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What are coryzal symptoms: Upper Respiratory Infections – Coryza. Common Cold


Upper Respiratory Infections – Coryza. Common Cold

Synonym: coryza

The common cold is an acute, self-limiting, viral inflammation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. It causes nasal discharge and congestion, sneezing, a sore throat and a cough. The common cold actually describes an array of similar conditions caused by a vast number of different viruses. It is most often caused by infection with rhinoviruses (50-80%) and coronaviruses[1]. It may also be due to infection by influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, enteroviruses and adenovirus.

Transmission of the infection


Routes of transmission vary between viruses but include:

  • Inhalation of airborne respiratory droplets from people infected with the virus.
  • Direct contact with infectious secretions. Some viruses may be spread by hand or skin contact.

Transmission most commonly occurs in the home, in schools and in daycare centres. The main reservoir of viruses is in young children. This is because they are more vulnerable to infection, as they have not yet developed the relevant antibodies, they shed the virus for longer following infection and they are in close contact with others.



  • Adults have an average of two to three colds a year. Children have an average of five to six colds a year. Young children in nursery schools may average up to twelve colds per year.
  • Adults who are in contact with young children have more colds than those who are not.
  • Annual epidemics occur within the colder months in temperate climates and during the rainy season in the tropics.
  • There are over 200 viruses which cause colds; many people with cold symptoms are found to be infected with several viruses at the same time[2].


  • The most frequent symptoms are nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing, sore throat, general malaise and cough. Hoarseness, loss of taste and smell, mild burning of the eyes and a feeling of pressure in the ears or sinuses, due to obstruction and/or mucosal swelling, may also occur. Headache and fever tend to be less common symptoms.
  • Cough is associated with 30% of colds and tends to start on about the fourth or fifth day when nasal symptoms decrease.
  • There may be a mild increase in body temperature. Infants and young children are more likely to develop higher temperatures.
  • In infants there may be irritability, snuffles resulting in difficulty feeding, and diarrhoea. Diagnosis may be difficult and fever can be the main symptom during the early part of the illness.

Differential diagnosis


  • Allergic rhinitis: nasal itching, sneezing, watery rhinorrhoea, and nasal obstruction. It is also often accompanied by itchy, watery eyes. It can be perennial, seasonal, or due to occupational exposure.
  • Non-allergic rhinitis: presents with chronic nasal symptoms.
  • Pharyngitis: acute pharyngitis is caused by a variety of organisms, including the adenoviruses and Streptococcus pyogenes. This pharyngitis is often more severe than the mild-to-moderate pharyngeal discomfort in the common cold.
  • Influenza: initially presents with systemic symptoms, including fever, rigors, headaches, myalgia, malaise and anorexia.
  • Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever): presents with persistent severe sore throat, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy and malaise; it is particularly common in teenagers and young adults.
  • Whooping cough: the cough may develop later but is characteristic and is much more severe than that associated with the common cold.


  • In addition to the above list, consider a foreign body in the nose. The discharge is unilateral, purulent, foul-smelling and blood-stained.




See also separate Ill and Feverish Child article.

General advice

  • Explain that there are no drugs of proven benefit for the prophylaxis or treatment of the common cold, although many things have been suggested. Medical management is centred around providing symptomatic relief.
  • Provide advice about the usual natural history of the illness and average total length of illness. (Guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) state the average total length of illness is 10 days[3]. One systematic review showed 90% of children are better within 15 days[4].)
  • Explain that antibiotic treatment of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) does not alter the clinical outcome of the illness or prevent further complications[5]. Explain that antibiotics may also have side-effects – eg, diarrhoea, vomiting and rash.
  • Ensure adequate fluid intake. (There are no systematic reviews to recommend or not recommend the traditional advice of increasing fluid intake[6].)
  • Address any underlying concerns. Taking the time to educate people that colds are self-limiting and have no specific curative treatment may reduce anxiety and prevent unnecessary visits to the doctor in the future.
  • Advise adequate rest but that there is usually no need to take time off school and work.
  • Advise hygiene measures to reduce spread: frequent hand-washing, avoiding sharing towels and toys, etc.
  • Advise about self-care and over-the-counter measures which may help with symptoms (see below).

Self-care and over-the-counter options for symptom control

Some people may get relief from one or more of the following:

  • Steam inhalation – eg, by sitting in the bathroom while running a hot shower. (Beware of the risk of scalding, particularly in young children; also, evidence of effectiveness is limited[7].)
  • Vapour rubs applied to the back or chest.
  • Gargling with salt water.
  • Sucking boiled sweets or sore-throat lozenges.
  • Nasal drops (sodium chloride 0.9%) for nasal congestion. These may be useful for infants who are having difficulty feeding.
  • Over-the-counter analgesia. Paracetamol and/or ibuprofen may be helpful for sore throats, headaches or temperatures. Advise these are only used in children under the age of 5 years who have a fever or are distressed.
  • Intranasal decongestants (short-term use only)
  • Systemic decongestants, often combined with analgesics in over-the-counter preparations for the common cold. These have a very small and very short-term benefit.
  • Cough medicines. (Currently there is no good evidence for or against their effectiveness[8].)

Cough classification advice

Clinical Editor’s note (June 2017)
Dr Hayley Willacy says: A recent paper in The Pharmaceutical Journal (March 2017) calls for a change to the usual ‘wet’ or ‘dry’ classification of cough. Cough counting is now recognised as the gold standard for assessing antitussive activity by the US Food and Drug Administration, but because it is a recent innovation, very few of the currently available cough medicines have been assessed using this methodology. This new model and way of working holds the promise to make assessment of cough easier than previously and, importantly, is evidence-based.

Evidence does NOT currently support the use of the following:

  • Intranasal steroids[10].
  • Antihistamines[11].
  • Echinacea[12].
  • Vitamin C[13].
  • Zinc. (May reduce symptom duration but there is a high risk of adverse reaction, and data are of a heterogeneous nature[14].)
  • Chinese herbal medicines (data are lacking[15]).
  • Garlic[16].

Over-the-counter treatments for children under the age of 6 years

Over-the-counter cough and cold measures should not be used in children under the age of 6 years. A warm drink containing honey and lemon may be used, or simple cough medicines containing honey, lemon or glycerine. There is no strong evidence for the effectiveness of honey for cough but it seems to be more effective than no treatment[17]. However, honey is not recommended for babies aged under 1 year because of a theoretical risk of infant botulism.

In 2009, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) advised that cough and cold remedies containing the following ingredients should NOT be used in children under the age of 6 years, as the risk-benefit balance is unfavourable[18]:

  • Antitussives (dextromethorphan and pholcodine).
  • Expectorants (guaifenesin and ipecacuanha).
  • Nasal decongestants (ephedrine, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, and xylometazoline).
  • Antihistamines (brompheniramine, chlorphenamine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, promethazine, and triprolidine).

(Over the age of 6 years, these medications may be used if other self-care measures have not eased symptoms, and for a maximum of five days, and providing only one cold remedy is used at a time.)


Advise people to return if their symptoms are worsening, or if they have not improved after two weeks. For young children and babies, advise early review if they are not feeding, if there are any symptoms of dehydration, if they have a persistent fever or if they have any difficulty breathing. Consider arranging a review for people at high risk of complication (eg, significant comorbidity, immunosuppression) and advise them to attend urgently if their condition worsens.



Complications are usually due to viral spread, or secondary bacterial infection. They are more likely in:

  • Smokers.
  • Those with immunosuppression through disease or treatment.
  • Young children born prematurely.
  • Elderly people.
  • Those with significant comorbidity, particularly asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis, as well as those with any significant cardiac, renal, liver or neuromuscular disease.

Common complications include:


  • In the majority, the common cold is a mild, self-limiting illness.
  • The common cold usually lasts around a week in adults and 10-14 days in children.
  • In 90% of children, symptoms have resolved by 15 days[4].
  • Cigarette smokers are likely to have a more severe and more prolonged illness than non-smokers and are significantly more likely to develop a chest infection as a complication.
  • People with COPD who have a rhinovirus infection are more likely to have a longer duration of illness, a more severe illness and to cough for longer afterwards than those without lung disease[19].


  • Preventing the spread of the common cold is very difficult but simple measures to prevent the spread of acute respiratory infections, such as hand washing (especially around younger children), wearing masks and wearing gloves, have been shown to be effective[20].
  • The effectiveness of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to decrease transmission remains uncertain[20].
  • People with colds should also avoid close contact (eg, hugging, kissing) and avoid sharing towels and flannels. Children should be discouraged from sharing toys belonging to a child with a cold.
  • Some work has been done on looking for a vaccine for the common cold but this is difficult because the viruses are so numerous and so various[21].

Definition and synonyms of coryzal in the English dictionary


Coryzal is an adjective.

The adjective is the word that accompanies the noun to determine or qualify it.


Common cold

The common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the nose. Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common. Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat, and the sinuses, occasionally involving either or both eyes via conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mostly due to the body’s immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks. The common cold may occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated.

Definition of coryzal in the English dictionary

The definition of coryzal in the dictionary is relating to coryza.



Find out the translation of coryzal to 25 languages with our English multilingual translator.

The translations of coryzal from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «coryzal» in English.

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The term «coryzal» is barely ever used and occupies the 193. 953 position in our list of most widely used terms in the English dictionary.

The map shown above gives the frequency of use of the term «coryzal» in the different countries.

Principal search tendencies and common uses of coryzal

List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «coryzal».


The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «coryzal» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «coryzal» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.



Discover the use of coryzal in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to coryzal and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.


Manson’s Tropical Diseases

… second to fifth weeks. Management is mainly supportive, although
erythromycin 50 mg/kg per day for 10-14 days if given during the catarrhal stage
may shorten the clinical course. This is of most use in contacts that develop a
coryzal illness …

Gordon C. Cook, Alimuddin I. Zumla, 2009


MRCPCH 1: Questions with Individual Subject Summaries

Viral croup is typically associated with a prodrome of 24-48 hours of coryzal
symptoms followed by the sudden onset of barking cough, horse voice, stridor
and variable amounts of respiratory distress. It is commonly caused by
parainfluenza …

R. M. Beattie, Joanne Borbone, Sarah A. L. Williams, 2011


A Guide to the Work-relatedness of Disease

At the latter exposure, all workers complained of respiratory symptoms including
coryzal symptoms, continuous coughing, sore throat, dyspnea, fatigue, and night
sweats. Subsequently, air concentration of TDI were reduced to 0.01 -0.03 ppm.


Mastering Public Health: A Postgraduate Guide to …

There may well not be a clear history of a crescendo of otalgia in a coryzal child,
followed by rapid symptomatic relief associated with tympanic membrane
perforation and associated blood-stained otorrhoea. The difficulty in establishing
clear …

Geraint Lewis, Jessica Sheringham, Jamie Lopez Bernal, 2014

Acute coryzal illness, traditionally referred to as a ‘common cold), manifests as
nasal discharge and obstruction, sneezing and sore throat, and is most
commonly caused by viruses, including rhinovi— rus, parainlluenza virus,
influenza virus, . ..

Phyllis Kozarsky, David O. Freedman, Hans D. Nothdurft, 2013


ERS Handbook of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine:

Clinicalfeatures: Children present with a coryzal, feverish illness which mimics a
selflimiting URTI. At this stage the coryzal infant is highly infectious to non-
immune close contacts. The classic, paroxysmal cough follows this stage and
lasts for …

Ernst Eber, Fabio Midulla, 2013

A coryzal phase is followed by paroxysms of coughing which can last for several
weeks. Post-tussive vomiting and inspiratory whoop are specific features.
Complications are most common in infants and include weight-loss, hypoxia,
apnoea, …


Acute Respiratory Infections

5 CHAPTER 1 Acute respiratory infections Table 1. 3 Typical features of common
LRTls Acute bronchitis ‘ Cough, fever, malaise, coryzal symptoms ‘ RSV,
rhinovirus, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (a
viral …


Chalcogens: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition

Three groups were studied: (1) normal controls, (2) subjects with coryzal
symptoms and (3) adult patients with chronic lung disease who were admitted to
hospital with an infective exacerbation. Each group received oxygen therapy, NIV
using …


The cyclopaedia of practical medicine: comprising treatises …

Pus is sometimes secreted by the nasal fossae, but not in consequence of the
coryzal form of inflammation, which terminates by the secretion becoming viscid,
and then opaque, and then of a dirty greenish or yellowish colour, after which it . ..

Sir John Forbes, Alexander Tweedie, John Conolly, 1833


Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term coryzal is used in the context of the following news items.

Swansea County Council v MB & Ors [2014] EWHC 2842 (Fam)

[39] During the week before the incident on 29th June, there is no doubt that N had a coryzal viral infection. In other words, she had a cold. «Family Law, Aug 14»

When is the flu really a cold?

But if you were to tell the boss that your recent absence was due to “acute coryzal rhinopharyngitis”, you may get more sympathy than by just … «The Queensland Times, Apr 14»

THE COMMON COLD – ScienceDirect

The common cold has intrigued physicians and the general public for centuries. It has been defined as an acute epidemic respiratory disease characterized by mild coryzal symptoms of rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and sneezing. The nasal discharge is usually copious and thin during the first 2 days of illness, then it generally becomes more viscous and purulent.22 The disease is self-limited. Symptoms may persist for 2 days to more than 14 days; however, the cold may abort after only 1 day. Fever, cough, sore throat, or lacrimation may or may not be present. The common cold is of itself harmless, but bacterial invasion frequently follows the initial infection. It is these secondary invaders that may produce disorders of serious consequence.

The common cold is the most frequent acute illness in the United States and throughout the industrialized world. About half the population gets at least one cold every year. 5 Colds account for 40% of all time lost from jobs among employed people (23 million days of work per year) and about 30% of absenteeism from schools (26 million school days per year). Estimates vary, but the average preschool child has somewhere between 4 and 10 colds per year, and the average adult has about two to four colds per year. The actual cost of caring for patients with colds in US physicians’ offices is estimated to be $1.5 billion annually.64

Seasonal patterns of infection can be identified for some of the various types of viruses that are responsible for outbreaks of the common cold. For example, available epidemiologic data suggest early fall and late spring are the most common times to find more outbreaks of rhinovirus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) tends to follow winter and spring incidence, with a peak number of cases found mainly in January. Parainfluenza types 1 and 2 seem to peak during the autumn, whereas parainfluenza type 3 has an increased incidence during the late spring. Adenoviruses and coronaviruses tend to produce epidemics during the winter and spring (Fig. 1)

This article presents data concerning the cause, pathogenesis, and treatment of the common cold, as well as discussion of the available diagnostic tests and their use in formulating differential diagnoses.

Rhinovirus (RV) Infection (Common Cold): Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

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  • 15.13D: Coryza and Influenza – Biology LibreTexts

    Influenza is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae that affects birds and mammals.

    Key Terms

    • coryza: Inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity, usually causing a running nose, nasal congestion, and loss of smell.
    • RNA virus: Any of many viruses that possess ribonucleic acid as their genetic material and do not replicate using DNA.
    • influenza: An acute contagious disease of the upper airways and lungs, caused by a virus, which rapidly spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics.

    Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae that affects birds and mammals. The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue, and general discomfort. Although it is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses, especially the common cold, influenza is a more severe disease than the common cold. The general symptoms of influenza are summarized in.

    Figure: Symptoms of influenza: Symptoms of influenza with fever and cough the most common symptoms.

    Typically, influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Influenza can also be transmitted by direct contact with bird droppings or nasal secretions, or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Reasonably effective ways to reduce the transmission of influenza include good personal health and hygiene habits such as: not touching your eyes, nose or mouth; frequent hand washing, covering coughs and sneezes, avoiding close contact with sick people and staying home yourself if you are sick.

    Vaccinations against influenza are usually made available to people in developed countries. The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) that contains purified and inactivated antigens against three viral strains. Typically, this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. The TIV carries no risk of transmitting the disease, and it has very low reactivity. A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus evolves rapidly, and new strains quickly replace the older ones.

    Influenza viruses A, B, and C are very similar in overall structure and a diagram of the structure of the virus can be seen in Figure 2. The viral particles of all influenza viruses are similar in composition. They are made of a viral envelope containing two main types of glycoproteins, wrapped around a central core. The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA. RNA tends to be single stranded, but in special cases it is double. Unusually for a virus, its genome is not a single piece of nucleic acid but seven or eight pieces of segmented negative-sense RNA. Each piece of RNA contain either one or two genes, which code for a gene product (protein). Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are the two large glycoproteins on the outside of the viral particles. HA is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA is involved in the release of progeny virus from infected cells, by cleaving sugars that bind the mature viral particles. Furthermore, they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody responses to HA and NA. These different types of HA and NA form the basis of the H and N distinctions in, for example, H5N1. There are 16 H and 9 N subtypes known, but only H 1, 2, and 3, and N 1 and 2 are commonly found in humans.

    Antiviral medication can be effective, but some strains of influenza can show resistance to the standard antiviral drugs. The two classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors and M2 protein inhibitors (adamantane derivatives). Neuraminidase inhibitors are currently preferred for flu virus infections since they are less toxic and more effective.

    Coryza is a word describing the symptoms of a “cold. ” It describes the inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity which usually gives rise to the symptoms of nasal congestion and loss of smell, among other symptoms. Coryza may not always have an infectious or allergenic etiology and can be due to something as innocuous as a cold wind, spicy food, or tender points in the muscles of the neck such as the sternocleidomastoid. It is also a symptom of narcotic withdrawal. Coryza is classically used in association with the “four Cs” of measles infection: cough, conjunctivitis, Koplik’s spots, and coryza.

    Treatment of coryza depends on etiology. Coryza from any allergic causes usually gets relieved if contact with the allergen (dust, pollen, cold wind, etc.) is avoided. Nasal sprays, antihistamines, and decongestants are beneficial. However, if it is due to any virus it usually takes three to seven days to improve.



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    Bronchiolitis – NHS

    Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection that affects babies and young children under 2 years old.

    Most cases are mild and clear up within 2 to 3 weeks without the need for treatment, although some children have severe symptoms and need hospital treatment.

    The early symptoms of bronchiolitis are similar to those of a common cold, such as a runny nose and a cough.

    Further symptoms then usually develop over the next few days, including:

    • a slight high temperature (fever)
    • a dry and persistent cough
    • difficulty feeding
    • rapid or noisy breathing (wheezing)

    When to get medical help

    Most cases of bronchiolitis are not serious, but see your GP or call NHS 111 if:

    • you’re worried about your child
    • your child has taken less than half their usual amount during the last 2 or 3 feeds, or they have had a dry nappy for 12 hours or more
    • your child has a persistent high temperature of 38C or above
    • your child seems very tired or irritable

    A diagnosis of bronchiolitis is based on your child’s symptoms and an examination of their breathing.

    Dial 999 for an ambulance if:

    • your baby is having difficulty breathing
    • your baby’s tongue or lips are blue
    • there are long pauses in your baby’s breathing

    What causes bronchiolitis?

    Bronchiolitis is caused by a virus known as the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is spread through tiny droplets of liquid from the coughs or sneezes of someone who’s infected.

    The infection causes the smallest airways in the lungs (the bronchioles) to become infected and inflamed.

    The inflammation reduces the amount of air entering the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.

    Who’s affected?

    Around 1 in 3 children in the UK will develop bronchiolitis during their first year of life. It most commonly affects babies between 3 and 6 months of age.

    By the age of 2, almost all infants will have been infected with RSV and up to half will have had bronchiolitis.

    Bronchiolitis is most widespread during the winter (from November to March). It’s possible to get bronchiolitis more than once during the same season.

    Treating bronchiolitis

    There’s no medication to kill the virus that causes bronchiolitis, but the infection usually clears up within 2 weeks without the need for treatment.

    Most children can be cared for at home in the same way that you’d treat a cold.

    Make sure your child gets enough fluid to avoid dehydration. You can give infants paracetamol or ibuprofen to bring down their temperature if the fever is upsetting them. 

    About 2 to 3% of babies who develop bronchiolitis during the first year of life will need to be admitted to hospital because they develop more serious symptoms, such as breathing difficulties.

    This is more common in premature babies (born before week 37 of pregnancy) and those born with a heart or lung condition.

    Preventing bronchiolitis

    It’s very difficult to prevent bronchiolitis, but there are steps you can take to reduce your child’s risk of catching it and help prevent the virus spreading.

    You should:

    • wash your hands and your child’s hands frequently
    • wash or wipe toys and surfaces regularly
    • keep infected children at home until their symptoms have improved
    • keep newborn babies away from people with colds or flu
    • avoid smoking around your child, and do not let others smoke around them

    Some children who are at high risk of developing severe bronchiolitis may have monthly antibody injections, which help limit the severity of the infection.

    Page last reviewed: 06 August 2018
    Next review due: 06 August 2021

    Antihistamines for the common cold

    Review question

    We reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of antihistamines on signs and symptoms of the common cold. We identified 18 trials with 4342 participants.


    On average, young children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four. Common cold symptoms include sore throat, nasal stuffiness and discharge, sneezing and cough. It is caused by viruses and usually resolves by itself within one to two weeks. However, the common cold has a large impact on time off work or school.

    As there is no cure for the common cold, only symptomatic treatment is available. Antihistamines are effective for allergic symptoms such as hay fever. Nasal symptoms of hay fever are similar to common cold symptoms and so trials have been conducted to see whether antihistamines improve common cold symptoms.

    Study characteristics

    The evidence is current to August 2015.

    The participants were adults or children with a common cold. We excluded studies with participants suffering from hay fever, asthma or eczema. The effect of different antihistamines was compared to placebo. A beneficial effect meant a decrease in the severity or duration of the general feeling of illness and/or of specific symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose or sneezing. We also investigated whether side effects were more common with antihistamines than placebo.

    As the common cold usually resolves in seven to 10 days, most studies were of short duration. Where possible we studied the immediate effect and the effect after six to 10 days. Most studies were of good quality although in some studies information to allow us to assess quality was lacking. We considered five out of 16 adults studies and one out of two paediatric studies to be of excellent quality.

    All trials outlined the financial support received from pharmaceutical companies in the form of grants, supplying the respective intervention drug or having an author currently employed by a pharmaceutical company.

    Key results

    In adults, there is a short-term beneficial effect on severity of overall symptoms on the first or second day of treatment (45% felt better versus 38% with placebo), but there was no difference between antihistamines and placebo in the mid to long term. The effect of sedating antihistamines on rhinorrhoea and sneezing is too small to be relevant to the patient and involves a risk of side effects such as sedation (9% versus 5.2% with placebo). Trials in children were smaller and of lower quality and lacked evidence of effectiveness.

    90,000 Coronavirus, cold, flu: how to distinguish symptoms? | World Events – Estimates and Forecasts from Germany and Europe | DW

    At the first stage of the disease, the symptoms of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can be easily confused with the manifestations of the flu and the common cold. In most cases, this is a fever, dry cough, often shortness of breath, muscle pain, fatigue. However, there are still differences.

    For many infected people, the incubation period for SARS-CoV-2 virus disease can last up to 14 days or even longer.It is often mild and asymptomatic. If you are unsure or anxious, it is worth seeing a doctor. If necessary, he will send a sputum sample to the laboratory to be checked for respiratory viruses.

    See also:

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      More than 188 countries have been affected by the coronavirus pandemic

      The total number of people infected with coronavirus in the world by June 12, according to Johns Hopkins University, was about 7.5 million people, the epidemic covered at least 188 countries and territories.About 3.5 million people have recovered, over 420 thousand have died from the effects of coronavirus infection.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Events are canceled around the world

      Due to the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, public – especially sports – events are canceled around the world. A year later, the Olympic Games in Tokyo were postponed, the world’s largest tourism fair ITB in Berlin, the Leipzig Book Fair, the Crafts Fair in Munich, as well as the annual Oktoberfest beer festival (pictured) were canceled in Germany.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Europe is trying to protect itself from the coronavirus

      Fearing the rapid spread of the coronavirus, almost all EU countries have closed their national borders. Classes in educational institutions were at first completely canceled, and later restored to a very limited extent. In the photo: a medical worker at the Austrian-Italian border measures the temperature of a car driver. The increased temperature is the reason for the ban on entering the country.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Italy, Spain, UK

      The first coronavirus in Europe hit Italy and Spain the most. In Italy, quarantine throughout the country has been introduced since March 9. The streets and squares of Italian cities were empty, and the army was involved in maintaining public order (see photo). By the end of May, the maximum number of deaths from SARS-CoV-2 in Europe was recorded in the UK.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Germany: gradual easing of quarantine measures

      Until February 25, only 16 cases of coronavirus infection were registered in Germany.But then the number began to rise sharply. By June 12, the number of infected people exceeded 186 thousand. Most infections are in Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg. About 8.7 thousand people died. Since April 27, the country has begun a gradual easing of quarantine measures.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Rush demand for disinfectants

      Due to the outbreak of the coronavirus in Germany, a rush demand for disinfectants and liquid soaps has arisen.In supermarkets and household chemicals stores, at first, the shelves were empty, previously filled with all kinds of bottles and tubes with antiseptics. By May, supplies were restored. Some stores only display advertisements asking them not to buy items to build inventory at home.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Coronavirus reached Russia

      The number of people infected with coronavirus in Russia exceeded 510 thousand people by June 12. The largest number of cases was registered in Moscow, the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and the Nizhny Novgorod region.In Moscow and the Moscow region, since April 15, a universal access regime has been in effect. A platform for issuing such digital passes is also planned to be introduced in another 21 regions of Russia.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Israel: strict quarantine brought results

      In Israel, by June 12, more than 18 thousand people were diagnosed with coronavirus. The country has taken tough measures to combat the spread of the coronavirus, including a complete quarantine and a ban on foreigners from entering the country.Since April 19, a gradual easing of quarantine measures has begun, individual non-food stores have opened and public transport has resumed.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Iran: real numbers could be much worse than the official ones

      By June 12, Iran has registered more than 180 thousand cases and more than 8.5 thousand deaths. It is possible, however, that in reality the numbers could be much higher. In an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus, the Iranian authorities ordered the city streets to be abundantly flooded with disinfectants (pictured).

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      China: the coronavirus epidemic has declined

      Meanwhile, in China, where the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak began at the end of 2019, there are no new cases of infections. Most of the hospitals built for coronavirus infected in Wuhan are closed. The photo shows doctors at one of the temporary hospitals in Wuhan at the closing ceremony. In total, about 84 thousand people fell ill with coronavirus infection in China, about 4600 died.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      Who is most susceptible to coronavirus infection?

      The most dangerous coronavirus infection is for the elderly over 80 years old and people with chronic cardiovascular, respiratory diseases, diabetes and hypertension. It is in these groups that the risk of death is greatest. Another risk group is healthcare workers. In most patients – about 80 percent – the disease is mild or relatively mild.

    • How the world is fighting the coronavirus

      When will the coronavirus vaccine appear?

      The number of laboratories working on the development of a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus around the world cannot be counted. Scientists have already created several vaccine variants and are testing them on animals. Human trials are also being conducted in the US and UK. But in the most favorable course of events, the vaccine may appear on the market no earlier than mid-2021.

      Author: Marina Baranovskaya, Jennifer Palke

    90,000 WHAT IS COVID-19? | Terviseamet


    Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that are found in both humans and animals.Usually, coronaviruses cause mild inflammation in the airways. More serious clinical cases were caused by SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is genetically similar to the SARS coronavirus.

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are nonspecific and can vary in severity. The disease can be without signs of illness, but it can also cause severe pneumonia, and in the worst case, for people at risk, the disease can be fatal.

    In most cases coronaviruses are transmitted by airborne droplets (by coughing, sneezing) and by direct contact.Less commonly, the virus can spread through contaminated surfaces. According to the information currently available, SARS-CoV-2 virus persists for up to 3 days at room temperature . At the same time, the virus can be removed from surfaces using effective cleaning methods and cleaning agents.

    In the fight against various coronaviruses heat treatment, UV radiation is effective, as well as many antimicrobial substances, such as 70% ethanol, 75% 2-propanol, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, which kill the virus at least in 1 minute.
    See tips for effective cleaning and disinfection » (PDF)


    In addition to the coronavirus, flu, which is known to be a seasonal illness, is spreading at the present time. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between coronavirus (COVID-19) and influenza. While much is still unknown about COVID-19, the underlying factors of the two diseases can be compared. According to the data available to date, the symptoms of the COVID-19 virus are very similar to those of the flu.The virus can cause coughing, fever, and breathing difficulties.


    Coronavirus – headache, loss of smell, nasal congestion, cough, fatigue and weakness, muscle pain, runny nose, loss of taste, sore throat, fever, shortness of breath, chest pain, speech and movement disorders …
    Most cases of COVID-19 infection are not serious.

    Coronavirus is more contagious than influenza.Every person infected with COVID-19 infects an average of 2.2 people.

    People over the age of 60 with a weakened immune system and / or chronic illness are at greatest risk of contracting coronavirus or influenza. Any concomitant illness increases the risk of illness. Children infected with the coronavirus usually have little or no symptoms.

    Mortality due to infection with COVID-19 varies by region and depends on age and other factors.The elderly are most at risk. Although the death rate from COVID-19 is not exactly known, most studies show that it is higher than the death rate from influenza.

    There is no specific treatment or approved antiviral drug for COVID-19. Thus, doctors may recommend the usual ways: rest, take pain relievers and antipyretic drugs, and drink fluids to prevent dehydration. Vaccines against COVID-19 are available but are currently limited.

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds to prevent all flu-like viruses, including COVID-19, do not touch your face with unwashed hands, and stay home if you are sick and frequently disinfect surfaces and objects that people come into contact with on a daily basis.

    It is not known if the weather will affect COVID-19, and if so, how. Even if the spread of COVID-19 decreases in the spring, it could return in the fall.


    Influenza – fever, cough, sore throat, muscle pain, headache, dripping or stuffy nose, fatigue, sometimes vomiting or diarrhea. Most people with the flu recover in less than two weeks. In some people, the flu causes serious complications, including pneumonia. The incidence of influenza each year is very similar.

    One person infected with the influenza virus infects an average of 1.3 healthy people.

    People over the age of 60 with a weakened immune system and / or chronic illness are at greatest risk of contracting coronavirus or influenza. Any concomitant illness increases the risk of illness. Influenza is much more dangerous for children, especially very young children who can become seriously ill.

    Although the death rate from COVID-19 is not precisely known, most studies show that it is higher than the death rate from influenza.

    Influenza mortality would have been higher without treatment and vaccination. There are several prescription flu medications that work best when taken within one to two days of symptoms. There are also medications prescribed to prevent influenza in people who come into contact with the virus. In addition, there are widely available influenza vaccines that provide some immunity.

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds to prevent all flu-like viruses, including COVID-19, do not touch your face with unwashed hands, and stay home if you are sick and frequently disinfect surfaces and objects that people come into contact with on a daily basis.

    Influenza is characterized by the fact that the spread of the disease decreases in the spring and returns in the fall, with cold weather.

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are nonspecific and can vary in severity. The disease can be without signs of illness, but it can also cause severe pneumonia, and in the worst case, for people at risk, the disease can be fatal.

    Most of those infected with the coronavirus are mild and recovering.Recall that the risk group includes the elderly and people with chronic diseases, who are more likely to manifest more serious forms of the disease.

    Infection with the virus occurs through close contact with an infected person who has characteristic symptoms, primarily coughing.

    The incubation period of the virus is approximately 2-14 days .

    Main symptoms:

    • Headache
    • Loss of smell
    • Nasal congestion
    • Cough
    • Fatigue and weakness
    • Muscle pain
    • Runny nose
    • Loss of taste
    • Sore throat
    • High temperature

    In more severe cases, may appear

    • Shortness of breath
    • Chest pain
    • Speech and movement disorders

    If you have at least one of the following symptoms:

    • cough

    • temperature> 38 ° C
    • Difficulty breathing
    • sore throat

    Assess and act according to health status if

    • Symptoms are rather mild to moderate – Stay at home, monitor your condition and isolate yourself.
    • Symptoms are severe (temperature> 38 ° C, cough) – Stay at home and call your family doctor or the family doctor’s advice line 1220.
    • critical health condition (breathing difficulties and you need urgent help) – call the emergency number 112.
    • You have been in close contact with someone infected with COVID-19 – stay at home, monitor your condition and isolate yourself.

    How to prevent coronavirus infection and what to do if in doubt?

    • Wash your hands. Hands should be washed with warm running water and soap , if necessary, use alcohol-based hand sanitizer .
    • Avoid contact. Avoid contact with people who cough or sneeze. If you stand too close to someone with symptoms, you could get sick yourself.
    • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. If you touch your eyes, nose or mouth with dirty hands, the virus can be transmitted to you.
    • If you have a fever, cough, difficulty breathing – Seek help early. Take care of your health and stay at home. On weekdays call your family doctor , on weekends from 8:00 to 17:00 call family doctor ☎️ 1220. Physicians at the family doctor’s advice line can only issue referrals for testing to people with suspected medical conditions who can be identified using the Smart-ID or Mobile-ID .
    • If you have mild respiratory symptoms, , follow normal hand hygiene carefully and, if possible, stay at home until you recover.
    • Observe respiratory hygiene. If you sneeze or cough, cover your mouth and nose with disposable tissue.Throw it away immediately after use in the trash can and then wash or disinfect your hands. If you do not have a napkin, use your sleeve (part of your forearm), but not your bare hand.
    • Covering the mouth and nose prevents the spread of germs and viruses. If you sneeze on your bare hand, germs and viruses can get through you to other people and objects that you touch.

    A mask should be worn when visiting crowded indoor spaces – shops, shopping centers, public transport, etc.p.
    The mask should be worn by everyone who has come into contact with patients with coronavirus, even if there are no symptoms.

    If you have symptoms (cough, fever), you need to call your family doctor or the family doctor’s information phone number ☎️ 1220 ( +372 634 6630 you can also call from abroad), where you will be instructed in further actions.

    For questions related to the topic of coronavirus, you can contact the hotline
    of the emergency center ☎️ 1247 ( +372 600 1247 you can call from abroad) free of charge around the clock.

    If you have difficulty breathing or lack of oxygen, call the emergency number ☎️ 112 .

    Home insulation

    Home isolation is a precautionary measure to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. The fewer people visit different places and the fewer social contacts, the lower the risk of infection. Isolation should be continued for 10 days, as symptoms of the disease should appear during this time. if this happens, you should stay at home until you recover, or call an ambulance if your health deteriorates.

    Coronavirus disease is usually mild, but there is a risk for older people and people with weaker immune systems, whose symptoms can develop into severe pneumonia. When we stay at home, we do not infect these people with the virus.

    If you are diagnosed with COVID-19 or suspect that you are ill, stay home if you have any symptoms and see your family doctor. Avoid contact with other people, practice good hand and respiratory hygiene, and whenever possible try to get your supplies home without contact.Mental health also needs attention – don’t be alone, communicate with your loved ones using communication tools (for example, Facebook, Skype and other applications that allow you to chat and see others). Make it a habit (if you haven’t already) to interact with other people on a daily basis. When you are isolated, communication is especially important. When talking with others, make sure that the coronavirus has not been the main topic of your conversations.

    90,000 What you need to know about the coronavirus? Answers to the main questions

    • Nikolay Voronin
    • Science Correspondent

    Photo author, Getty Images

    Observing the development of the Covid-19 epidemic, most experts are inclined to the fact that sooner or later the coronavirus will infect a significant, if not most of the world’s population.

    Ultimately, the number of people infected may reach, according to various estimates, seven billion. There is a version that the infection will take hold and become seasonal, like a regular flu.

    And if the infection is just a matter of time, you need to think not so much about how to avoid it as about how to prepare for it: you need to know the enemy by sight.

    The BBC Russian service answers basic questions about the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (this is what it is officially called).

    What exactly is a virus?

    A virus is a tiny piece of genetic code wrapped in a protective protein coat.Its particles are so small that they cannot be seen even with an ordinary microscope: 100 million copies of the new coronavirus can easily fit on the tip of a needle.

    The tiny size is one of the reasons why viruses are so difficult to defend against. When an infected patient coughs, tiny droplets fly off, each of which can contain billions of viral particles.

    Having penetrated the cell, the virus forces it to produce its own copies instead of normal proteins – this is how the infection develops.

    Where did the new coronavirus come from?

    Tens of millions of viruses are known to science, and new, previously unknown species are constantly being discovered.

    At the same time, the overwhelming majority of them are completely harmless to humans – only a few hundred viruses pose a danger, and our immune system has learned to successfully fight against many of them in the course of evolution.

    Photo author, Getty Images

    However, viruses also evolve – and sometimes, as a result of mutation, an infection, previously found only in animals, is able to enter the human body.

    Such “new” viruses are especially dangerous because our immunity has never encountered them and has not yet developed a defense mechanism.

    As a result, the virus begins to actively spread among people, provoking an epidemic. This is exactly what happened with HIV, SARS, MERS, and now with the new coronavirus.

    How does the virus differ from its predecessors SARS and MERS?

    According to Peter Piot, director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, SARS-CoV-2 has several important differences.

    First, for a few days after infection, the person does not experience any symptoms, but can already infect others. This is a particularly unpleasant characteristic, as it makes it very difficult to isolate the virus.

    In the case of SARS, for example, everything was exactly the opposite: the symptoms appeared immediately, but the patient began to pose a danger to those around him only after a few days.

    Photo author, Getty Images

    Secondly, up to 80% of patients feel only mild ailments like a common cold or flu, and almost every fifth (18%) does not experience any symptoms at all, but at the same time remains a source of infection, even not knowing it.

    Thirdly, at the initial stages of the disease, the virus actively multiplies in the larynx, so the cough sprays billions of viral particles around the infected. And the patient begins to cough first of all – all other symptoms appear (or do not appear) later.

    What are the symptoms of the disease?

    In a mild form, Covid-19 is similar to influenza or any other ARVI (acute respiratory viral infection), so many sick people do not even suspect that they have become carriers of a new virus.

    The most common symptoms are cough, fever and general weakness. Less commonly, patients complain of headaches or muscle pains.

    Covid-19 also has a unique symptom: many infected people temporarily cease to distinguish between smells, and sometimes tastes. Apparently, the coronavirus can affect not only the respiratory organs, but also the nervous system – however, the details of this mechanism have not yet been studied.

    Not all infected people lose their sense of smell, but this symptom may well be the only one or appear earlier than others – so this is a reason to be wary.

    When to wait for the vaccine?

    The short answer is don’t wait. Even if it can be developed in the shortest possible time, it will hardly be useful to you.

    Although the first clinical trials of the vaccine have already begun (and several variants are being tested in different countries at once), even in the best case scenario, mass production of a working vaccine will not begin until the end of 2021, when a significant part of those at risk of the virus are likely to have it. …

    Photo author, Getty Images

    Moreover, although most experts are optimistic, we have no guarantee that the vaccine will be created in principle.

    The search for an HIV vaccine, for example, has been going on for 35 years – and still to no avail. However, during this time, several drugs have already appeared for effective prevention of the disease.

    How dangerous is the virus really?

    The two main factors that determine the danger of any disease are its infectiousness (speed and ease of spread) and mortality (how often it leads to the death of a patient).

    Potential for infection

    According to the initial estimates of Chinese doctors, in Wuhan (a city in China that is considered the starting point of the new coronavirus pandemic), each infected person managed to infect an average of 2.2 healthy people.For the epidemic to subside, this figure must be below 1.

    However, it must be remembered that Wuhan was quickly quarantined, so in fact the infectiousness should be higher. When the outbreak of the virus began in Italy, each patient there transmitted the infection to an average of 3-4 healthy people.

    Photo by Getty Images

    Although the new virus spreads as easily as the regular seasonal flu, it is significantly more contagious. In the air, it remains viable for three hours, on plastic and steel surfaces – up to three days.

    Indicators from mortality and

    Various studies estimate the mortality rate of the new coronavirus at about 1.5% of all cases. This is about 20 times higher than that of regular seasonal flu, but not even close to SARS (10%) and MERS (35%).

    The virus poses the greatest danger to elderly people with weakened immune systems and chronic diseases. In the age group over 70, the mortality rate of Covid-19 exceeds 5%, after 80, on average, every tenth patient infected with the virus dies.

    Why are there many victims somewhere, but few?

    The epidemic develops in different ways in different countries, and this is influenced by many factors.

    Somewhere the greatest role is played by the average age of the population and the cultural and hygienic norms accepted in society, somewhere – the general state of the health care system, somewhere – the experience of previously experienced epidemics, which helped the authorities to take the necessary measures in time, etc. …

    The highest death toll was recorded in Italy, where the Covid-19 epidemic was detected with an almost two-month delay.As a result, in just a couple of weeks, the number of patients in the country soared to tens of thousands, and the Italian health care system of the country could not withstand the peak load.

    In addition, Italy has a high proportion of the elderly population, and in old age the disease is much more severe.

    Is it true that the virus is not dangerous for children and young people?

    No, it is not – although, on average, patients under 50 do carry the infection more easily than older people.

    However, this does not mean that the virus does not threaten their health and even life. Among the victims of Covid-19, there are children, adolescents, and young people – without any previously known additional diseases.

    In addition, even if the disease is very mild – with little or no symptoms – the infected person still carries the virus and is dangerous to others.

    Scientists do not yet know for sure, but such a theory exists, and many experts believe it is plausible.

    In any case, preliminary calculations show a strong correlation between the rate of spread of the epidemic in a particular country (the number of infected and deaths per capita) and the policy of vaccination against tuberculosis carried out there.

    Several countries are currently conducting trials trying to understand if this correlation is really caused by the vaccine and BCG makes people less susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

    Is there a specific therapy against the virus?

    The short answer is not yet.The infected are treated exclusively symptomatically, that is, they are not fighting the disease itself, but with its manifestations.

    At the same time, scientists are testing several existing antiviral drugs at once in order to understand whether they are effective in the fight against Covid-19. But convincing results have so far been achieved only in a test tube – experiments on animals are less successful.

    However, doctors emphasize that this does not give rise to panic. Most of the sick (more than 80%) do not need medical help at all.They are treated at home, with drugs for the common flu – and recover, as usual, in about a week or more.

    A recent study published in the medical journal Lancet estimates that, on average, Covid-19 lasts almost three and a half weeks, but this only applies to relatively severe cases when patients had to be hospitalized.

    Photo by Getty Images

    But hospitalization is required only for about every fifth or sixth sick – mostly elderly people and / or already having chronic diseases.

    If the infection develops into viral pneumonia and the patient begins to have difficulty breathing, he is transferred to intensive care. The proportion of such patients is about 4% of all diagnosed.

    What to do in case of infection?

    As shown by numerous studies and models, the most effective means of fighting the virus is quarantine, so as not to infect others.

    At the first suspicion of Covid-19 (the first symptom is a cough, then the temperature may rise) – self-isolate with family members and, if possible, do not leave the house until complete recovery.

    Do not take any specific medications without a doctor’s prescription. First of all, this concerns antibiotics – they are ineffective to fight viruses.

    Wear a protective surgical mask for all personal interactions. It is not very useful from the point of view of prevention, but it quite well protects others from the patient himself, delaying drops of saliva.

    Photo by Getty Images

    The main thing is not to panic and be prepared for the fact that sooner or later you are likely to become infected, even if you take all the necessary preventive measures.

    However, it is possible that you have already been ill – you escaped with a slight cough without fever or did not notice any symptoms of the “terrible virus” at all.

    How not to get sick with COVID-19, how is it treated and when the pandemic subsides: the main questions about the coronavirus

    More than six months have passed since the appearance of the new coronavirus COVID-19 on the radars of scientists. Since then, they have been able to conduct a lot of studies in which the effectiveness of different drugs, the modes of transmission of the virus, the likelihood of complications and other important issues have been studied.Is it worth wearing masks and gloves after all, or doesn’t it make sense? Is there any kind of immunity from COVID-19? Does asymptomatic virus infection pass without consequences? The most relevant answers to these and other questions are in our Q&A.

    How can you get infected with coronavirus?

    At the beginning of the epidemic, doctors and scientists believed that the main and practically the only way of transmission of the virus was droplet: this means that the chances of getting infected are mainly those who are near sneezing or coughing carriers.That is why the governments of many countries have introduced a social distance of 1.5-2 m, which must be observed in public places – droplets with virus particles can fly to such a distance after a person sneezes, coughed, or simply said something out loud.

    It was later revealed that the coronavirus is also transmitted by air – spray containing the virus can remain in the air for up to three hours. This means that if a person infected with COVID-19 rode in an elevator or tram an hour before you, you can also get sick by breathing “the same air” with him.To avoid the spread of the virus, it makes sense to avoid confined spaces, ventilate and sanitize the premises more often (this is especially true for cafes, beauty salons and gyms that have opened after the lockdown). At the same time, Rospotrebnadzor assured the Russians that the coronavirus is not transmitted through ventilation in urban apartment buildings.

    Advertising on Forbes

    But through the surfaces, COVID-19 still spreads. The virus can live on cardboard for a day, on steel objects – two, on plastic products and glass – up to three days.So it is a good idea to wipe the products bought in the package and your smartphone with an antiseptic, use gloves in the store and wash your hands after touching surfaces.

    What about masks? Conventional masks help to reduce the risk of infection through drops, and they should be worn by both sick and healthy, especially in a crowd of people. But only medical respirators with a degree of protection of N95 and higher will save from airborne contamination.

    How to recognize COVID-19 and what symptoms should you expect?

    In people of any age in any state of health, coronavirus infection can proceed in any way – from a “cold” with mild nonspecific symptoms to a life-threatening condition and death.Also, the disease can be asymptomatic.

    Symptoms, if present, appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. These include fever, chills, shortness of breath, weakness, headaches, muscle and joint pain, loss of smell and taste, and sore throat. More rare manifestations of COVID-19 are nasal congestion and runny nose, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. But sneezing almost never occurs with coronavirus.

    Particular attention should be paid to the symptoms of an unusual “cold” for elderly people with chronic lung diseases and diabetes, especially men: according to statistics, these population groups are more likely to suffer from severe COVID-19 and die from the effects of the virus.

    You should go to an ambulance if you have:

    • difficulty breathing;

    • constant pain or pressure in the chest;

    • severe dizziness and loss of orientation in space;

    • severe weakness, so you cannot remain conscious for a long time;

    • lips and / or face turn blue.

    The exact number of asymptomatic cases remains to be seen when enough tests for coronavirus and antibodies to it will be done in different countries.So far, the estimates of scientists about the number of those who have suffered an infection and did not even notice it vary greatly – from 25% to 80%. The most common estimate is that the number of asymptomatic cases is about half of all cases.

    Which coronavirus test should I take? How accurate are the tests?

    There are two main tests.

    The first is PCR diagnostics. A mucosal smear is taken from a person to determine if there is DNA from the virus.

    The second is an antibody test.For this analysis, blood is taken from a vein. In the laboratory, she is tested for the presence of two types of antibodies to coronavirus – IgM and IgG. IgM antibodies indicate that you are sick with COVID-19 now or have just had an infection. They appear in the blood earlier than IgG. The presence of IgG indicates that you are on the mend (if they are determined in parallel with IgM) or have already suffered an infection.

    If you are sick now and want to check if it is a coronavirus, it is worth taking a PCR test. True, a negative result will not guarantee that you are not infected: the sensitivity of such tests – that is, the proportion of patients who are correctly identified by the analysis as sick – may be below 80%.That is why – and also in order to monitor the dynamics of the disease – several smears are taken from people with suspected COVID-19 in hospitals.

    The accuracy of antibody tests is on average higher – their sensitivity reaches 99%. But at the very beginning of the disease, they will not show anything. IgM antibodies appear a few days after infection, IgG – within two weeks. It is worth passing such an analysis in order to understand whether you have had a coronavirus infection in the past and whether you have immunity. True, the presence of IgG antibodies does not guarantee long-term and one hundred percent protection against re-infection – doctors and researchers still do not know how strong the immunity from COVID-19 is and how quickly it disappears.

    June 18 in the journal Nature published an alarming study: it questioned the hopes for “herd immunity”, which will help to end the pandemic, and “immune passports”, opening the recovered freedom of movement around the world. In it, Chinese scientists analyzed the blood of asymptomatic carriers of the virus for antibodies. It turned out that they had much fewer antibodies compared to those who were “fully” ill with COVID-19. Moreover, eight weeks after infection, 40% of asymptomatic patients did not find IgG at all.Among those who had an infection with all symptoms, antibodies disappeared in only 13% after two months. At the same time, people with symptoms spread the virus for an average of 14 days, asymptomatic carriers – 19 days.

    But it’s too early to be scared. In the Chinese study, there were only 37 subjects. More large-scale scientific work is required to better understand how immunity against coronavirus works and whether the epidemic can stop after enough people are sick.

    Recently, another work was published, where it was shown that many of those who had COVID-19 without symptoms did not develop antibodies in principle, because cellular immunity coped with the virus – this is the “first line” of the immune system, which turns on even before antibodies begin to appear.

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    This may indicate several things. First, more people most likely transferred the virus than was detected by PCR tests and even antibody tests – and this brings herd immunity closer. Secondly, due to cellular immunity, the spread of infection can slow down: people who “overcame” the virus before they start producing antibodies are probably less infectious, since the coronavirus does not have enough time to multiply in their bodies.Finally, new data may influence the development of a vaccine: perhaps a vaccine that causes the cellular branch of immunity to be activated will be most effective – and this can solve the problem of the rapid disappearance of antibodies.

    What percentage of the Moscow population has had an infection?

    In the main focus of the coronavirus in Russia, in Moscow, according to population testing, antibodies were detected in 20% of people. In theory, this should mean that every fifth Muscovite has already suffered an infection.

    In fact, the panel of study participants can be distorted: free testing on a voluntary basis in polyclinics, as a rule, involves people who suspect that they have suffered an illness or are sick at the moment, and not those who strictly observed quarantine and do not want to expose themselves risk of infection in a medical facility.

    Demographer Alexei Raksha, a former adviser to Rosstat, who was fired on July 2, presumably due to criticism of official statistics, agrees that the population testing sample turned out to be biased, and the percentage of Muscovites who survived the coronavirus is actually lower. “I suppose that in fact about 10% of Moscow residents have antibodies. That is, about 1.2 million Muscovites met with the coronavirus, ”the expert estimates.

    The official number of cases in Moscow as of July 5 is 224 860 people.If we extrapolate Rahkshi’s estimate to these data, it turns out that less than 20% of all real cases of COVID-19 infection in Moscow can be detected. More than 80% in this case may refer to asymptomatic cases or cases with mild symptoms that do not require seeking medical attention.

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    3953 people died from coronavirus in Moscow. When the total mass of cases is estimated at 1.2 million, this means a mortality rate of 0.33% – 3.3 times higher than that of seasonal flu.But not all deaths from coronavirus could get into statistics – there is evidence that in the presence of a chronic disease and COVID-19, the death of a patient is often attributed to the former. Also in recent months, in some regions there have been cases of numerous deaths caused by pneumonia. Raksha had previously proposed multiplying the mortality statistics in Moscow by 2.5 – and this is already a mortality rate of 0.8%, which is eight times higher than that of influenza.

    Nevertheless, a month ago, at the end of May, antibodies were found in 12% of Muscovites – over the month the indicator almost doubled.It can be assumed that herd immunity is gaining quite quickly.

    What about Russia as a whole? 90 017

    A total of 681 251 cases of diseases were detected as of July 5. If we extrapolate the assessment by Alexei Raksha of the results of Moscow testing for antibodies, there are about five times more real cases – about 3.4 million. In this case, less than 3% of the population in the country fell ill – it is still far from herd immunity.

    Deaths, according to official statistics, are 10 161, but the same expert suggested that this figure for the country should be multiplied three to four times.This means about 35,000 deaths, or a mortality rate of 0.5% – even higher than in Moscow.

    Are there any effective drugs for coronavirus today?

    Scientists are investigating about 150 drugs that could potentially help with COVID-19, mostly already existing drugs. At the start of the pandemic, malaria drugs – in particular hydroxychloroquine – and HIV drugs were considered promising. Now their research in the context of COVID-19 treatment has been abandoned: pills for the prevention of HIV infection have been disappointed with ineffectiveness, and hydroxychloroquine in coronavirus, as it turned out, can lead to heart problems and even increase the risk of death.

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    Now one of the main hopes of doctors is dexamethasone. It is an inexpensive and extremely common drug used for allergies and autoimmune diseases. One of the main dangers of coronavirus is that it triggers a cytokine storm – an overreaction of the immune system. After that, the body begins to destroy itself, which can lead to serious complications and even death. There is a chance that dexamethasone will mitigate this risk.The first results show: it reduces the mortality rate of those who are on a ventilator by a third, and those who need oxygen because of the coronavirus by 20%.

    There are still few drugs registered by regulators in the world. One of the most famous is the American “Remdesevir”, although the results of its research in different countries are contradictory. In Russia, the Ministry of Health has already approved two drugs to combat coronavirus. The first was Avifavir, a development by RDIF and ChemRara based on the Japanese Favipiravir.However, experts drew attention to a small sample in clinical trials. The second COVID-19 drug registered in Russia is Areplivir. It is also an analogue of Favipiravir.

    What are the consequences of the coronavirus?

    If a person was hospitalized, then with a risk of 20-30%, he will have permanent damage to the lungs – pulmonary fibrosis. This condition is irreversible – it is essentially “scars” on the lung tissue. Due to fibrosis, a person may experience shortness of breath, other breathing difficulties, and weakness.

    Even in asymptomatic patients, doctors find signs of “ground glass” on computed tomography (CT) scans – changes in images of the lungs that indicate inflammation. This means that potentially even an asymptomatic infection can lead to fibrosis – however, researchers believe that in this case, changes in the lungs are usually temporary and reversible.

    Now scientists are planning to develop drugs that could slow down the process of scarring of the lungs after coronavirus infection.

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    In children (and sometimes in adults), coronavirus can provoke a rare – one in several thousand infected – Kawasaki syndrome. It is a systemic inflammatory disease that mainly affects the arteries and can cause thrombosis and death. Symptoms that should alert and require medical intervention: rash, redness and swelling in the mouth, swelling of the hands and feet, and conjunctivitis in the presence of other manifestations of COVID-19.

    There is also evidence that the coronavirus can affect the functioning of the kidneys, liver, heart and brain – the latter can lead to neurological and mental disorders. In general, it is clear that COVID-19 is not just a “severe cold”: it is a systemic disease, the full consequences of which scientists have yet to study.

    When will the vaccine be available? And will the world become “normal” after it appears?

    Dozens of different vaccines against coronavirus infection are being developed worldwide. In June, there were 133 COVID-19 vaccine options on the radars of the World Health Organization, as of July 2, 18 developments have entered the clinical trials stage.Among them, there are several options for vaccination against COVID-19 from scientists from the United States and China, who began their development back in January. And the farthest advanced in testing in the UK: researchers from the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca are in the third – final before entering the market – phase of clinical trials.

    Initially, there were 47 versions of vaccines in Russia that could be vaccinated against infection. But there are only a few chances of success – and at the moment, work is seriously underway on two vaccines.Already in August, the country plans to start industrial production of drugs. Experts believe that in such a short time it is impossible to qualitatively test a vaccine for efficacy and safety – for comparison, in the United States, vaccination is promised at best in the first half of 2021.

    One way or another, all countries have greatly accelerated the vaccine development process, which usually takes 8-10 years – this is the risk that governments are willing to take in a pandemic. The British vaccine from Oxford University and AstraZeneca, for example, is also planned to be released by September-October.

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    In Russia, in the fall, you can wait for the development of the FBSI SSC VB “Vector” and the Scientific Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology. N.F. Gamalei. Among the partners of these projects are Biocad, R-Pharm, AFK Sistema, RDIF and Sberbank. The first group of developers plans to reach the production of 60 million doses of vaccines per year, the second – so far they modestly promise up to 60,000 doses annually (it is possible to increase the production volume up to 400,000 doses per year if the state helps with the prompt delivery of new equipment).Also, Russia can purchase a certain amount of AstraZeneca vaccines.

    Cumulative volumes should be sufficient to initiate mass vaccination. The first autumn lots of vaccinations are likely to be used to vaccinate people from risk groups: doctors, the elderly, people with chronic diseases – and in 2021 everyone else will be able to receive the vaccine.

    Does this mean that the pandemic will decline in the fall?

    Unfortunately, this is not yet known. With the release of restrictions in many countries, an increase in the incidence is again registered, and virologists are waiting for a “second wave”.In Russia, where, according to some experts, the peak was never passed, one can even expect a new peak of the “first wave”.

    But if it turns out that the immunity to coronavirus is sufficiently persistent, the pandemic may end or at least decline this year – either thanks to vaccination or by overcoming the herd immunity threshold. If not, chances are there are still future outbreaks of COVID-19 ahead of us. But even if you have to get vaccinated every year, it should be much easier to manage the epidemic with an effective vaccine.

    90,000 First signs of oncological diseases

    The first signs of cancer

    Often, a cancerous tumor does not show any specific symptoms. Therefore, most people learn about a terrible diagnosis only when coping with the disease is already very difficult, and sometimes even impossible. In general, three groups of cancer symptoms can be distinguished:

    • Unsuccessful treatment of diseases.When you carry out enhanced therapy of any pathologies, be it a stomach ulcer, inflammation of the bladder or pneumonia, and there is no improvement for a long time, you should be wary.
    • Small manifestations. Reduced performance, constant discomfort, fatigue, decreased interest in the surrounding reality, for no reason.
    • Overgrowth of tissues. If, upon visual inspection or palpation, you find deformation or asymmetry of some part of the body, you should pay special attention to this.

    It is worth knowing the first symptoms of cancer, when they appear, you must definitely consult a doctor.

    1. Sudden weight loss. Very many people at an early stage of the development of the disease begin to rapidly lose weight. If in a short time you have lost more than five kilograms, see your doctor immediately.
    2. Fever and fever. This symptom usually appears when the cancer is already quite widespread.But it is he who can become the first bell.
    3. Fatigue and weakness. These are, perhaps, the most important first signs of cancer, characteristic of absolutely any type of cancer. However, many simply ignore them.
    4. Bone pain. This symptom may indicate malignant neoplasms in the bone tissue.
    5. Changes in the quality and color of the skin. Dermatological signs, such as darkening, redness, yellowness of the skin, itching, and others, may indicate the presence of skin cancer or oncology of internal organs.
    6. Changes in the size, color, thickness, shape of moles, as well as the appearance of wounds or ulcers that cannot be treated. Moles can transform into malignant formations, so do not ignore these manifestations.
    7. Bladder dysfunction and stool disorders. You should consult a specialist if you suffer from persistent constipation or, on the contrary, diarrhea. Changes such as pain during emptying, more frequent or infrequent urination should also be alerted.
    8. Constant headache. This symptom may indicate the presence of a brain tumor.
    9. Unusual discharge, bleeding. Impurities of blood in feces, urine, vaginal bleeding in women – all this can be a manifestation of cancer.
    10. Persistent cough, sore throat, hoarseness, and trouble swallowing and indigestion. If, when coughing in sputum, you find blood clots, an urgent need to visit a doctor, because you may have oncology of the lung tissue.Problems with swallowing and digestive disorders are often not signs of cancer, but if they occur together, then one can suspect oncology of the pharynx, esophagus or gastrointestinal tract.

    Do not forget about regular medical examinations – medical examinations and preventive examinations. They will help you keep your life.

    Source: http://oocmp.ru/left/stranicza-glavnogo-vracha/novosti/07082017-01

    90,000 Systemic scleroderma – symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

    By Evgeny Zhilyaev,

    professor, d.MD, doctor of the highest category.

    Systemic scleroderma is a medical term for a group of connective tissue diseases that are characterized by damage to the skin, blood vessels and tissues of internal organs.

    Types of systemic scleroderma

    There are 2 types of scleroderma: localized, which affects the skin and nearby tissues; and systemic, in which not only the skin suffers, but also the internal organs (heart, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract).The reasons for the development of the disease are not known. This disease is not inherited, but genetic predisposition plays a role when exposed to environmental factors (exposure to silicon, certain chemicals, radiation or radiotherapy).

    Symptoms of systemic scleroderma

    The manifestations of the disease are varied and may vary depending on the localization of the process.

    Scleroderma is characterized by changes in the skin, first in the form of swelling, and then in the form of its thinning and thickening.The skin looks tight, shiny (waxed), darker than healthy areas, itching may be troubling. In some cases, changes are limited to the skin of the fingers, less often the feet (sclerodactyly). When the scalp is affected, facial features are sharpened (thin lips, “bird” nose, thinning of the auricles), vertical folds are formed around the mouth (purse-string mouth), the face becomes like a mask. Due to a decrease in elasticity and growth of fibrous tissue, the joints lose their mobility, contractures are formed (limiting the range of motion in the joints).

    Frequent manifestations of the disease include Raynaud’s phenomenon, in which, as a result of spasm of small blood vessels, the fingers and toes change their color. The three-phase nature of this phenomenon is classically described, in the first phase the fingers turn pale, in the second they turn blue, and in the conclusion they turn red. But in real life, such a strict sequence may not be observed. The provoking factor is cold, sometimes also emotional stress.

    With a prolonged course of scleroderma, calcification (calcium deposits in the skin and subcutaneous structures) is often observed, which is localized mainly in the area of ​​the hands, forearms, elbow and knee joints.

    Involvement in the process of the esophagus leads to a violation of its function. Reflux develops – the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. This damages the lining of the esophagus, which ultimately leads to scarring and narrowing of the esophagus (stricture). In this case, the patient is worried about heartburn, chest pain, he has difficulty swallowing food. Rearrangement of epithelial cells of the esophagus increases the risk of malignant neoplasm – esophageal adenocarcinoma. Intestinal damage is manifested by impaired digestion and manifests itself in the form of diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, anemia and general weakness.

    Damage to the lung tissue leads to signs of respiratory failure (shortness of breath, feeling short of breath). The pressure in the pulmonary artery rises and a condition called pulmonary hypertension develops. This significantly increases the stress on the heart and leads to its dysfunction. Another serious complication of the disease is cardiac arrhythmias.

    No less dangerous is damage to the kidney tissue with the development of malignant arterial hypertension and acute renal failure.

    CREST – a syndrome is a complex of manifestations of limited scleroderma. It is an abbreviation where each letter represents a specific symptom. C – Calcification – from English. Calcinosis, R – Raynaud (phenomenon) – from English. Raynaud’s phenomenon, E – esophageal dysfunction – from English. esophageal dysmotility, S – Sclerodactyly – from English. Sclerodactyly, T – Teleangiectasia – from English. Telangiectasias.

    Diagnosis of systemic scleroderma

    The diagnosis is established on the basis of clinical manifestations of the disease, biopsy of the affected areas, capillaroscopy, laboratory studies.In some cases, it is advisable to conduct such studies as esophagogastroscopy, computed tomography of the chest organs, echocardiography, renal biopsy. Almost 100% of patients with systemic scleroderma and the majority of patients with localized blood have an antinuclear factor, 25-30% have antibodies to centromeres, 20-30% have antibodies to topoisomerase I (antigen Scl-70), 20-30% have antibodies to RNA polymerases I, II, III, in some cases antibodies to Ro / SS-A and La / SS-B antigens are detected. Less specific changes can be found in a complete blood count (anemia).

    Treatment of systemic scleroderma

    Today the disease is incurable. In most cases, therapy is carried out symptomatically, depending on the prevalence and localization of the process, as well as the severity of symptoms.

    Patients with diffuse skin lesions, interstitial processes in the lungs, myocarditis, myositis receive immunosuppressive therapy (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, anti-CD20 therapy, methotrexate). The goal of such treatment is to slow the progression and reduce the severity of complications of systemic scleroderma.

    In the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon, it is especially important to quit smoking, avoid being in the cold (wearing mittens and gloves), preventing emotional stress, refusing to use certain drugs (amphetamine, ergotamine, herbal tinctures containing ephedra, some drugs used for treatment attention deficit, etc.). For medicinal purposes, drugs from the group of calcium channel blockers are used, and if they are ineffective, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor blockers.

    In view of the variety of manifestations of the disease, the selection of therapy should be carried out only by the attending physician. The specialist draws up an individual therapeutic plan for each patient.

    Benefits of the European Medical Center (EMC)

    1. Outpatient observation by a rheumatologist of the therapeutic clinic, relief of symptoms and selection of optimal therapy. In the team of EMC doctors, the chief rheumatologist of Moscow, Professor Evgeny Valerievich Zhilyaev.

    2. 2.Wide diagnostic capabilities: instrumental and laboratory methods of examination. Consultations of specialists in related specialties, if necessary.

    3. 3. In difficult cases, a consultation of specialized specialists is organized to develop the most optimal treatment tactics.

    4. 4. Possibility of hospitalization for examination and treatment in a comfortable EMC hospital.

    5. 5. Emergency and urgent care in the clinic, calling a doctor at home in Moscow and the Moscow region (up to 50 km from the Moscow Ring Road).

    Author: Evgeny Zhilyaev, chief rheumatologist of Moscow, professor, doctor of medical sciences, doctor of the highest category.

    Menopause in a woman – the first symptoms, methods of improving well-being

    Menopause symptoms in women, how to alleviate the condition

    Menopause, or menopause, refers to the physiological processes that indicate old age. During menopause, the uterus and ovaries cease their functionality, the reproductive period ends.Unfortunately, it is impossible to stop or somehow prevent this process. But knowing the symptoms of menopause in women and the recommendations of gynecologists, it is quite possible to alleviate the condition and make the menopause simpler.

    What is known about menopause

    In gynecology, there are several types of the physiological process under consideration:

    • natural – menopause, which came on time and without any outside interference on the aging process and the extinction of the reproductive function of the body;
    • Surgical menopause after removal of the uterus is a normal phenomenon after such an intervention, requiring constant support of the body with drugs;
    • premature menopause;
    • menopause, which occurred against the background of ovarian failure.

    At what age do women go through menopause? Doctors determine the period of 40-55 years, but most often menopause is diagnosed at the age of 50.

    Menopause symptoms in women

    We can talk about the onset of menopause if the following symptoms are present:

    • a sharp change in mood – this is especially characteristic of the early menopause at the age of 40;
    • sudden onset of fever, hot flashes;
    • a slight increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
    • too fast weight gain, obesity with the usual diet;
    • Excessive irritability and nervousness;
    • itching, burning and dryness in the intimate area;
    • increased fatigue, drowsiness.

    In addition, a woman may be disturbed by dizziness and headaches, and sleep disorder occurs. She is beginning to be disturbed by groundless experiences, the unstable psycho-emotional background is clearly visible to those around her.

    Climax lasts for several years and is not characterized by rapid development. A woman will never have all of the above symptoms at once. The latter will grow gradually, alternating with quite “healthy” periods. Vaginal discharge during menopause continues, but becomes brownish-red, denser, viscous.If they acquire an unpleasant odor, then this indicates an inflammatory or infectious process in the organs of the reproductive system. This condition requires the provision of qualified medical care.

    Artificial menopause, as a rule, proceeds more easily and quickly. For example, a woman may not experience hot flashes and hot flashes, but will constantly complain of acute headache or dizziness.

    What to do at the first sign of menopause? Firstly, you should not use any medications and try to cope with the discomfort using folk methods.First you need to confirm the diagnosis with a gynecologist. Secondly, you need to visit a medical institution and get qualified help, including in the form of doctor’s recommendations on methods of stabilizing your well-being.

    Help with signs of menopause

    The physiological process under consideration causes great inconvenience to a woman and not only in terms of well-being. Sweating, dizziness and headaches interfere with the usual active lifestyle, and in some cases even “force” to stop working.To solve the problem, you should heed the recommendations of gynecologists:

    1. How to relieve hot flashes during menopause. It is recommended to wear light clothing, if possible be near a ventilator or in an air-conditioned room, and consume a sufficient amount of liquid (at least 2 liters per day). If hot flashes bother a woman too often (several times a day or every day), then it is worth visiting a doctor and undergoing treatment with hormonal drugs.
    2. If there is excessive sweating at night, the recommendations are as follows: just before going to bed, take a cold shower (cool), cover with a thin blanket, be sure to leave some part of the body open to release heat (for example, you can not cover your lower limbs).Using a heating pad or ice pack is a great option. They are placed under the pillow and periodically turned over at night.
    3. Itching and burning in the intimate area most likely indicates vaginal atrophy. This is also a physiological process. Doctors do not recommend giving up sex during this period, since an active sex life allows you to maintain the vaginal tissue in a normal state. If severe dryness is observed, then it is worth using a special lubricant for intercourse.But there is one caveat – the lubricant must be water-based, which will avoid repeated irritation.
    4. Lose weight. It is the extra pounds that provoke hot flashes, sweating and early atrophy of the vagina. By contacting an experienced nutritionist, you can get advice on how to lose weight with menopause. Banal diets are unlikely to help in this case.
    5. If any chronic pathology of the reproductive system was previously diagnosed, then at the first signs of menopause, you must definitely visit a gynecologist.