition to collection of edema fluid, causes a rather rapid, sharp increase in stretch of the appendiceal wall. This results in a marked increase in the intensity of the visceral pain. This point in the progression of the disease often prompts the patient to seek medical aid. The pathologic stage at the time of maximal swelling of the wall changes from an acute mucocoele to what is called acute catarrhal appendicitis. Since there is no inflammatory process in the appendix at this time, it is easily understood why there is no elevation of the white blood cell count or increase in body temperature.

As the pressures within the lumen and in the wall of the appendix continue to increase, interference with arteriolar blood flow in the submucosa ensues. At this stage the cells in the wall of the appendix, along with the mucosal lining of the lumen, begin to die. The stage is now set for invasion of the wall of the appendix by organisms from the lumen and the onset of acute suppurative appendicitis begins.

Obviously, as the wall of the appendix with the stretch-sensitive pacinian corpuscles dies, the dull, aching, intense upper midabdominal pain transmitted from these nerve endings disappears.

Further pain patterns of appendicitis now depend on its anatomic location. It has been said that there is no characteristic symptomatology of acute appendicitis. Not so: The symptoms of appendicitis are characteristic for each stage in the progression of the pathologic process and for each of the anatomic sites in which the appendix may be located.

The prodrome, produced by the early pathologic changes in the appendix and characterized by the visceral pain of distention, is the same no matter where the appendix is located, but the symptoms of suppuration and the continuing pathologic progression leading to gangrene, rupture, abscess formation, and local or generalized peritonitis differ markedly depending on the anatomic location of the appendix.

The appendix, as part of the midgut that rotates outside the abdominal cavity during embryologic development, may be located in at least nine locations: right iliac fossa, retrocecal, paraileal, retroileal, interloop, pelvic, right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, and left iliac fossa.

The most common location of the appendix is in the right iliac fossa. In this location the inflammatory process in the suppurating appendix involves the contiguous parietal peritoneum. It is then that a new pain, entirely different from the visceral pain of the early stages and mediated over an entirely different neural pathway, begins. It is the sharp, well-localized, somatic pain of irritation of the parietal peritoneum transmitted to the dorsal root via the intercostal nerves. The patient points with one finger to the location of the pain, and jarring or any other stretch (deep breath, production of direct or indirect rebound tenderness) increases the local intensity of the pain.

Additional pathognomonic features of acute appendicitis in the right iliac fossa include straightforward motor and sensory reflex arcs that produce involuntary guarding over the involved irritated dermatome, as well as hyperesthesia similarly distributed.

Although it is often stated that the periumbilical pain in appendicitis “shifts” to the right lower quadrant, it is instructive to emphasize that the right lower quadrant pain is a new and entirely different pain. It is initiated by irritation of somatic nerve endings, transmitted by different neural pathways, and produces sharply localized symptoms and findings, in marked contrast to diffuse nature of visceral pain.

Examination of the symptoms and findings of acute suppurative appendicitis in a retrocecal location, another common position, serves to emphasize further the importance of an understanding of not only the anatomy and innervation of the peritoneal cavity but of the retroperitoneum and pelvis as well.

As has been stated, the visceral peritoneum has no somatic innervation. When the appendix is located retrocecally, for example, it is essential to remember that in this location it is retroperitoneal and, accordingly, has no contiguity with either visceral or parietal peritoneal serosa.

The early abdominal pain produced by stretch is present in its characteristic upper abdominal location, but as suppuration begins, there is no inflammatory involvement of parietal peritoneal surfaces, as in iliac fossa appendicitis, and consequently there is no localized right lower quadrant pain. The reason for absence of somatic pain when the appendix is retrocecal is obvious.

As the inflammatory process of retrocecal appendicitis continues, it may involve the psoas muscle, the obturator muscles, the ureter, and the genitofemoral nerve. Irritation of these structures is responsible for producing a positive psoas or obturator sign, white blood cells in the urine, and referred pain in the distribution of the branches of the genitofemoral nerve. The latter is manifested by pain in the testicle, shaft of the penis, or the labia on the right.

When the appendix is located in the pelvis, it must be remembered that the pelvis is not part of the abdominal cavity and that the pelvic parietal peritoneum receives its somatic innervation from the lumbosacral rather than the intercostal nerves. Accordingly, irritation of the pelvic parietal peritoneum is not recognized by the patient in a localized abdominal wall distribution.

It is helpful to recall that irritation of the pelvic parietal peritoneum usually produces localized pain in the midline suprapubicly, regardless of the location of the inflammatory process.

The preceding detailed discussion of some of the characteristic pain patterns seen in appendicitis and the pathology responsible for them serves to illustrate the diagnostic importance of accurate interpretation of abdominal pain based on anatomy and pathology.

Other Structures That Can Cause Pain

Upper abdominal organs have anatomic features that make pain patterns emanating from them far more complex than those of the appendix. Painful lesions of the gastroesophageal junction, the fundus and lesser curvature of the stomach, the biliary tract, and proximal portions of the duodenum commonly produce pain in the interscapular zone corresponding to the sixth thoracic segment, since the somatic innervation of the lesser omentum is supplied by that thoracic nerve. Pancreatic pain is often perceived in the same location one segment lower.

The stomach is so situated that portions of its surface are in contact with the diaphragm, the gastrohepatic ligament, the lesser sac, the pancreas, the parietal peritoneum, the splenic hilus, the gastrocolic ligament, the transverse mesocolon, and the transverse colon. Inflammatory or neoplastic lesions of the stomach that involve any of these surfaces may irritate somatic nerves from several different spinal segments. Accordingly, pain may be localized by the patient to the supraclavicular fossa from phrenic nerve stimuli, the interscapular region from irritation of T6 through T8, or even the lumbar region from involvement of the T12 through L1 spinal cord segments.

Similarly to the stomach, the duodenum is in anatomic relationship to a number of somatic cerebrospinal nerve roots. As a result, perforating ulcer pain can be appreciated in the interscapular zone, the right subcostal region, and the right lower quadrant depending on which somatic nerves are involved in the pathologic process. Retroperitoneal perforation of the duodenum from blunt abdominal trauma may cause irritation of the genitofemoral nerve from leaking duodenal contents resulting in pain in the right testicle or labia.

Pain from the gall bladder and biliary tract may have bilateral localization because they arise from outbudding of the midline gut and have bilateral splanchnic innervation. If the inflammatory process of acute suppurative cholecystitis involves the parietal peritoneum of the right upper quadrant, somatic pain with its usual local manifestations and referred pain along the involved cerebrospinal nerve to the tip of the scapula (T8) may be present. Involvement of the parietal peritoneum in the right upper quadrant from suppuration of the gall bladder is not a very common event, as the greater omentum (which has no somatic sensory innervation) often surrounds the inflamed gall bladder as a buffer between the inflammatory process and the parietes.

Pathologic conditions that arise from the pancreas are responsible for a broad spectrum of pain-producing syndromes. In addition, extrinsic lesions (e.g., penetrating duodenal ulcer) are frequently involved in the production of pain from the pancreas. Further, disruption of the integrity of the gland by pancreatitis permits the extravasation of enzymes that spread to many different intra-abdominal locations that may involve somatic spinal pathways from the phrenic nerve to the lumbosacral plexus.

The small intestine, like the rest of the midgut, produces upper midline, periumbilical visceral pain in response to distention or stretch. The foregut and hindgut are far less sensitive to stretch or distention. Pain from these portions of the intestinal tract, the stomach and duodenum from the former and the descending colon and rectum from the latter, is more often initiated by inflammatory lesions than from distention.

Experimental studies of the production of pain from the gastrointestinal tract in humans by inflation of balloons at various locations within the lumen of the gut should be interpreted very cautiously, as they bear little or no resemblance to actual pathologic conditions that produce pain in humans. The most valid observations concerning the origins of abdominal pain come from surgeons who have the advantage of prompt inspection of the site of pathology within the abdomen and the opportunity to compare these findings on the spot with the patient’s perception of the abdominal pain.

The skin, subcutaneous tissues, fascia, muscle, and parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall are richly supplied with somatic nerves from T6 through T12. Pain in the abdominal wall can result from neuromas in scars from previous laparotomies, such medical conditions as acute porphyria, or from herpes zoster. In addition, pain from trauma to the abdominal wall from blunt injury must be carefully identified to rule out abdominal pain originating from an intraperitoneal injury.

The ureters are second only to the pancreas as a source of abdominal pain caused by structures in the retroperitoneum. The renal pelvis is sensitive to distention, and the ureters are richly supplied with nerves from T10 through T12. Ureteral pain is ipsilateral, severe, and cramping in nature (renal colic). It is usually of such severity and located in the flank that the diagnosis is difficult to confuse with other abdominal catastrophies. Pain in the testicle or labia (T10) may on occasion confuse the diagnosis of renal colic with retrocecal appendicitis. The presence of red blood cells in the urinalysis may help solve this diagnostic dilemma.

Since the lower intercostal nerves also provide the parietal pleura and periphery of the diaphragm with sensory (somatic) innervation, as well as the abdominal wall and anterior peritoneal parietes, it is understandable that inflammatory processes that involve the parietal pleura innervated by these nerves may also be manifested by abdominal pain. Needless to say, an appendectomy is poor therapy for right lower lobar pneumonia that has produced reflex abdominal wall pain in the right lower quadrant.

Pericarditis, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary infarction may also cause inflammatory lesions that involve the parietal diaphragmatic or thoracic pleura, producing referred abdominal pain that may be misdiagnosed as a primary intraperitoneal disorder.

Abdominal pain | Health Navigator NZ

Pain in your abdomen (stomach or puku) is common. It can be hard to know what’s causing it and many people never find out the exact cause. The important thing is knowing when and how you can take care of your symptoms at home and when you need to see a doctor.

Your abdomen is the part of your body between the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hips. It often gets called your stomach, tummy or puku, but there’s a number of other organs in that area too.

Most pain in this part of your body will pass quickly and can be treated at home by yourself or with medication from your pharmacist. This includes when you have:

 See your family doctor or call HealthLine (0800 611 116) if:

  • your pain is no better after 2 hours of home care
  • your abdomen is very painful, eg, if you can’t walk or need to walk bent over, or feel you need to hold your tummy all the time
  • your pain gets worse over time, or becomes sharper or stronger in one place
  • your abdomen feels bloated or sticks out more than usual
  • you have diabetes and are vomiting
  • you can’t stop vomiting
  • you haven’t had a bowel motion (poo) for 3 days
  • you have lost your appetite
  • there is blood in your vomit, urine (pee) or bowel motion, or vaginal bleeding that isn’t a period
  • you have other symptoms as well, such as fever or dizziness, especially if they get worse or new symptoms develop.
Call 111 and ask for an ambulance if you:

  • have sudden, severe stomach pain
  • have pain when you touch your stomach
  • are vomiting blood or a ground coffee-like substance
  • have bloody or black, sticky poo
  • collapse, or become pale and clammy
  • are finding it hard to breathe
  • can’t pee
  • have any tightness or heaviness in your chest
  • find the pain spreads up to your chest, neck or shoulder.

What causes abdominal pain?

It can be difficult to know what is causing pain in your abdomen, and often the pain settles without knowing what caused it or needing any treatment.

Causes of sudden, severe abdominal pain include:

Causes of long-term or recurring abdominal pain include:

If your child has a sore stomach or abdominal pain, see gastroenteritis in children, constipation in children and vomiting in children.

How is abdominal pain diagnosed?

As well as asking where the pain is, your doctor will ask you to describe your pain, so notice whether it’s sharp, stabbing, cramping or a dull ache. Also, notice whether the pain is there all the time or if it comes and goes in waves.

Your doctor will also ask if the pain came on suddenly (acute), or whether you have had it for a while (chronic). They will also want to know if you have been sick (vomited) or had diarrhoea (watery, runny poo).

Depending on what they think is causing your abdominal pain, they may want to do further tests.

What is the treatment for abdominal pain?

The treatment will depend on the cause of the abdominal pain. Once you know the cause of your pain, you can find out more on the page for that condition.

What self-care is there to relieve abdominal pain?

If your abdominal pain is mild, and there are no concerning symptoms, you can take care of yourself and reduce pain and discomfort by:

  • drinking plenty of water
  • putting a heat pack or hot water bottle where it hurts, or having a warm bath
  • taking paracetamol to ease pain, but not aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs, unless advised to do so by a doctor, as these can make abdominal pain worse
  • avoiding alcohol, tea and coffee
  • avoiding eating, and then starting again when you feel better on bland foods (such as rice, crackers, bananas or toast)
  • lying down and resting
  • asking your pharmacist about medicines to ease wind, spasms or to stop diarrhoea
  • telling your doctor if your medication causes indigestion, constipation or diarrhoea.


If you know the cause of your abdominal pain, you can go to the Health Navigator page for that condition to find out what support is available to you.

Call Healthline phone 0800 611 116 for free advice from registered nurses 24 hours a day, seven days a week, if you are unsure about what to do.

How can I prevent abdominal pain?

  • You can keep your gut healthy by eating lots of fruit and vegetables, as well as other foods high in fibre, such as whole grains and legumes. Find out more about healthy eating. 
  • You can reduce the chance of food poisoning and gut infections by following food safety practices and keeping your hands clean.
  • Find out about preventing specific conditions by linking on the related topics and links in the list of causes above.

Learn more

Abdominal pain Patient Info, UK, 2015
Abdominal pain in adults Better Health, Australia, 2012
Beat the bloat NHS Choices, UK, 2016
Flatulence NHS Choices, Uk, 2015


  1. Abdominal pain Ministry of Health
  2. Abdominal pain and stomach ache NHS Choices, UK, accessed Nov 2016.  
  3. Hunt, R et al. Coping with common gastrointestinal symptoms in the community – a global perspective on heartburn, constipation, bloating, and abdominal pain/discomfort May 2013, WHIO Guideline. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, August 2014, 48, 7: 567–578. 
  4. Manterola C, Vial M, Moraga J, Astudillo P. Analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 1. Art. No. CD005660.  

Information for healthcare providers on abdominal pain

The content on this page will be of most use to clinicians, such as nurses, doctors, pharmacists, specialists and other healthcare providers.

Diagnosing and managing abdominal pain

Urgent or easily missed causes of acute abdominal pain Patient Info, UK, 2015 
Colonoscopy should not be considered as a first line of investigation with isolated abdominal pain NZMA 2013
Managing pain in children aged under 12 years BPAC, NZ, 2014 
Abdominal pain in childhood Starship clinical guidelines

Also see Health Navigator Clinicians pages for dyspepsia, constipation, diverticular disease and diverticulitis, appendicitis, irritable bowel syndrome, kidney stones, gallstones, urinary tract infection (UTI), pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrhoea, gastroenteritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, lactose intolerance, peptic ulcer.

Regional HealthPathways NZ

Access to the following regional pathways is localised for each region and access is limited to health providers. If you do not know the login details, contact your DHB or PHO for more information:

Kids Health Information : Abdominal pain

Common questions our doctors are asked

How can I tell if my child has appendicitis? 

Appendicitis can be difficult for doctors to diagnose, but a sign that your child may have appendicitis is that they have severe pain starting around their belly button and moving to the right side of their abdomen. Most children with appendicitis will be very reluctant to move. See
your GP if you are worried.

My child has
been diagnosed with mesenteric adenitis. What does this mean?

Mesenteric adenitis occurs when the lymph nodes in the abdomen enlarge in response to an infection – most commonly a viral infection. This results in stomach pain. Mesenteric adenitis is diagnosed clinically (without the need for blood tests or imaging).
It is important that children who are diagnosed with mesenteric adenitis are reviewed to determine if it is developing into appendicitis.

Why is it so difficult to work out the cause of my child’s
ongoing stomach aches? 

Stomach aches are difficult to diagnose in all ages. Children differ in their ability to describe the type, severity and location of their pain, which can make this process even harder. Many problems from the chest down to the groin may be interpreted by children as stomach aches, making
it very difficult to find out the true cause. Your child’s doctor will examine and investigate your child in order to rule out anything serious, while trying to find the underlying cause.

The doctor says my child has abdominal migraine. What is

As the name suggests, abdominal migraine is a migraine experienced in the abdomen instead of the head. A child with abdominal migraine will often have tummy pain along with nausea/vomiting, loss of appetite and pale skin. There is no headache involved
and the child is well between episodes. There is still quite a lot that is unknown about abdominal migraine, but the risk factors and triggers are thought to be similar to traditional migraines (e.g. having a family member with migraines, being stressed or overtired, chemicals in food). See our fact sheet
Migraine headache.

Having Abdominal Pains? When You Should Go To The ER

Virtually everyone experiences some form of stomach pain from time to time. In many cases, pain in the abdomen can be mild and harmless. However, some stomach pains – particularly when they are severe or accompanied by additional symptoms – may be indicative of a more serious problem that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. The expert team of board-certified emergency room physicians and professional medical staff at iCare ER & Urgent Care in Frisco and Fort Worth, TX utilize the most advanced diagnostic tools and treatment techniques available to help identify the cause of abdominal pain, provide rapid relief, and avoid further complication. Learn more about stomach pain here, including how to tell if your symptoms warrant a trip to the ER.


What could be causing my stomachache?

Abdominal pain can occur for a number of reasons and range from mild to severe. It may come on suddenly, but it can also develop gradually and may remain constant, become progressively worse, or wax and wane in intensity. In some cases, the cause of stomach pain is relatively harmless and will resolve on its own. Other times, a potentially life-threatening condition or process may be causing abdominal pain. Because a stomachache is a common symptom for such a wide range of diagnoses, it is important to be evaluated by an experienced ER physician to determine with certainty what may be causing your pain and get appropriate treatment.


Possible causes of stomach pain that may still warrant treatment but don’t necessarily require emergent care include:


  • Constipation or bowel gas
  • Food poisoning
  • Heartburn, reflux, or GERD
  • Stomach virus
  • Stomach flu
  • UTI


More serious causes of abdominal pain that should be diagnosed and treated in the 24/7 emergency room side of our unique dual hybrid facilities in Fort Worth and Frisco, TX include:


  • Appendicitis
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Stomach or colon cancer
  • Gallstones
  • Cholecystitis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Endometriosis
  • IBS
  • Kidney stones
  • Pancreatitis


Additionally, there are a number of potentially fatal conditions that can cause abdominal pain and require immediate diagnosis and treatment as an emergency case, including:


  • AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm)
  • Ectopic pregnancy (ruptured)
  • Ruptured appendix
  • Ischemic bowel
  • Perforated bowel or stomach


How do I know when to go to the ER for stomach pain?

Because common conditions, like food poisoning or constipation, can cause abdominal pain, it can often be difficult to know when your symptoms require a trip to the ER. If you are having unexplained or severe abdominal pain, or if you are in doubt about the cause of your abdominal pain, it is always best to be examined by a professional. If your stomach pain is severe, chronic, or accompanied by additional symptoms, visit your nearest ER as soon as possible to receive a diagnosis and treatment. Some signs and symptoms that may mean your stomach pain is serious enough to go to the ER include:


  • New onset of pain
  • Chronic abdominal pain
  • Worsening pain
  • Radiating pain
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Bloating or swelling
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Blood in stool


When you arrive at either of iCare ER & Urgent Care’s state-of-the-art facilities in Fort Worth or Frisco, you will be promptly seen by one of our knowledgeable board-certified ER physicians. Your physician will perform a thorough examination, take a detailed health history, and run any necessary tests – such as lab work or imaging studies – to help elucidate the cause of your stomach pain. From there, effective and appropriate treatment will be administered depending on your diagnosis, severity of symptoms, and other factors. Your doctor may recommend additional therapies or prescribe medications for you to continue at home.


Don’t take any chances when it comes to abdominal pain in North Texas

Get to the bottom of your stomach pain, get rapid relief from your symptoms, and start feeling more like yourself again with advanced diagnosis and treatment at either of iCare ER & Urgent Care’s convenient locations in Frisco and Fort Worth, TX. Whether your abdominal pain is moderate, severe, chronic, or new, our team of award-winning board-certified emergency room physicians and professional staff is here to help you get the effective treatment and reliable relief you deserve.

Abdominal Pain, Age 11 and Younger

Does your child have pain or cramping in the belly?

This also includes injuries to the belly.

How old are you?

Less than 3 months

Less than 3 months

3 months to 11 years

3 months to 11 years

12 years or older

12 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Has your child had surgery on the chest or belly in the past 2 weeks?


Recent abdominal surgery


Recent abdominal surgery

Has your child swallowed or inhaled an object?


Swallowed or inhaled object


Swallowed or inhaled object

Does your baby seem sick?

A sick baby probably will not be acting normally. For example, the baby may be much fussier than usual or not want to eat.

How sick do you think your baby is?

Extremely sick

Baby is very sick (limp and not responsive)


Baby is sick (sleepier than usual, not eating or drinking like usual)

Is your child having trouble drinking enough to replace the fluids he or she has lost?

Little sips of fluid usually are not enough. The child needs to be able to take in and keep down plenty of fluids.


Unable to drink enough fluids


Able to drink enough fluids

Does your child have pain in the belly?

Does the belly feel hard when you touch it?

Normally the belly is soft and has some “give.” A hard, rigid belly may be a sign of a more serious problem.


Abdomen is hard (rigid) to the touch


Abdomen is hard (rigid) to the touch

Does pressing on the belly cause severe pain?


Pressing on abdomen causes severe pain


Pressing on abdomen causes severe pain

Has the pain:

Gotten worse?

Pain is increasing

Stayed about the same (not better or worse)?

Pain is unchanged

Gotten better?

Pain is improving

How long has your child had pain?

Less than 4 hours

Less than 4 hours

4 hours but less than 1 day (24 hours)

4 hours but less than 1 day (24 hours)

More than 3 days

More than 3 days

Does the belly hurt all over or mostly in one area?

Pain that is most intense in just one area is likely to be more serious than a bellyache that hurts all over.

Mostly in one area

Localized pain

All over

Generalized pain

Does your child have pain with a new bulge in the belly button or groin?


Pain with new bulge in navel or groin


Pain with new bulge in navel or groin

Is your child nauseated or vomiting?

Nauseated means you feel sick to your stomach, like you are going to vomit.

Within the past week, has your child had an injury to the abdomen, like a blow to the belly or a hard fall?


Abdominal injury within past week


Abdominal injury within past week

Since the injury, has there been any bleeding from the rectum, urethra, or vagina?


Bleeding from rectum, vaginal or urethra since injury


Bleeding from rectum, vaginal or urethra since injury

Is there a belly wound that is deeper than a scratch?

Do you suspect that the injury may have been caused by abuse?

This is a standard question that we ask in certain topics. It may not apply to you. But asking it of everyone helps us to get people the help they need.


Injury may have been caused by abuse


Injury may have been caused by abuse

Has your child vomited since the injury?

Is there pain just below the ribs?

Pain just below the ribs after an injury can be a symptom of serious damage to the liver or spleen.

Do you think your baby has a fever?

Did you take a rectal temperature?

Taking a rectal temperature is the only way to be sure that a baby this age does not have a fever. If you don’t know the rectal temperature, it’s safest to assume the baby has a fever and needs to be seen by a doctor. Any problem that causes a fever at this age could be serious.


Rectal temperature taken


Rectal temperature taken

Is it 100.4°F (38°C) or higher?


Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)


Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)

Do you think your child has a fever?

Did you take your child’s temperature?

How high is the fever? The answer may depend on how you took the temperature.

NOTE: Most people have an average body temperature of about 98.6°F (37°C). But it can vary by a degree or more and still be considered normal. If a low body temperature is your only symptom, it’s usually not something to worry about. But be sure to watch for other symptoms.

High: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

High fever: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

Moderate: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Moderate fever: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Mild: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

Mild fever: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

How high do you think the fever is?


Feels fever is moderate

Mild or low

Feels fever is mild

How long has your child had a fever?

Less than 2 days (48 hours)

Fever for less than 2 days

From 2 days to less than 1 week

Fever for more than 2 days and less than 1 week

1 week or longer

Fever for 1 week or more

Does your child have a health problem or take medicine that weakens his or her immune system?


Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems


Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

Does your child have shaking chills or very heavy sweating?

Shaking chills are a severe, intense form of shivering. Heavy sweating means that sweat is pouring off the child or soaking through his or her clothes.


Shaking chills or heavy sweating


Shaking chills or heavy sweating

Are your child’s stools black or bloody?


Black or bloody stools


Black or bloody stools

How much blood is there?

More than a few drops. Blood is mixed in with the stool, not just on the surface.

More than a few drops of blood on stool or diaper

A few drops on the stool or diaper

A few drops of blood in stool or diaper

Does your child have diabetes?

Is your child’s diabetes getting out of control because your child is sick?


Diabetes is affected by illness


Diabetes is affected by illness

Is the plan helping get your child’s blood sugar under control?


Diabetes illness plan working


Diabetes illness plan not working

How fast is it getting out of control?

Quickly (over several hours)

Blood sugar quickly worsening

Slowly (over days)

Blood sugar slowly worsening

Do you think that a medicine could be causing the belly pain?

Think about whether the belly pain started after you began using a new medicine or a higher dose of a medicine.


Medicine may be causing abdominal pain


Medicine may be causing abdominal pain

Have your child’s symptoms lasted longer than 1 week?


Child’s symptoms have lasted longer than 1 week


Child’s symptoms have lasted longer than 1 week

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

With cramping pain in the belly:

  • The pain may hurt a little or a lot.
  • The amount of pain may change from minute to minute. Cramps often get better when you pass gas or have a bowel movement.
  • The pain may feel like a tightness or pinching in your belly.
  • The pain may be in one specific area or be over a larger area. It may move around.

Babies can quickly get dehydrated when they lose fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • The baby may be fussy or cranky (mild dehydration), or the baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up (severe dehydration).
  • The baby may have a little less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or the baby may not be urinating at all (severe dehydration).

You can get dehydrated when you lose a lot of fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel tired and edgy (mild dehydration), or you may feel weak, not alert, and not able to think clearly (severe dehydration).
  • You may pass less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or you may not be passing urine at all (severe dehydration).

Severe dehydration means:

  • The baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up.
  • The baby may have a very dry mouth and very dry eyes (no tears).
  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 12 or more hours.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 6 hours.
  • The baby may have a dry mouth and dry eyes (fewer tears than usual).

Mild dehydration means:

  • The baby may pass a little less urine than usual.

Severe dehydration means:

  • The child’s mouth and eyes may be extremely dry.
  • The child may pass little or no urine for 12 or more hours.
  • The child may not seem alert or able to think clearly.
  • The child may be too weak or dizzy to stand.
  • The child may pass out.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The child may be a lot more thirsty than usual.
  • The child’s mouth and eyes may be drier than usual.
  • The child may pass little or no urine for 8 or more hours.
  • The child may feel dizzy when he or she stands or sits up.

Mild dehydration means:

  • The child may be more thirsty than usual.
  • The child may pass less urine than usual.

If you’re not sure if a child’s fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:

With a high fever:

  • The child feels very hot.
  • It is likely one of the highest fevers the child has ever had.

With a moderate fever:

  • The child feels warm or hot.
  • You are sure the child has a fever.

With a mild fever:

  • The child may feel a little warm.
  • You think the child might have a fever, but you’re not sure.

A baby that is extremely sick:

  • May be limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • May not respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • May be hard to wake up.

A baby that is sick (but not extremely sick):

  • May be sleepier than usual.
  • May not eat or drink as much as usual.

Pain in children under 3 years

It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or grimace.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds when you try to comfort him or her.

Pain in children 3 years and older

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the child can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain. No one can tolerate severe pain for more than a few hours.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt the child’s normal activities and sleep, but the child can tolerate it for hours or days.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The child notices and may complain of the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt his or her sleep or activities.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may occur quickly after a sudden illness or injury.

Babies and young children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Being very sleepy or hard to wake up.
  • Not responding when being touched or talked to.
  • Breathing much faster than usual.
  • Acting confused. The child may not know where he or she is.

Blood in the stool can come from anywhere in the digestive tract, such as the stomach or intestines. Depending on where the blood is coming from and how fast it is moving, it may be bright red, reddish brown, or black like tar.

A little bit of bright red blood on the stool or on the toilet paper is often caused by mild irritation of the rectum. For example, this can happen if you have to strain hard to pass a stool or if you have a hemorrhoid.

A large amount of blood in the stool may mean a more serious problem is present. For example, if there is a lot of blood in the stool, not just on the surface, you may need to call your doctor right away. If there are just a few drops on the stool or in the diaper, you may need to let your doctor know today to discuss your symptoms. Black stools may mean you have blood in the digestive tract that may need treatment right away, or may go away on its own.

Certain medicines and foods can affect the color of stool. Diarrhea medicines (such as Pepto-Bismol) and iron tablets can make the stool black. Eating lots of beets may turn the stool red. Eating foods with black or dark blue food coloring can turn the stool black.

If you take aspirin or some other medicine (called a blood thinner) that prevents blood clots, it can cause some blood in your stools. If you take a blood thinner and have ongoing blood in your stools, call your doctor to discuss your symptoms.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and congenital heart disease.
  • Steroid medicines, which are used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Not having a spleen.

Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For children up to 11 years old, here are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild according to how you took the temperature.

Oral (by mouth), ear, or rectal temperature

  • High: 104° F (40° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 100.4° F (38° C) to 103.9° F (39.9° C)
  • Mild: 100.3° F (37.9° C) and lower

A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0.5° F (0.3° C) to 1° F (0.6° C) lower than an oral temperature.

Armpit (axillary) temperature

  • High: 103° F (39.5° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 99.4° F (37.4° C) to 102.9° F (39.4° C)
  • Mild: 99.3° F (37.3° C) and lower

Note: For children under 5 years old, rectal temperatures are the most accurate.

It is easy for your diabetes to become out of control when you are sick. Because of an illness:

  • Your blood sugar may be too high or too low.
  • You may not be able take your diabetes medicine (if you are vomiting or having trouble keeping food or fluids down).
  • You may not know how to adjust the timing or dose of your diabetes medicine.
  • You may not be eating enough or drinking enough fluids.

An illness plan for people with diabetes usually covers things like:

  • How often to test blood sugar and what the target range is.
  • Whether and how to adjust the dose and timing of insulin or other diabetes medicines.
  • What to do if you have trouble keeping food or fluids down.
  • When to call your doctor.

The plan is designed to help keep your diabetes in control even though you are sick. When you have diabetes, even a minor illness can cause problems.

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause belly pain or cramping. A few examples are:

  • Aspirin, ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin), and naproxen (such as Aleve).
  • Antibiotics.
  • Antidiarrheals.
  • Laxatives.
  • Iron supplements.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Swallowed or Inhaled Objects

Postoperative Problems

Abdominal Pain, Age 12 and Older

Why Does My Stomach Hurt? 17 Possible Causes of Stomach Pain

What Is Abdominal Pain?

Abdominal pain is discomfort or other uncomfortable sensations that you feel in your belly area. Just about everybody at one time or another will get a bellyache.

Most causes of abdominal pain aren’t reasons to worry, and your doctor can easily diagnose and treat the problem. Sometimes, though, it can be a sign of a serious illness that needs medical attention.

Types of Abdominal Pain

There are several types of abdominal pain, which are based on how quickly your pain starts and how long it lasts: 

  • Acute pain starts over a few hours or days and may come with other symptoms.
  • Chronic pain lasts longer — from weeks to months or more — and may come and go.
  • Progressive pain gets worse over time and often comes with other symptoms.

Abdominal Pain Causes

Whether you’ve got a mild ache or serious cramps, abdominal pain can have many causes. For instance, you might have indigestion, constipation, a stomach virus or, if you’re a woman, menstrual cramps.

Other possible causes include:

You may also get abdominal pain if you’re lactose intolerant or have ulcers or pelvic inflammatory disease. Other causes include:

  • Hernia
  • Gallstones
  • Kidney stones
  • Endometriosis
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Appendicitis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm (swelling in the belly’s main artery)
  • Bowel blockage or obstruction
  • Cancer of the stomach, pancreas, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, or immune cells
  • Ovarian cancer or cysts 
  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder)
  • Low blood flow to your intestines caused by a blocked blood vessel
  • Ectopic pregnancy (when a fertilized eggs grows outside the uterus, for example, in a Fallopian tube)   

When to Call the Doctor About Abdominal Pain

If your abdominal pain is serious, doesn’t go away, or keeps coming back, talk to your doctor. Call 911 right away if your belly hurts because you had a recent injury there or if you have any chest pain.

You should also contact your doctor as soon as you can if you have symptoms along with the pain, such as:

  • Fever
  • Can’t keep food down for more than 2 days
  • Signs you’re getting dehydrated, including not urinating frequently, dark-colored urine, and being very thirsty
  • Can’t have a bowel movement, especially if you’re also vomiting
  • Pain when you pee, or you need to urinate often

Also call your doctor if:

  • Your belly is tender to the touch
  • Pain lasts more than a few hours

You may have other symptoms that could be a sign of a problem inside your body that needs treatment as soon as possible. Get medical care right away if you have abdominal pain and you also:

  • Vomit blood
  • Notice bloody or black, tarry bowel movements
  • Have trouble breathing
  • Vomit constantly
  • Have swelling in your belly
  • Have yellow skin
  • Are pregnant
  • Have unexplained weight loss

Abdominal Pain Diagnosis

Since there are so many possible causes, your doctor will do a thorough physical exam. They’ll also ask you some questions about your symptoms and want to know what type of pain you have. For instance, is it a severe stabbing pain or a dull ache?

Some other questions your doctor may ask you:

  • Does it hurt throughout your abdomen, or is it just in one particular area?
  • When does it hurt? Always? More often in the morning or at night?
  • If the pain comes and goes, about how long does it last each time?
  • Does it hurt after you eat certain foods or drink alcohol?
  • Are you in pain during menstruation?
  • How long have you been hurting?
  • Does the pain sometimes move into your lower back, shoulder, groin, or buttocks?
  • Do you take any medications or herbal supplements?
  • Are you pregnant?
  • Does any activity ease the pain, such as eating or lying on one side?
  • Does an activity or position make the pain worse?
  • Were you injured recently?

After your exam is over and your doctor is done asking you questions, you may need tests to help find the cause of your pain. These tests may include:

Abdominal Pain Treatment and Home Remedies

The treatment for abdominal pain depends on its cause, and may include:

  • Medications to lower inflammation, prevent acid reflux, or treat ulcers or infection
  • Surgery to treat a problem with an organ

Over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin and ibuprofen can irritate your stomach and worsen your pain. Don’t take them unless a doctor has diagnosed the cause of your belly pain and recommends their use.

Some diet and lifestyle changes may help belly pain caused by gas and indigestion. Here are some things you can try:

  • Eat smaller portions at more frequent meals
  • Eat slowly
  • Chew your food well
  • Drink beverages at room temperature
  • Avoid foods that give you gas or indigestion
  • Manage your stress
  • Limit alcohol and caffeine
  • Sit up straight after you eat
  • Get regular physical activity and take a short walk after you eat 


Right abdominal pain, possible diseases

Only the most common diseases that cause abdominal pain on the right and left are considered here . This material is for preliminary determination of the cause of the occurrence of abdominal pain , and not for making accurate diagnoses without consulting a doctor. Remember – self-medication leads to complications of diseases. In case of abdominal pain – you need to call an ambulance, or consult a dispatcher by phone, call or visit a surgeon of the clinic.In case of severe pain, prolonged pain, recurring pain in the abdomen (right or left) , be sure to see a doctor – these may be symptoms of very serious diseases.

The main groups of diseases and pathological conditions leading to pain in the abdomen on the right

First of all, having felt pain in the abdomen, on the right or on the left , determine the place of the greatest localization of pain. Try to understand exactly where hurts: left, right, above, below, in the chest, in the back, in the lower back .Try to define more clearly the nature of the abdominal pain : dull, aching, pressing (as if something is squeezing), sharp, dagger (as if a knife was thrust in with a swing), bursting (as if they had swallowed a ball and opened it).

A doctor or ambulance team will ask you to answer questions:

  • how it appeared and how it developed abdominal pain: pain appeared suddenly, after physical exertion, after stress, after hypothermia;
  • How long has passed since the onset of the attack pain ;
  • what were the first abdominal pains : mild, then intensified, immediately sharp, dull.Whether abdominal pain intensified sweat and how – quickly or gradually;
  • whether pain changed localization: for example, with appendicitis , abdominal pain first appears in the iliac region – where the stomach is, and then goes down to the right ;
  • whether there is irradiation pain , that is – where pain in the abdomen gives and under what circumstances: movement, cough, tilt, etc. For example, if it hurts in the right hypochondrium and pain is given under the scapula on the right – this is a sign of cholecystitis.

Severe cutting abdominal pain may indicate the presence of appendicitis, stomach or duodenal ulcer, strangulated hernia, volvulus. Even if you have very severe pain , do not put a heating pad with hot water or ice on your stomach. Take a spasmolytic like no-shpa or drotaverine. Call an ambulance or see a surgeon the next day.

Pain in the upper abdomen on the right

The upper right quadrant of your abdomen contains: the liver, the gallbladder, part of the intestine (each quadrant of the abdomen contains a part of the intestine), the pancreas, and the right side of the diaphragm.Disease or injury to these organs brings you pain in the upper abdomen . How strong it is and what kind of pain it is will depend on what is happening and where.

Is it liver pain?

Anything that causes the liver to swell makes it ache. Some parasites can infect the liver. Whatever the cause of the inflammation or infection, the result is called hepatitis.

Usually they get sick with hepatitis A after swallowing food or water contaminated by sewage (shellfish are the first aggressors here).Hepatitis B is especially common among homosexuals, drug addicts and those who have had close contact with them. Hepatitis C is almost always spread through contaminated blood transfusions, medical needles, and blood products.

Various chemical agents and medications can damage the liver because they are toxic to it. However, the most dangerous poison for the liver is alcohol (which causes alcoholic hepatitis).

Hepatic pain is constant, aching, mild or dagger.You feel it all over the right upper abdomen – deep inside, not on the surface. The discomfort develops constantly and relentlessly, not in spasms or waves.

Does the gallbladder hurt?

Symptoms of gallbladder disease appear gradually. A violent attack is often preceded by a time when you feel gas and bloating an hour or two after eating fried or greasy, or some vegetables. However, you can only become seriously anxious for the first time with an attack.When this happens, the pain on the right is sharp, in contrast to the aching hepatic pain. When the pain reaches its maximum, sweat and nausea appear, which even vomiting does not relieve. A high fever is unlikely unless the gallbladder is inflamed; in this case, she can jump up to forty, and you will have chills. The pain itself is most severe in the right upper quadrant, but can also spread to the back, under the right shoulder blade.

Most of the “bad” gallbladders have stones. If the stones are small, then one or two may exit the bladder into the ducts that carry bile into the intestines.Then you will have biliary colic, the pains of which start quickly and come in waves as the ducts try to squeeze out the stone that is blocking them. When they succeed, you feel better. But if the stone remains in the duct, it must be removed from there in one way or another – by operation, dissolution or extraction without surgery. Blocked bile ducts cause jaundice, which disappears if the stone passes into the intestines.

Does the pancreas hurt?

An attack of acute pancreatitis can be extremely painful and is accompanied by sweating, nausea and vomiting.Symptoms differ from those in the pathology of the gallbladder in that the pain penetrates directly into the back, it is worse for you when lying down, and it is easier for you to sit with an inclination forward. The diagnosis usually requires confirmation by laboratory tests to determine the content of certain enzymes secreted by the damaged gland.

Is it pneumonia in the abdomen?

In medical practice, there are patients who, after several days of cough and fever as a result of cooling, suddenly develop pain in the right upper quadrant.A “cold” turns out to be an inflammation of the lungs. The inflamed and infected lung comes into contact with the diaphragm, which in turn becomes irritated and involves the adjacent intestine, causing symptoms. Remember, therefore, that any abdominal pain preceded by a respiratory illness may in fact be due to an infection in the lungs.

Always think of shingles whenever you feel unexplained pain anywhere. The first symptoms are superficial tenderness, a burning sensation or itching, which later develop into severe pain.For 4 or 5 days, you just have a lot of pain in a certain place. The skin appears perfectly normal with no rash or other warning signs. Aside from pain, you generally feel healthy. But if the pain is in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, your doctor may be on the wrong track, thinking about gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, or even kidney stones. He orders analysis after analysis and finds nothing. After a few days, the characteristic reddish pimples appear exactly where it hurt.The rash follows the inflamed nerve, never crosses the midline or passes to the other side of the body. This “one-sided” rash gives you an accurate diagnosis – shingles.

Is the pain on the right kidney?

Renal pathology can sometimes cause pain in the right upper quadrant. The kidneys are located on the sides, one on each side of your body, so kidney disease usually causes pain in the corresponding side and back rather than the front. If the problem is associated with a small stone that has come out of the kidneys, the pain comes in waves, excruciating and often radiates into the groin and right testis, testicle.

Pain in the lower abdomen on the right

Let’s start again with what’s in this part of the belly. First of all, here is the appendix, a small, finger-sized piece of tissue that leaves the large intestine. Then the intestine itself, which can be affected by various diseases, including cancer. But we have a whole host of new organs here: the ovaries and fallopian tubes in women, the ureters that drain urine from the kidneys into the bladder in both sexes.

Is the pain on the right an appendix?

Remember a good rule of thumb: Any pain in the right lower abdomen is appendicitis unless proven otherwise.If you can point the pain with one finger and it lasts 12 hours without relieving, you almost certainly have appendicitis. This is especially true if the pain is also near the navel. In case you suspect that your appendix is ​​inflamed, see your doctor immediately. When confirming the diagnosis, the doctor will almost certainly advise surgery before this organ of unknown function festers and bursts.

Right pain – other causes

Pain can be caused by irritation, inflammation, or infection of the intestines (ulcerative colitis, ileitis, Crohn’s disease, or diarrhea caused by parasites such as amoeba or worms), shingles, and compression of the nerves that extend from the spine and end in this area.A kidney stone on its way down into the bladder will also cause excruciating pain in that quadrant.

If a woman does not have her next period and she suddenly feels severe pain in the left or right lower abdomen, think first – and quickly – about a rupture with an ectopic pregnancy. Pain that worsens during menstruation suggests endometriosis.

Doctors said that COVID-19 is becoming a more transient disease

The symptoms of coronavirus this fall differ significantly from previous waves – at first, it became even easier to confuse COVID-19 with a cold or flu.Subsequently, new symptoms appear, and the disease itself becomes more fleeting. This was reported on September 30 by Public news service , which interviewed doctors.

So, experts called a severe runny nose a new symptom of coronavirus infection, which also develops more rapidly – pneumonia manifests itself on the third day, and not on the seventh, as it was before.

From the first days, those infected with the coronavirus have symptoms similar to acute flu: pain and sore throat, high fever.To this may be added deafness with dizziness and loss of smell. Both symptoms indicate a central nervous system (CNS) virus infection, doctors noted.

“Discharge from the nose, sore throat, sore throat. A rapidly developing and long-lasting cough with a lot of phlegm. Fever behaves like a flu, but lasts longer. Neurological symptoms are largely expressed: dizziness, headaches, severe weakness. Fainting is possible when you try to stand up suddenly.There is a rapid lesion of the central nervous system. All these symptoms appear immediately, maximum – on the second day and last for weeks, ”explained doctor Alexander Ediger.

Initial symptoms

Of the previous symptoms, digestive disorders remain, but now they are more pronounced – these are abdominal pains, diarrhea. “Food is very poorly tolerated, even cereals and soups. Nausea and vomiting are possible. The analyzes show pronounced liver enzymes, which have not been observed before, ”Ediger added.

The main symptoms of coronavirus in previous waves were fever, fatigue, cough with a small amount of sputum.As the disease progressed, some patients (about 15%) developed symptoms such as dyspnea (a feeling of shortness of breath). An increase in body temperature was recorded in more than 90% of patients, a dry cough – in about 80%, chest tightness – in more than 20%.

Rise in incidence

Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Tatyana Golikova on September 30 warned of the onset of a difficult period due to the rise in the incidence of COVID-19.

“I want to ask you to be careful, observe all restrictive measures, take care of yourself and your loved ones,” she said at a meeting of the Council on Guardianship in the Social Sphere.

In turn, the head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova previously noted that the rise in the incidence of coronavirus infection has been going on for three weeks against the backdrop of the next season of growth in the incidence of ARVI and influenza.
Since the beginning of the pandemic, about 233.3 million people have become infected with the coronavirus in the world, more than 4.7 million have died. In Russia, according to the federal operational headquarters, 7,511,026 cases of infection were registered, 6,672,767 people recovered, 207,255.9,016 died.

On the spread of coronavirus

90,097 The number of confirmed cases of coronavirus infection in Russia has increased by 23,888 over the past day.The country has registered 867 deaths of the disease. Thus, the maximum number of deaths due to COVID-19 is updated for the third day in a row.

The conditional mortality rate of the disease remained at the level of 2.76%, it follows from the data of the headquarters.

90,097 62 patients with coronavirus have died in Moscow. The number of people infected in the capital increased by 3,998.9,016

The spread of coronavirus infection in Russia on Thursday dropped to 1.03, it follows from the calculations of TASS .In Moscow, it dropped to 1.01. The indicator shows how many people, on average, have time to infect one infected person before they are isolated.

Wandering pains throughout the body: causes and treatment


  1. Causes of wandering pains;
  2. Pain in different parts of the body;

Sometimes patients complain of wandering pains throughout the body of varying intensity, they can suddenly appear and disappear regardless of the time of day. In ICD 10, there is no such disease, usually symptoms provoke various pathologies or disorders that occur in a latent or subacute stage.Clients often come to a traumatologist and ask why their arms and legs become numb, and in such cases, a neurologist’s consultation is needed. But migratory muscle pains will be cured by a therapist. Diagnostics will help to determine the provoking factor.

Causes of wandering pains

When all muscles, bones and joints of the whole body hurt, the search for the causes begins with a visit to the doctor. But in order to know which doctor to go to, you need to take into account the presence of chronic diseases, previous infections or a predisposition to the development of various pathologies.

All provoking factors can be general and characteristic for a certain localization of the symptom. The most common causes of wandering pain throughout the body are systemic disorders and pathologies:

  • physical overload and muscle strain;
  • transferred ARVI or infectious poisoning;
  • posture disorders and diseases of the spine;
  • Inflammation of the muscles due to hypothermia;
  • constant stress and neuroses;
  • various chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, rheumatism, arthritis, etc.)etc.).

These are the most common causes of a symptom. To determine what the muscles of the whole body hurt from is possible only by carrying out instrumental diagnostics and examination. Before going to the doctor, you need to assume a provoking factor that can cause pain. To do this, you need to take into account its localization and manifestations.

Pain in different parts of the body

Usually, migratory pains spread throughout the body in a specific area – the right or left limb along the forearm, hand, thigh, lower leg or foot.Synchronization of the lesion on the right and on the left is often noted; with such a severity, it is possible to assume a specific disease and make a preliminary diagnosis. This will help prescribe a course of treatment that will give the most effective result.

It is possible to determine what causes discomfort by localization – usually it is the head, neck, back, abdomen or limbs. Attachment to topography is present in certain diseases, in which the nature of the pain is different.

In the head

If migratory pains throughout the body are accompanied by the appearance of a symptom in the head region, neurological disorders should be assumed.They are caused by exogenous or internal causes:

  1. Pinched nerves – due to osteochondrosis or muscle spasms, the spinal roots can be compressed, which provoke sharp stabbing or burning pain;
  2. With injuries, infections or the initial stage of osteochondrosis, pressing pain in the frontal lobe may appear. In this condition, it is better to be examined immediately, sometimes the symptom is provoked by oncology;
  3. Headaches often appear when wearing uncomfortable hats, caps, tight motorcycle helmets, glasses, etc.In such cases, after elimination of the provoking factor, the symptoms completely disappear.

The therapy is individually tailored. If pinching is observed, massage, physiotherapy exercises, various physiotherapy procedures with skeletal traction are prescribed. If there is an infection, medications are prescribed, which must be taken urgently to prevent meningitis.

In the muscles and joints

In case of wandering pain in the joints and muscles, you need to visit an orthopedic traumatologist, and if the doctor does not reveal any damage, a neurologist will be appointed.The search for the cause is carried out depending on the clinical picture:

  1. With arthritis, pain can migrate through the joints, affect the knees, ankles, elbows, and shoulder blades. Depending on the form of the disease, there may be synchrony or one-sided localization;
  2. Injuries or overloads of the extremities – in this case, an analogy can be drawn between pain and a provoking factor: if you often work with your hands, discomfort will be in your hands or forearms, and if your knees are bruised, they will periodically hurt;
  3. Infections – often intoxication is accompanied by aching muscles and joints.In this case, pain will be noted not only in the limbs, but also throughout the body;
  4. Diseases of the spine in the cervicothoracic or lumbosacral regions – if nerves of nearby plexuses are pinched during osteochondrosis, hernias or protrusions, the pain will spread to the limbs.

In the back and neck

Frequently wandering pains in the muscles throughout the body appear in the head and neck, here it is necessary to immediately assume diseases of the spine or nearby muscles:

  1. When nerves are pinched, stabbing pain usually occurs, when squeezed – burning …It can be provoked by osteochondrosis, various curvatures, protrusions or hernias. Less often, oncology is observed;
  2. If myositis is noted, a sharp cutting pain appears and can spread throughout the back. If you are bleeding, your temperature may rise, weakness and loss of strength may occur;
  3. Muscle spasms sometimes develop and cause severe pain. They usually appear in the presence of previous causes, but can greatly complicate the clinical picture of the disease.

Back and neck pain is the most common concern for people with a sedentary lifestyle.When the nerves are pinched, the vessels that feed the brain are often squeezed. Particularly dangerous is the defeat of the vertebral artery, which is located in the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae – then dizziness and headaches appear.

In the abdomen

Most often, migratory pains in the abdomen are chronic diseases of internal organs: hepatitis, pancreatitis, gastritis and other pathologies. The most dangerous is appendicitis, in this condition an operation is urgently needed.

Less commonly, abdominal pain provokes systemic pathologies.As in previous cases, an instrumental examination will help establish the exact cause.

Rogue’s Daughter on Apple Podcasts

Please do not listen to this podcast if you are under 18 years of age. It contains descriptions of scenes of violence.

This is the first of a three-episode spin-off of the Robber’s Daughter podcast called The Price of the Trip.

At the beginning of autumn, Nastya learned the story of the girl Yana, who was raped by a taxi driver. Acquaintance with Yana gave rise to a lot of questions and a desire to understand: how often do such crimes happen? How do women experience unwanted attention and harassment from drivers? is it possible to achieve justice – or at least justice? How do aggregators react to what is happening?

In this episode, girls from different cities of Russia talk about their experiences, and we are trying to figure out how aggregators work and what is their responsibility for what is happening in a taxi.

We found answers to some legal questions about the work of a taxi in these materials:

What can you learn about the work of taxi services and their relations with passengers if you read the user agreement
Is it true that taxi drivers work for days and earn a penny? Where to complain if the driver is rude? Shameful questions about taxi aggregators *
Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 06/26/2018 N 26 “On some issues of the application of legislation on the contract for the carriage of goods, passengers and luggage by road and on the contract of transport expedition”
The Cabinet of Ministers proposed to prohibit drivers with a criminal record from working in a taxi
Taxi aggregators will review liability

* Meduza is recognized as a foreign media agent in Russia

At the beginning of the episode, at the party, Polina Gagarina’s song “The play is over” is played

Creator and presenter: Nastya Krasilnikova (instagram)
Editor: Anya Shinkaretskaya
Composer: Alexey Zelensky
Sound engineer: Yuri Shustitsky
Cover: Ruslana Mirzalieva
Transcripts: Olga Averkieva

For communication: unsudden @ gmail.com

read I am obsessed with you Chapter 459

Veniamin Rodionovich stood nearby and sobbed mournfully to himself.

– How unhappy she is!

Dmitry stood in the doorway and still did not enter the room, disheveled hair hid his expression.

– I remember how on her twentieth birthday, when my parents died, and they grabbed me, she ran everywhere and tried to pull me out, – Veniamin Rodionovich had a lump in his throat, – I didn’t know everything then, how she was did.Only after some time did I find out that she had made a deal with a woman named Anfisa Nikonovna, so that I would not be sent to prison, she paid her a large sum of money to pay off my debts and I was released. And my stepmother …

My sister immediately left with Anfisa to another city. This Anfisa slipped her husband Liza, hoping that they would start a relationship, love each other … After that, Liza became pregnant, Anfisa wanted the child to be their official, so she told everyone that she herself was pregnant … After giving birth, the child passed to Anfisa, and she told everyone that this was her child, whom she gave birth to.

Only unfortunately, Fadey noticed Liza, believing that she wanted to take Anfisa’s husband away. Then his father Nikon Kirillovich was still in power and was powerful, Fadey was acting outrageous, and he grabbed Liza, forced her to leave Ilya. She certainly resisted, but he somehow found out about her first love and also grabbed Athanasius to blackmail her. Liza had no choice but to call Ilya Nikitich and inform him that it was time to leave, because she still loves Afanasy.

After the call, Fadey imprisoned her and Afanasy for six whole years … Later, Anfisa found out about this, she came to her brother and asked to let them go.Then six years had already passed, Fadey hoped that so much time had passed, and their feelings between Liza and Ilya faded away. And the child of Anfisa and Ilya has already grown up, so he agreed to let her go …

For six years! They grabbed her right after giving birth. Because of this, she was injured and could no longer have children. She also had problems with her head, only a year later she recovered. Later, in order to be close to her son, she married Ilya, but Fadey was against it and said that he would only agree on the condition that she would be given “family heirlooms”.And how Anfisa died in the end, I do not know at all.

Withstanding a pause, Benjamin raised his reddened eyes, looked at Dmitry and continued in a grieving voice:

– This woman who lies under the white sheet is your own mother, – and added with special emphasis, – She carried you for nine months and gave birth in heavy pain.

Dmitry did not raise his eyes and vaguely saw the trembling of his body. Ilya got up, all meaning was lost in his eyes, he carefully let go of Elizabeth’s hand, and in complete sorrow and misfortune looked at Benjamin Rodionovich.

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进入 冬季 后, 中 老年人 要 多吃 6 样 食材, 营养 好, 身体 棒 – TopItInfo 资讯

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如果 你 不 知道 冬天 该 怎么 去吃 , 才能 对 身● 好的 话 , 今天 就让 我 来 给 ​​你 说一说 , 进入 冬季 以后 , 中 老年人 一定 要 多吃 的 6 种 食材。 所以 进入 冬天 以后 , 我们一定 要 记得 多喝 乌 鸡汤 , 其所 富含 的 营养 价值 , 有 很好 的 抗衰 老 , 滋阴 壮阳 、 健脾 , 提高 抵抗力 等等 作用。


Time flies so fast and it’s cold winter again.Every year after the onset of winter, we must replenish our body with nutrients in time.Because The climate is cold in winter, The body’s resistance will decrease, Eating more nutritious food can effectively increase our body’s resistance.

When faced with cold winters, especially for middle-aged and older friends, you should pay special attention to the cold winter: if you are not careful, it will take its toll on your body.So this time How to eat properly in winter has become a very important question.

If you don’t know how to eat well in winter to maintain your health, let me tell you today. After winter there are 6 types of ingredients that middle-aged and elderly people should eat more. This is all the knowledge that my 90-year-old grandmother shared with me: he eats this way every winter and he has a very good body.

After winter enters, middle-aged and older people should eat 6 more ingredients that ensure good nutrition and good health.

XNUMX. White radish

There is a saying: Eat ginger in summer and radish in winter, The taste of radish in winter is very crunchy and sweet. Rich in vitamins, carbohydrates, vitamins, vegetable protein. Always wait for a variety of nutrients. Has a reputation for “little ginseng”. It can be seen how high its nutritional value is.

In addition, there are many ways to eat radishes in winter: they can be eaten with pickles, fried, stewed in soup, or eaten raw.The taste is very good. This is especially important for stewing soup, it can also make the soup taste very fresh and sweet.

Second, black chicken soup

Three nines make up one winter, in the coming year there will be no pain, Entering winter, you must remember to feed your body in time. So, entering winter, we must Do not forget to drink more chicken soup with black bones, His rich nutritional value is very good. Anti-aging, nourish yin and yang, invigorate the spleen, increase resistance And so on.

Especially for middle-aged and elderly people, Good for preventing cardiovascular diseases, May make your body healthier in winter. A small bowl of black bone chicken soup every day can also nourish your skin and make your face glow. Every day is beautiful and beautiful.

XNUMX. Fresh lamb.

As we enter the cold winter, we need to eat more warm sex foods. Among the many warm sex foods, lamb is one of the best foods to choose from.Because compared to many meat ingredients, Lamb meat is inherently warm, so it effectively drives away the cold in our body.

In cold winters, lamb is best used in soup. A hot bowl of lamb soup warms the body and stomach. Especially for those Middle-aged and old friends with cold hands and feet, Remember to drink plenty of lamb soup to keep warm at any time.

Four, Sydney

In the cold winter, due to the dry climate, many people tend to get angry, so you need to eat more fruits during this time. When faced with a lot of fruit, Sydney should be the first choice. Because Sydney is very good The effect of moving fluid in the body to quench thirst, relieve cough and phlegm, remove heat and eliminate fire.

It is still effective if you eat Sydney in winter Prevent colds and coughs , Especially older friends who get old, if they cough in winter, the whole person will feel very uncomfortable. So at this time, please remember Boil one Sydney pear every day, Can play a very good coaching role, May he calmly survive the winter.

Five black beans

Black beans have a reputation as the “king of beans”, They are very high in protein, calcium and trace elements. Compared to the milk we usually drink, the protein content in black beans is ten times higher. So if you drink milk in winter, you can eat black beans as well.

In addition to the high nutritional value of black beans, they are also Rich in unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins Looking forward to nutrition.These nutrients are very beneficial for the health of middle-aged and older friends. Can prevent various diseases of hypertension . In addition, there is black beans in winter, there is a good Nourish the liver, moisturize dryness Oh, the role.

Six, lotus root

There is a saying about the lotus root: “The lotus is a treasure, the root of the autumn lotus is the most tonic.” hence When winter came, it was the season when there were many lotus roots in the market., Because the lotus root harvest season is in the late autumn season, so newly introduced lotus roots have a very high nutritional value and are especially suitable for human consumption.

Small lotus root, no need to look at it, but its nutritional value is very high. Rich in micronutrients, dietary fiber, iron, potassium And other nutrients especially suitable for eating friends. Winter If you have a poor appetite, eat more lotus root., Very good for improving appetite.

Well, this is what I want to recommend to you today, 6 types of food to eat more in winter. When faced with these 6 foods, which one do you think is the most complementary in winter? You can leave a message in the comments area and give your opinion.

In fact, besides these 6 types of food, there are many foods in winter that are very nutritious for the body.If you have a better understanding, you can also recommend it to us, What foods do you eat in winter to nourish your body!


Images and materials in this article were taken from the Internet and are used for communication, training and research. If there are errors or inaccuracies in the translation of the text in the data of the article, please contact for removal and correction.


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时间 飞逝 , 一晃 又 到 了 严寒 的 冬天 , 每 一年 进 到 冬天 之后 , 大家 一定 要 立即 对 身 ble 开展 养分 上 的 摄入 哦。

由于 冬天 天气 严寒 , 身 ble 抵抗 能力 便会 减少 , 多吃 一些 营养 成分 的 食材 , 才 可以 合理 提高 , 大家 身կ 的 抵抗 能力。

在 应对 的 的 冬天 时 , 尤其 是 中 老年人 好朋友 , 一定 要 需 注意 寒冷 的 冬季 , 稍 不 留意 得 话 , 便会 对 身 ble 产生 危害。

因此 这个 时候 , 冬天 要 如何 去吃 , 就 变成 了 一件 十分重要 的 事儿。

假如 你 永远 不 知道 冬季 该 怎样 吃 , 才 可以 对 身 ble 好 得 话 , 今日 就要 我 让 你 说 进 到 冬天 之后 , 中 老年 一定 要 多吃 的 6 种 食物。

这 可 全 是 我 90 岁 的 姥姥 , 帮 我 共享 的 专业 知识 , 每 一年 冬季 他 都 那样 吃 , 身子 尤其 棒。

进 到 冬天 后 , 中 老年 要 多吃 6 样 食物 , 养分 好 身 棒 一 萝卜 有 一句 老话 是 那样 说 的 , 夏 吃 生姜 冬 吃 萝卜 , 冬季 的 箩卜 口味 是 十分 甜脆 的 , 其 还 含有了 充足 的 维他命 , 糖类 与 碳水化合物 , 维他命 , 大豆 蛋白 等 多种 营养 , 一直 都 拥有 “小 人参 的 美名 , 由此可见 其 营养 成分 多大。

此外 , 冬季 的 萝卜 吃法 还很 充足 , 可以 腌 着 吃 炒 着 吃 , 还 可以 用于 煲汤 吃 , 或是 是 可以 直接 直接 生吃 , 口味 全 是 十分 出色 的 , 尤其 是 用于 煲汤 , 还能让 汤 的 味儿 , 十分 鲜美。

二 鸽子 汤 三九 补 一 冬 , 明年 无 病苦 , 进 到 冬季 之后 , 一定 要 还 记得 立即 对 身文 开展 滋补 养生。

因此 进 到 冬季 之后 , 大家 一定 要 还 记得 多喝 鸽子 汤 , 其所 含有 的 营养 成分 , 有 有效 的 延缓 衰老 , 补肾 固 精 健 脾胃 , 提高 抵抗力 这些 功效。

尤其 是 针对 中 老年 而言 , 还能 非常 好 防止 心 脑 血管 疾病 , 能使 你 在 冬季 有 一个 更 健康 的 身 ble。

每日 一 小碗 鸽子 汤 , 还能 非常 好 润 养 肌肤 , 使 你 容貌 容光焕发 , 每天 都 美 若 天仙。

三 新鮮 牛肉 进 到 严寒 的 冬天 之后 , 大家 一定 要 多吃 性 温 的 食物 , 在 许多 的 温 性 食材 中 , 牛肉 是 最好 的 优选 食材 之 之一。

由于 相 较为 于 诸多 肉类 食品 食物 的 情况 下 , 牛肉 的 肉质 地 温 性 , 这样 一 来 就能 合理 , 对 大家 身կ 身 ble 内 的 凉气 开展 祛除。

在 严寒 的 冬天 , 牛肉 的 最好 使用 方法 , 便是 用于 熬汤 , 一碗 热呼呼 的 羊汤 , 暖身 又 养胃。

尤其 是 针对 这些 手脚 冰冷 中 老年人 好朋友 定 一定 要 还 记得 多喝 羊汤 , 能使 你 身 ble 随时随地 都 温暖 的。

四 梨子 寒冷 的 冬季 , 因为 气侯 干 躁 , 因此 很多 人 都 非常 容易发生 容易 上火 的 状况 , 因此 这个 时候 , 大家 就 需要 多吃 新鲜 水果 , 在 应对 诸多 新鲜 水果 的 情况 下 , 一定 要 优选梨子。

由于 梨子 有 有效 的 生 津 解渴 , 化痰止咳 清热 祛 火 实际 效果。

在 冬季 吃 梨子 得 话 , 还能 合理 预防 流感 干咳 哦 , 尤其 是 上 年龄 的 中 老年 好朋友 , 冬季 一 咳嗽 得 话 , 全部 人 便会 很难 受。

因此 此刻 , 请 还 记得 每日 烫 一个 梨子 服用 , 就能 具有 不错 的 基本 功效 , 使 你 安全 过 冬季。

五 黑 芝麻 黑 芝麻 拥有 “豆 中 霸主 的 美名 , 其所 含有 的 蛋白 , 钙 成分 , 营养 元素 都 非常 的 高。

相 较为 于 大家 平常 喝 的 牛乳 时 , 黑 芝麻 中常 含 的 蛋白质 含量 , 但是 其 十 几倍 哦。

因此 冬季 喝 纯 牛奶 得 话 , 还 比不上 吃 黑豆。

黑 芝麻 除 开 营养 成分 高 之外 , 其 还 含有 了 丰富 不 饱和 脂肪酸 , 维他命 等 养分。

这种 营养 元素 , 针对 中 老年人 好朋友 而言 , 全 是 十分 有益于 身文 身心健康 的 , 能 防止 各种各样 血压 高 病症。

此外 , 冬天 吃 黑豆 , 也 有 不错 的 护肝 润肺 功效 哦。

六 莲藕 针对 莲藕 这类 食物 , 有 一句 老话 是 那样 说 的 , “荷 莲 一身 QL , 秋 藕 最 补 人。

因而 刚进 到 冬天 的 情况 下 , 恰好 是 莲藕 很多 发售 的 时节 , 由于 莲藕 的 采收 时节 , 归属 于 初秋 时节。

因此 , 在 应对 这种 刚 推出 的 莲藕 时 , 其 营养 成分 是 十分 丰富 的 , 尤其 合适 服用。

小小 莲藕 , 请 别看 他 看起来 不 咋 滴 , 可是 它 的 营养 成分 则 是 十分 高 的 , 其 內部 含有 了 充足 的 营养 元素 , 膳食 纤维 , 铁 , 钾 等 营养 元素 , 尤其 合适 女性 服用。

冬季 胃口 不太 好的 好朋友 , 就 可以 多吃 一些 莲藕 , 有 有效 的 改进 胃口 功效。

好啦 , 以上 是 今日 我 想 给 大伙儿 介绍 的 , 6 种 冬天 要 多吃 的 食材。

在 应对 这 6 种 食材 的 情况 下 , 你 觉得 哪 一种 食材 , 才算 是 冬天 最 补 身 ble 的 呢? 热烈 欢迎 各位 在 评论 留言 板 留言 , 说一说 你 的 观点。

实际上 除 开 这 6 种 食材 之外 , 冬天 也 有 许多 食材 , 全 是 很 滋补 养生 身文 的。

假如 你 那边 有 更强 掌握 得 话 大 还 可以 给 大家 建议 一下 , 你 冬天 全 是 吃 什么 食物 , 的 滋补 养生 身 的! 这篇 文章 照片 及 文章 资料 来自 互联网 技术 , 用以 沟通 交流 学习 培训 沟通 交流 学习和 科学研究。

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