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Weight loss body shape: Body Type Diet: Are You an Ectomorph, Mesomorph, or Endomorph?


Body Type Diet: Are You an Ectomorph, Mesomorph, or Endomorph?

If you’ve been eating well and exercising, you may not be getting the results you’re looking for. “Many people are exercising for the first time ever and eating cleaner than ever, but they’re still doing the wrong thing for their body,” says Phil Catudal, celebrity trainer and coauthor of Just Your Type: The Ultimate Guide to Eating and Training Right for Your Body Type with health journalist Stacey Colino.

The idea that everyone has a body type comes from William Herbert Sheldon, MD, PhD, the late psychologist who developed what are called “somatotypes” in the 1940s. (1) “He was trying to explain personality types based on one’s physiological structure,” says Catudal. Problem is, linking personality traits with body type gets problematic (and drowns in bias and stigma) quickly. “He stumbled upon something great with body types, but the personality stuff is a disconnect,” he says.

When it comes to your body, Catudal says there are common elements among body types that suggests how much muscle or fat you tend to have, as well as how fast or slow your metabolism may be, and thus how easy or difficult it may be for you to lose weight.

Yet there isn’t a ton of research on how a person’s somatotype might better inform their diet and exercise habits. There is, however, a little on body composition differences. One small, past study in the American Journal of Human Biology looked at 63 men ages 18 to 40. They found that those whose bodies were long and lean indeed had less body fat, weighed less, and had less lean body mass compared with those with curvy or hourglass figures. (2)

A more recent paper, published in October 2017 in Anthropological Review by Polish researchers, analyzed three-day food diaries of nearly 150 women over age 57. They concluded that somatotype was related to factors like dieting, physical activity, weight cycling, body mass index (BMI), and even disease status. Those with curvy figures had greater diastolic blood pressure compared with lean and lanky participants, as well as those who had an hourglass figure. Women who were lean and lanky were also more likely to be underweight. Interestingly, when researchers looked at their dietary intake, curvy individuals consumed more protein and those who were lean consumed the least. (3)

But Catudal says that finding your dominant body type (because you can be a mix of two) can help guide you toward healthy habits that will work best for your body and help you form more realistic goals. “If you’re doing the same thing as someone else who doesn’t have your same body structure, you won’t get the same results. It helps to realign your expectations with what is possible for you,” he says.

What Is the Mesomorph Diet? Food List, Sample Menu, Benefits, More

Day 1

Breakfast Greek yogurt parfait made with pumpkin, cinnamon, pecans, and raisins

Snack Two hard-boiled eggs and strawberries

Lunch Large salad with chopped veggies, sweet potato chunks, avocado, and vinaigrette.

Snack Hummus and bell pepper sticks

Dinner Chicken and vegetable stir-fry over brown rice with crushed peanuts

Day 2

Breakfast Smoothie made with soy milk, peanut butter, banana, and spinach

Snack Cheese stick with an orange

Lunch Three-bean chili, side salad drizzled with vinaigrette, and a small whole-grain roll

Snack Veggies with a yogurt-based dip

Dinner Spaghetti squash noodles with tomato and ground turkey sauce

Day 3

Breakfast Whole-grain toast with almond butter, hard-boiled egg

Snack Trail mix

Lunch Pizza made on a whole-grain tortilla, topped with veggies and chicken sausage

Snack Protein bar

Dinner Baked salmon, roasted broccoli, sweet potato with a tab of butter

Day 4

Breakfast Cottage cheese with pineapple and crushed macadamia nuts

Snack Roasted chickpeas and an orange

Lunch Turkey chili spooned into a sweet potato

Snack Packet of flavored tuna and celery sticks

Dinner Fajita lettuce wraps made with sliced steak, bell peppers, and onions, topped with avocado slices

Day 5

Breakfast Greek yogurt with blueberries, toasted quinoa, and sunflower seeds

Snack Veggies and hummus

Lunch Whole grain wrap with chicken, sliced veggies (bell peppers, carrots) on the side

Snack Turkey rolled around sliced bell peppers and mustard

Dinner Tuna niçoise salad

Day 6

Breakfast Avocado toast with peaches and a hard-boiled egg

Snack Chocolate protein shake

Lunch Chicken salad (made with a base of Greek yogurt) over greens

Snack Roasted lentils and an orange

Dinner Roasted chicken, sweet potatoes, and sautéed kale

Day 7

Breakfast Slice of veggie frittata and a banana

Snack Celery with peanut butter

Lunch Grilled salmon salad

Snack Protein bar

Dinner Quinoa bowl with chopped chicken, veggies, and a dollop of guacamole

How to Train & Diet for Your Body Type

Do you have trouble losing body fat, yet seem to gain it after even the smallest slip up with your diet? Or does it feel like you can eat for days without gaining an ounce? It could have something to do with your current body type. But is it really that simple? 

Let’s explore them more in depth and analyze how they relate to overall body composition. 

Table of Contents:

You can also find more information about this topic (and many others like it) within our online nutrition classes.

What is Body Type?

Body type, or somatotype, refers to the idea that there are three generalized body compositions that people are predetermined to have. The concept was theorized by Dr. W.H. Sheldon back in the early 1940s, naming the three somatotypes endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph.

It was originally believed that a person’s somatotype was unchangeable, and that certain physiological and psychological characteristics were even determined by whichever one a person aligns to.

According to Sheldon, endomorphs have bodies that are always rounded and soft, mesomorphs are always square and muscular, and ectomorphs are always thin and fine-boned.

He theorized that these body types directly influenced a person’s personality, and the names were chosen because he believed the predominate traits of each somatotype were set in stone, derived from pre-birth preferential development of either the endodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal embryonic layers.

Somatotype Theory, Debunked

Let’s take a deeper look at how he classified each one:


  • Relative predominance of soft roundness throughout various regions of the body.
  • Digestive viscera are more massive and relatively dominate bodily economy.
  •  Have a more relaxed, comfortable, and extroverted personality.


  • Relative predominance of muscle, bone, and connective tissue that dominates bodily economy.
  • Heavy, hard, and rectangular in outline.
  • Have a more active, dynamic, assertive, and aggressive personality.


  • Relative predominance of linearity and fragility
  • Greatest skin surface area relative to body mass causes greater sensory exposure
  • Have a more introverted, thoughtful, inhibited, and sensitive personality.

Some notions of Sheldon’s theory have held up over time, providing the foundation for more accepted applications of somatotyping, but much of it has not.

The theory that personality is determined by body composition has been wholly abandoned by the psychological community. Additionally, we know that no one is hopelessly predetermined to either be fat, muscular, or thin as a lifelong consequence of prenatal development.

What makes our bodies what they are is an absolutely vast array of environmental and social influences, genetic variations, geographic locations, and personal decisions across the entire lifespan.

The Body Type Spectrum

So then why are we even discussing this topic? Because while the notion of a predetermined body composition looks far-fetched through a 21st century lens, many of the physiological markers and observations associated with each somatotype do actually exist in the greater population.

However, the modern understanding is flipped from Sheldon’s original concept; it’s our physiological characteristics that determine the current somatotype, not the somatotype that determines our collective physiologies.

No one exists within purely one somatotype; instead, we are all constantly in flux and fall uniquely on a spectrum somewhere between all three.

Your Body Type is Not a Life Sentence

As they are understood and accepted today, body types reflect a generalized picture of how a person’s physiology is functioning in their current state. The observable somatotype represents the current sum of their physical, dietary, and lifestyle choices up to that point in time, combined with a variety of uncontrollable factors influenced by both genetics and the surrounding environment.

For example, at one extreme end of the spectrum, a person who has easy access to high-quality food, makes habitually healthy diet choices, is free of chronic disease, and consistently trains at progressively higher intensities will always have a more functional, muscular, and leaner body composition. On the flip side, someone who always sits all day and eats a lots of excess calories from junk food will undoubtedly develop the “soft roundness” stated in Sheldon’s original classification of endomorphs.

But remember, a body type is not a life sentence. If it were, personal trainers, health coaches, and nutrition coaches would all be out of jobs. The fitness industry, at its core, is all about helping people learn to use tools they can control (i.e., improved lifestyle, diet, and exercise techniques) to overcome challenges presented by genetic and environmental factors that they otherwise have no agency over.

Body type will shift based on lifestyle, activity, and diet modifications . Someone on the DASH diet will have a different composition than someone who doesn’t have a diet preference. 

This notion is made clear when looking at average physiques of elite athletes in different sports, where consistent training and diet standards lead to similar average body compositions grouped across the somatotype spectrum.

How to Improve Your Body Composition

Research continues to prove that physical training and consistent, habitual changes to the diet have a strong influence on improving body composition. Metabolic conditions such as hyper- or hypothyroidism are fully within the realm of modern medicine to manage and improve, and chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes are manageable and can even be remedied in many cases through improvements to diet and exercise routines. Simply type “[exercise/diet] impact on body composition” into your favorite search engine and quickly become overwhelmed with the breadth of research spanning the last century.

The human body is highly adaptable and always seeks homeostasis (i.e., equilibrium) within its environment. But it can take a while to break old patterns that the body has gotten used to. This fact – that change takes time and consistency – is more than likely what leads many people to resign to the notion that they are stuck in a somatotype; because change is hard, and it’s often far easier and convenient to chalk one’s body dissatisfaction up to forces beyond direct control. But this is also where Certified Personal Trainers and Nutrition Coaches have the most opportunity to build long-lasting relationships with clients.

Muscle is healthily gained at around one pound per month, and fat healthily lost at around one pound per week. After a desirable body composition has been attained through lifestyle modification, physical training, and healthy changes to diet – and, more importantly, when those new habits are adopted and maintained permanently – the new body that is symptomatic of all those changes will eventually become the “new normal.”

Metabolisms and appetites adjust to new energy intakes, physical activity becomes a natural part of the day instead of a chore, and someone who was predominately ectomorphic or endomorphic will eventually see themselves displaying far more mesomorphic traits over time.

How to Identify Body Type

In light of all this, understanding a client’s current-state body type is quite beneficial for fitness professionals. A simple observation of body composition can help quickly identify various physiological situations a client might be dealing with and allow you to tailor solutions that will preferentially address each one. Use the following somatotype traits to determine which one a person primarily aligns to:


  • Stockier bone structures with larger midsection and hips.
  •  Carries more fat throughout the body.
  • Gains fat fast and loses it slow.
  • Naturally slow metabolism; potentially due to chronic conditions (e.g., thyroid deficiency, diabetes) but too frequently the result of a sedentary lifestyle and chronically-positive daily energy balance.


  • Medium bone structure with shoulders wider than the hips.
  • Developed athletic musculature.
  • Efficient metabolism; mass gain and loss both happen with relative ease.


  • More narrow shoulders and hips in respect to height.
  • Relatively smaller muscles in respect to bone length.
  • Naturally fast metabolism makes it difficult for many to gain mass.
  • Potentially indicative of disordered eating (e.g., anorexia, bulimia) when BMI is ≤17.

Once you identify which somatotype a client most aligns to, consider the structural and metabolic challenges that are associated with it. Then, tailor the exercise programming and dietary coaching to overcome those hurdles. This will preferentially develop the necessary foundation that each client individually requires.

For the typical new client, the initial, overarching goal to “get in shape” will essentially boil down to a desire to shift their current-state body type toward a more mesomorphic physiology.

Obviously, there will be exceptions to this rule – there will always be endomorphs who want to get even bigger to compete in strongman events and ectomorphs who want to keep thin and trim for running ultramarathons – but it rings true for the majority of clients seeking the help of a Certified Personal Trainer or Nutrition Coach.

In light of that average goal, for example, a client who presents predominately as an ectomorph will most likely need dietary and training solutions that focus on muscle protein synthesis and overall mass gain, while typical endomorphic clients will benefit far more from frequent metabolic training and reduced calorie intakes. So, take a look at each individual, critically evaluate whether you are using the right methods for the body type they currently display, and use the following tips to better tailor your programs for maximal success.

How to Train Endomorphs

Training endomorphs should predominantly focus on fat loss techniques until a desirable body composition and functional cardiorespiratory efficiency have been achieved. Resistance training should be used to strengthen muscles and stabilize joints to support more-efficient movement elsewhere in life, but this population tends to need cardiorespiratory improvement and fat loss above all.

In the gym, work through OPT Phase 1 and Phase 2, but keep the majority of training sessions focused on metabolic conditioning. Use short rest periods, circuits for resistance exercises, lots of plyometrics (within client tolerance), and use as much additional time as possible for steady-state cardio.

Consistent anaerobic and aerobic training will help endomorphic bodies increase their metabolic efficiency and boost the body’s daily energy requirement. Additionally, recommend that primarily-endomorphic clients increase their non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) factor as much as possible, moving more during times of the day when they’re not in the gym. Commitment to a less-sedentary lifestyle overall is the most important thing for this population to begin overcoming their metabolic challenges.

Due to those slower metabolisms (regardless of the underlying cause) and a surplus of stored energy (body fat), nutritional solutions for primarily-endomorphic individuals should focus on techniques to maximize fat loss while still supporting, and even building, the existing lean muscle mass. To accomplish this, a diet that is both low-calorie and high in protein is ideal. Diets containing daily protein of as much as 2.2 grams per kilogram body weight (and sometimes even higher) have been shown safe and effective for supporting existing muscle tissue during times of calorie restriction and weight loss.

After ensuring that daily protein requirements have been met, the remaining pool of calories can come from whatever blend of carbs and fats the individual best tolerates. Some may tolerate a very low-carb “ketogenic” diet that helps them preferentially burn even more fat throughout the day, while others will experience hypoglycemia and its associated nauseating symptoms without enough carbohydrates in their diet.

This rings especially true during workouts, where carbs are important to fuel the higher intensities needed for cardiorespiratory improvement. But regardless of whether carbs or fats are the preferred source of energy, the most important thing is to determine the client’s total daily calorie requirement and keep food intake a bit lower (with still-ample protein) so that the body remains in a negative energy balance with as little muscle catabolism as possible.


  • Maximize calorie burn and the improvement of metabolic efficiency by primarily using high-intensity, metabolic training techniques.
  • Consume a high-protein diet with balanced carbs and fats that maintains a slight negative energy balance.

If you are an Ectomorph and want to gain muscle, check your nutrition. Here are some great recipes for gaining muscle to help you hit your goals. 

How to Train Ectomorphs

Ectomorphs face the opposite set of challenges as primarily-endomorphic individuals. Due to the numerous factors previously mentioned, most ectomorphic clients have developed bodies with highly active metabolisms and “lanky” bone structures, making it hard for them to put on mass and keep it on. For this reason, exercise techniques for hypertrophy and maximal strength should be prioritized, with a greatly-reduced focus on cardiorespiratory training to reduce overall energy utilization.

After working through the initial level of the OPT model, Phases 3 and 4 will be of most benefit to average clients in this population. Hypertrophy and maximal strength resistance training are primarily anaerobic in nature and, when combined with longer rest periods, won’t stimulate elevated calorie burn in the moment like more-intense, fast-paced exercise programs will. When paired with a consistently-positive energy balance, this type of lifting will preferentially help ectomorphs build up their body mass.

To accompany the mass gain-focused resistance training, ectomorphic bodies should eat a mass gain-focused diet. These individuals tend to burn through energy sources faster than most, so ample calories will be needed. Low-carb, fat-loss focused diets are not recommended here, and in some cases, it may be prudent to recommend that ectomorphic clients even incorporate “mass gainer” nutritional shakes into their diets.

And just like with endomorphic bodies that are working to become more mesomorphic, ectomorphs need high levels of protein too. 1.2 to 1.6 grams per kilogram body weight of daily protein has been shown to be optimal for muscle growth, with some individuals requiring up to 2. 2.

That protein should then be spaced out every three hours so that muscle protein synthesis (MPS) signals (from the amino acid leucine) are maximized all day long. An additional protein shake at night, right before bed to minimize the fasting window, can also be beneficial for maximizing MPS in individuals with difficulty gaining weight.


  • Maximize muscle gain using lower-intensity hypertrophy and maximal strength resistance training with longer rest periods.
  • Consume a high-protein diet with balanced carbs and fats that maintains a positive energy balance.

How to Train Mesomorphs

There’s no avoiding the fact that mesomorphs have things a bit easier than others. Their metabolisms are relatively efficient, they carry functional – if not athletic – muscle mass and are essentially ready to take on whatever fitness goal they please with minimal foundational work.

But remember, while there are undoubtedly some people who look lean and fit with zero effort, they are the exception to the rule. Most individuals who present a more-mesomorphic body composition have developed it as a consequence of numerous factors over their entire lifetime. And for formally endo- or ectomorphic individuals who have improved their lifestyles, diets, and fitness, hard work and discipline are the biggest factors of all.

A mesomorphic body type indicates a client is ready to transition to more advanced forms of power (like SAQ training), athletic, and sport-specific training. Comparatively, diets for mesomorphic bodies should be tailored specifically to health and fitness goals. Protein should be consumed anywhere between 1.2 and 2.2 grams per kilogram body weight depending on the intensity of the exercise program, with remaining calories coming from a blend of healthy carbs and fats. Then, if changes in body composition are still desired, the daily calorie load can either be increased or decreased to gain or lose weight, respectively.


  • Utilize OPT Phases directly aligned to client goals.
  • Eat specifically for fitness goals and activity, increasing or decreasing daily calories to preferentially control body composition with positive, neutral, or negative energy balances.
  • Increase protein intakes to as high as 2.2 grams per kilogram of body weight for muscle gain goals; or, keep closer to the 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight FDA recommended dietary allowance (RDA) when healthy body composition maintenance is all that is desired.

Other NASM stuff to check out

If you are wanting to start training clients professionally as a personal trainer, nutrition coach, or both, NASM has a fitness-nutrition bundle that combines both products into one package. 

For a great tool that calculates the amount of calories needed to hit weight loss goals, check out the NASM Weight Loss Calculator.

Also, see their online CEU nutrition courses for more great information (including 2 free mini courses). 


Bernard, TJ. (2003). Biography of William Sheldon, American psychologist. Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed online at:  https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Sheldon

Carter, J.E.L. & Heath, B.H. (1990). Somatotyping – development and applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35117-0

Carter, J.E.L. (2002). The Heath-Carter Anthropometric Somatotype, Instruction Manual. Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University. Accessed online at: http://www.somatotype.org/Heath-CarterManual.pdf

Clark, M.A., Lucett, S.C., McGill, E., Montel, I., & Sutton, B. (2018). NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training, 6th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-284-16008-6

National Academy of Sports Medicine. (2019). Certified Nutrition Coach. Online education program, accessed at www.nasm.org

Toth, T., Michalikova, M., Bednarcikova, L. , Zivacak, J., & Kneppo, P. (2014). Somatotypes in Sport. Acta Mechanica et Automatica, 8(1). DOI 10.2478/ama-2014-0005

Knowing your body type could help you shed pounds – so what shape are you? – The US Sun

WE ALL have a particular body type which is determined by our genes and the hormones we produce during puberty.

Generally, we fall in to one of three different types: ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph.


People tend to fall in to one of three different body types: ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph

Ectomorphs usually have small frames and little body fat, mesomorphs have medium frames, develop muscle easily and lose weight easily and endomorphs have large frames and a curvy body shape.

And now top nutritionist Terri-Ann Nunns has revealed that knowing which of these body types you fit under could in fact help you maximise weight loss.

In particular, it will help you know which foods you should be eating or avoiding

Here, Terri-Ann, founder of the Terri Ann 123 Diet Plan, takes The Sun Online through each of three body types and what each category should eat to shed the pounds. ..



What does an ectomorph look like? 

Ectomorphs tend to be naturally lean and have a fast metabolism, according to Terri-Ann.

She said: “Having a body type that’s defined as an ectomorph means that physically your appearance is small, thin and lean.

“You have a very fast metabolism and find it difficult to gain weight because of this.

“Having a fast metabolism means that calories are burnt at a much a quicker rate compared to those with a steady or slow metabolism – meaning you may find it difficult to maintain or gain weight. “Essentially, these are the type of people that seem to be able to eat for England, but never gain weight.”

What should an ectomorph eat? 

Ectomorphs should focus on foods high in carbs and proteins.

Terri-Ann says: “If this sounds like you, you really need to ensure that your calorie intake is substantial enough to ensure your body is being fuelled with the energy that it needs.

Protein should be a key part of any ectomorphs diet such as lean meats and eggs

Terri-Ann Nunns

“Eating foods that are high in carbohydrates, such as wholegrain pasta and brown rice, will help to increase your calorie intake but still consist of a healthy balanced diet.

“Protein should also be a key part of any ectomorphs diet such as lean meats and eggs as it will help to build muscle mass, something that this body type typically lacks.

Best exercise for ectomorphs: Muscle building workouts such as weight training and squats that will help to contribute to building muscle mass.

Famous ectomorphs: Keira Knightly and Karlie Kloss.



What does a mesomorph look like? 

The best of both worlds, mesomorphs are somewhere in the middle of ectomorphs and endomorphs.

Terri-Ann says: “A mesomorph is someone who has a physical description that would be described as naturally athletic – meaning they have a fairly large bone structure and large muscles.

“If you have this body type, you’ll find it fairly easy to either lose or gain weight – depending on your fitness goals.

“It’s essentially the perfect body type for building and maintain muscle as they are naturally strong and gain muscle and fat much easier than other body types.”

What should a mesomorph eat? 

Mesomorphs should eat a diet high in complex carbs such as wholegrains and beans as well as lean protein.

Terri-Ann says: “In terms of your diet if you’re a mesomorph, essentially the basic principle is to follow a healthy balanced diet that is slightly higher in carbohydrates.

For mesomorphs the basic principle is to follow a healthy balanced diet that is slightly higher in carbohydrates

Terri-Ann Nunns

“Your body will respond well when you fuel it with healthy foods and the mesomorph’s high tolerance for carbohydrates and turning them into fuel means you can eat them much more regularly and feel benefits.

“Try to eat a diet high in complex carbs such as wholegrains, beans and vegetables, lean protein such as lentils, white fish and Greek yoghurt and also healthy fats such as avocados and nuts.”

Best exercise for mesomorphs: Weight training and cardio workouts are advised to keep healthy and you’ll find you see results quite quickly.

Famous mesomorphs: Gigi Hadid, Jennifer Lawrence and Irina Shayk.



What does an endomorph look like? 

People with the endomorph body type tend to naturally have higher percentages of body fat.

Terri-Ann says: “An endomorph is someone who is typically described as quite ‘stocky’.

“This means they are quite rounded in their appearance, gain fat quite easily and have a slow metabolism, meaning they find it hard to lose weight.

Endomorphs should avoid a diet that is really high in foods that contribute to further to weight gain

Terri-Ann Nunns

“This slow metabolism is often a key factor in weight gain as an endomorph may struggle to keep weight at bay and is the type of person that feels as though they simply look at a slice of cake and gain 10lbs!”

What should an endomorph eat? 

Endomorphs should tried to avoid refined carbs like white bread and instead focus on lean protein, fruit and veg.

“It’s wise to avoid a diet that is really high in foods that contribute to further to weight gain including refined carbohydrates, such as white bread and pasta, and foods high in sugar and fat,” Terri-Ann says.

“Instead, opt for a diet that is high in good fats, lean protein and fruit and vegetables.”

Best exercise for endomorphs: Exercise should be focused more on cardio to help speed up your metabolism, but weight training can also help with this – so try to balance your workouts to help turn fat into muscle

Famous endomorphs: Kim Kardashian, Jennifer Lopez and Kate Winslet.

If you’re still unsure of exactly what body type you are, there are online tests you can take – like this one here.


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Despite this, PT and owner of No1 Fitness Harry Thomas has cautioned that weight loss isn’t always necessarily down to body type.

He said: “With weight loss, it’s honestly nothing to do with body types or foods that are eaten. It’s down to energy balance first.”

However, if knowing your body type makes you more cautious about what you put into your body – you’re guaranteed to cut down on calorie intake and reduce body fat.

Rachel McCallan, 23, from Northern Ireland, shows off her weight loss dropping from 15 stone 5lbs to 11 stone to 12lbs

This Is How You Should Lose Weight, According to Your Body Type

Most of us can slot our overall build into one of three general categories (recognizing that there are a wide variety of shapes and sizes even within these categories).

Body composition is liberating because it gives you something to focus on in a good way—lean body mass. No matter what the scale says, if you’re in a healthy body-composition range, you’re all good! Your ideal body composition depends on your goals. If you’re a competitive athlete, your aim is likely the lower end of the body-fat percentage scale (again, taking your somatotype into consideration), but remember that you are never gunning for zero fat, and lower is not always better.

RELATED: 4 Strength Training Hacks for Women

Women naturally have more fat than men, as we have a greater amount of essential fat (fat needed for bodily functions, from forming reproductive tissue to aiding the absorption of vitamins consumed in different foods). The body-fat ranges for optimal health are 14 percent to 30 percent for women and 6 percent to 25 percent for men. Don’t get too hung up on trimming every little ounce, however. If you’re at the lower end of the body-fat spectrum but your fitness level falls under general fitness or athlete, you’re not going to gain performance benefits by focusing on fat loss. And you might just make yourself sick.

So first, start by identifying your body type. Here’s how to begin:


You tend to be long limbed and not particularly muscular. You can be “skinny fat,” meaning you’re a relatively low weight and/or small size yet still have high body fat.

Ectomorphs are the body type that is the most resistant to weight gain because of a fast metabolism. In other words, ectomorphs are often able to overeat while gaining little or even no weight. People with this body type have little observable body fat, are only lightly muscled, and have a small frame (and joints). Basically your genetic makeup limits your ability to put on muscle mass. When training, focus on power and resistance training to build strength.

To maximize body composition (lean-mass gain, body-fat loss) as an ectomorph, eat good-quality fats with moderate protein intake of 25 to 30 grams per meal (four meals per day if you have a pre-training mini-meal) along with good-quality carbohydrates. On non-training/exercising days, skip the pre-training and morning snack: Breakfast is hearty enough to carry you through to lunch. If you have afternoon snacks, you may want to make your dinner intake a bit lighter than what is written here.

Looking for easy healthy breakfast options? Check out these 11 delicious ways to eat avocado toast:


You find it supereasy to build muscle mass, and you are generally proportionally built.

Mesomorphs can lose and gain weight easily, are able to build muscle quickly, and usu- ally boast an upright posture. This body type tends to have a long torso and short limbs. Women with a mesomorph body type are strong and athletic. Mesomorphs excel in explosive sports—that is, sports calling for power and speed. The reason for this talent lies in the type of muscle mesomorphs possess. Mesomorphs have a higher percentage of fast-twitch fibers and will gain muscle mass more quickly than any other body type. Basically your genetic makeup suits power and strength. For training, focus on moderate endurance training, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and plyometrics. You can add in Pilates or yoga to lengthen with strength.

To maximize body composition (lean-mass gain, body-fat loss) as a mesomorph, eat good-quality fats with moderate carbohydrates and consider timing your protein and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) intake. On non-training/exercising days, skip the pre-training snack and just have the green tea or coffee in the afternoon. Eat your usual pre-dinner and evening snacks. (Learn how to tone your entire body with workouts from the Women’s Health Woman’s Guide to Strength Training!)

Related: Jillian Michaels Says These 6 Easy Tips Will Help You Lose Weight Like You’re On ‘The Biggest Loser’


You are generally softer and rounder and tend to store fat easily.

Endomorphs are the body types that are most likely to feel like they drew the short straw. Endomorphs naturally tend to have curvy, fuller figures and struggle to keep their body-fat percentage in check. The most difficult challenge for endomorphs is perhaps to find out that they are in fact an endomorph. Why? Once you know you are an endomorph, you know that you were born this way. It can be difficult to come to the realization that you are likely to gain weight very easily.

You have the type of metabolism that is not forgiving. However, this doesn’t mean you are destined to be overweight or even obese. As an endomorph, you have to make a conscious, concerted effort to do the things your body should be doing for you auto- matically. If your body isn’t instinctively telling you to move more, you have to make sure that exercise is part of your daily routine. If your metabolism is sluggish, you need to eat the right foods that will fire up your metabolism. Training-wise, high-intensity activities such as HIIT and CrossFit are great, as are weight training and moderate endurance training. As an endomorph, eat good-quality fats and protein and limit your carbohydrate intake to maximize body composition (lean-mass gain, body-fat loss) and to control insulin and blood sugar. On non-training/exercising days, have a flat-belly breakfast within 45 minutes of waking up and skip the pre- and post-training snacks. Be sure to temper your afternoon snack to your appetite.

Adapted from Roar.

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17 Weight Loss Tips Based on Your Body Shape

We all know the basics: don’t spoil your sweet tooth, up your fiber game, drink lots of water. But what you may not know is that the effect and efficacy of your dietary decisions can be influenced by your body shape. That’s right, those double chocolate fudge bars may do a lot more damage to you than to your neighbor. Why? Your body type doesn’t just have visual implications; it affects (and reflects) how you respond to food and on a deeper level than your metabolic makeup—which is where the body type diet comes in.

“Your metabolism and eating habits will determine your percentage of lean muscle mass and body fat,” says Maria A. Bella, MS, RD, CDN, and founder of Top Balance Nutrition. “Where body fat is located on the body can be a major determinant of insulin sensitivity and weight gain. So, it’s super important to eat according to your body type to ensure that your metabolism is working at its best.” It’s an underrated factor when it comes to efficiently reaching your weight and health goals, so here’s a much-needed look at the best weight loss tips based on your body type.

People with an apple body shape tend to carry most of their weight around the belly area but have a slimmer lower body. “Abdominal fat—usually visceral fat—unfortunately, causes many health risks such as an increased risk of heart disease, cancers, and diabetes because it’s the type of fat that surrounds your organs,” says Shirlee Rosen, RDN. “Abdominal fat is known to be detrimental, causing inflammation and insulin resistance, which can lead to metabolic syndrome.” If you’re tummy heavy, however, don’t despair! Visceral fat, although very dangerous, is also metabolically active and easier to lose if an appropriate diet is followed. Kick things off and find out how to lose belly fat in just a couple weeks.

Rosen explains that due to irregular insulin levels caused by abdominal fat, a low-glycemic diet has been proven to be most beneficial for weight loss for an apple body shape because it will work to decrease inflammation and help burn fat. “Following a low-glycemic diet includes eating foods such as green vegetables, most fruits, kidney beans, chickpeas, lentils, and bran cereals. Cut out foods such as white bread, pastas, rice, pastries, cookies, and candies.” By following a low-glycemic diet, she says, you can stop your blood sugar from spiking, therefore controlling insulin levels and decreasing the risk of chronic diseases. Choose fiber-rich carbohydrates such as whole grain bread, oats, legumes, beans, and non-starchy vegetables.


When consuming the recommended carbohydrates high in fiber, it’s important for apples to pair them with a protein or healthy fat to further control blood sugar levels. “Healthy fats, such as nuts and fish, are loaded with omega-3s, which have been shown to decrease inflammation,” says Rosen. Eating more heart-healthy monounsaturated fats, such as olive oil, nuts, seeds, and avocados is also essential because, according to Chelsey Amer, RD, they boost satiety and may help you eat less unhealthy foods and blast belly fat.

Along with including lean protein or healthy fat with every meal, it’s also imperative to snack on a regular basis if you want to combat midsection visceral fat. “Snacking will help prevent blood sugar spikes and help keep your hormones in balance, which can be an issue with excess abdominal fat,” says Amer.

People with a pear body shape tend to carry most of their weight in the lower portions of their body, which is mostly subcutaneous fat. This is also known as fat that can be pinched. While love handles and muffin tops make most of us cringe, this kind of fat isn’t surrounding our vital organs, meaning that it isn’t as detrimental to our health as the fat you’ll find in people with an apple shaped figure. On the flip side, this type of fat is harder to lose because it’s stubborn and not as mobile as visceral fat. You can make the long process a little more fun by spiking your workout routines with fun ways to lose weight!


“To shed their stubborn fat around their hips, pear-shaped individuals may benefit from a high-fiber, lower fat diet with an adequate balance of lean protein because it’s much easier to burn carbohydrates than it is fat,” says Amer. She suggests including several servings of whole grains, like quinoa, brown rice, and whole grain bread, throughout the day.


Some studies suggest that the pear-shaped body may be due to increased estrogen levels, which is why Bella says that it’s best to avoid non-organic and processed meats that may contain unnecessary hormones. “Conversely, calcium has been shown to influence the way our bodies store fat, making it helpful to load up on Icelandic or Greek yogurt and dark leafy greens.” You’ll want to also familiarize yourself with these best calcium-rich foods that aren’t dairy.


“Put away the alcoholic beverages, sodas, juices and smoothies and replace them with water,” Rosen says. “By doing that, you are not only cutting back on calories but also providing your body with an essential nutrient it needs throughout the day.” This is especially important because, as mentioned, the subcutaneous fat that pears have is hard to shed, making it critical they avoid excess calories.


Inverted triangle shaped bodies, also referred to as top heavy body types, tend to have broad shoulders and they’re prone to storing fat on the upper half of their body.


If you’re broader up top, it’s important to opt for complex versus simple carbohydrates. Translation: trade your white rice and potatoes for quinoa and oats. Fresh vegetables (particularly leafy greens) are also key, and you should eliminate high-fat cheeses and processed foods—particularly the bloat-inducing, salty ones.

“Magnesium is crucial for hundreds of bodily functions, which is why consuming this wonder mineral is associated with better blood sugar control,” says Amer, who recommends it for all body types. “Be sure to include almonds and dark leafy greens like spinach and black beans in your diet daily.” You can take some extra steps for your upper body troubles by also discovering these easy ways to get rid of back fat.

The hourglass figure tends to be the most desired body shape because those with this figure gain weight evenly throughout their body. When people with this type do gain weight, however, it’s most noticeable on or around the face, arms, chest, knees, and ankles.

Hourglass figures should follow an anti-inflammatory diet rich in fresh produce (fruits and veggies) and whole grains (buckwheat bulgur, millet, quinoa), healthy fats (avocados, salmon, nuts, seeds, olive oil) and high-quality lean protein (turkey, salmon, sole), beans and lentils. Like all body types, hourglass shapes should limit processed foods, sugar, caffeine, and high-fat foods. “Hourglass bodies, like all bodies, can benefit from including more plant-based proteins, such as beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, tofu, and edamame in their diets because these potent protein sources are also high in fiber and many contain healthy fats we need to shed excess weight,” says Amer.


People with a straight-shaped body have similar measurements for their shoulders, waist, and hips—basically, no curves. Most skinny people tend to have this body type, and when they do gain weight, it’s usually in the belly. As mentioned with apple-shaped figures, this is problematic for health reasons (hence the term “skinny fat”), since it leaves them prone to heart disease and diabetes.


“Pencils may be at a healthy BMI but still have a high body fat percentage,” says Bella. “Eat every four hours and structure your meals based on a plating method: fill half of your plate with produce, one-fourth with a whole grain such as quinoa or millet and the rest with lean protein such as fish or skinless chicken.” Bella adds that it’s important to ensure that pencils are getting at least two to three servings of reduced fat dairy (we recommend organic 1%) per day and that they should aim for six colors of produce. This body type diet, which is rich in complex carbs, fresh produce, and healthy fats, is a great formula to follow because it will work to help decrease the risk of cardiovascular problems.

“Always fill half of your plate with non-starchy vegetables!” Rosen exclaims. “Eat those first and then go for the lean protein and fiber-rich whole grains. This way, you will feel full off of the low-calorie, high-fiber vegetables and won’t overeat the higher calorie food choices. You will be less inclined to indulge in other foods.” And don’t forget that drinking water is imperative since many people confuse hunger with thirst. Rosen also suggests using smaller plates, always keeping healthy snacks handy (carrots and hummus, apples and almonds, plain Greek yogurt and cucumbers), limiting your sugar and simple carbohydrates, and upping your intake in fiber-rich foods.


While our shape may be mostly influenced by genetics and diet, fitness is a non-negligible part not only for overall tone but for health, too. “Physical activity is key for any body type. Moving more not only helps with weight loss, but boosts your overall health, reducing your risk of heart disease, helping control your blood sugar, and more!” exclaims Amer.

Any exercise is better than no exercise, but here’s what to focus on for your body type:
•Apple-shaped people should focus on high-intensity interval training, which works to blast fat and torch calories while improving cardiovascular capabilities.
•Those with a pear shape should focus on a mix of strength training (focusing on the lower half) and cardio for all over fat burning.
•Hourglass should focus on full body moves.
•Pencil people need to work on building muscle, particularly in the ab area.
•If you have an inverted triangle shape, focus on a mix of strength training (focusing on the upper half) and cardio for all over fat burning.

Get plenty of ideas with these 30 most effective 30-second workout moves!


The Truth about “Body Type Dieting“ for Ectomorphs, Endomorphs, and Mesomorphs

Can body type—whether ectomorph, mesomorph, or endomorph—determine what sports suit you best, as well as what you should be eating to fuel your activities? The answer isn’t black and white. Nutrition science is notoriously confusing, which invariably leads to debates about what works—and what doesn’t.

Eating for your somatotype, or body type—“soma” is Greek for “body”—is one of the most heavily debated nutrition topics in our community.

At Precision Nutrition, we’ve found that people tend to fall into one of two categories on this subject.

  • They place way too much importance on body typing.
  • They dismiss body-type as complete pseudoscience.

On both sides of the debate, we’ve also found that people buy into myths, such as:

“Everyone should eat according to their body type.”


“No legitimate scientist would ever use body typing.”

Like so many hotly-contested topics, the truth lies between the two extremes.

Here’s the truth: For most people, body type eating isn’t necessary or important. 

For them it’s just not the most effective tool for their needs and goals.

So why bother discussing it?

Because this is also true: Based on our work with more than 100,000 clients, we’ve discovered that body type eating can benefit some people in a couple of highly specific situations. This is especially true when foundational nutritional strategies aren’t enough to get these individuals all the way to the finish line.

In this article, we’ll explain:

  • the origins of body typing
  • what science reveals about body typing
  • how to know if a body type diet is right for you (or your clients)
  • how to try body type eating for yourself (if desired or appropriate)


You’ve probably heard about three body types. What you may not know: countless types exist.

In the 1940s, psychologist Dr. William Sheldon came up with the idea of somatotypes. (In case you missed it earlier in the article, somatotype is just another word for body type).

Originally, Sheldon thought body size and shape helped to determine personality traits such as assertiveness, aggressiveness, shyness, and sensitivity.

He was wrong.

But his three main body type classifications (endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph) live on, though they’ve evolved—for the better.1-5

According to Sheldon’s definitions:

Ectomorphs were thin, narrow, delicate, fragile, linear, and poorly muscled.

Endomorphs were soft, round, pudgy, and overweight.

Mesomorphs were broad-shouldered, narrow in the waist and hips, muscular, compact, and athletic.

Sheldon determined those types based only on height and weight, and front, side, and back photos (known as photoscopy). But other scientists soon rightly criticized this method as unreliable and subjective—because it was.6

Eventually, Barbara Honeyman Heath Roll and Lindsay Carter developed the currently used method for evaluating body type. It assesses and scores body type based on 10 distinct measurements.6-8. According to their method:

Endomorphy is relative fatness or leanness as determined by the sum of three skinfolds taken at the triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac. The higher the sum of these folds, the higher the endomorphy score.

Mesomorphy is muscle mass relative to height. It’s determined by the width of the elbow and knee, flexed arm circumference corrected with triceps skinfold, and calf circumference corrected with medial calf skinfold.

Ectomorphy is the lack of body mass (body fat and muscle mass) relative to height and is determined using someone’s height and weight.

Once calculated, these values are plotted on a tri-axial graph to determine a person’s somatotype.9,6 

Compared to Sheldon’s approach, the Heath-Carter method more closely resembles a body composition measurement, providing a more accurate description of a person’s ratio of fat to muscle to bone.10

It also allows for a wider variety of body types, such as mesomorphic ectomorphs or endomorphic ectomorphs (what some people refer to as skinny-fat). As you can see on the graph below, the typical gymnast might be more mesomorphic and the typical sumo wrestler more endomorphic, but neither falls 100 percent into one category or the other.

So despite what many think, the Heath-Carter method is actually highly individualized. Still, even though nearly everyone is a mix of body types, most folks can find their general tendencies in one of the three groups. 

And no matter which group someone resembles, they’re not stuck. They can change their body type. For instance, bodybuilders mistaken for “natural” mesomorphs may actually be endomorphs who’ve trained and dieted hard. Or they could also be ectomorphs who’ve spent years guzzling protein shakes and lifting weights.

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Your body type is not a life sentence.

Somatotype describes body components like fat mass, lean mass (muscle), and the ratio between the two—not unlike measuring someone’s body composition. That’s why, over the years, somatotype has become an assessment tool for medical professionals and researchers, similar to body mass index (BMI). While neither is a perfect system, both BMI and somatotype are simpler and more affordable than other measurement tools, which makes them accessible to more people.

That’s why, just as BMI can change over time, so can body type.

It’s just a tool used to describe someone’s body. That’s it. Like BMI, body typing gives you an idea of whether someone who is 200 pounds and 5’10” is obese, very muscular, or somewhere in between, which can be valuable in a clinical or coaching setting. It helps you to know, for example, how someone’s body is truly affecting their health. 

Over the years, researchers have tested whether somatotypes correlate to other measures or traits. So for example, researchers have looked into questions like:

  • Is there an association between somatotypes and personality? Sorry Dr. Sheldon, but no. As it turns out, people with ectomorphic bodies are not the only ones who feel self-conscious. Similarly people with mesomorphic body types don’t necessarily take more risks than people with other body types. In other words, we all have a body and we all have a personality, but our bodies do not necessarily influence our personalities and vice versa.
  • Is there an association between somatotypes and genetics? Yes. Based on studies that looked at identical twins, we know that mesomorphy and ectomorphy are both highly linked to genetics (both about 70 percent) while endomorphy is much lower (30 percent). For a comparison, height has a heritability of about 80 percent.11,12
  • Is there an association between somatotypes and athletic performance? Yes. Research has linked somatotypes with the fast-twitch muscle variation of ACTN3, the only gene associated with power athletes. Mesomorphs are more likely to have this “fast” gene than other body types, which may explain why sprinters tend to fall into the mesomorphic body type.13-16 Elite marathon runners tend to be ectomorphs while elite sumo wrestlers are usually more endomorphic.17,18
  • Is there an association between somatotypes and cardiovascular disease? Yes. Because of this, you may be more or less likely to develop high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, and other heart disease risk factors. Here’s why. Fat and muscle both serve as endocrine organs that produce hormones and proteins. Fat makes substances called adipokines, and skeletal muscle makes myokines.19-22 A recent study suggests that these substances regulate high blood pressure (hypertension) reciprocally. Overall, myokines (from muscle tissue) seem to decrease hypertension while adipokines (from fat tissue) increase it.23

Should you eat for your body type?

Mostly no.

Before we explain why, we first want to get really clear about our own stance on this—and how it has evolved. In the past, we’ve used body typing as a tool to guide advanced clients, and coaches working with advanced clients (i.e., clients who had already mastered nutrition fundamentals and had higher-level performance or aesthetic goals). In the 3rd Edition of our Level 1 Certification textbook (which was written and released in 2016), we wrote:

“Importantly, these are just general conceptual categories—principles that can potentially help us target our nutritional strategies. Body types are not ‘carved in stone.’ They’re not the basis for ‘nutritional rules,’ nor are they any specific system…

Body types are a proxy for thinking about possible differences in metabolism, activity types, and nutritional needs. As a coach, you can create some working hypotheses using body types, which you can then test.”

But, in our brand-new 4th edition textbook, we completely removed references to body typing. Why? It’s not because we don’t think body typing has value. It does—for a few people. But, for the vast majority of people, body typing creates more questions than answers.

For the average person who just wants to look and feel better, body typing serves as a giant distraction. It also makes nutrition unnecessarily complicated. For these people, much simpler and more approachable strategies work beautifully, and frankly, better. That’s why we now recommend body typing only as a third step in a multistep progression.

So who does benefit from body typing? Two types of people generally fall into this camp: High-performance athletes and people who couldn’t achieve their goals through foundational strategies alone.

In those very rare cases, altering macronutrient breakdowns based on body type (or more specifically, fat to muscle ratio) can be an effective strategy, but only after someone has mastered the fundamentals. 

Which brings us to… the fundamentals.

Step 1: Master foundational nutrition habits.

The following simple and accessible strategies can help most people reach their goals. Try these for yourself or your clients first.

Consume mostly whole foods. Whole foods include fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans and legumes, whole fresh cuts of meat and poultry, seafood, and nuts and seeds. Choose whole foods over processed ones whenever possible, aiming to make small improvements to each meal rather than doing a giant overhaul all at once. For example, can you add more veggies to your fast food sandwich? How about eating a side salad with dinner? Before you reach for a crunchy, processed snack food, consider whether crunchy fruit (apple slices, for example), veggies (cucumber slices), or nuts (roasted almonds) could hit the spot.

Eat slowly. This practice will help you become more aware of what you eat, how much you eat, and why. You’ll also learn to eat less—automatically—because you’ll tune into your natural fullness cues. To do so: slow down as much as you can. Before you dig in, notice what you have chosen. Take a bite. Chew slowly. Take in the scent, texture, taste, and temperature. Put your utensils down or take a sip of water. Then have another bite as you attempt to slow down and savor the meal. And don’t worry if you find it challenging to slow down. Just like all new habits, this takes practice. (For more details about eating slowly, check out this 30-day challenge.)

Eat until you’re satisfied—but not stuffed. If you’re trying to lose weight, this strategy can help you to eat less without feeling deprived. Your goal: to stop eating after hunger dissipates, but before you’re completely full. On a 1 to 10 fullness scale, you’re aiming for an 8—or about 80 percent full. And don’t worry. You don’t have to get it right away. For your first meal, you might simply pay attention to how your level of hunger changes as you eat and progress from there. Whenever you eat until you’re uncomfortably full, forgive yourself and just keep trying. Over time, you’ll get the hang of it. And eventually, with enough practice, this will become more automatic.

(Note: if you want to maintain your weight, aim for about 90-100 percent full. If you are trying to put on mass, eat beyond fullness, until you are slightly uncomfortable—roughly 110-120 percent full.)

Emphasize protein and vegetables. Emphasizing these two categories at meals will help you lose fat, build muscle and strength, feel full, dial down hunger, and improve your health. For most people, this means aiming for 1-2 palm-sized portions of lean protein, and 1-2 fist-sized portions of vegetables at most meals. (Hate veggies? This article can teach you how to love them.)

Those four practices take most people from point A to point B. If you or your client have been following all four practices 80 to 90 percent of the time (which is the sweet spot for progress) and are still not making desired progress, it’s time for step 2.

Step 2: Track your food intake.

If the four practices listed in step 1 are not enough, you or your client may need to track your food intake. For example, you may need to consume fewer portions (for weight loss) or consume more portions (to gain weight). In either case, you’ll need an eating system to help you stay on track.

Many eating systems exist, from calorie counting to macro counting and more. (Read about the pros and cons of each). At Precision Nutrition, we recommend hand portions for most because they quickly and easily help people to determine the right portions for them. Sure, hand portions are not as precise as weighing and measuring food, but this system is close enough to help most people see results without a lot of fuss (in our experience it’s about 95-100% as accurate).

To get started, plug your or your client’s age, weight, and other data into our free Precision Nutrition Calculator. It will generate customized hand portions for each meal as well as provide a personalized comprehensive report and eating plan.

Before moving on, we want to take a moment to be completely clear about one thing: most of our clients stop right here. They don’t move on to step 3. For them, the first two steps offer everything they need to reach their goals.

Step 3: Modify your macros based on your goals and/or body type.

This is where your body type may come into play—sort of.

But we first want to reiterate an important point: Most people don’t need to eat specific macros for their body type, and that’s okay. 

It really is.

So only move onto step 3 once you or your client have been consistently following fundamental nutritional practices for months—if not years—and still need to make further progress.

We’ve found that two types of people tend to need step three to get themselves over the finish line. These clients include:

  • People whose body type interferes with their goals. It really is harder for an endomorph to lose weight, for example, than an ectomorph. Conversely, it’s also more difficult for an ectomorph to put on muscle than it is for an endomorph. Usually consistently implementing step 2 (described above) is sufficient. But in the rare case it’s not, step 3 can help.
  • High-level performance athletes such as powerlifters, bodybuilders, and marathon runners. For these people, a customized macro plan—with personalized percentages of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins—can make the difference between performing “meh” and reaching a personal best.

If you already know your body type, great. If you don’t, no biggie. You read that right. Just don’t worry about it. There’s no need to find a pair of calipers and a tape measure. All you need to know is this: your goal. That’s because the most common goals align with eating strategies created for specific body types. Find your goal below, along with the corresponding body type and eating strategy.

Goal: Lose Fat
Typical body type: Endomorphic

Though this eating plan is based on the endomorphic body type, it works for anyone with a fat loss goal, including mesomorphic athletes who just want to shed some fat in order to get completely shredded.

To reach this goal, use these approximate macros:

  • 35 percent protein
  • 25 percent carbohydrates
  • 40 percent fat

Don’t get hung up on the math. Just think: more fats and protein, fewer carbs. If you need to eat during exercise (because you’re really pushing yourself beyond 60 minutes of sustained high effort), gravitate toward protein powder or essential amino acids (EAAs), reserving carbohydrate sports foods (such as gels and sports drinks) only for the most strenuous sessions lasting  (Think: an all day soccer tournament, a marathon, a powerlifting competition, or a long, grueling ride in intense heat). For carbohydrate intake at meals, focus on whole, minimally-processed, carbohydrate-dense foods—and limit your consumption of starches and fruits, aiming for about a 4:1 veggie-to-fruit ratio (four vegetables for every 1 fruit.)

Using our hand-portion system, a general framework for this looks something like:

  • 1-2 palms of protein dense foods at each meal
  • 1-2 fists of vegetables at each meal
  • 1-2 cupped handfuls of carb dense foods at each meal
  • 3-4 thumbs of fat dense foods at each meal
Goal: Push Endurance or Gain Muscle
Typical body type: Ectomorphic

If you’re doing high-volume exercise such as long-distance running or cycling, this is the plan for you. You’ll consume macros designed for the slender ectomorphic body type (lack of muscle, lack of fat), whether you are a natural ectomorph or not. Even if your body type is more mesomorphic, you’re more likely to reach this goal if you follow an ectomorphic-style diet that includes proportionally more carbohydrates, less fat, and moderate protein.

This plan is also ideal if you are or think of yourself as a “hard gainer,” as you need ectomorphic-style eating to consume enough calories to overcome your body’s resistance to putting on weight / muscle. Remember: true ectomorphs tend to lack both fat and muscle. To pack on muscle, it helps to consume more carbohydrates, less fat, and moderate protein. In other words, you’re looking at the same macro strategy as an endurance athlete. Specifically, that looks something like:

  • 25 percent protein
  • 55 percent carbohydrates
  • 20 percent fat

Don’t drive yourself crazy with macro math. Just think “more carbs and fewer fats”. Whenever possible, try to consume carbohydrates (such as sports drinks and high sugar foods) during or after your workouts. For carbohydrate intake at your meals, eat whole, minimally-processed, carbohydrate-dense foods liberally, aiming for about a 2:1 veggie-to-fruit ratio. (In other words, for every 2 servings of veggies you consume, have a serving of fruit.)

Using our hand-portion system, a general framework for this looks something like:

  • 1-2 palms of protein dense foods at each meal
  • 1-2 fists of vegetables at each meal
  • 3-4 cupped handfuls of carb dense foods at each meal
  • 1-2 thumbs of fat dense foods at each meal
Goal: Boost power
Typical body type: Mesomorphic

Need more explosive power to knock off your next WOD or boost your hockey, soccer, sprinting, or basketball game? Then you’ll want to eat like a mesomorph (low fat, high muscle) so you can add muscle while staying lean.

Follow a mixed diet, consisting of balanced carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Specifically, we’re talking about:

  • 30 percent protein
  • 40 percent carbohydrates
  • 30 percent fat

Consume fast-digesting carbohydrate-dense foods and/or drinks during intense exercise sessions, as needed. During meals, your carbohydrate intake should focus on whole, minimally-processed, carbohydrate-dense foods, in moderation, aiming for about a 3:1 veggie-to-fruit ratio. (In other words, three veggies for every one fruit serving).

Using our hand-portion system, a general framework for this looks something like:

  • 1-2 palms of protein dense foods at each meal
  • 1-2 fists of vegetables at each meal
  • 2-3 cupped handfuls of carb dense foods at each meal
  • 2-3 thumbs of fat dense foods at each meal

Step 4: Adjust as needed

The first few steps will help most people reach their goals. But there are always outliers.

If you or your client still have a way to go—despite consistently sticking with steps 1 to 3—that doesn’t mean you’ve done anything wrong.

It just means you need a personalized nutrition approach.

And the only way to find the best nutrition approach for you or your client’s unique needs is to do this: experiment.

Try a new eating strategy. Observe how it works (or doesn’t work). And either maintain or adjust from there, depending on the outcome.

And consider signing up for coaching—so you can work closely with a professional who can help you to see your blind spots, suggest new alternatives, and stay motivated.

Here’s a quick recap.

If you or your client are brand new to the world of healthy eating: Don’t worry too much about body types and macros. Start with the fundamental nutrition practices: choose whole foods, emphasize vegetables and lean proteins, eat slowly, and end meals when you’re 80 percent full or just satisfied.

If you’ve mastered the fundamentals, but want to lose more weight or gain more muscle: Reduce/increase your calorie and macronutrient consumption. Our Nutrition Calculator and hand-portion system can help.

If you’re a performance athlete: It may be time to try body type eating—with body type and goal-specific macros. Figure out your goal (lose fat, gain muscle, boost endurance, add power) and/or your body type (endomorphic, mesomorphic, ectomorphic) to find the best macro plan for you. (See step 3 for details.)

If you’ve tried everything and none of it is working: Experiment. If you’ve used a strategy in the past and it didn’t work, then don’t do it again. Try new strategies, track your progress, and adjust from there.


Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article.

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  11. Peeters MW, Thomis MA, Loos RJF, Derom CA, Fagard R, Claessens AL, et al. Heritability of somatotype components: a multivariate analysis. Int J Obes. 2007 Aug;31(8):1295–301.
  12. Reis VM, Machado JV, Fortes MS, Fernandes PR, Silva AJ, Dantas PS, et al. Evidence for higher heritability of somatotype compared to body mass index in female twins. J Physiol Anthropol. 2007 Jan;26(1):9–14.
  13. Ryan-Stewart H, Faulkner J, Jobson S. The influence of somatotype on anaerobic performance. PLoS One. 2018 May 22;13(5):e0197761.
  14. Hopper DM. Somatotype in high performance female netball players may influence player position and the incidence of lower limb and back injuries. Br J Sports Med. 1997 Sep;31(3):197–9.
  15. Carter JE, Ackland TR, Kerr DA, Stapff A. Somatotype and size of elite female basketball players. J. Sports Sci., 2005 Oct; 23(10):157-163
  16. Gualdi-Russo E, Zaccagni L. Somatotype, role and performance in elite volleyball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001 Jun;41(2):256–62.
  17. Vernillo G, Schena F, Berardelli C, Rosa G, Galvani C, Maggioni M, et al. Anthropometric characteristics of top-class Kenyan marathon runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Aug;53(4):403–8.
  18. Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. Human Kinetics; 2004. 712 p.
  19. Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012 Apr 3;8(8):457–65.
  20. Williams SRP, Goodfellow J, Davies B, Bell W, McDowell I, Jones E. Somatotype and angiographically determined atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in men. Am J Hum Biol. 2000 Jan;12(1):128–38.
  21. Mozumdar A, Roy SK. Somatotype of the individuals with lower extremity amputation and its association with cardiovascular risk. Anthropol Anz. 2008 Mar;66(1):99–116.
  22. Herrera H, Rebato E, Hernández R, Hernández-Valera Y, Alfonso-Sánchez MA. Relationship between somatotype and blood pressure in a group of institutionalized Venezuelan elders. Gerontology. 2004 Jul;50(4):223–9.
  23. Chen K, Zhou M, Wang X, Li S, Yang D. The Role of Myokines and Adipokines in Hypertension and Hypertension-related Complications. Hypertens Res. 2019 Oct;42(10):1544–51.

If you’re a coach, or you want to be…

Learning how to coach clients, patients, friends, or family members through healthy eating and lifestyle changes—in a way that’s personalized for their unique body, preferences, and circumstances—is both an art and a science.

If you’d like to learn more about both, consider the Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certification. The next group kicks off shortly.

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90,000 Weight loss for no apparent reason

Weight loss for no apparent reason or unexplained weight loss may be a sign of serious illness, especially if there is a sudden decrease in body weight in a short time or the decrease in body weight continues progressively for a long time.

If you have lost more than 5% of your weight in 6-12 months for no apparent reason, this could be a sign of a serious illness. In this case, you need specialist advice. Unexplained weight loss is especially dangerous in older people. For example, if your normal weight is 72 kg, then 5% of it is 3.6 kg. If your normal weight is 90 kg, then 5% of it is 4.5 kg.

A person’s weight depends on many circumstances, the most important of which are the calorie content of the diet (volume, nature and composition of food consumed during the day), the level of physical activity, general health, age, the ability to assimilate and process nutrients, as well as some economic and social reasons.

Unexplained weight loss can be caused by a variety of health and non-health causes. Often, weight loss and general deterioration in well-being can be caused by several reasons.

Causes of unexplained weight loss

The first reason that must be excluded in a person who has significantly lost weight for no apparent reason is a malignant (cancerous) tumor, including colon cancer. In addition to weight loss, these patients often have other tumor-related symptoms or abnormal laboratory tests.

Other causes of weight loss may include:

  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Peptic stomach ulcer
  • Celiac disease
  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • Cholecystitis
  • Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency)
  • Depression (major depressive disorder)
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Heart failure
  • HIV / AIDS
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hyperthyroidism (hyperfunction of the thyroid gland)
  • Hypothyroidism (hypofunction of the thyroid gland)
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Substance abuse (alcohol, cocaine, others)
  • Tuberculosis

Weight loss – gaz.wiki

Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body weight as a result of attempts to improve fitness and health or to change appearance through weight loss. Weight loss is the main treatment for obesity, [1] [2] [3], and there is strong evidence that it can prevent progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes with 7-10% weight loss and manage cardiometabolic health in diabetics with 5-15% weight loss. [4]

Weight loss in overweight or obese people can reduce health risks [5], improve fitness, [6] and may delay the onset of diabetes. [5] It may reduce pain and increase mobility in people with osteoarthritis of the knee. [6] Weight loss can reduce hypertension (high blood pressure), but it is unclear if this reduces the harm associated with hypertension. [5] [ failed check ] Weight loss is achieved through a lifestyle that consumes fewer calories than expended. [7] Depression, stress or boredom can contribute to weight gain, [8] and in these cases people are advised to seek medical attention. A 2010 study found that dieters who got a full night’s sleep lost more than twice the fat as dieters without sleep. [9] [10] Although vitamin D supplementation has been suggested to help, research does not support this. [11] Most dieters gain weight for a long time. [12] According to the UK NHS and Nutritional Guidelines for Americans, those who achieve and manage healthy weight do so most successfully by trying to consume enough calories to meet their needs and by being physically active. [13] [7]

For weight loss to be permanent, changes in diet and lifestyle must also be permanent. [14] [15] [16] There is evidence that counseling or exercise alone does not lead to weight loss, whereas diet alone leads to significant long-term weight loss, and a combination of diet and exercise gives the best results. [17] Meal substitutes, orlistat and low calorie diets also lead to significant weight loss. [18]


The least intrusive methods of losing weight and the most often recommended are adjusting the diet and increasing physical activity, usually in the form of exercise. The World Health Organization recommends that people combine cutting back on processed foods high in saturated fat, sugar and salt [19] and calories with increased physical activity. [20] Self-management of diet, exercise and weight are beneficial strategies for losing weight, [21] [22] especially in the early stages of weight loss programs. [23] Research shows that those who write down their food about three times a day and about 20 times a month are more likely to achieve clinically significant weight loss. [24]

Orlistat (Xenical) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of obesity, and
sibutramine (Meridia) – drug canceled due to side effects from the cardiovascular system

In order to regulate bowel movements, it is recommended to increase the intake of fiber.Other weight loss methods include the use of drugs and supplements that reduce appetite, block fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume. Bariatric surgery may be indicated for severe obesity. Two common bariatric surgical procedures are gastric bypass and gastric banding. [25] Both can be effective in limiting dietary energy intake by reducing stomach size, but as with any surgical procedure, both have their own risks [26], to be considered after consulting a doctor …Nutritional supplements, although widely used, are not considered a healthy weight loss option. [27] Many are available, but very few are effective in the long term. [28]

Virtual Gastric Band uses hypnosis to make the brain think the stomach is smaller than it actually is, and therefore reduce the amount of food consumed. This leads to weight loss. This method is complemented by psychological treatment for anxiety and hypnopedia.There has been research on the use of hypnosis as an alternative to weight control. [29] [30] [31] [32] In 1996, a study showed that CBT was more effective for weight loss when supported by hypnosis. [30] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, an mindfulness approach to weight loss, has been found to be beneficial. [33] Medicinal herbs have also been offered; however, there is no conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of herbal medicines. [34]

Slimming Industry

There is a significant market for products that are said to make it easier, faster, cheaper, more reliable, and less painful to lose weight. This includes books, DVDs, CDs, creams, lotions, pills, rings and earrings, wraps, body straps and other supplies, fitness centers, clinics, personal trainers, weight loss groups, and food and supplements. [35]

In 2008, $ 33 to $ 55 billion was spent annually in the United States on weight loss products and services, including medical procedures and pharmaceuticals, with weight loss centers accounting for 6 to 12 percent of total annual spending.More than $ 1.6 billion a year are spent on weight loss supplements. About 70% of Americans’ diets seek self-help. [36] [37]

In Western Europe, sales of weight loss products, excluding prescription drugs, in 2009 exceeded € 1.25 billion (£ 900 million / $ 1.4 billion) [37].

The scientific validity of commercial diets offered by commercial weight management organizations varies widely as they were not previously based on evidence, so there is only limited evidence to support their use due to high dropout rates. [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] Commercial diets result in moderate long-term weight loss with similar results regardless of brand, [40 ] [42] [44] [45] and similar to non-commercial diets and standard care. [38] [3] Comprehensive dietary programs that provide advice and calorie goals are more effective than a self-help diet, [38] [46] [45], although the evidence is very limited. [43] The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has developed a set of basic criteria that commercial weight management organizations must meet to be approved. [41]


Unintentional weight loss may result from loss of body fat, loss of body fluid, muscle wasting, or a combination of the two. [47] [48] Usually considered a medical problem when at least 10% of a person’s weight has been lost in six months [47] [49] or 5% in the last month. [50] Another criterion used to assess too low weight is the body mass index (BMI). [51] However, even less weight loss can cause serious concern in a frail elderly person. [52]

Unintentional weight loss can occur due to inadequate nutritional intake compared to a person’s energy needs (commonly referred to as malnutrition). Illness, changes in metabolism, hormonal changes, medications or other treatments, dietary changes associated with disease or treatment, or decreased appetite associated with illness or treatment can also cause unintended weight loss. [47] [48] [53] [54] [55] Poor nutrient use can lead to weight loss and can be caused by fistulas in the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, drug interactions and nutrients, enzyme depletion and muscle wasting. [49]

Ongoing weight loss may progress to wasting, an indeterminate condition called cachexia. [52] Cachexia is partly different from fasting because it involves a systemic inflammatory response. [52] This is due to the worst results. [47] [52] [53] In the later stages of disease progression, the metabolism may change so that they lose weight, even if they receive what is usually considered adequate nutrition and the body cannot compensate … This leads to a condition called anorexia-cachexia syndrome (ACS), and additional nutrition or supplementation is unlikely to help. [49] Symptoms of weight loss due to ACS include sudden weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full after eating small meals, nausea, anemia, weakness and fatigue. [49]

Severe weight loss can reduce quality of life, reduce the effectiveness of treatment or recovery, exacerbate disease processes and become a risk factor for high mortality. [47] [52] Malnutrition can affect all functions of the human body, from cells to the most complex functions of the body, including: [51]

Malnutrition can lead to vitamin and other nutrient deficiencies and inactivity, which in turn can predispose to other problems such as pressure sores. [51] Unintentional weight loss may be a symptom leading to the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer [47] and type 1 diabetes. [56] In the UK, up to 5% of the general population is underweight, but more than 10% of people with lung or gastrointestinal problems have recently had surgery. [51] Data from the United Kingdom using the Universal Malnutrition Screening Tool (“MANDATORY”), which includes unintentional weight loss, indicates that more than 10% of the population over 65 is at risk of malnutrition. [51] A high proportion (10–60%) of hospital patients are also at risk, as is the same proportion in nursing homes. [51]



Disease-related malnutrition can be divided into four categories: [51]

Problem Reason
Suction failure Poor appetite can be a direct symptom of illness, or illness can make eating painful or cause nausea.The disease can also cause food aversion.

Failure to eat may result from: decreased consciousness or confusion, or physical problems affecting the arm or hand, swallowing or chewing. Dietary restrictions can also be imposed as part of a treatment or examination. Lack of food can be the result of: poverty, difficulty shopping or preparing food, or poor quality food.

Disorders of digestion and / or absorption This may be the result of conditions affecting the digestive system.
Changed Requirements Changes in metabolic demands can be caused by disease, surgery, or organ dysfunction.
Excessive nutrient loss Losses from the gastrointestinal tract may result from symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea, as well as from fistulas and stomas. There may also be drainage losses, including a nasogastric tube.

Other losses: Conditions such as burns can be associated with losses such as skin exudate.

Health-specific weight loss problems include:

  • As chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progresses, about 35% of patients experience a severe weight loss called pulmonary cachexia, including a decrease in muscle mass. [53] About 25% experience moderate to severe weight loss, and most others experience some weight loss. [53] Greater weight loss is associated with a worse prognosis. [53] Theories about influencing factors include loss of appetite associated with decreased activity, extra energy needed for breathing, and difficulty eating with shortness of breath (shortness of breath). [53]
  • Cancer is a very common and sometimes fatal cause of unexplained (idiopathic) weight loss. About a third of cases of unintentional weight loss are secondary to malignant neoplasms. Cancers that should be suspected in patients with unexplained weight loss include malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, prostate, hepatobiliary (hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer), ovarian, hematologic, or pulmonary malignancies.
  • People with HIV often lose weight and this is associated with poorer outcomes. [57] Waste syndrome is the defining disease of AIDS. [57]
  • Gastrointestinal disorders are another common cause of unexplained weight loss — in fact, they are the most common non-malignant cause of idiopathic weight loss. [ citation needed ] Possible gastrointestinal etiologies for unexplained weight loss include celiac disease, peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), pancreatitis, gastritis, diarrhea, and many other gastrointestinal conditions.
  • Infectious disease. Some infectious diseases can cause weight loss. Fungal diseases, endocarditis, many parasitic diseases, AIDS, and some other subacute or latent infections can cause weight loss.
  • Kidney disease. Patients with uremia often have poor or no appetite, vomiting, and nausea. This can cause weight loss.
  • Heart disease. Cardiovascular disease, especially congestive heart failure, can cause unexplained weight loss.
  • Connective tissue disease
  • Problems with the mouth, taste, or teeth (including infections) can reduce nutrient intake, leading to weight loss. [49]

Medication can directly or indirectly cause weight loss, reducing the effectiveness of treatment and recovery, which can lead to further weight loss in a vicious circle. [47] Many patients will experience pain and loss of appetite after surgery. [47] Part of the body’s response to surgery is directing energy to heal wounds, which increases the body’s overall energy needs. [47] Surgery indirectly affects nutritional status, especially during recovery, as it can interfere with wound healing and other aspects of recovery. [47] [51] Surgery directly affects nutritional status if the procedure irreversibly changes the digestive system. [47] Enteral feeding (tube feeding) is often required. [47] However, the “zero ingestion” policy for all gastrointestinal surgeries has not been shown to be beneficial, as there is some weak evidence that this may hinder recovery. [58] Early postoperative nutrition is part of accelerated postoperative recovery protocols. [59] These protocols also include carbohydrate loading 24 hours before surgery, but earlier dietary interventions have not shown significant impact. [59]

Social conditions

Social conditions such as poverty, social isolation, and inability to obtain or prepare preferred foods can cause unintended weight loss, and this can be especially common in older adults. [60] Culture, family, and belief systems can also affect nutrient intake. [49] Poorly fitted dentures and other dental or oral health problems can also affect nutritional adequacy. [49]

Loss of hope, status, or social contact, as well as mental distress, can cause depression, which can be associated with malnutrition, as well as fatigue. [49]

Certain popular weight loss beliefs have been shown to either have less of an impact on weight loss than is generally believed or are actively harmful to health. According to Harvard Health, the idea that metabolic rate is “the key to weight” is “partly true and partly myth,” because while metabolism does affect weight loss, external forces such as diet and exercise have an equal effect. [61] They also noted that the idea of ​​changing the metabolic rate is in question. [61] Diet plans in fitness magazines are also often considered effective, but in fact they can be harmful due to limiting the daily intake of important calories and nutrients, which can be harmful depending on the person and can even discourage people from weight loss. [62]

Obesity increases health risks, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to name just a few.Reducing obesity reduces these risks. A 1 kg loss in body weight is associated with a drop in blood pressure of about 1 mm Hg. [63] Intentional weight loss is associated with improved cognitive function in overweight and obese people. [64]

90,000 Early ALS Weight Loss: Study Results

Photo: pixabay.com

According to a new study, the degree of weight loss in a patient with ALS, from the first symptoms to diagnosis, may be an indicator of a poor prognosis.

The study was published in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry and is titled Early Weight Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Predictive Implications and Clinical Correlation in a Population Study.

Forecasting factors

The causes of ALS, a degenerative disease of the nervous system that affects motor neurons, are still not fully understood: genetic errors and mutations are responsible for only about ten percent of cases.

Recently, scientists have begun to look at weight loss, nutritional status, and involvement of the bulbar region (the area of ​​the brain that controls the muscles in the neck, facial and chewing and swallowing muscles) as possible predictors. A previous study showed that body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on weight and height data, is a strong predictor of ALS, but further prospective studies have yielded conflicting results (bulbar form in patients with ALS develop dysphagia – a violation of swallowing).

This finding demonstrates the importance of assessing early weight changes in patients with exclusively spinal symptoms and ALS. They allow timely identification and timely start to stop the underlying respiratory disorders.

In the described work, scientists from Italy presented a new look at the importance of BMI and the rate of weight loss in predicting the course of the disease. The study involved 620 patients (342 men and 278 women), the average age was 66 years.Participants were diagnosed between January 2007 and December 31, 2011.

Body weight before and after diagnosis

To assess the decrease in BMI and weight, the scientists found out the body weight of patients at the time of diagnosis (body weight at diagnosis, MTB) and three years before that (“healthy” body weight, BMI). Patients and their caregivers were asked how their weight had changed over the three years prior to the onset of movement symptoms. These parameters were used to calculate monthly body weight loss.Comparing the indicators of MMT and MTD, the scientists found that MTD decreased in 389 patients, did not change in 179, and increased in only 58 patients.

Although diagnosed body weight was not associated with prognosis, the course of the disease had a direct correlation with monthly weight loss. So, in comparison with the group where the weight increased after diagnosis, in patients who lost one or more percent of their weight per month, the median life expectancy (this is the time by which 50% of patients die) was half as much.

Patients were then divided into four groups: bulbar form (group 1), spinal form with dysphagia at diagnosis (group 2), spinal form without dysphagia with an average monthly weight loss of one percent or more (group 3), and spinal form without dysphagia with an average monthly weight loss of less than one percent (group 4). The average life expectancy in the first three groups was approximately the same (from 1 year 8 months to 2 years), but in the fourth the result was significantly higher (3.5 years).

In the second group, 19% of patients had monthly weight loss of one percent or more. Their median survival – 1.8 years – was similar to that of patients with bulbar form from the first group, who, as is known, have a poorer prognosis.

What is the reason for weight loss

Scientists have noticed that the physiological mechanism underlying ALS is supporting the importance of weight loss in the early stages of ALS. It is reported that while weight loss in patients with bulbar form is associated with difficulty chewing and swallowing food, almost half of all people with ALS have an increased metabolic rate: the body has to spend more energy due to breathing problems.

In a subgroup of patients with spinal disease and no dysphagia at diagnosis but with respiratory distress, the researchers noted rapidly increasing and significant weight loss even before ALS was diagnosed. In this connection, it is especially important for such patients to start stopping respiratory disorders as early as possible.

In future clinical trials, the scientists add, correct stratification (dividing patients into subgroups) can play a significant role in managing patients with ALS and understanding the likely dynamics of the disease, and identifying early weight loss can be an important tool for more accurately predicting the course of the disease.

“This finding demonstrates the importance of assessing early weight changes in patients with exclusively spinal symptoms and ALS. They allow timely identification and timely start to arrest the underlying respiratory disorders, ”the scientists conclude.


Body correction after weight loss

A surgical procedure aimed at complete body correction after weight loss is called post-bariatric surgery.The essence of such an operation is that excess skin is excised if there is no excess subcutaneous fat. The usual dramatic weight loss occurs in the face, shoulders, arms, chest, abdomen, buttocks, and thighs. The patient has lost a lot of weight, but the skin has not yet had time to tighten so quickly. It is post-bariatric surgery that can help.

Postbariatric surgery includes a set of measures:

  1. Face and neck lift. As a result of a sharp weight loss, the skin on the face sags greatly.Creases appear on the chin, the cheeks become sunken. This procedure helps to restore tone, face shape, and eliminate folds. It is carried out with the help of incisions in inconspicuous places, also in the area of ​​the scalp.
  2. Correction of the hips and abdomen, torso and buttocks. All these procedures are united by one large complex of abdominoplasty, which is aimed at removing sagging skin and formed stretch marks. The hip procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, but under general anesthesia.In the groin area, incisions are made through which adipose tissue is accessed. When correcting the outer thigh, the cruciform incisions are made through the upper point on the buttocks.
  3. Lift of sagging skin on arms and shoulders. It is performed using incisions on the inside of the forearm. Excess skin is excised and removed. At the same time, liposuction of fatty deposits is performed.
  4. Losing weight greatly affects the breasts. It sags noticeably, loses its natural shape.For correction, implants are used. In some cases, nipple correction is also performed, since the shape of the areola is lost.
  5. Also, the complex for the correction of body shape during weight loss includes plastic surgery panniculectomy. This procedure is designed to remove only excess oil and skin. In this case, muscle tissue is not affected at all. This is its main difference from abdominoplasty. Thus, you can correct the saggy belly, resembling an apron. Panniculectomy is performed under general anesthesia.
  6. Lumbar lipectomy is a skin tightening of the lower body (abdomen, waist, hips and buttocks). It removes excess fat and sagging skin around the entire abdomen, forming a thin waist. During the procedure, incisions are made around the abdomen and lower back.

Preparation for post-bariotric surgery:

Preoperative preparation includes all standard tests: biochemical analysis of blood and urine, ECG, fluorography. Depending on in which part of the body corrective measures will be carried out, an ultrasound examination is prescribed.The patient’s blood is necessarily checked for hidden infectious diseases such as AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis, etc.

The Rh factor and the degree of blood coagulation are determined. Additionally, consultations are held with a therapist, endocrinologist, vascular surgeon, anesthesiologist. It is important to identify and exclude possible contraindications during the examination. If the patient has any current diseases and is taking medication, he must inform his doctor about it.

Shortly before carrying out, a diet is prescribed to help cleanse the body. Already a few hours before the start, the patient is prepared for the procedure, cleansing his intestines and emptying the bladder.

Duration of surgery / procedure: 1-2 hours

Anesthesia: general anesthesia

Postoperative period:

Most procedures do not require a long hospital stay. In the absence of complications, the patient is discharged home already 2-3 days after the plastic surgery.On average, the recovery period takes 3-4 weeks. Compression garments must be worn at all times. It helps prevent swelling and relieves stress on the operated muscles.

In parallel, the doctor may prescribe antibiotic therapy to prevent the appearance of infection. The results of the correction will be finally visible after 4-5 months. By this time, all cicatricial formations will heal well, the damaged muscles will acquire the desired shape, and the skin tone will be restored.

90,000 💄💋👄 WEIGHT LOSS: Body type: different body shapes!

Similar to facial shapes, our bodies are also classified into different types and structures, and these structures define our personal style and also allow us to understand our body.

Human body type is a skeletal structure that does not change even after weight loss. This article will help you understand the existence of a different body type.

There are various factors that can help you understand your body type and help you evaluate it.

• Your body type, vertical • Body type horizontal • Face shape • Weight • Height • Bone structure • Shoulder angle and size • Neck circumference and length • Age • Body faults such as falling tummy, saddlebags or heavier thigh

The vertical proportions of the body must be determined. In vertical proportions, I mean the lower half of your body; You can determine the vertical proportions of your body by measuring your height as well as the height of your hiplin and refer to them.

If your hippopoly is half your height, you should have a long torso with shorter legs. If you have a long torso and short legs, you may have a heavier lower body.

A balanced body is defined by the same length on both the upper body and the lower body. Hypline is twice your height. Waist at bent elbow. The bust is low. Weight increases on the torso or hips and thighs with proportional legs and arms.

Long body legs can be distinguished from others if you have slender long legs and a shorter torso.The waist of this body type is high; it is higher than the bent elbow. The bottom is high and round, and the weight is only worn around the waist.

Your body shape can be determined horizontally by tying your waist, chest and hip. It is very important to understand what kind of clothing or clothing suits you and your body.

To determine your body types, stand horizontally in front of a full mirror and see the width of the hips and bust lines. Hold the ruler in the hand pit to calm it down on your hip for easier calculation.

Below are some of the different body types:

Hourglass value:

This is supposedly the ideal figure. Full hypline along with a full bust line (both should measure the same). Also, the vertical shape of the body should be proportional.

Inverted Triangle

This is the second best body shape a woman can have. Here you have a big bust or broad shoulders, both are lovely too. Long legs, flat bottom, narrow hips and a defined waist are a must for a perfect inverted triangle shape.

Pear-shaped body:

A full bust line with a tapering and narrower torso, accompanied by a fuller hiplink and a defined waist, defines a pear-shaped body. The shoulders are narrow and the legs are short. The thighs are full and full-bottomed.

Rectangle body:

A full ruler and bust line of proportional measures, a somewhat defined waist and thin proportional arms and legs define a rectangular body shape. Your appearance is heavier than your actual weight.

Oval body:

This also applies to the apple shape. Women with this body shape have an overall round appearance. Uncertain waistline, big and low tummy, love arms, wide hips, fuller hips and a flatter fuller bottom.

Diamond body:

If your waist is not defined with a high big belly and a flat bottom, you have a diamond body.

Lollipop body shape:

Narrow shoulders, large bust, short waist and skinny legs define this body type.

Cup body shape:

A large bust, a falling tummy, a broad back with thin legs defines this body type.

Chesky’s body shape:

Longer torso and wider bottom with shorter legs, heavier bottom and saddlebags belong to this body type.

Bell’s body shape:

Small bust, small shoulders and wide waist with full bottoms belong to this body type.

Vase body shape:

A stretched version of the hourglass figure with a slightly longer length and a flat bottom belongs to this body type.

Celo body shape:

Large bust, heavy bottom, heavier hips and wider shoulders define this body type.

Body shape:

The male body type with flat butts, broad shoulders, short legs and no waist defines this body type. Also, the legs should be straight.

Taper body shape:

Athletic body shape with a small bust, no belt, smaller hips and broad shoulders belong to this body type.

Column body shape:

Tall, without curves, proportional torso and lower body define this body shape.

Body Shape “H”:

When the bust, shoulders and hips are the same size without the waist, this is the body “H”.

Body Shape “O”:

When the body section is larger than the shoulders, hips and bust, you have an “O” body.

Body “V” shaped:

The bust and shoulders are larger compared to the thighs of this body type.

Body “A”:

The hips should be wider compared to the shoulders if you have an “A” body.

Smaller torso and wider bottom

If you have a smaller torso and wider bottom with medium chest sizes, willow waist and narrow shoulders, you fall into the smaller torso and wider lower body category.In addition, the hips and thighs tend to be fuller compared to the breasts of such women who have gained body.

Large torso and lower bottom

You fall into this category when you have a larger torso and relatively small bottom.

Tall and Skinny

You fall into this category if you have an average decline. The hips and waist of women under this category tend to be narrow, while the legs and arms are lean and long.


Short women will have petite body proportions fall into this category.

Round pattern

Midsection of women belonging to the round figure is fuller, even the bust is full. The lower legs (calves) and arms also tend to be heavier and the overall appearance is round.

Slim body with a small waist

If you have a proportional body with appropriate curves, legs, arms, waist and bust, then you fall into this category.

In my next article I will discuss how to dress for each body type.

Also Read: Choose the Perfect Coat for your body Jeans: how to choose jeans for your body Jeans: how to choose jeans for your body How to choose hairstyles according to your face shape Face shape: how to determine your face shape Types of Fringes / Bangs for different face shapes How to choose sunglasses according to your face shape Choose an eyebrow shape according to your face shape

  • Hourglass Index:
  • Inverted Triangle
  • Pear Shaped Body:
  • Rectangle Body:
  • Oval Body:
  • Diamond Body:
  • Lollipop Body Shape:
  • Cup Body Shape:
  • Cesky

  • Bell body shape:
  • Vase body shape:
  • Celo body shape:
  • Body shape:
  • Cone body shape:
  • Column body shape:
  • Body shape “H”:
  • Body shape “O”:
  • Body “V” shaped:
  • Body “A”:
  • Smaller torso and wider bottom
  • Large torso and lower bottom
  • Tall and thin
  • small
  • Circular pattern
  • Slim body with small waist
  • 90,000 HIV

    Nutrition and weight maintenance are extremely important for people living with HIV.Generalizations about the undeniable benefits of fruits and vegetables are not enough, as you may start to lose weight, suffer opportunistic infections, or the side effects of antiretroviral therapy drugs. In this resource, you will learn what causes HIV weight loss, how to calculate the number of calories you need based on your health condition, which vitamins and supplements are appropriate for daily use, and how to eat right for emerging health problems. Please note that the recommendations given here for taking vitamins and various supplements are not a substitute for consulting a doctor!

    HIV, body weight and nutritional issues

    If you are living with HIV, nutrition is extremely important to you.When we talk about nutrition, we will mean not only the food you eat, but also how it is absorbed by the body. Your body is changing, both from the virus itself and from the drugs used in therapy. You may experience severe weight loss, opportunistic infections, and bowel upset problems. One of the most common changes in the body is lipodystrophy, in which the shape of the body changes and cholesterol levels increase.

    Weight loss in HIV

    It is widely known that HIV and AIDS can cause severe and dramatic weight loss, or wasting.Such changes are observed not only at the stage of AIDS; in the early stages of HIV infection, less noticeable weight loss is also possible and often occurs. Weight loss with HIV is not the same as fasting weight loss. A starving person loses fat in the first place, and with HIV infection there is a loss of smooth body tissues, for example, smooth muscle mass, which means a change in the very structure of the body.

    What causes HIV weight loss?

    One of the factors causing weight loss in HIV is increased energy expenditure.While it is still not clear why this is happening, research shows that people with HIV burn about 10% more calories at rest than people without HIV. In the later stages of HIV infection, energy expenditure becomes even greater.

    But the accelerated metabolism is not the only problem. Under normal circumstances, with a slight increase in energy expenditure, a person could either eat a little more or move a little less to compensate for the energy loss.

    There are other important causes of HIV weight loss.

    First, with HIV, energy consumption decreases, or, simply put, a person with HIV begins to eat less. When the immune system weakens due to the effects of a virus, various infections can develop that affect both appetite and the very ability to eat – chew food, swallow. For example, sores in the mouth and throat can make swallowing painful, and bowel upset or nausea can reduce appetite. A person with HIV may feel so bad that they will not have the energy to buy food and prepare their own meals.Stress and psychological problems also play a negative role.
    Second, weight loss can be attributed to reduced absorption of nutrients, especially fats, from food, as HIV or other infections damage the lining of the digestive tract. An upset bowel is a common symptom of such poor digestibility of food.

    Effect of antiretroviral therapy on body weight and nutrition

    Modern antiretroviral therapy effectively controls HIV infection and prevents severe weight loss (as well as other effects of HIV on the human body).After starting therapy, emaciated people begin to gain weight again, but even therapy does not completely eliminate wasting.
    Studies show that people with HIV who are on therapy and are not looking to lose weight, however, very often lose 5% to 10% of their weight in six months. While this weight loss does not appear to be catastrophic, it often indicates a possible poor prognosis for the course of HIV infection, such as the possibility of developing HIV-related illnesses.

    It should also be noted that the development of HIV infection to the stage of AIDS may be directly related to the lack of certain vitamins and minerals.Low levels of vitamins A, B12, and selenium can accelerate the development of HIV.

    However, there is conflicting evidence regarding zinc, for example. Some researchers say that zinc is involved in HIV replication cycles, while other scientists believe that zinc slows down the progression of HIV infection.

    Some antiretroviral drugs are associated with the problem of lipodystrophy. Whereas in HIV-related wasting, a person loses smooth tissue, in lipodystrophy, fat is redistributed.With long-term treatment, a person loses fat on the face, limbs, or buttocks, or gains fat deep in the abdomen, between the shoulder blades, or on the chest.

    Antiretroviral therapy can also increase bad cholesterol and lower good cholesterol, and increase blood triglyceride levels. Thus, the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes increases.

    Another side effect of antiretroviral drugs is the development of insulin resistance, which in some cases leads to diabetes.

    What benefits from proper nutrition?

    If you are living with HIV, eating well can significantly help you do the following:

    • The overall quality of life is improved as your body receives the nutrients it needs;
    • The work of your immune system is improved, and it is easier for you to cope with diseases;
    • Proper nutrition helps to cope with HIV symptoms and complications;
    • The absorption of drugs is improved and their side effects are alleviated.Basic principles of nutrition for HIV

    First of all, let us recall the principles of nutrition that are common to all people regardless of HIV status:

    • Eat a diet high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes;
    • Choose lean protein sources;
    • Limit sweets, sodas and foods with added sugar;
    • Eat a balanced diet, avoid both hunger and overeating.

    Special Advice for People with HIV

    Here are some guidelines for people living with HIV.

    Calories are the energy contained in food, this is the “fuel” for your body.

    To maintain a smooth body mass, you may need to increase your calorie intake.

    To get enough calories:

    • Eat 17 calories for every 450 grams (1 lb) of your body weight if your weight has not changed;
    • Eat 20 calories for every 450 grams of your body weight if you develop an opportunistic infection;
    • Eat 25 calories for every 450 grams of your body weight if you are losing weight.

    Protein is involved in building muscles, internal organs, and is also necessary for a strong immune system. To get enough of the “right” protein:

    • An HIV-positive man should consume 100-150 grams of protein daily;
    • For kidney disease, you need to get no more than 15% -20% of your daily calories from protein, otherwise you will overload the kidneys;
    • Choose lean pork or beef, skinless chicken breasts, fish, and low-fat dairy products;
    • For extra protein, add peanut butter to fruits, vegetables, or toast with peanut butter; add cheese to sauces, soups, boiled potatoes or steamed vegetables; add a can of canned tuna to salads or stews.

    Carbohydrates give you energy. To get enough “right” carbs:

    • Eat 5-6 servings (approximately 3 cups) of fruits and vegetables daily;
    • Choose different colors of fruits and vegetables for a wide variety of nutrients;
    • Choose legumes and whole grains such as brown rice, unboiled (green) buckwheat. If you are not hypersensitive to gluten, foods made from whole flour, oats, or barley are good options.If you have this sensitivity to gluten, choose brown rice and potatoes as sources of starch. If you have diabetes or a high risk of diabetes, you should get most of your carbohydrates from vegetables.
    • Limit your intake of simple sugars, such as candy, cakes, cookies, and ice cream.

    Fat gives you extra energy. To get enough “right” fat:

  • Get 30% of your daily calories from fat;
  • Get 10% or more from monounsaturated fats such as almonds, avocado, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, natural peanut butter, olive oil, olives, pecans, peanuts, pistachios, sesame oil, sesame seeds, and tahini (sesame paste).
  • Get less than 10% of your daily calories from polyunsaturated fats such as fish, seafood, walnuts, flaxseeds, flaxseed, corn, sunflower or soybean oils, soybeans, tofu, wheat germ, dark green leafy vegetables;
  • Get less than 7% from saturated fat such as fatty meats, poultry with skin, butter, dairy from whole milk.
  • Vitamins, minerals and supplements for every day

    In general, you may want to talk with your doctor about taking the following vitamins and nutritional supplements to help you address nutritional deficiencies:

    • Daily intake of a multivitamin complex containing antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, vitamin B complex and minerals such as magnesium, calcium and selenium.Note that some ART medications already contain high amounts of vitamin E, so be sure to discuss the extra vitamin E you need with your doctor!
    • Omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil, to reduce inflammation and support immunity. Naturally, these fatty acids are found in fish that live in cold waters, such as salmon, but it is almost impossible to get enough Omega-3 from food alone.Note that Omega-3 supplements increase the blood thinning properties of certain medications, such as Coumadin, so discuss this with your doctor.
    • Whey Protein, 10-20 grams per day, mixed with a drink if you need additional protein to gain weight and support your immune system.
    • Creatine, 5-7 grams per day, to counteract wasting and muscle weakness. Creatine can interact with some drugs used to treat kidney problems.

    Be sure to discuss this issue with your doctor!

    • N-acetyl cysteine, 200 – 800 mg each. a day, for antioxidant action.
    • Probiotics containing, along with other cultures, acidophilic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5-10 billion CFU (Colony Forming Units, or CFU, Colony Forming Units) per day, to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract and immunity. Many probiotic supplements should be refrigerated.Please note that with a very strong violation of immunity, it is not always recommended to take probiotics; discuss this with your doctor!
    • Coenzyme Q10, 100-200 mg at bedtime, for antioxidant and immune-supporting effects. Coenzyme Q10 may interact with certain chemotherapy and blood pressure medications, and may interfere with the effects of blood thinners such as Coumadin.
    • Vitamin C, 500 – 1,000 mg each.1 – 3 times a day, to maintain immunity and antioxidant effects. Some doctors recommend higher doses of vitamin C while taking antiretroviral therapy.
    • L-glutamine, 500 – 1,000 mg. 3 times a day to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract and immunity. High doses of glutamine can cause manic symptoms in people with a history of mental illness. It can also interact with various medications, so be sure to talk to your doctor about taking glutamine!
    • Melatonin, 2-5 mg.an hour before bedtime, for healthy sleep and maintaining immunity. Talk with your doctor to see if melatonin will interact with other medications.
    • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), for hormonal balance. DHEA is the hormone that is reduced in people with HIV. Supplementation with DHEA has been found to help with mild depression without any side effects. Since it is a hormone, it is it can only be taken under medical supervision and in strictly recommended doses!
    • Food on special occasions

      As we have already said, HIV causes a variety of reactions in your body, and in addition to them, there are possible side effects of therapy.Here’s how to eat for the most common problems: \
      Nausea and vomiting

      • Try eating neutral-tasting, low-fat foods such as boiled pasta, canned fruits, and a light, low-fat broth;
      • Eat small meals every 1–2 hours;
      • Avoid cooking in oil, spicy foods, or foods with strong odors;
      • Drink ginger tea or drinks with ginger, both prepared and homemade;
      • Eat more cold food and less hot food;
      • Rest between meals, but do not lie down horizontally;
      • Ask your doctor to prescribe medication for nausea.

      Bowel disorder:

      • Drink more fluids than usual. Try diluted juices or sports drinks such as Gatorade. (Note that sports drinks can be high in sugar!)
      • Limit milk, sugary or coffee-based drinks.
      • Eat slowly and more often than usual.
      • Avoid fatty foods.
      • For a short time, you can try a diet of bananas, boiled rice, applesauce and toast or croutons (cooked without oil).
      • Replace fresh vegetables with well-cooked or canned vegetables.
      • Try calcium carbonate supplements or try increasing your dietary fiber or fiber content (look for dietary fiber cookies or waffles).

      Lack of appetite

      • Exercise to increase your appetite.
      • Do not drink too much liquid immediately before meals.
      • Eat in pleasant company, for example with friends, so that the very idea of ​​eating will seem attractive to you.
      • Eat more often, but little by little.
      • Let your food taste and color varied. Try new recipes, buy ordinary foods with unusual shapes (for example, pasta of different shapes and different colors).
      • Discuss this problem with your doctor, you may need a drug to increase your appetite.

      Excessive weight loss

      • Increase your protein, carbohydrate and fat intake.
      • With muesli and breakfast cereals, use cream, or half cream with milk.
      • Add a scoop of ice cream to desserts.
      • For snacks, eat dried fruits and nuts.
      • Talk to your doctor about using a protein shake as a supplemental source of nutrition.
      • Talk to your doctor about medications for appetite and nausea.

      Problems with chewing and swallowing

      • Eat soft foods such as yogurt or mashed potatoes.
      • Replace fresh vegetables with boiled, steamed or stewed vegetables.
      • Choose soft fruits such as ripe bananas or pears.
      • Avoid acidic foods such as oranges, lemons, tomatoes.
      • Be sure to check with your doctor about what is causing your chewing and swallowing problems and whether you are developing an opportunistic infection!


      • Limit your intake of fat, especially saturated and trans fats.
      • Choose unsaturated fats and sources of Omega-3 fatty acids such as salmon or tuna.
      • Limit alcohol and refined sugar consumption.