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Ways to prevent indigestion: The request could not be satisfied


Tips for beating indigestion naturally

If you love to eat or are often stressed, indigestion is probably a daily, unwelcome guest in your life. While indigestion can be caused by other, underlying conditions, often our poor eating habits and overindulgence can play a role.

Indigestion (also known as dyspepsia) is persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen. It’s mostly triggered when you eat and isn’t caused by excess stomach acid. 

Symptoms and causes 

Most people experience some symptoms of indigestion in their life. These may include: 

• Abdominal pain or discomfort
• Bloating and a feeling of fullness
• Nausea and vomiting
• Loss of appetite
• Heartburn
• Burning sensation in the stomach or upper abdomen
• Burping, belching and gas
• Acidic taste

Read: Prevent burping and farting

While indigestion can also be caused by conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcers or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), lifestyle factors are often at the root of the problem. These factors include: 

• Eating too much or too quickly
• Eating during stressful situations
• Eating foods with a high fat content
• Excessive alcohol consumption
• Stress, anxiety and fatigue
• Cigarette smoking 

Read: Is my heartburn actually GORD?

How to prevent indigestion

Restraining yourself in any way might be the last thing on your mind this festive season. But if you’ve been bothered by indigestion before, you’ll know how miserable it can make you feel. 

If you know from past experience that certain foods or situations seem to cause indigestion, it makes sense to try and avoid them as far as possible.

Other simple diet and lifestyle steps can also cut your risk, lowering your need for over-the-counter medication:

1. Eat several small meals instead of overeating at two to three super-sized meals. 
2. Try to eat slowly.
3. Don’t talk while chewing and don’t chew with your mouth open. This results in swallowing too much air, which can worsen indigestion. 
4. Avoid acid-rich foods like tomatoes and citrus fruits.
5. Cut down or avoid fatty, greasy or spicy foods, caffeine, fizzy cool drinks and chocolate. Some people find that these foods make indigestion worse.
6. Try to limit alcohol as it can irritate the stomach lining. Alternate alcoholic drinks with glasses of water.
7. Don’t drink fluids during meals; rather drink them afterwards. 
8. Consider quitting smoking, or at least avoid lighting up before or after eating.
9. Avoid late-night snacking. 
10. Wait at least two to three hours after eating before you lie down. 
11. When you go to sleep after eating, use pillows to elevate your head at least 15cm above your feet.
12. Avoid wearing tight clothing that constricts your abdominal area.
13. Add digestion-enhancing foods like mint, fennel, ginger, cumin seeds and caraway seeds to your meals.
14. Eat yoghurt and other fermented food products regularly as they can help to restore the stomach’s microbial flora.
15. Alleviate indigestion with some exercise, but never exercise on a full stomach. Try to get active before a meal or at least one hour after eating.
16. If you tend to suffer from stress or anxiety, try therapies like massage, relaxation or meditation. 

Acupuncture relieves indigestion
Natural remedies for indigestion

If the above steps don’t quite do the trick, you can also try natural remedies for indigestion:  

1. Peppermint oil combined with caraway oil may help relieve indigestion. You can also try enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules. These may help relieve abdominal pain, bloating and gas.

2. Artichoke leaf extract is believed to improve digestion by stimulating the flow of bile from the liver.

3. Probiotics, charcoal tablets and dietary fibre may also help to alleviate some symptoms of indigestion.

Always contact your doctor before taking any supplements to make sure they won’t interact with any regular medications you’re taking.

Check in with your doctor

Lastly, if you’re concerned about your indigestion, and it persists for several weeks, consult your doctor to rule out any other underlying conditions that may be causing your symptoms. 

This is especially important if you experience vomiting or blood in vomit, black, tarry stools, severe pain in the upper right abdomen or discomfort unrelated to eating.

Read more:
How to get a handle on your heartburn
13 ways to prevent heartburn
Calcium carbonate relieves heartburn

Image: Gastric acid from Shutterstock

Sources: Mayo Clinic; Medicine.net; National Institutes of Health: Digestive Disorders Health Centre

Natural ways to prevent indigestion and acidity

Acidity and indigestion are common during the winter season. This is when our metabolism tends to get sluggish, leading to bloating, acidity, gas, and other gut-related/indigestion issues. However, many of us tend to use the terms indigestion and acid reflux interchangeably. But there are several differences between these two conditions, and acid reflux can be a lot more severe and last for more than just a few hours.

Acidity is usually characterised by heartburn felt around the lower chest area, which is caused by the stomach acid flowing back up into the food pipe. Meanwhile, indigestion can cause discomfort in your upper abdomen or burning pain behind the breastbone. Very few people realise the unhealthy habits, overeating, and poor lifestyle choices that cause these conditions.

Whether you are suffering from indigestion or acid reflux, you are likely to experience pain and a great deal of discomfort. One needs to pay attention to check what triggers acidity and indigestion. While it could be alcohol or chocolates causing acidity for someone, it could be citrus fruits or carbonated beverages for others.

Here are some common home remedies to treat indigestion. 

* Drink a lot of water: Drinking water can help eliminate toxins from the body and enhance the digestion process. Often, warm water is seen to be helpful.

* Choose the right food: Opt for dishes made using nuts, fruits, and other healthy ingredients like flaxseeds. Cut down on snacks as they are loaded with salt and sugar. Instead, go for roasted, steamed, boiled, and grilled food items.

* Portion control is the key: Make sure that you have small and frequent meals, which will prevent overeating. Regulate your portion size for fried foods and sweets. Eating on a smaller plate will prevent you from binge-eating.

* Usage of natural ingredients: “In case of acidity, antacids with natural ingredients such as Indian gooseberry, also known as amla, and Cowrie Shell Ash or varatika, well-known for its antacid and digestive properties, can be used to provide symptomatic relief from gastritis, hyperacidity, heartburn, and indigestion”, suggests Dr Rajesh Kumawat, Head – Medical Services & Clinical Development, The Himalaya Drug Company.

Also, if you are suffering from indigestion, anti-flatulent and antacid tablets with a combination of natural ingredients like ginger that helps in secretion of gastric juices, and triphala that helps in intestinal and digestion motility, can help tackle the problem and help you indulge in your favourite foods this season.

Healthy eating habits and consuming antacids with natural ingredients can keep acidity and indigestion at bay. In case of frequent and severe acidity, it is advisable to consult your doctor.

Treatment of Indigestion | NIDDK

How do doctors treat indigestion?

Treatment for indigestion depends on the cause and may include

  • over-the-counter and prescription medicines
  • changing what you eat and drink
  • psychological therapies

Over-the-counter and prescription medicines

You can buy many medicines to treat indigestion without a prescription, such as antacids, h3 blockers, or proton pump inhibitors. However, if your indigestion lasts longer than 2 weeks, you should see your doctor. Your doctor may prescribe acid-suppressing medicines that are stronger than the ones you can buy, antibiotics, prokinetics, or psychological medicines.

Antacids. Doctors often first recommend antacids—over-the-counter medicines that neutralize acids in your stomach. Antacids include

Doctors often first recommend antacids for indigestion

Antibiotics. To treat a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics—medicines that kill bacteria. He or she will prescribe at least two of the following:

h3 blockers. h3 blockers are medicines that decrease the amount of acid your stomach produces. h3 blockers provide short-term or on-demand relief for many people with indigestion. You can buy an h3 blocker or your doctor can prescribe one. h3 blockers include

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). PPIs are most effective in treating indigestion if you also have heartburn. You can buy some PPIs or your doctor can prescribe one. PPIs include

Prokinetics. Prokinetics help your stomach empty faster. Prescription prokinetics include

Changes in what you eat and drink

Your doctor may recommend that you avoid certain foods and drinks that may cause indigestion or make your symptoms worse, such as

  • alcoholic beverages
  • carbonated, or fizzy, drinks
  • foods or drinks that contain caffeine
  • foods that contain a lot of acid, such as tomatoes, tomato products, and oranges
  • spicy, fatty, or greasy foods

Psychological therapies

Your doctor may recommend a type of psychological therapy called “talk therapy” to help treat anxiety and depression that may be causing your indigestion. If stress is causing your indigestion, your doctor may recommend ways to help you reduce your stress, such as meditation, relaxation exercises, or counseling. Talk therapy can also help you learn how to reduce your stress.

What can I do to help prevent indigestion?

In addition to making changes in what you eat and drink, you can help prevent indigestion by making lifestyle changes such as

  • avoiding exercise right after eating
  • chewing food carefully and completely
  • losing weight
  • not eating late-night snacks
  • not taking a lot of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • quitting smoking
  • trying to reduce stress in your life
  • waiting 2 to 3 hours after eating before you lie down

Pregnancy Heartburn? 7 Ways to Get Relief

They say prevention is the best medicine, so knowing common heartburn triggers can help you keep the acid at bay.

Of course, pregnancy itself is a major trigger for heartburn. As your growing uterus puts pressure on your stomach, this pushes stomach acid up your throat. 

Those lovely hormones are no help either. They tend to relax the valve between your stomach and esophagus, which makes it easier for acid to make its way upward.

While there’s nothing you can do to stop this entirely, there are a few things that can help prevent heartburn from flaring up during pregnancy:

  • Avoid lying down after eating. It may be tempting to take a post-meal nap, but if you want to prevent heartburn, don’t lie down after eating. Consider napping in an upright recliner instead.
  • Prop yourself up at night. It’s hard enough to sleep well while pregnant without throwing acid reflux on top of everything. To prevent nighttime heartburn, try propping yourself up when you go to sleep to counteract the acid.
  • Don’t eat before bedtime. In addition to propping yourself up at night, try not to eat anything within three hours of hitting the sack.
  • Skip spicy, acidic, or fried foods. Ask yourself: Are those greasy chips worth being doubled over in pain later? (Probably not. ) If you want to avoid the risk, steer clear of any and all rich, fatty foods. Not only will this help prevent heartburn, but making more nutritious choices helps ensure that you your baby is getting the important vitamins and minerals that they need to stay healthy in utero.
  • Eat small meals, but more frequently. Your pregnant tummy doesn’t love to be hit with large amounts of food to digest in one go. Make things easier on your gut by eating several small meals throughout the day instead of three large ones.
  • Eat slowly. Wolfing down those small meals will defeat the purpose of spreading them out. Eating quickly increases the risk of acid reflux, so slow down and enjoy your food.
  • Wear loose clothing. Tight-fitting clothes are not your stomach’s best friend when you’re trying to prevent heartburn – particularly during pregnancy. Wear clothing that offers support without being restrictive. 
  • Drink your liquids between meals. If you’re the type of person who likes to take a swig of their drink between each bite, it’s time to change course. Drinking liquids during meals can exacerbate heartburn symptoms, so take little sips if you’re thirsty at mealtime. 

6 Natural Remedies For Heartburn


What is heartburn? Once you’ve swallowed that burrito, your body is supposed to take over all the details, leaving you with nothing but the memory of that cheesy, beany goodness. But heartburn doesn’t let you forget.


Your esophagus is the tube that connects your mouth to your stomach, and it’s responsible for pushing food down in rhythmic waves. Once food hits your stomach, acids and enzymes begin breaking it down for digestion. Stomach acids are fairly powerful (after all, they’re designed to dissolve food), and your stomach has a special lining that protects it from being affected by acid. However, in the case of heartburn, some of those stomach acids travel back up into the esophagus, and it is this acid reflux that’s leaving you with a burning sensation.


Related: These Foods Can Actually Help Alleviate Arthritis Pain or Symptoms

Heartburn can be caused by many things, including everything from spicy foods to caffeine to genetics, so it’s often difficult to know what’s going to trigger acid reflux. Thankfully, there are many ways to alleviate heartburn without turning to over-the-counter or prescription medication, and you may find relief with things you already have around the house. Here are a few ways to ease that burning sensation naturally and quickly:

1. Baking soda

Notice we said baking soda and not baking powder (you are not a cake: don’t get the two confused). Baking soda is inexpensive and totally natural. Simply dissolve a teaspoon of baking soda into a cup of water. The baking soda will help neutralize acid. Note: Baking soda contains sodium, consult your doctor if you’re on a low-sodium diet.

2. Aloe juice

Aloe juice is sold at most grocery stores. Just like aloe vera is used to soothe skin sunburns, aloe juice can help soothe irritation caused by acid reflux. If you struggle with heartburn, it’s a good idea to get into the habit of drinking ½ cup of aloe juice before meals to keep your stomach and esophagus soothed.

3. Sugar-free gum

Saliva helps dilute acid, so increasing the amount of saliva you produce after a meal is a great way to help prevent acid production. Try chewing a stick of gum for 30 minutes for decreased heartburn.

4. Apple cider vinegar

Surprise, everyone’s favorite remedy can help ease heartburn. Mix 3 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar in a cup of water, then drink up (it won’t taste good, so be warned) before each meal or at bedtime.

5. Eat a banana

This one’s very easy. Did you know that bananas contain natural antacids? Start eating a banana every day to help counteract acid reflux. If you don’t have a banana, an apple will do.

6. Stop smoking

If you’re a smoker, and you need yet another reason to quit, here’s one. If you’ve noticed your acid reflux has gotten worse and you’re a smoker, the smoking is will aggravate your esophagus and make everything hurt. Now’s a good time to quit.

7. Lifestyle changes

If you’re overweight, making small changes to your diet and increasing physical activity could relieve your heartburn. Try eliminating foods that trigger your heartburn such as fatty or spicy foods, caffeine, chocolate, or carbonated beverages, to name a few. Omitting these from your diet may eliminate the issue altogether.

Related: Clever Ways to Trick Your Body Into Feeling Full

Heartburn is very common, but also relatively easy to treat if you monitor what foods aggravate your esophagus and combat heartburn with these remedies and other lifestyle changes.

Interested in other awesome content? Be sure to check out other Healthy Living articles.

How to Get Rid of Indigestion: At-home and Medication Options

Indigestion (also called dyspepsia, heartburn, or GERD) affects up to one in four Americans each year.

Indigestion can be experienced in different ways, causing a wide array of disruptive gastrointestinal symptoms.

Thankfully, there are many treatment options for indigestion. Treatment of indigestion depends on the cause, but may entail over-the-counter (OTC) medications, prescription medications, or at-home lifestyle changes. 

In this article, I’ll describe what indigestion is, and the different treatment options available.

I’ll also cover what you should avoid if you experience symptoms, and which home remedies can be effective at treating or preventing indigestion.

Finally, I’ll explain when you should see a healthcare provider for more personalized care.

Suffering from Indigestion? Chat with a doctor today about potential treatment options for just $23.

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What is Indigestion?

Indigestion is a general term that describes a group of gastrointestinal symptoms that typically occur after eating or drinking.

Common symptoms of indigestion include: 

  • Feeling full soon after you start eating a meal
  • Uncomfortable fullness after a meal
  • Pain, a burning feeling, or discomfort in the upper abdomen 
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Burping up food or liquid
  • Growling or gurgling in your stomach
  • Gas
  • Heartburn
  • Chronic cough or hoarseness
  • A sour taste in your mouth
  • Stomach pain when lying down at night or waking in the morning

Anyone can get indigestion and there are many causes. For some, indigestion is triggered by lifestyle behaviors or diet.

You are more at risk for developing indigestion if you:

  • Drink alcohol
  • Drink caffeinated or carbonated beverages
  • Eat quickly
  • Eat spicy, fatty, or greasy foods
  • Eat acidic foods, such as tomatoes or citrus
  • Experience stress
  • Smoke

Indigestion is not a disease. Most cases are mild, and go away on their own. But indigestion may also be a sign of another, underlying condition.

These include:

  • Anxiety or depression
  • Acid reflux (GER and GERD)
  • Peptic ulcers
  • Inflammation of the stomach (gastritis)
  • Celiac disease
  • Gallstones
  • Constipation
  • Pancreas inflammation (pancreatitis)
  • Stomach cancer
  • Intestinal blockage
  • Reduced blood flow in the intestine (intestinal ischemia)
  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid disease
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying)
  • Pregnancy
  • Hiatal hernia

If you’re unsure about the cause of your indigestion, or if you have chronic or recurring symptoms, reach out to your doctor or healthcare provider for an evaluation.

If you experience any severe symptoms like black stool, painful swallowing, shortness of breath, or bloody vomit, reach out to your provider immediately.

Medication for Indigestion

Depending on the cause of your indigestion, your provider may recommend either over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription medications to help treat indigestion symptoms.

Examples of medications your doctor may recommend are:

  • Antacids: For most types of indigestion, these are the first-line recommendation. Antacids work by neutralizing acids in your stomach. Common antacids include calcium carbonate (Tums), loperamide (Imodium), simethicone (Mylanta), and sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer).
  • Antibiotics: If the cause of your indigestion is an infection of the bacteria H. pylori, your provider may recommend a course of at least two antibiotics, such as amoxicillin (Amoxil), clarithromycin (Biaxin), metronidazole (Flagyl), tetracycline (Sumycin), ortinidazole (Tindamax). This type of infection requires a lab test to diagnose correctly.   
  • h3 receptor blockers: These medicines reduce the amount of acid your stomach produces, which can help to alleviate symptoms of indigestion. h3 blockers don’t work as quickly to reduce heartburn as antacids, but the effect can last longer. Examples of these medications include famotidine (Pepcid AC), nizatidine (Axid AR), and ranitidine (Zantac 75). 
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): PPIs are especially effective at reducing stomach acid to treat symptoms of indigestion and heartburn. Your doctor may recommend PPIs if antacids or h3 blockers have failed to resolve your symptoms. Recently, some PPIs have become available OTC, including esomeprazole (Nexium) and omeprazole (Prilosec). Other PPIs, like rabeprazole (AcipHex), are only available with a prescription.
  • Prokinetics: If your provider identifies that delayed stomach emptying is the cause of your symptoms, they may prescribe prokinetics, medications to help your stomach empty faster by stimulating the muscles in your stomach. Examples of prokinetics include bethanechol (Urecholine) and metoclopramide (Reglan).  

Home Remedies for Indigestion

In many cases, your provider may recommend lifestyle changes to help alleviate your symptoms or prevent future bouts of indigestion—these changes may be avoiding certain substances or habits, or adding other foods, beverages, and habits into your daily life.

What to Avoid


Quitting smoking is an umbrella health recommendation for preventing many conditions and diseases, including hypertension, cancer, and even premature death. But evidence shows that it may be helpful in preventing indigestion, too.

Nicotine may relax the lower esophageal sphincter—the bottom end of your esophagus, which meets your stomach. This relaxation can cause symptoms of indigestion and heartburn. 

Tight Clothing

Wearing tight clothing that puts pressure on your belly can make symptoms of indigestion caused by acid reflux worse.

Similarly, exercises that put pressure on your stomach, like sit-ups, leg lifts, and crunches, can also exacerbate symptoms.

If acid reflux is the cause of your indigestion, try wearing loose, non-restrictive clothing to ease your symptoms.

Laying Down Right After Meals

To give your body time to digest, aim to finish your meal at least three hours before laying down in bed.

Spicy Foods

One study found that regular consumption of spicy foods can trigger symptoms of indigestion, especially in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

If you think spicy foods may exacerbate your symptoms, try eliminating them from your diet to see if your symptoms improve.


Citrus is another possible trigger for symptoms of indigestion.

Researchers believe that citrus juice, including the juice of oranges, lemons, and grapefruit, irritates the lining of the esophagus.

One study found that orange or grapefruit juice worsened the acid reflux symptoms of 72% of GERD patients.


Research is mixed on whether mint worsens symptoms of indigestion.

However, one study found that consuming large amounts of spearmint can worsen symptoms of acid reflux. 


Several studies show that drinking alcohol, even in moderate amounts, can worsen symptoms of indigestion by increasing stomach acid, relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter, and impairing the ability of the esophagus to clear itself of acid.

Other Foods to Avoid

Additional foods that may trigger your indigestion symptoms are carbonated drinks, coffee and other caffeinated beverages, tomatoes, chocolate, and fatty or greasy foods.

Drinking liquids at the same time as meals can also make symptoms worse if you suffer from acid reflux.

What to Do 

Mix Baking Soda and Water

Some OTC antacids, like Alka-Seltzer, contain baking soda (also known as sodium bicarbonate).

Baking soda works to neutralize stomach acid and temporarily relieve some symptoms of indigestion and acid reflux. Just add ½ teaspoon to four ounces of water and drink the solution.

But be careful not to use too much. One study found that adults should have no more than seven ½ teaspoons of baking soda in one day, and no more than three ½ teaspoons if over the age of 60.

Sip Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar has recently become a popular at-home remedy for many ailments.

Because of its high acetic acid content, it may help to aid digestion and break down food.

Unfortunately, there is little to no evidence that it is a safe and effective treatment for indigestion or heartburn.

To be safe, talk with your doctor or healthcare provider before using.  

Use Ginger

Ginger has long been used as a home remedy to soothe stomach ailments, including indigestion.

Research has found that ginger increases the rate of gastric emptying in patients with indigestion.

Just be sure to limit your consumption to three to four grams per day to avoid gas, heartburn, and throat burn.

Take Licorice Supplements

A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that licorice supplements are safe and effective at managing symptoms of indigestion.

Eat Healthy Fats

Fatty and greasy foods are linked to worsening indigestion symptoms (including symptoms of acid reflux).

However, evidence suggests that replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats —like those from plants, fish, and some nuts and seeds—may help to relieve the symptoms of acid reflux.

Maintain a Healthy Weight

Carrying excess pounds can put pressure on your stomach, causing acid to back up into your esophagus.

Experts recommend maintaining a healthy weight, which can help manage symptoms of indigestion. 

Suffering from Indigestion? Chat with a doctor today about potential treatment options for just $23.

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When to See a Doctor

Many cases of mild indigestion can be managed at home. But if you experience any of the below symptoms, reach out to your doctor or healthcare provider immediately:

  • Unintentional weight loss or loss of appetite
  • Bloody vomit
  • Frequent vomiting
  • Black, tarry stool
  • Severe, constant stomach pain 
  • Difficulty swallowing that gets progressively worse
  • Fatigue or weakness
  • Shortness of breath, sweating, or chest pain that radiates to the neck, jaw, or arm
  • Chest pain on exertion or with stress
  • Yellowing of the skin or eyes

Additionally, if any of your symptoms of indigestion last longer than two weeks, reach out to your provider.

How K Health Can Help

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Download K to check your symptoms, explore conditions and treatments, and if needed text with a provider in minutes. K Health’s AI-powered app is HIPAA compliant and based on 20 years of clinical data.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does indigestion feel like?

People can experience indigestion in different ways. The most common symptoms include pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen, feeling too full while eating or as soon as you finish a meal, bloating, and burping.

How long does indigestion last?

Mild indigestion can last for two hours or longer, but chronic cases may cause symptoms that persist for longer.

What is the difference between indigestion and GERD/acid reflux?

Indigestion is a general term used to describe a group of gastrointestinal symptoms that can have a wide array of causes. Acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is a condition where stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus and it can cause symptoms of indigestion.

K Health articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.

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and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references.

What is heartburn and how can it be prevented?

Do you sometimes experience a burning feeling in your chest after eating? It could be heartburn.

Ever had a large or spicy meal, only to be hit with a burning pain in your chest soon afterwards? You might feel like having a lie down and waiting it out, but that makes your discomfort even worse.

What you’ve probably experienced is the common condition known as heartburn. And despite its name and the fact that you feel the pain in your chest, you’ll be relieved to know that it actually has nothing to do with the heart.

We’ve looked at why we get heartburn, its common symptoms and triggers, and what you can do to keep heartburn at bay.

Why does heartburn happen?

Heartburn goes by many names – you might also know it as acid reflux or acid indigestion. It is a burning or tingling feeling that occurs when the contents of your stomach rise into your food pipe (the oesophagus). Mild heartburn is quite common, and most healthy people will experience it from time to time.

To understand why we get heartburn, it can help to think about how the oesophagus and stomach work.

There is a ring of muscle where the oesophagus and stomach meet (the lower oesophageal sphincter). It relaxes to allow food into the stomach and tightens to prevent stomach contents from moving back up into the oesophagus.

In the stomach, strong acids help break down food as part of the digestive process. While your stomach is built to withstand this acid, your oesophagus is not.

If the oesophageal sphincter is weak, or relaxes when it shouldn’t, the stomach’s contents can move up into the oesophagus and causes pain, irritation, and discomfort. This backward flow is called reflux, and the burning chest pain is known as heartburn.

Lying down or bending over can make heartburn feel worse, as the acidic stomach contents can travel further up the oesophagus.

What can trigger heartburn?

Heartburn usually happens after eating. Some of the most common triggers include:

  • Large meals
  • Fatty and spicy meals
  • Carbonated drinks like soft drinks
  • Citrus foods and drinks
  • Coffee
  • Chocolate
  • Peppermint
  • Alcohol.

Some people may experience heartburn without any obvious food triggers.

Other factors that can increase your risk of heartburn include:

  • Being above a healthy weight
  • Being pregnant
  • Taking certain medications (always check with your doctor or health care professional)
  • Feeling stressed
  • Smoking.

Preventing and managing heartburn

There are many things you can do to help reduce your experience of heartburn.

The first step is make sure your daily meals are based around a variety of foods from each of the five food groups recommended by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating This includes vegetables, fruit, wholegrain breads and cereals, lean meats and meat-alternatives, and reduced-fat dairy and non-dairy alternatives. For an idea on how to get balance and variety into your daily meals, check out these sample meal plans for men and women.

Eating smaller, more frequent meals can help prevent heartburn. By not overfilling the stomach, there is less chance of stomach acid rising into your oesophagus. Remember to choose healthy foods and be mindful of how much you eat across the day.

Try to eat your last meal a few hours before bedtime. This gives your stomach enough time to empty and can reduce your experience of reflux when lying down in bed.

Fatty foods take longer to break down in the stomach, which is why these foods often trigger heartburn symptoms. Consider ways to prepare meals that reduce the amount of fat. For example:

  • Use low-fat cooking methods such as steaming, grilling or lightly pan-frying instead of deep- or shallow-frying.
  • Trim the fat off meats and choose leaner cuts.
  • Choose reduced-fat dairy products.

If spicy foods are a trigger for you, use spices in small amounts or consider other ways to flavour meals, such as fresh or dried herbs. Likewise, if other specific foods cause you heartburn, consider ways to adapt your favourite healthy meals to avoid those triggers.

Achieving or maintaining a healthy weight, and stopping smoking if you currently smoke, can also help reduce your experience of heartburn. Head to Get Healthy or Quit HQ if you would like support in your health journey.

Antacids are an over-the-counter medication that can help neutralise stomach acid and assist with reducing symptoms of heartburn. Antacids don’t replace a healthy diet, and you’ll still need to reduce your intake of foods that trigger your heartburn. Speak with your pharmacist or doctor about whether these are right for you, especially if you are pregnant.

When to seek medical advice

Having mild, infrequent heartburn generally isn’t cause for concern. But if you’re experiencing heartburn more than twice a week, or if your symptoms are severe or getting worse, it’s important to speak with your doctor. Frequent heartburn could be a sign of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GORD), a condition that requires prescription medication and monitoring.

If you are experiencing chest pain and aren’t sure if it’s heartburn or a heart attack, seek immediate medical attention by calling triple zero (000).

How to protect yourself from Delta. Or how to deal with the Indian mutation COVID-19: Society: Russia: Lenta.ru

Scientists note that the arsenal of protecting mankind from coronavirus is small – vaccination and direct-acting antiviral drugs. In early July, it became known that almost all patients in medical facilities with COVID-19 in Russia who are on artificial lung ventilation are believed to have a “delta” strain of COVID-19. How does this Indian strain threaten humanity and how to protect oneself from it? – in the material of “Lenta.RU”.

The strains “delta” and “delta plus” are called Indian because they were first discovered and described in India. The World Health Organization estimates they are about twice as infectious as the Wuhan variant of the coronavirus. To date, “Indian covid” has been found in 98 countries.

Director of the National Institute of Allergic and Infectious Diseases of the United States Anthony Fauci in an interview with NBC said that the Indian strain of coronavirus, recorded in all North American states, is more dangerous than other mutations – it is “more deadly”, more infectious and easier than other varieties to be transmitted from person to person.

Scientists also note that the main symptoms of the disease have changed in patients with coronavirus infection. A study by British scientists from the ZOE COVID Symptom Study demonstrates that the symptoms of the delta coronavirus strain resemble those of a severe cold – headache, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, persistent cough. In addition, one of the characteristic signs of the disease with the Indian strain of the coronavirus “delta” doctors call an upset of the gastrointestinal tract.

Photo: Danish Siddiqui / Reuters

The history of mankind is rich in examples of terrible epidemics with a huge number of victims.But after the first vaccination against smallpox was made by the English physician Edward Jenner at the end of the 18th century, it became obvious that vaccines could protect a person from contracting dangerous infections. Over the past centuries, they have saved millions of human lives.

According to WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adanom Ghebreyesus, 70 percent of the population in every country in the world should be vaccinated by July next year. He believes that “this is the best way to slow the pandemic, save lives and spur a truly global economic recovery, as well as prevent further dangerous options from prevailing.

Large-scale vaccination of the population of Russia against coronavirus infection began on January 18, vaccination is given free of charge to everyone. To date, four domestic vaccines against COVID-19 have been registered in the country: Sputnik V, EpiVacCorona, KoviVak and Sputnik Light. The number of Russians vaccinated with the first component of the coronavirus vaccine has exceeded 21 million, or about 14 percent of the country’s population. However, up to 60 percent of the indicators of the formed herd immunity planned by the Ministry of Health is still far away.

According to experts, vaccination will sooner form herd immunity and defeat the pandemic. But to date, the recommendations of the Ministry of Health do not yet provide accurate information on the level of protection of vaccinated against COVID-19 infection, but they note that the vaccination will protect a person from serious illness and death.

Obviously, vaccination is necessary, but this is a means of primary prevention, the vaccine does not cure coronavirus infection. In addition, many Russians cannot get vaccinated due to the peculiarities of the immune system or chronic diseases.In this extremely difficult period of vaccination, and in fact the formation of collective immunity, to protect themselves and their families, the specialists of the Ministry of Health recommend taking intranasal forms of interferon alpha like Genferon Light and proven “Arbidol” for prevention, which can help not to get sick, and in case disease, the drug is able to reduce symptoms and shorten the recovery and recovery time.

Photo: Shamil Zhumatov / Reuters

According to the Moscow pharmacologist, Doctor of Medical Sciences Elena Kareva, “vaccination against influenza or covid correlates very well with Arbidol, it does not conflict with the vaccine at all, because they have a completely different mechanism of action “.”A vaccine is a stimulation of one’s own forces in the formation of immunity, and” Arbidol “is an aid in protecting against the entry of a virus into a cell,” the pharmacologist believes.

“Arbidol” refers to direct-acting antiviral drugs that block the fusion of viruses with human cells. According to Elena Kareva, “regardless of the virulence and the severity of the disease, the basic principles of infection remain the same. “Arbidol” works both in one variant of the strain, and in others ”. She told “Lenta.ru “that” without penetration, the virus will not work, and the drug blocks the penetration and, accordingly, the multiplication of the virus. ”

For Elena Kareva, the most important characteristic of Arbidol is a wide range of antiviral activity. “A specific type of acute respiratory viral infection based on external signs is almost impossible to diagnose, and laboratory confirmation must wait at least a day. During this time, the virus has time to develop, the pharmacologist emphasizes. – The earlier we begin to treat correctly, the higher the effectiveness of therapy.”Arbidol” is the drug that we can prescribe right away, without hesitation, because the most dangerous influenza and covid according to the WHO classification are sensitive to “Arbidol”.

Since the appearance of “Arbidol”, more than 120 preclinical and clinical studies of the drug have been carried out, about a third of them are foreign, for example, in the USA, Australia, China, France. One of the most important and large-scale studies was carried out in Russia according to all the canons of evidence-based medicine – the double-blind placebo-controlled study “ARBITER” confirmed the effectiveness of “Arbidol”.The study was conducted over four years, from 2015 to 2019, and its results were published in the authoritative medical journal Therapeutic Archives.

Photo: Alexander Plonsky / TASS

“The research results allow us to speak, firstly, about the effectiveness, and secondly, which is very important, about the safety of the drug,” says Professor Elena Kareva. – “Arbidol” has a very good history, a very good evidence base, widespread use practically throughout the entire post-Soviet space.China loves him very much. From European countries – the Netherlands, they generally prescribed it both for the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections.

The fact that the National Health Commission of China included Umifenovir (the international name for Arbidol) in the treatment plan for a new coronavirus infection at the end of 2019 also speaks volumes. The drug is still recommended by the Chinese Ministry of Health for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

In Russia, “Arbidol” is approved by the Ministry of Health of Russia as an active agent against coronavirus, a corresponding change has been made to the medication instruction.The drug is also included in the latest 11th version of the recommendations of the Ministry of Health of Russia on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, in the section corresponding to the mild and moderate severity of the disease. And this is more than 80 percent of all diagnosed cases.

Elena Kareva believes that in comparison with other drugs of a wide spectrum of antiviral action, “Arbidol” is distinguished by its greater safety and the absence of side effects. Another great advantage of the drug, according to Elena Kareva, is that it “practically does not cause the resistance of the strains to itself. “Therefore, according to her, we have prescribed it not only for treatment, but also for prophylaxis. “If it’s the flu season or an epidemic of the same covid, and we don’t know the diagnosis for sure, then we will prevent COVID-19 and treat it with Arbidol,” explains Elena Kareva. “I think this is the perfect story.”

Should I use baking soda for an upset stomach?

Many people find that using baking soda for an upset stomach is very beneficial. Soda, which often helps calm the stomach, includes cola or ginger ale, although some people drink pure soda as well.There are arguments for and against using baking soda to treat indigestion, but if you find it helpful and only use it occasionally, it’s probably a good thing. It’s best to stir the soda first, because it can cause bloating and gas, and in fact, the nausea is even worse.

Most people drink soda to fight nausea or indigestion. For years, ginger has been used to fight nausea, and while ginger ale can be used to treat an upset stomach, there are other methods of taking it. Ginger tablets or even chewing fresh ginger can have the same effect. In cola, it is a syrup that can help relieve nausea. Pure sparkling water may not have a true effect on nausea, but some people still choose to drink it.

Sugar in soda can sometimes help raise blood sugar and help with nausea. For this reason, pregnant women often drink ginger ale because it is caffeine-free. Using flat soda can be an effective method for relieving mild nausea.In general, however, experts do not recommend using baking soda for rehydration purposes after or during an actual illness that causes vomiting and potential dehydration.

This is because sodas are very high in sugar but do nothing to replace electrolytes. Annoyed sports drinks or electrolyte drinks for kids are a much better choice if you’re trying to prevent dehydration. Decaffeinated mint tea can also be a good choice.Some people find that lemonade can be helpful in keeping them hydrated on a hot day if they start to feel dizzy or nauseous; however, this is not recommended after stomach ailments.

Drinking plain water can be a little difficult for an upset stomach, but in normal cases it is important to drink enough water every day to stay hydrated. First, preventing dehydration is a good way to prevent indigestion. While sometimes stomach discomfort is normal, you don’t need to drink soda all the time for an upset stomach; If you frequently experience nausea for no specific reason, it might be a good idea to visit a healthcare professional.


90,000 symptoms, treatment in adults, lacunar angina in children

The surface of the palatine tonsils is penetrated by depressions called lacunae. They have wide ramifications in the body of the lymphoid tissue. Lacunar tonsillitis or lacunar tonsillitis is an acute inflammatory process that develops in the lacunae.

This disease is more common in children and adolescents, while in adults it usually develops as an exacerbation of a smoldering infection.After 50 years, the likelihood of getting sick with lacunar sore throat decreases. This disease is diagnosed all year round, but the maximum number of cases occurs in the period from October to January. Symptoms and treatment of lacunar sore throat in adults and children may be somewhat different.

Causes of lacunar sore throat

Infection can occur through food, inhalation of air and through household contact. Cause primary sore throat staphylococci, streptococci, fungi, viruses. Secondary lacunar angina in adults and children can develop as a result of tuberculosis, scarlet fever or other infection, if its consequence is pathological processes that cover the area of ​​the palatine tonsils along with the surrounding tissue.Among the factors contributing to the development of the disease, it should be noted:

  • periodontal disease and caries;
  • inflammatory processes in the oropharynx and nasopharynx;
  • hypothermia;
  • unfavorable environmental conditions;
  • constant fatigue.

The causes of chronic lacunar sore throat are constant irritation of mucous membranes with tobacco smoke, frequent alcohol consumption, and mouth breathing (this phenomenon develops, for example, with sinusitis). In children, the disease becomes chronic with ineffective treatment of the acute process.

Symptoms of lacunar sore throat

The pathogenesis of this disease is characterized by rapid development. In full, the signs of pathology appear during the day. In this case, the temperature can rise to a febrile value, that is, up to 38-39 degrees, or to a pyretic level (39-41 degrees). Lacunar angina without fever is a rather rare occurrence.

With a disease such as lacunar angina, symptoms can be nonspecific, including weakness, headaches, insomnia, lack of appetite, fatigue.Pain is possible not only in the throat when swallowed, but also in the joints of the jaw, as well as in the muscles.

Against the background of a rather pronounced pallor of the nasolabial triangle, hyperemia of the cheeks is noted. Possible lymphadenitis, that is, inflammation of the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck, as well as tachycardia (heart rate exceeding normal).

Diagnosis of lacunar sore throat

To identify the disease, the otolaryngologist examines the oral cavity. Lacunar angina will be diagnosed if, during pharyngoscopy, the doctor notes inflammation of the tonsils, purulent plaque, hyperthermia of the soft palate, accumulation of pus in the lacunae.

Bacteriological studies reveal the presence of various microorganisms. Usually it is Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic staphylococcus and beta hemolytic streptococcus group A. As for viruses, with lacunar angina, adenoviruses, cytomegaloviruses and herpes virus are most often detected.

Differences between lacunar and follicular tonsillitis

If the sore throat is follicular, then on the surface of the tonsils there is a whitish-yellow plaque or festering vesicles.When the follicle is opened into the peri-mucous tissue, there is a risk of developing a paratonsillar abscess.

Lacunar angina is characterized by a light yellow bloom at the mouths of the lacunae. It consists of leukocytes and rejected epithelial particles. Often, a drainage plaque forms, which covers the tonsils, but does not go beyond their surface. It can be removed easily; as a result, there is no bleeding surface.

With these differences, lacunar and follicular angina is characterized by very similar symptoms.Also, their duration in most cases is the same. On average, follicular tonsillitis lasts as long as lacunar – from 5 to 7 days.

Treatment of lacunar sore throat

The need for hospitalization is determined on the basis of data on the severity of pathogenesis. When treating at home, you need to stay in bed, limit contact, drink plenty of fluids and eat warm mashed food. In the absence of the effect of conservative treatment and difficulty breathing, surgical removal of the tonsils may be necessary.

With a disease such as lacunar angina, it is necessary not only to treat the symptoms, but also to pay attention to an adequate nutrition situation. Fresh milk should be excluded from the diet of a sick person. Otherwise, lactic bacteria, lingering on the mucous membrane, contribute to the reproduction of pathogenic organisms. In extreme cases, after drinking milk, you need to rinse your throat several times. It is best to drink warm mineral water that does not contain gas, weakly brewed tea, possibly with the addition of honey.

In the case of microbial etiology of the disease, antibacterial therapy is indicated. With a disease such as lacunar angina, treatment in adults is more often carried out with antibiotics, less often sulfa drugs are prescribed. Correct selection of drugs will provide:

  • destruction of the pathogen;
  • prevention of side effects with concomitant pathologies;
  • balancing drug efficacy and safety.

For ENT infections, the first choice is the antibiotic penicillins.Also, cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones are often prescribed.

At a high temperature, it is necessary to treat lacunar sore throat using antipyretics such as paracetamol or nurofen. Of the antihistamines that help reduce swelling of the tonsils, cetrin or suprastin are usually prescribed.

Local treatment consists in the use of rinsing, lubrication of the pharynx with Lugol’s solution, the use of inhalers and lozenges. When the temperature returns to normal, vodka compresses can be applied to the neck area.

For a disease such as lacunar angina, a specialist must evaluate the symptoms and prescribe appropriate treatment. Taking any medications without consulting a specialist is unacceptable.

After the doctor prescribes the appropriate therapy, the availability of drugs in pharmacies in Kiev can be checked on our portal, and you can also order them online.

Surgical intervention

The disease can be cured by suction of pus. This is done using the Tonsillor apparatus.

If there is no effect, a lacunotomy may be prescribed. In this case, the resection of the tissues surrounding the tonsils is performed by the abdominal method or by a laser. As a result, the purulent contents come out, and the tissues, growing together, do not allow pus to accumulate in the lacunae again.

Tonsilectomy is a surgical method involving the removal of tonsils. This is an extreme measure, which is taken when it is not possible to help the patient in other ways.

Lacunar angina in children

If treatment is delayed or inadequate, lacunar angina in children can cause abdominal pain, nausea, pain during swallowing with irradiation into the ear, indigestion, choking, convulsions, conjunctivitis.This state can be maintained for about three days.

Lacunar angina for children is dangerous in that it can provoke the appearance of a false croup. The cause of the phenomenon is swelling in the tonsils, due to which the airways are blocked. At the same time, the child suffocates, his skin turns blue.

Inappropriate antibiotic treatment of lacunar sore throat in children can lead to disability or death. Any medicine is prescribed taking into account the age and weight of the child.

Complications of lacunar sore throat

In severe cases, lacunar angina in children and adults can provoke all sorts of complications. Most common early complications:

  • laryngitis;
  • sepsis or meningitis if an infection enters the bloodstream;
  • involvement of the mediastinal organs in the inflammatory process.

Possible late complications include myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, acute rheumatic fever, pyelonephritis, hemorrhagic vasculitis.They can be prevented with timely medical attention.

Prevention of lacunar sore throat

There is no vaccination to prevent this disease. Preventive measures are non-specific and include:

  • remediation of foci of infection;
  • Treatment of diseases that lead to difficulty in nasal breathing;
  • strengthening the immune system;
  • Use of a medical mask in case someone in the family is already sick.

It is recommended to avoid frozen and chilled food. It is also advisable to maintain sufficient physical activity, for example, accustom yourself to a daily morning run.

Indigestion in a dog – what to do with an upset stomach?

There are a million reasons why being a pet owner is joyful and enjoyable, but having to deal with digestive problems in dogs is not one of them. It doesn’t matter how old your dog is or how raised it is, it can happen to anyone.You have probably heard vomiting sounds from another room more than once, or seeing your puppy vomiting in the backyard. When it comes to cleaning, rubber gloves and air fresheners are very familiar to pet owners. All of them sometimes have to deal with their pet’s upset stomach, so here are some ways to help you cope with these problems and reduce their frequency and severity.

Keeping Calm

Your dog may have some digestive problems at certain times in his life, and it’s important to make sure he’s okay first before worrying about vomit on the couch or pile on the carpet.If you notice blood or your dog is trembling and cannot move normally, you should seek immediate veterinary assistance. However, if your dog has diarrhea or refuses to eat unless other symptoms are present, you can wait 24 hours to see if the condition improves. The American Kennel Club (AKC) recommends that you do not feed your dog for 12-24 hours after a seizure unless it is classified as seniors, puppies, or very small breeds with low endurance.Always make sure your pet has plenty of fresh water and check with your veterinarian if he seems too weak or lethargic to you. As soon as things start to get better, the AKC suggests feeding him lightly digestible food chopped in a blender on the sly. If it was just an upset stomach, the dog should be back to normal within a day or two. It is a good idea to call your veterinarian and get their opinion on whether you should bring your pet to your appointment.

While you wait out the storm (and you constantly have to clean up something), try to use natural cleaning products – PetCoach has several recommendations on this subject – and keep your dog in a specific area of ​​your house, near the front door. Also, think about any recent changes in your home, or what the dog might have eaten and what caused the illness. The Pet Poison hotline lists a standard range of household items that are toxic to dogs, from foods like chocolate to surprises like allergy pills. As soon as you notice digestive problems, it is necessary to monitor the changes and frequency of vomiting or diarrhea. If you do need to see your veterinarian, your observations will help him diagnose and determine if the problem is temporary or a sign of a more serious illness.

During a period when the dog has digestive problems, do not forget to remain calm and refrain from screaming and punishing when the dog does business in the house. Making her feel tense or anxious will only make the situation worse. Here are some helpful tips for dealing with your dog’s digestive problems that will save you unnecessary headaches:

  • Walk or let her out more often than usual. It is better for the dog to “make a mess” on the street and not in the house.
  • Keep it in a room or other area that is easier to clean. If, under normal circumstances, your dog can run around the house while you are away, then in such a situation it is better not to let him out of a room where there is no carpeting and where it will be easier for you to clean up any surprises. It is best to keep your pet in areas such as the bathroom, kitchen, or laundry while you are away, as the floors are often tiled, linoleum or wood.
  • Use dog diapers: although they may not be the most fashionable clothes for your pet, they will help to avoid unnecessary cleaning.

Proper nutrition is the main priority

Some sensitive stomach problems can be prevented if your pet gets the right food in the right amount. If you decide to change your dog’s food, you should make the transition gradually, mixing the new and old food to reduce the risk of digestive problems. How to treat a dog’s stomach? It is important to speak with your veterinarian about any dietary changes and supplements you give your dog. Most animals do not need vitamins or supplements, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). All meals can and should consist of balanced dog food. AVMA also emphasizes that supplements can be harmful to pets. Side effects of glucosamine, for example, include gastrointestinal upset and problems with blood sugar regulation. The only one who really knows if your dog needs supplements is your veterinarian, so don’t rely on flashy ads or friends’ recommendations for this matter.

The same applies to any folk remedies for canine diarrhea or nausea that you may have heard of. These are antidiarrheal agents for humans, and elm leaves or probiotic capsules. Check with your veterinarian before giving your dog anything other than food and water.

Anyone who has had a dog at least once in their life knows that digestive problems can occur periodically, so know that you are not alone.While these issues can be frustrating to deal with, try to stay calm and work with your veterinarian to find a solution that will reduce the risk or eliminate any gastrointestinal problems in the future. The healthier your dog is, the more time you can spend together doing fun and useful things.

Contributor Bio

Chrissy Klinger

Chrissy Klinger is a pet owner who happily lives under the same roof with her furry friends, two children and her husband.When she’s free from teaching, writing, or blogging, Chrissy enjoys spending time with her family. She is committed to writing articles that help pet owners live a more active and meaningful life with their pets.

90,000 Preparing for bariatric surgery and life after surgery

This patient guide is based on the 2016 approved Estonian guidelines for treatment “Care of a bariatric patient before and after surgery” and the topics covered therein together with recommendations.Treatment guidelines have been compiled based on an analysis of the literature. In the patient manual, the recommendations are made with the patient’s perspective in mind, i. e. it provides information on what the patient needs to know about bariatric surgery, preparation for bariatric surgery, or post-surgery lifestyle. The Patient Guidelines were written by experts in the field who treat and counsel bariatric patients every day.Patient feedback and suggestions for supplements were very important and contributed to better management.

The aim of the patient guide was to provide answers to the most frequently asked questions regarding surgery and daily routine, and to assist the patient’s recovery from surgery. The patient guide covers all important topics related to the nature of bariatric surgery, preparation for surgery, and lifestyle changes after surgery.

Bariatric surgery deals with surgical intervention in the digestive tract to achieve significant and permanent weight loss and to alleviate metabolic diseases associated with obesity (eg, type II diabetes, high cholesterol). Surgery reduces the volume of the stomach or shortens the portion of the small intestine that is passed through by ingested food. In both cases, the goal is the same: limiting food intake and dietary energy.After surgery, patients begin to feel a feeling of a full stomach when eating less food, thus consuming fewer calories. In addition, bariatric surgery significantly alters patient eating habits or dietary patterns. As a result, the patient’s weight is reduced for a long time, the course of comorbidities such as type II diabetes, high blood pressure is facilitated, and at the same time life expectancy is increased.

Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass (Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass)

In laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery or bypass , a small stomach of approximately 30 ml is attached to the esophagus, to which the small intestine is connected.The swallowed food moves along the esophagus into the small stomach, and from there directly into the small intestine. Thus, food is redirected past the large stomach, duodenum and the beginning of the small intestine.

The effect of this operation is achieved in several ways. First, the new stomach holds much less food, which in turn means fewer calories consumed. Second, redirecting food to bypass the large stomach and duodenum creates changes in hormones that regulate the feeling of a full stomach and hunger.It reduces hunger and also affects the mechanisms through which excess weight leads to type II diabetes.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

In a laparoscopic vertical gastrectomy or sleeve operation, approximately 80% of the stomach is removed longitudinally. The rest of the stomach is used to form a tube with a diameter of 2-3 centimeters and a volume of 100-150 ml, which fills when eating and creates a feeling of a full stomach when taking a small amount of food.

The new stomach holds significantly less food, which in turn reduces the number of calories consumed. In addition, the surgery affects hormones that contribute to a feeling of full belly, reduce hunger and regulate blood sugar levels.

Comparison of the most frequently performed stomach operations

Today, the lion’s share of bariatric surgeries is performed laparoscopically.This technique requires smaller incisions, results in less tissue damage, reduces the number of hospital days and recovery times, and reduces the risk of postoperative problems (especially those associated with wound infections and suture probes). Yet laparoscopic surgery is not suitable for all patients. The choice of approach to treatment depends on various factors, but primarily on the surgical experience, on previous operations performed in the abdominal cavity and on the ligaments that have arisen because of them.

Realistic targets

Bariatric surgery can significantly reduce weight and can significantly improve the patient’s health, but it is not the answer to all health problems.

The operation is a means to an end (weight loss), but the path to the goal and its retention presupposes the patient’s motivation, self-discipline and a desire to cooperate.

It is impossible to predict the effectiveness of the operation in a particular patient, and if, on average, patients lose about 2/3 of their excess weight, then less or more weight loss may occur as a result.The rate of weight loss can vary, and there are patients who achieve the maximum expected weight loss by the end of the first year and there are patients whose weight stabilizes only after two years after surgery.

To calculate the possible reduction in excess weight, it is necessary to know the ideal weight of the patient, which is assumed based on the literature in the specialty based on a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg / m2. In addition, you need to know the height of the patient. Ideal weight = (patient height in m) 2 X BMI (25 kg / m2).

The patient’s weight at admission was 130 kg, height 1.68 m. His ideal weight with a body mass index of 25 kg / m2 should be 70 kg. The excess weight in this patient is
130 kg – 70 kg = 60 kg. On average, during the operation, out of his excess weight (60 kg), he can lose 2/3 or 40 kg. Thus, the estimated weight of the patient two years after the operation may be 90 kg.

Preoperative diet

The higher the body mass index of a person, the greater the risk of postoperative complications.A short (2-6 weeks) diet before surgery will lower your body mass index and thus reduce the risk of complications. The preoperative diet is high in protein and low in carbohydrates and plenty of water. This diet is important for three reasons: the risk of bleeding during surgery is reduced, postoperative recovery is accelerated, and the liver is reduced in size. A large, obese liver can make the operation technically more difficult, as it complicates the surgeon’s access to the stomach and increases the risk of liver damage during the operation.The preoperative diet will provide your body with the nutrients, primarily proteins, that you need to recover from surgery.

K Urenie

Smoking should be stopped at least six weeks before any surgery under full anesthesia, as smoking before surgery increases the risk of postoperative complications (heart attack, stroke, thromboembolism, infection, pneumonia, and death).For six weeks after quitting smoking, lung function and oxygen supply to the body are improved, the risk of blood clots is reduced, and the immune system is strengthened.

Physical activity

Physical activity in the preoperative period improves health, general tone, lung and heart capacity. In addition to your daily activities (work, shopping, and cleaning), try cycling, walking, or swimming for at least half an hour a day.

Patients with reduced physical activity are advised to go to the pool. Water makes the body weightless and it will be easier for you to exercise. The healthier you are before the operation, the better the recovery after the operations will be.

Preparing for surgery

The time of arrival at the hospital differs from hospital to hospital and depends on the health status of the person, the type of surgery planned, and the routine in a particular hospital.The hospital will need to take an identity document, hygiene supplies, change of clothes, change of shoes for indoor use, anti-thrombotic compression stockings, all medications you take daily, if you have sleep apnea – a suitable mask, and something to pass the time such as books or music. For music, a beneficial effect on anxiety has been proven, and, through this, pain relief, but in order not to interfere with other patients, music should be listened to through headphones.Usually, the registration of patients is carried out in the morning of the operating day and the discharge takes place two days after the operation. Patients at high risk and with a large number of comorbidities should be aware that they may need more time – hospital stays can be extended by a day or two days to ensure a safe recovery.

On the day of operation

You will be in the operating room for 1-2 hours and then a few hours in the recovery room where your vital signs will be monitored.This period you most likely will not remember or will remember a little. After the anesthesia ends, you may feel discomfort, nausea, or pain, which will be relieved by pain relievers. After surgery, it is important to get up and walk as soon as possible. This prevents the development of problems with blood clots and breathing, speeds up the passage of the action of anesthesia, and corrects the work of the intestines and breathing.

Recovery from surgery takes time and requires patience. The length of the recovery time depends on the individual patient.

Nutrition after surgery

The correct postoperative diet and eating technique can help you avoid complications and increase your weight loss. You must be willing to change your eating and drinking habits. It is very important what, when and how much you eat.

Following bariatric surgery, there are six basic nutritional guidelines to follow:

• Nutrition must be healthy
• Eat primarily protein-rich foods
• Keep your blood sugar stable
• Drink enough water
• Need to stop snacking
• As much as possible reduce the consumption of sweets

Immediately after surgery, the most important thing is to drink enough fluids.Drink constantly in small sips, between meals at 30 minute intervals, at least 1.2 liters per day. To prevent nausea and diarrhea, juices need to be diluted, and avoid drinking too hot and too cold, as well as carbonated drinks.

Usually, the postoperative diet begins with the intake of both clear (water) and opaque (juices, nectars, yoghurts, kefir) drinks. After that, they switch to puree and soft dishes, eat more food rich in proteins, as well as vegetables and fruits.

Finally, about 4-6 weeks after the surgery, if the digestive tract has recovered, you can start eating more solid foods.

Both immediately after the operation and in the subsequent period, it is very important to prevent a shortage of fluid. Dark and cloudy urine, dry mouth, and bad breath can occur due to inadequate water intake.

Most patients experience a lack of appetite after surgery, even in relation to their previously favorite foods.This condition usually goes away. Even the smell of food after surgery can cause rejection.

After surgery, follow the recommended diet, the purpose of which is to provide you with a balanced menu in a situation where food volumes have decreased significantly. In this way, nutritional deficiencies are prevented and muscle loss is avoided. This way you are more likely to achieve weight loss and avoid further weight gain. Changing your diet can be difficult in the beginning, but over time you will get used to it.The appetite for unhealthy foods (sweets) may disappear, but not always. If you give slack, then the ability to achieve the desired weight decreases and the risk of complications increases.

During the period of weight loss (within 1-2 years after surgery), you consume less calories with food than you expend, and at the same time the body uses its own reserves (adipose and muscle tissue) to cover the lack of certain nutrients. Protein intake is very important during this period to prevent muscle loss.Once your weight has stabilized, you will get most of your energy needs from food and the nutritional recommendations will not differ significantly from the general nutritional advice.

Home wound care

The edges of the wound are connected to each other with sutures. The edges of the wounds fit tightly together and the wound closes within 24 hours. Usually, sutured wounds are closed with wound dressings or plasters.

Change of plasters

While at home, you can help wound healing by keeping the wound clean and dry.If the wound becomes dirty or damp with blood and secretions, or the patch starts to come off the surface, then it should be changed immediately. Wash your hands before and after changing the patch. Rinse the wound with a designated antiseptic, air dry, and then place a new patch on the wound.

Showers can be taken 24 hours after surgery. Remove the patch before showering. Rinse wounds with running, lukewarm water, air dry the wound and surrounding skin, or gently touch a towel.Avoid stretching and rubbing wounds. Clean the wound with an antiseptic, let it dry, and then place a new patch on the wound. The patch should be changed every time after taking a shower or every other day before removing the stitches from the wound. The threads are removed 10-14 days after the operation.

For wound pain, take a pain reliever prescribed by your doctor. The opening of the wound can happen both with the presence of sutures in it, and in the case when they have already been removed, so avoid heavy lifting and limit physical activity for three weeks after surgery.Inflammation of the wound after bariatric surgery is rare.

A normal wound may be sore, tender or numb, slightly higher than the surrounding skin or slightly reddened, the skin around the wound may itch, or hemorrhage may be present. Contact your doctor or nurse if the wound (s) are bright red, the area of ​​the wound is swollen and hot.

It makes sense to contact your family doctor / nurse even if:

  • The wound constantly hurts / aches
  • Fluid (e.g. blood, pus) oozing from the wound more than two drops per day
  • The wound smells bad
  • Body temperature rises above 37.5 ° C, general weakness and poor health occurs, and the above signs of inflammation are present in the wound
  • Wound Reveals


Smoking after surgery impairs wound healing, as smoking interferes with the transport of oxygen in the blood and thus lengthens the healing process.Smokers have a risk of ulceration and constriction at the junction of the stomach and small intestine after gastric surgery bypass compared with non-smokers. Smoking can also irritate the stomach and intestines.

Emotions / Relationships

Your emotional state may be unstable after bariatric surgery. You may feel fearful, insecure, or irritable. The social situation can also create a feeling of inconvenience, since it is no longer possible to eat and drink as before.

After the operation, there will be big changes in your lifestyle. Unrealistic goals, less than expected weight loss, dietary changes along with hormonal changes, and sagging skin resulting from weight loss can lead to postoperative depression. Bariatric patients are more likely to have previously undiagnosed and untreated mental illnesses (anxiety, depression, nutritional disorders), which can be further exacerbated after surgery.With the help of appropriate psychological and mental health care, they usually resolve or heal.

Relationships with family and friends can change as they find it difficult to get used to the “new you”. In some cases, changes in body shape and self-esteem improve the patient’s sex life and increase feelings of intimacy in a relationship. At the same time, after your changes, your partner may feel insecure.

L Medicine after surgery

Bariatric surgery will change your medication use in the future.It is important to take your medications after surgery in a way that is safe for you. Many commonly used anti-inflammatory and pain relievers (ibuprofen, diclofenac, ketoprofen) irritate the stomach and increase the risk of stomach ulcers after bypass surgery. Therefore, patients undergoing bypass surgery should avoid taking such medications. In case of short-term (2-3 days) and accidental administration of the medication, the use of ibuprofen is allowed.For long-term pain management, the first choice is paracetamol or opiates (tramadol) if needed.

Slow-release drugs, depending on the type of surgery, can be ineffective, since when such drugs are taken, the absorption time is usually 2-12 hours and they can go to the end of the digestive tract even before the final absorption of their active substance occurs. The same situation can arise for drugs in the form of tablets with a shell and capsules, since the shell may not have time to dissolve in the intestine and the drug will leave the body before the active substance is absorbed.

The absorption of oral contraceptives may be ineffective after surgery and therefore the required concentration of the active ingredient in the blood may not be reached. The use of other means is recommended, such as skin patches or intrauterine contraceptives.

Vitamins and food additives

The need for vitamin replacement therapy after bariatric surgery depends on the type of surgery, but almost all patients should take vitamins to prevent complications from vitamin deficiencies and to achieve maximum weight loss.To function smoothly, your body needs the right amount of the right vitamins and minerals. Take vitamins as recommended by your bariatric nurse, surgeon, or nutritional counselor (also during pregnancy), especially iron, folate, calcium, and vitamin B 12 .

Physical activity

Regular physical activity or exercise is one of the fundamental factors in bariatric treatment and an important prerequisite for maintaining the achieved weight.Movement will help you reduce and maintain your weight gain.

When you arrive home from the hospital, move every day for at least 60 minutes. Choose a slow pace at first and gradually work up the tempo to a speed that suits you. After six weeks, it’s the right time to start regular, higher-intensity workouts, which include exercises that strengthen muscles and exercises that increase flexibility and stability.

Exercise at least three times a week and at least 3-4 hours a week (Nordic walking, cycling, swimming, fitness, etc.)).

Y weight increase after surgery

After bariatric surgery, your weight may reach the minimum target weight after 1-3 years. Thereafter, most patients may experience weight gain (approximately 5-10% of body weight). Regardless of what type of surgery was used, the risk of weight gain will accompany you throughout your life. In the long term, in 80% of patients, weight begins to increase slowly, but regardless of this, during life, most patients retain significant (more than half of the excess weight) weight loss.

Small postoperative weight loss or weight gain is associated with various factors. There are several methods you can take to minimize your weight gain.

Postoperative weight gain may be due to the following:

  • Denial of dietary advice prescribed by a healthcare professional or nutritional counselor;
  • Stick to the recommendations given to you and eat as healthy as possible;
  • Don’t go back to your old eating habits;
  • Expansion of the stomach, as a result of which you consume more calories;
  • Insufficient physical activity;
  • Weight gain may be due to certain medications.
To maintain the achieved weight, to improve your health and prevent weight gain, you must always follow dietary recommendations and be physically active. Plan your meals in advance. Carry small portions of healthy food (snacks) with you.

A healthy menu that includes whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and enough protein will help you stabilize your postoperative weight.Drink enough clean water or sugar-free drinks. Avoid alcohol. Ask a nutritionist for advice if needed.


If you are planning a pregnancy, postpone it for at least 18 months after the operation. This is the time when body weight is reduced, the diet has not yet been established, and pregnancy will be a great burden for the body.

After this period, pregnancy is usually safer than before surgery – and this is for both the mother and the baby.Tell the midwife what type of surgery you had and if there were any complications after the surgery, such as reoperations, blood clots or blood transfusions.

It is common for women who have had bariatric surgery to gain more weight during pregnancy. Sometimes weight loss during pregnancy can be reduced. In such cases, nutritional review and blood tests should be done to ensure that the necessary nutrients and vitamins are available.

During pregnancy, you should take a multivitamin specially formulated for pregnant women.Pregnant women need almost twice as much iron and folic acid and this is taken into account in the composition of vitamins for pregnant women. Whenever possible, try to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies before pregnancy. It is important to continue taking vitamins both after childbirth and while breastfeeding.

Patients who become pregnant after bariatric surgery need nutritional counseling and blood tests (including albumin, iron, folate, calcium, vitamin D 3 and vitamin B 12 ) to prevent vitamin deficiencies.Blood tests should be done every trimester of pregnancy. Labor after bariatric surgery is usually normal and without complications. Bariatric surgery is not a reason for a caesarean section.

T e st for glucose tolerance

The glucose tolerance test, which is used to test for diabetes in pregnancy, is not well tolerated after gastric bypass surgery because it creates the dumping syndrome.To avoid such situations, it is not recommended to drink commonly used glucose syrup during the test, but rather find an alternative. One possibility is to measure blood sugar levels in the morning on an empty stomach and after breakfast for one week.

Dumping Syndrome

The onset of the dumping syndrome after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (i.e. bypass operation) or laparoscopic vertical gastric resection (i.e.n. sleeve ) is widespread. Symptoms may include, for example, diarrhea, nausea, heart palpitations, dizziness.

The causes of the dumping syndrome are not fully understood. It is believed that the cause is too fast movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine. Dumping – The syndrome is associated with the use of refined (soluble) sugar or carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (potatoes, bananas, raisins, white bread, pancakes, white pasta, semolina, potato chips, white rice, instant oatmeal porridge, corn flakes , muesli, sugar and sweets, sweet drinks).It is also associated with the consumption of dairy products, some fatty or fried foods. The rapid movement of such foods from the stomach into the small intestine is the cause of a number of physiological processes: for example, surges in blood sugar levels, fluid redistribution, hormonal changes.

Dumping- Syndrome is not necessarily bad for the patient. If the syndrome appears after eating foods containing simple sugars, then the patient is likely to avoid such foods.It is a defense mechanism that says, “I shouldn’t have eaten this the first time, and I certainly won’t eat it again.” Simple sugars slow down weight loss and should be avoided on your daily diet. The bad news is that the dumping syndrome makes you feel worse, which can often lead to other health problems, which is an aggravating and sometimes difficult to prevent factor.

Fortunately, dumping syndrome usually does not require treatment, and changes in diet are enough to achieve better well-being.

Dumping – the syndrome can manifest itself in two ways:

Early dumping , which occurs 10-30 minutes after eating, and late dumping , which occurs 1-3 hours after eating.

Early dumping occurs when food (especially foods high in sugar) moves rapidly from the stomach to the small intestine, causing fluid (water) to rapidly move from the blood vessels to the small intestine.The redistribution of fluid is the cause of the early dumping syndrome (bloating, diarrhea, dizziness, heart palpitations, increased heart rate, increased sweating, nausea, vomiting).

The reason for the late dumping of the syndrome is hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). If there are a lot of foods high in carbohydrates, then a lot of sugar is absorbed from the small intestine into the blood vessels. The body responds by releasing more and more insulin, and the blood sugar drops to below normal levels.Symptoms are irritability, diarrhea, dizziness, loss of consciousness, weakness, increased heart rate, inability to concentrate, severe hunger, and increased sweating.

Hair loss

Hair loss can occur with any rapid weight loss, including after bariatric surgery. It usually occurs during recovery from surgery, rapid weight loss and habituation to a new lifestyle during the third to sixth postoperative month.The physiological stress associated with surgery and weight loss causes nutrients to be delivered primarily to vital organs (such as the heart and brain). As a result, hair growth can be slowed down and 30-40 percent of hair follicles are sacrificed.

Hair loss rarely lasts longer than six months. Hair loss ends when body weight and diet stabilize. It takes time and patience. This is a temporary condition and in no case does all hair fall out.Get enough protein, as protein is the main building block for hair. In addition to the amount of protein in food, hair loss is also associated with the balance of iron, zinc, fatty acids, B vitamins 12 or biotin. To avoid problems, it is important to take the vitamins and minerals recommended for you.

Excess leather

All patients come into contact with this problem after weight loss. Most of all, patients are concerned about excess skin in the abdomen, forearms, thighs and breasts.Here we can deal with both a medical and an aesthetic problem. About 20% of patients undergo plastic surgery to remove excess skin. Sometimes it is necessary to carry out several operations. During plastic surgery, the body weight must be stabilized and usually the surgery is performed at least 18 months after the stomach reduction surgery.

Repeated health checks

Be sure to attend all scheduled follow-up visits: during the first two years, to a bariatric-trained nurse or surgeon who operated on you, and later to your family doctor.

Health Problems Associated with Bariatric Surgery

If you have health problems associated with bariatric surgery, we recommend that for cases that do not require prompt intervention, first consult with your family doctor, who, if necessary, will refer you to a bariatric nurse or to an appointment with your surgeon. In situations requiring immediate intervention, we recommend contacting the emergency department of such medical institutions where bariatric surgery is performed and where the staff is competent to treat complications of bariatric surgery (North-Estonian Regional Hospital, University of Tartu Clinic, East and West -Tallinn Central Hospital, as well as Pärnu Hospital and Viljandi Hospital).

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Food Diary

Time Product type / quantity Type of liquid / quantity Well-being Bowel function

Useful Read

1.Eesti Bariaatrilise ja Metaboolse Kirurgia Selts.
2. American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery.
3. Gastric Bypass Surgery. MedlinePlus .
4. Obesity Action Coalition.
5. Laparoscopic vs Open Gastric Bypass Surgery. Winthrop Surgical Weight Loss .
6. Dumping Syndrome – Definition, Symptoms & 5 Effective Treatments. Bariatric Surgery Source .
7. Dumping Syndrome After Gastric Bypass Surgery. University of Rochester Medical Center .
8. Faria, S. L., Faria, P., Lins, R. D., Rodriques de Gouvea. H. (2010). Hair Loss Among Bariatric Surgery Patients.
9. Causes of Hair Loss after Weight Loss Surgery. Advanced Surgical Associates .
10. Bariatric Diet: What & How to Eat. Bariatric Surgery Source .
11. Fried, M., Yumuk, V., Oppert, J-M., Scopinaro, N., Torres, A. J., Weiner, R., Yashkov, Y., Frühbeck, G.(2013). Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Obesity Facts , 6: 449-468.
12. Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
13. Basse, J. (2015). The effects of Smoking Before and After Surgery. Tri State Bariatrics .

27. Careful with Those Incisions. Bariatric surgery source .
28. Kominiarek, M. A. (2013) If You are pregnant or considering pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine .
29. Kaska, L., Kobiela, J., Abacjew-Chmylko, A., Chmylko, L., Wojanowska-Pindel, M., Kobiela, P., Walerzak, A., Makarewicz, W., Proczko-Markuszewska, M., Stefaniak, T. (2013). Nutrition and Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery. ISRN Obesity , Vol 2013.
30. Post bariatric Surgery Diet. UPMC Life Changing Medicine .
31. Dietary Guidelines After Bariatric Surgery. UCSF Medical Center.
32. Kushner, R. F., Cummings, S., Herron D. M. (2014). Bariatric surgery: Postoperative nutritional management. UpToDate .
33. Exercise for Bariatric Surgery Patients. Bariatric Surgery Source .
34. Bariatric Plastic Surgery After Weight Loss: Dealing with Excess. Bariatric Surgery Source .
35. Jacques, J. Weight-loss Surgery, Nutrition and Hair Loss. Obesity Action Coalition.
36. Bariatric Surgery: Postoperative Concerns. American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric surgery.
37. Ouyang, D. W. (2015). Fertility and pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Up To Date.

38. Maovähendusoperatsioonid. Kaalukirurgia Keskus.
39. Lap Band Surgery (Gastric Banding). MedicineNet.com
40. What Is Gastric Banding Surgery for Weight Loss? WebMD .
41. McMahon, R. Gastric Balloon: Complete Patient’s Guide. Bariatric Surgery Source.
42. Non-Surgical Procedures. Intragastric Balloon. Gastric Balloon & Lapband Australia.
43. Jacques, E. Taking Prenatal Vitamins When Not Pregnant. Livestrong.com.
44. Mechanick, J. I., Youdim, A., Jones, D.B., Garvey, W. T., Hurley, D. L., McMahon, M. M., Heinberg, L. J., Kushner. R., Adams, T.D., Shikora, S., Dixon, J.B., Brethauer, S. (2013). Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient – 2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society and American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Surgery for Obesity and Releated Diseases 9. 159-191.
45. Kominarek, M.A. (2011). Preparing for and Managing a Pregnancy After Bariatric Surgery. Seminars i Perinatology 35: 356-361.

90,000 Bowel diseases in the elderly

In most elderly people, health deteriorates with age, and this is due to the fact that tissues gradually wear out, processes slow down, and the body’s resistance to harmful influences decreases.One of the common problems in old age is the poor functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. This is often encountered by health workers caring for bedridden elderly patients, as well as relatives of the elderly. Consider the reasons for the appearance of such ailments and how to treat them.

Causes of intestinal ailments in old age

One of the most common intestinal problems faced by old people is constipation (lack of self-defecation for three or more days).The reason may be a lack of fluid and fiber, as well as a slowdown in peristalsis, which is age-related or resulting from the intake of various medications. Only a doctor can determine the exact cause of the disorder.

In old age, other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can occur, which deliver a lot of unpleasant sensations to patients. With diabetes mellitus, gastroparesis may occur, which is manifested by pain and a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, vomiting after eating.Tereotoxicosis is a disease that also occurs in the elderly, accompanied by weight loss, diarrhea, and palpitations.

When determining the cause of discomfort, malignant neoplasms that arise in the intestines and neighboring organs cannot be ruled out. Only a specialist can clarify the diagnosis based on the results of examinations and analyzes.

Preventive measures

In order to improve bowel function, you need to change your lifestyle.Unfortunately, cardinal changes in old age are almost impossible, especially if the patient’s home is a nursing home for bedridden or another similar institution. However, there are simple recommendations, following which, people of age will be able to improve their well-being and prevent the development of diseases:

  • It is advisable to drink water before meals. The same applies to any liquid. Otherwise, gastric juice will be flushed into the lower intestines, which can lead to an overload of the secretion apparatus and gastritis.
  • After eating, you can drink no earlier than two and a half hours. Otherwise, an additional load is created on the pancreas and liver.
  • In the morning you can drink a glass of warm water. In some cases, it is recommended to mix the liquid with honey and lemon.
  • Food must be chewed thoroughly, and if there are dental problems, it is not recommended to eat solid foods.
  • Food should be at body temperature.Also, you do not need to eat unfamiliar foods in large quantities.
  • Meals should be frequent and portions small. This relieves the burden on the digestive system.
  • Raw vegetables, heavy flour or fried foods are contraindicated in the elderly, as they can provoke various diseases.
  • In the event of abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, you should consult a doctor, since only a specialist can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment, taking into account the characteristics of the patient.

Associated diseases

Often the causes of bowel malfunction are diseases of other organs. Problems with the thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, and bad teeth can cause problems with food digestion.

Insufficient physical activity caused by leg pain can also lead to frequent constipation. Walking in the fresh air not only improves the emotional state of an elderly person, but also stimulates the intestines.

Even if a person is completely immobile or does not walk on his own, the work of the gastrointestinal tract can be improved. Competent care of bedridden patients means regular abdominal massage performed by professionals. 90,000 14 Tips That Will Help You Significantly Improve Digestion | the bag of knowledge

Unfortunately, many of us are very familiar with the symptoms of indigestion. Swelling, discomfort in the upper stomach, frequent belching, diarrhea, and sometimes even vomiting.

The causes of an upset stomach can be different, and if we rule out gastrointestinal or liver disease, poor nutrition, questionable lifestyles and bad habits can be the main causes.In this article, we’ll see how to significantly improve digestion and avoid those annoying stomach pains.

1. Eat mindfully

Lunch during work or eating in front of the TV often leads to overeating. It is scientifically proven that when we eat absentmindedly, the signals that regulate food intake arrive late in our brains. And when we overeat, disorders such as bloating and flatulence can occur. In addition, we load our digestive system unnecessarily and also run the risk of gaining weight.

2. Chew well

Good chewing not only makes your stomach easier to digest, but also nourishes your body better, maintains the correct weight, and keeps your teeth healthy.

3. Increase the amount of digestive enzymes

A number of digestive enzymes are produced by our body in the mouth, stomach, pancreas and intestines. These enzymes help our body digest and absorb what we eat.

For example, salivary enzymes promote the absorption of carbohydrates (for this, as we have already said, it is very important to chew food well), while in the stomach with pepsin, they promote the absorption of proteins.

It is therefore not hard to imagine the chaos that can arise when enzyme production is compromised by stress, poor diet, low stomach acid, or old age.

Fortunately, however, we can easily increase enzymes by integrating live enzymes into our diet through raw or fermented foods.

4. Eat fermented milk

Good enzymes and bacteria (also known as probiotics are found in fermented foods such as sauerkraut and kefir). These foods are useful for treating digestive problems such as bloating, gas, diarrhea, and others that are caused by an imbalance in the intestinal flora.

To prevent stomach acid from killing beneficial bacteria, eat your favorite probiotic foods with or after meals.

5. Avoid foods that cause stomach upset

If certain foods cause you regular stomach upset, you should avoid these foods. These foods vary from person to person depending on what Ayurvedic medicine calls a constitution. Therefore, the same food that hurts you may work for another person.

Below we list some common foods and any substances within them that commonly cause stomach upset:

Alcohol, coffee, tea and chocolate (caffeine), carbonated drinks (carbon dioxide), dairy products (lactose), spicy food (capsaicin), beans (oligosaccharides), nut and seed grains (tannin and / or phytic acid).

6. Make grains, nuts and seeds more digestible

Cereals, nuts and seeds contain compounds such as tannins, polyphenols and phytic acid that are difficult to digest. These compounds are produced naturally and were probably considered in nature to protect seeds and / or fuels for germination.

However, if you are not allergic to grains, seeds, or nuts, there is no reason to eliminate them from your diet, as they can be important sources of protein, fat, vitamins and minerals for you.

You can make them more easily digestible in one or more ways: through sprouting, fermentation, grinding or washing and soaking.

7. Walk after meals

Walking after meals helps speed up digestion. It also helps burn calories and makes it easier for food to move through the gastrointestinal tract.

However, it is very important to remember that the walk must be enjoyable! You don’t need to walk quickly or perform any activity that could divert blood from your digestive system, leading to an upset stomach.

8. Drink diluted apple cider vinegar or lemon juice

A glass of water with a spoonful of natural apple cider vinegar or lemon juice after meals may relieve symptoms of indigestion in some people. It may also be more beneficial for people with low stomach acid content, as vinegar helps to increase stomach acid.

9. Calm down before eating

Stress, anger, fear and anxiety can negatively affect the functions of the digestive system.This is because when we are under stress, most of our energy is concentrated to calm us down, not digestion. The tension created also reduces the production of enzymes.

Therefore, when you are immersed in intense emotions, it is best to delay eating until you are calmer, thus avoiding any pain caused by an upset stomach.

10. Limit fatty foods

Fatty foods stimulate the digestive tract.It can speed up bowel movements and lead to diarrhea, or slow stomach emptying and cause stomach upset or constipation. The effect you get depends on the type of fat you consume.

It is also advisable to avoid anything fried, not only because of the high fat content, but also because of the high levels of pollutants and carcinogens that form during frying.

11. Never eat before bed

This harmful habit promotes weight gain, slows down digestion and increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux.If you are forced to eat late at night, a very light meal closer to the snack is recommended, such as an apple or a handful of nuts or seeds.

12. Beware of Sorbitol

Sorbitol is a sugar substitute used in many consumer products, especially those identified as sugar free. In nature, this substance is naturally present in some types of fruits such as apples, pears, apricots and plums, but industrial sorbitol is obviously far from being natural and healthy.It is obtained by hydrogenating glucose.

It is very difficult to digest and very laxative. It can cause diarrhea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea if taken in excess.

So look out for chewing gum, drinks, sauces, cookies, toothpastes, medications, mouthwashes, supplements, and more. Always check the labels of the products you buy.

13. Avoid Poor Food Combinations

Certain food combinations should be considered.Poor food combinations can cause stomach upset.
For example, milk should never be combined with bananas (as is done with smoothies), because the combination damages the intestinal flora, produces toxins, and weakens the immune system, contributing to disease.

Other combinations of the most not recommended are: beans with: cheese, eggs, fish, meat and yoghurt, cheese and potatoes.

14. Use herbs and spices

Certain herbs and spices are useful for preventing flatulence, eliminating gas, and reducing bloating, especially after heavy and heavy meals.

Some carminative agents include mint, cardamom, fennel, and ginger.

A cup of ginger or mint tea before or after a meal can be very helpful in relieving the discomfort of poor digestion.