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What are signs of throwing up: Symptoms, Signs, Causes & Treatment

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Nausea & Vomiting: Treatment & Care



Overview

What is nausea and vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but rather are symptoms of many different conditions, such as infection (“stomach flu”), food poisoning, motion sickness, overeating, blocked intestine, illness, concussion or brain injury, appendicitis and migraines. Nausea and vomiting can sometimes be symptoms of more serious diseases such as heart attacks, kidney or liver disorders, central nervous system disorders, brain tumors, and some forms of cancer.

What is the difference between nausea and vomiting?

Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often accompanies the urge to vomit, but doesn’t always lead to vomiting. Vomiting is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying (“throwing up”) of stomach contents through the mouth. Some triggers that may result in vomiting can come from the stomach and intestines (infection, injury, and food irritation), the inner ear (dizziness and motion sickness), and the brain (head injury, brain infections, tumors, and migraine headaches).

Who is more likely to experience nausea and vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting can occur in both children and adults. People who are undergoing cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, have an increased risk of nausea and vomiting. Pregnant women in their first trimester may also experience nausea and vomiting, commonly referred to as “morning sickness.” It is estimated that 50 to 90 percent of pregnant women experience nausea, while 25 to 55 percent experience vomiting.



Possible Causes

What causes nausea or vomiting?

The causes of nausea and vomiting are quite similar. Many things can bring on nausea. Some common causes are:

  • Seasickness and other motion sicknesses
  • Early pregnancy
  • Intense pain
  • Exposure to chemical toxins
  • Emotional stress (fear)
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Food poisoning
  • Indigestion
  • Various viruses
  • Certain smells or odors

The causes of vomiting differ according to age. For adults, vomiting is commonly a result of a viral infection and food poisoning, and occasionally a result of motion sickness and illnesses in which the person has a high fever. For children, it is common for vomiting to occur because of a viral infection, food poisoning, motion sickness, overeating or feeding, coughing, and illnesses in which the child has a high fever. Although rare, blocked intestines can cause vomiting, most typically in early infancy.

Usually vomiting is harmless, but it can be a sign of a more serious illness. Some examples of serious conditions that may bring on nausea or vomiting include:

Another concern with vomiting is dehydration. Adults have a lower risk of becoming dehydrated because they can usually detect the symptoms of dehydration (such as increased thirst and dry lips or mouth). Children have a greater risk of becoming dehydrated, especially if the vomiting occurs with diarrhea, because young children may often be unable to tell an adult about symptoms of dehydration. Adults caring for sick children need to be aware of these visible signs of dehydration:

  • Dry lips and mouth
  • Sunken eyes
  • Rapid breathing or pulse

In infants, parents should look for decreased urination, and a sunken fontanelle (soft spot on top of the baby’s head).



Care and Treatment

What can be done to control or relieve nausea and vomiting?

There are several ways to control or relieve nausea; however, if these techniques do not seem to ease the queasiness, talk to your doctor.

When trying to control nausea:

  • Drink clear or ice-cold drinks.
  • Eat light, bland foods (such as saltine crackers or plain bread).
  • Avoid fried, greasy, or sweet foods.
  • Eat slowly and eat smaller, more frequent meals.
  • Do not mix hot and cold foods.
  • Drink beverages slowly.
  • Avoid activity after eating.
  • Avoid brushing your teeth after eating.
  • Choose foods from all the food groups as you can tolerate them to get adequate nutrition.

Treatment for vomiting (regardless of age or cause) includes:

  • Drinking gradually larger amounts of clear liquids
  • Avoiding solid food until the vomiting episode has passed
  • Resting
  • Temporarily discontinuing all oral medications, which can irritate the stomach and make vomiting worse

If vomiting and diarrhea last more than 24 hours, an oral rehydrating solution should be used to prevent and treat dehydration.

Vomiting associated with surgery, radiation therapy, anticancer drugs, alcohol and morphine can often be treated with another type of drug therapy. There are also prescription and nonprescription drugs that can be used to control vomiting associated with pregnancy, motion sickness and vertigo. However, you should consult with your healthcare provider before using these treatments.

How can you prevent nausea?

Nausea can be prevented by:

  • Eating small meals throughout the day instead of three large meals
  • Eating slowly
  • Avoiding hard-to-digest foods
  • Consuming foods that are cold or at room temperature to avoid becoming nauseated from the smell of hot or warm foods

Resting after eating and keeping your head elevated about 12 inches above your feet helps reduce nausea.

If you feel nauseated when you wake up in the morning, eat some crackers before getting out of bed or eat a high protein snack (lean meat or cheese) before going to bed. Drink liquids between (instead of during) meals, and drink at least six to eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day to prevent dehydration. Try to eat when you feel less nauseated.

Once you feel nauseated, how do you prevent vomiting?

Vomiting can be prevented by consuming small amounts of clear, sweetened liquids such as soda pop, fruit juices (except orange and grapefruit because these are too acidic) and popsicles. Drinks containing sugar calm the stomach better than other liquids. Rest either in a sitting position or in a propped lying position. Activity may worsen nausea and may lead to vomiting.

For children, control persistent coughs and fever with over-the-counter medicines. To treat motion sickness in a car, seat your child so that he or she faces the front windshield (watching fast movement out the side windows can make the nausea worse).

Limit snacks, and do not serve sweet snacks with regular soda pop. Don’t let your kids eat and play at the same time. Encourage them to take a break during their snack time.



When to Call the Doctor

When should a doctor be consulted?

The timing of the nausea or vomiting can indicate the cause. When it appears shortly after a meal, nausea or vomiting may indicate a mental disorder or a peptic ulcer. Nausea or vomiting one to eight hours after a meal may indicate food poisoning. Foodborne diseases, such as Salmonella, may take longer to produce symptoms because of the incubation time.

A person who is experiencing nausea should consult a physician if it lasts more than one week, and if there is a possibility of pregnancy. Vomiting usually lessens within six to 24 hours, and may be treated at home.

You should see your doctor if home treatment is not working, dehydration is present, or a known injury (such as head injury or infection) is causing the vomiting.

Take your infant or a child under 6 years old to the doctor if:

  • Vomiting lasts more than a few hours
  • Diarrhea is also present
  • Signs of dehydration occur
  • There is a fever higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit
  • The child hasn’t urinated for six hours

Take your child over 6 years old to the doctor if:

  • Vomiting lasts one day
  • Diarrhea combined with vomiting lasts for more than 24 hours
  • There are signs of dehydration
  • There is a fever higher than 102 degrees Fahrenheit
  • The child hasn’t urinated for six hours

Adults should consult a doctor if vomiting occurs for more than one day, if diarrhea and vomiting last more than 24 hours, and if there are signs of moderate dehydration.

You should see a doctor immediately if the following signs or symptoms occur:

  • Blood in the vomit (“coffee grounds” appearance)
  • Severe headache or stiff neck
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Decreased alertness
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Vomiting with fever over 101 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Vomiting and diarrhea are both present
  • Rapid breathing or pulse

Are there complications from prolonged nausea or vomiting?

Persistent vomiting combined with diarrhea can result in dehydration. More aggressive treatment may be necessary for younger children or anyone with severe dehydration.

Vomiting in adults | NHS inform

When to contact your GP

Contact your GP if:

  • you’ve been vomiting repeatedly for more than a day or two
  • you’re unable to keep down any fluids because you are vomiting repeatedly
  • your vomit is green (this could mean you are bringing up a fluid called bile, which suggests you may have a blockage in your bowel – see below)
  • you have signs of severe dehydration, such as confusion, a rapid heartbeat, sunken eyes and passing little or no urine
  • you’ve lost a lot of weight since you became ill
  • you experience episodes of vomiting frequently

Your GP may want to investigate the cause of your vomiting or prescribe treatment.

You should also see your GP if you have diabetes and have been vomiting persistently, particularly if you need to take insulin. This is because prolonged vomiting can affect your blood sugar level.

When to seek emergency medical help

Occasionally, vomiting can be a sign of a more serious problem.

You should call 999 for an ambulance, or go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department if you also have:

  • sudden, severe abdominal (tummy) pain
  • severe chest pain
  • blood in your vomit or what looks like coffee granules
  • a stiff neck and high temperature (fever)
  • a sudden, severe headache that’s unlike any headache you’ve had before

You should also seek emergency medical help if you think you have swallowed something poisonous.

Common causes of vomiting in adults

Gastroenteritis

If you have diarrhoea as well as vomiting, it’s likely you have gastroenteritis. This is one of the most common causes of vomiting in adults.

It’s often the result of a virus picked up from someone who’s ill, such as the norovirus, or food poisoning caused by bacteria found in contaminated food.

Your immune system will usually fight off the infection after a few days and the self-care measures described above can help in the meantime. Read more about treating gastroenteritis.

Pregnancy

Pregnant women typically experience repeated episodes of nausea and vomiting, particularly during the early stages of pregnancy. This is often called “morning sickness”, although it can occur throughout the day.

In most cases, morning sickness will develop at some point during the first 3 months of pregnancy and will pass by about weeks 16-20. Read more about morning sickness, including things you can do to help reduce your symptoms.

Migraines

If you have recurrent episodes of vomiting along with intense, throbbing headaches that last for a few hours to days at a time, you may be experiencing migraines.

Conventional painkillers, such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, can sometimes help control the pain and your GP can prescribe anti-sickness medicine to help prevent vomiting. Read more about treating migraines.

Labyrinthitis

If your vomiting is accompanied by dizziness and a feeling of spinning (vertigo), it may be caused by an inner ear infection called labyrinthitis.

Labyrinthitis will usually improve over a few days, and your GP can prescribe medication to reduce your symptoms if necessary.

Motion sickness

Nausea and vomiting associated with travelling could be a sign of motion sickness.

These symptoms can sometimes be improved using techniques such as fixing your eyes on the horizon or distracting yourself by listening to music, although medication to prevent and treat motion sickness is also available. 

Appendicitis

As well as vomiting, appendicitis can cause severe pain in your abdomen (tummy). You should call 999 for an ambulance if you experience pain that suddenly becomes worse and spreads across your abdomen. These are signs that your appendix may have burst.

If you have appendicitis, you will often need surgery to remove your appendix. Read more about treating appendicitis.

Other causes of vomiting in adults

Vomiting in adults can also be caused by a number of other things, including:

Clink on the links above for more information about these conditions and treatments.

Looking after yourself at home

In most cases, you won’t need any specific treatment and can take care of yourself at home until you feel better.

The most important thing you can do is to keep taking small sips of water frequently so you don’t become dehydrated.

A sweet drink such as fruit juice can be useful for replacing lost sugar, although you should avoid sweet drinks if they make you feel sick. Salty snacks, such as crisps, can help replace lost salt.

You may also find ginger helps to relieve your nausea and vomiting. This is available as supplements, or can be found in ginger biscuits and ginger tea. Check with your pharmacist or GP before using ginger supplements.

Nausea and Vomiting in Adults – Digestive Disorders























Digestive tract disorders


Significant abdominal pain


Abdomen that is tender to the touch

Abdominal imaging tests (such as x-rays,ultrasonography, and/or CT)


No bowel movements and no flatus


Cramping abdominal pain that comes and goes




Usually in people who are known to have a hernia or who have had abdominal surgery

Abdominal x-rays taken with the person in flat and upright positions




Little or no abdominal pain (except during vomiting)


Rarely fever or blood in stool


Normal abdominal examination


Gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying) or ileus (temporary absence of the contractile movements of the intestine)§

Vomiting of partially digested food a few hours after ingestion


Often occurs in diabetics who have elevated blood sugar (glucose) or after abdominal surgery

Abdominal x-rays taken when the person is laying down and when upright




Nuclear scanning to evaluate stomach emptying in people who may have gastroparesis


Mild to moderate nausea for many days and sometimes vomiting


A general feeling of illness (malaise)


Darkening of the urine, then yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)




Mild discomfort in the upper right part of the abdomen


Ingestion of a toxin (there are many that cause vomiting―common examples include alcohol, aspirin, iron, lead, or insecticides)

Ingestion usually clear based on the person’s history


Various other symptoms depending on the substance ingested

Depends on the substance ingested but may include blood tests and liver function tests

Brain and nervous system disorders

Head injury (such as caused by a recent motor vehicle crash, sports injury, or fall)

Injury clear based on the person’s history


Often headache, confusion, and difficulty remembering recent events



Sudden, often severe headache





Spinal tap if CT results are normal


Gradual headache and confusion


Often fever and pain with tilting head forward


May cause a reddish purple rash of tiny dots on the skin (petechiae) if due to meningococcal meningitis‡

Spinal tap (sometimes preceded by CT of the head)

Increased pressure within the skull (such as caused by a blood clot or tumor)

Headache, confusion, and sometimes problems with nerve, spinal cord, or brain function



A false sensation of movement (vertigo), rhythmic jerking movement of the eyes (nystagmus), and symptoms worsened by motion of the head


Sometimes ringing in the ears (tinnitus)





Usually a moderate to severe headache


Headache sometimes preceded by seeing flashing lights and blind spots (aura)


Sometimes sensitivity to light (photophobia) or temporary disturbances in balance or muscle strength


Often a history of repeated similar attacks



Sometimes CT or MRI of the head and spinal tap (if results of the examination unclear)


Trigger clear based on the person’s history


Psychologic disorders (for example, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa)

No diarrhea or abdominal pain


Vomiting that often occurs with stress


Consumption of food considered repulsive


Systemic (bodywide) conditions


An increased volume of urine excreted each day (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), and often significant dehydration


Drug side effects or toxicity

Ingestion of a drug or substance clear based on the person’s history

Depends on the substance ingested but may include blood tests


Often jaundice in advanced liver disease


Ammonia odor to the breath in kidney failure


Often in people known to have the disorder


A crude flapping motion of the hands (asterixis)

Blood and urine tests to evaluate liver and kidney function


Blood tests to determine the level of ammonia in the blood


Nausea and/or vomiting often in the morning or triggered by food


Normal examination (except the person may be dehydrated)


Often a missed or late menstrual period



Exposure usually clear based on the person’s history


Severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea


Everything You Need to Know

When a child throws up — or even an adult — it can be scary if the person doesn’t understand what’s happening.

So what is going on? How can we help people we care about feel better?

Why We Vomit

In many cases, throwing up is a protective reflex to rid your body of viruses, bacteria, or parasites in your digestive system.

“If you were to eat something that was spoiled or poisoned, your body would get a signal that something was wrong,” says Bruno Chumpitazi, MD, of Texas Children’s Hospital. Then, you need to get rid of it.

This reflex can also be triggered by stress, anxiety, pregnancy, certain medications, and a disruption of the vestibular system, the parts of your inner ear that help control balance, he says.

Causes

The most common things that cause us to vomit aren’t usually serious, and they get better on their own. They include:

Gastroenteritis: Most people know this as the “stomach flu,” and it’s usually the result of a virus. Sometimes bacteria and parasites can cause it, too. It can also bring diarrhea. It typically goes away within 24 to 48 hours.

The best way to avoid it: Wash your hands — a lot.

Food poisoning: This is more common in teens and adults eating a wide variety of food, says Lauren Middlebrooks, MD, of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. You may have diarrhea in addition to the vomiting, but episodes usually last a day or two.

Motion sickness: Experts aren’t sure why motion sickness affects some more than others. It’s thought to be caused by too much activity in the part of your inner ear that controls balance and eye movement. It may also happen when your brain gets conflicting messages from parts of your body that sense motion — like your eyes and the nerves inside your muscles.

“Motion sickness is common in kids, although some grow out of it,” says Kenya Parks, MD, of the University of Texas McGovern Medical School. “Parents can help by teaching children how to focus on the horizon and making sure they get plenty of fresh air.”

You can also try ginger, which Parks says acts a bit like an anti-inflammatory and may ease the nausea you get with motion sickness.

There are medicines that may help you feel better during travel. You can get a skin patch called a scopolamine patch by prescription, Chumpitazi says. Or there are over-the-counter remedies like Benadryl.

Ear infections: These are often accompanied by a buildup of fluid inside the ear, which can throw you off. They can cause nausea and vomiting the same way that riding in a boat or a car can cause motion sickness. Many ear infections will heal on their own. But if your child doesn’t get any better after 48 hours, see your pediatrician.

Pregnancy: One of the most common early signs of pregnancy is morning sickness. The name is a bit misleading, because the nausea and vomiting can happen not just in the morning, but any time. It’s most common in the first trimester.

Reflux: Why do babies spit up all the time?

Scott Krugman, MD, at MedStar Franklin Square Medical Center in Baltimore, says it’s because infants don’t have good control of the muscle that keeps things in your stomach from coming up.

So parents may find themselves constantly wiping clear or milk-colored dribble from their babies’ chins.

Don’t sweat it.

“As long as your child is thriving and doesn’t seem bothered by it, you don’t need to worry,” Krugman says.

Adults may have brief bouts of reflux after meals, too. This is normal, but if it happens a lot or is accompanied by heartburn, pain, trouble swallowing, cough, or sore throat, you may have something called gastroesophageal reflux disease (also known as GERD). It can be treated with lifestyle changes, medication, and — in rare cases — surgery.

Stress: Have you ever been so nervous — say, before an important presentation — that you threw up? Or maybe your child has vomited the morning of a big test? “Stress and anxiety can sometimes cause you to vomit,” Chumpitazi says. “It’s pretty common in kids, and not necessarily serious, but it’s worth bringing up to your doctor.”

They might be able to suggest strategies, like breathing exercises or guided imagery that can help manage stress.

Red Flags

In rare cases, vomiting can point to a more serious health concern.

Here are signs that you need to see a doctor:

Dehydration: This is the most common issue doctors worry about, especially when the vomiting is accompanied by diarrhea, as with a stomach bug or food poisoning.

“In those cases, it’s very easy to become dehydrated,” Middlebrooks says.

To prevent it, give small amounts of water or an electrolyte solution like Pedialyte until they can keep more down. If your child isn’t urinating much, has dry, cracked lips or sunken eyes, or seems listless, call your doctor.

Strange colors: Vomit may look bright red or dark (like coffee grounds) if it contains blood. Meanwhile, bile — a fluid made by your liver that helps with digestion — can make vomit look bright green. Both are cause for concern. Blood could be a sign of an ulcer or an irritation in your GI tract. Bile could signal some kind of blockage in your digestive system.

Belly pain: An intense pain in your abdomen that’s also accompanied by fever and vomiting, but not diarrhea, can be a telltale sign of appendicitis. In that case, contact your doctor or head to the ER.

Projectile vomiting in infants: Parents don’t need to worry about spit-up, so long as it’s not shooting out forcefully. That can be a sign of something called pyloric stenosis, says Parks, which is a blockage at the stomach that makes food’s journey harder.

Vomiting after an injury: If you’ve recently suffered a blow to the head or the belly, vomiting can be a sign of a concussion or trauma to your digestive organs.

Waking up with vomiting: If your child begins throwing up soon after getting up in the morning and also has a headache, call your doctor.

“This is worrisome, because it could indicate the possibility of some kind of mass in the brain,” Parks says. “Lying down at night allows the pressure in the brain to increase, and that can lead to headaches and vomiting.”

Migraines and meningitis can also cause vomiting with headaches.

Vomiting that lingers: If you’re not getting better after 48 hours — especially if you’re not able to hold down food at all, you don’t have any diarrhea, or you develop a high fever — see your doctor.

“That’s when we start to become concerned that maybe it’s a chronic issue,” says Chumpitazi, rather than something passing like a stomach virus.

Keeping Them Comfortable

Most of the time, “it’s a waiting game, unfortunately,” Chumpitazi says. That’s because in the case of a gastroenteritis infection or food poisoning, you vomit to get rid of what’s making you sick.

Anti-vomiting medications usually aren’t recommended in children because they can mask a more serious issue, Chumpitazi says. Even without drugs, though, there are things that you can do to help keep your kids comfortable:

Reassure them: Alexa Stevenson, a mom of two in Athens, GA, tries to remind her son that the awful feeling is temporary. “I know that just before I am going to throw up, I feel like I’m about to die,” she says. “I have to explain that he will feel so much better afterwards.”

Focus on hydration: Kids probably aren’t going to be interested in solid foods at first, and that’s OK. The most important thing is to keep up their fluids, Middlebrooks says. Doctors prefer water or things like Gatorade or Pedialyte, but some parents find that soothing treats can encourage their kids to stay hydrated.

Melissa Paez, a mom of three in Atlanta, offers Pedialyte Popsicles. Allison Sellers, of Waco, TX, says the nurse at her pediatrician’s office suggested syrup from canned peaches. “We gave a tablespoon of syrup every 15 minutes,” she says. “I thought it sounded crazy and only tried it because [my daughter] was close to hospitalization for dehydration. But it totally worked.”

Start with small food: If your child doesn’t eat anything for a couple of days, it can make it harder to bounce back from the illness, Krugman says. “Parents will say, ‘They don’t want to eat.’ But if you don’t try, it’ll make the whole course last longer.”

Try offering tiny amounts of bland foods like bananas, plain noodles, or toast. “Yogurt is great because it has probiotics,” Krugman says, “and the healthy bacteria in the gut can get disturbed” after a bout of stomach flu.

And that old advice to avoid dairy? You can ignore it, although keep in mind that “you want to avoid fatty foods, so maybe steer clear of something like whole milk,” Chumpitazi says.

Why Is My Child Throwing Up With No Fever? Nausea and Vomiting, Age 11 and Younger

Throwing up is no fun for kids. But it can worry you, too. A kid who’s vomiting but doesn’t have a fever could be dealing with any number of things. Knowing what else to look for can help you narrow down the reasons for your child’s upset stomach –and get their the treatment they need.

Stomach Flu

This isn’t the same as influenza (the flu). It’s the term people use when they’re talking about an illness called gastroenteritis. Most of the time, gastroenteritis is caused by a virus like rotavirus or norovirus. But you can also get it from bacteria like E. coli or salmonella. Although norovirus can sometimes cause a low-grade fever, you can also have it with no fever at all.

Norovirus is contagious like all viruses. If your child has it, they got it in one of three ways:

  • They came into contact with someone who has it.
  • They ate food that had the virus in it.
  • They touched a surface with the virus on it, then touched their mouth or nose before washing their hands.

Symptoms start 12–48 hours after your child gets the virus. Along with throwing up, they’ll probably also have diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramps.

Most kids get better within 1 to 3 days, but symptoms may last 7-10 days longer. 

Food Allergy

Sometimes throwing up is a sign your child is allergic to food they’ve eaten. Throwing up may be their only symptom, but there could also be others, like trouble breathing, hives, repetitive cough, wheezing, or trouble swallowing. Nine out of 10 allergic reactions are linked to the following foods:

  • Peanuts
  • Tree nuts (almonds or walnuts, for example)
  • Fish
  • Shellfish (shrimp, for example)
  • Eggs
  • Milk
  • Wheat
  • Soy

Very young babies who try milk, soy, certain grains, and some other solid foods for the first time are at risk for something called “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” (FPIES). It shows up 2 to 6 hours after they eat and makes them throw up many times. They may also have bloody diarrhea or stools flecked with blood. Take your child to the doctor right away if you suspect they have FPIES.

Food Poisoning

Anytime germs hitch a ride on food your kids eat, there’s a chance they could get a food-borne illness (food poisoning). Some of the bacteria that usually hide in food are:

You can get food poisoning from almost any food, especially if it hasn’t been cooked or stored correctly. The most common culprits are:

  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Eggs
  • Shellfish
  • Unwashed vegetables, like lettuce

Your child might start throwing up within a couple of hours of eating contaminated food. Sometimes it can take a day or two for symptoms to show up. Usually, your child will also have nausea, watery diarrhea, and stomach pain.

It’s possible for food poisoning to cause fever, but it’s common for it to cause throwing up with no fever, too. Symptoms can last anywhere from a couple of hours to several days.

Intestinal Obstruction

In newborns, it can be hard to tell whether they’re throwing up or spitting up. Vomit usually comes out with more force than spit-up. Spit-up also tends to be linked to feeding and usually occurs shortly afterwards. Your doctor can help you figure out which one you’re dealing with.

Forceful throwing up in babies is rare, but when it happens, it can be a sign of a blockage in your baby’s intestines. It’s also possible that your little one could have what doctors call “pyloric stenosis.” That means their stomach is too narrow for food to pass through. Both of these are serious problems you should see a doctor about right away.

Concussion

Kids hit their heads a lot — especially when they’re learning to walk or if they play sports. Anytime your child gets a head injury, it’s important to watch for signs of a concussion. Throwing up is one of these signs. Others include:

  • Losing consciousness
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Trouble walking
  • Confusion
  • Slurred speech
  • Trouble waking up

Throwing up and other symptoms may not show up until 24 to 72 hours after your child hits their head. 

Seek medical attention immediately if vomiting occurs after your child sustains a head injury.

Medications

If your child takes certain medications on an empty stomach, it can make them throw up. Sometimes, vomiting is a sign you’ve given your child too much of certain medications. The most common meds that cause this are:

Motion Sickness

When your child’s brain gets mixed signals about how they’re moving, it can make them feel sick enough to vomit. For example, some kids might feel sick just watching a movie — their eyes see motion, but their body doesn’t feel motion. Carsickness is common in kids who are too small to see out the car window.

Motion sickness usually starts with a tummy ache or a queasy feeling. Some kids may also sweat, lose their appetite, and not want to eat. Eventually, throwing up starts. It’s a genetic condition. Your child is more likely to have motion sickness if one of their parents did.

Migraines

About 10% of school-age children deal with migraines. These headaches can happen in kids as young as 18 months old. They cause head pain, but it’s also common for a migraine to make your child throw up. In addition, your child may have:

  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Sensitivity to touch, sound, and odors

Experts aren’t clear what causes migraines. It could be caused by something your child is around a lot. It’s also genetic: If one parent has migraines, your child has a 50% chance of getting them. If both their parents have migraines, their chance of getting them goes up to 75%.

if your child has a headache, fever, and vomiting, consult their doctor.

Stress

It’s true — some kids throw up when they’re stressed. It may be because some other health problem, such as an ear infection, is bothering them. Or your child might throw up after crying for a long time. A good way to tell if the throwing up is stress-related is if it happens only once or twice and they don’t have any other symptoms like stomach pain or diarrhea.

Vomiting & Diarrhea – What To Do If You Have Diarrhea

Vomiting and diarrhea treatment

Anyone who has had several bouts of vomiting or diarrhea will need to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.

  • For babies: If you are breastfeeding, continue to give your baby breast milk. Breast milk has fluids and electrolytes needed to prevent dehydration. Your doctor may also want you to give your baby an oral rehydration solution (ORS). If you feed your baby formula, try switching to one that is lactose free while your baby is sick. Lactose can make diarrhea worse. Your doctor may also suggest switching from formula to an ORS for 12 to 24 hours, and then switching back.
  • For toddlers and young children: Use an ORS, which contains the right mix of salt, sugar, potassium, and other nutrients to help replace lost body fluids. Children older than 1 year may also have clear soups, clear sodas, or juice mixed 50-50 with water to help prevent dehydration. You should avoid giving your child plain water and soft drinks. Water alone does not contain enough salt and nutrients to help with dehydration. Soft drinks are typically very high in sugar and can irritate your child’s stomach.
  • For adults and seniors: To replace the fluids lost from vomiting and diarrhea, adults and seniors should try to drink at least seven eight-ounce glasses of water each day. Seniors may also use ORS or liquid meal replacements to help replace lost body fluids.

What is an ORS?

An oral rehydration solution, or ORS, is a great way to replace fluids and nutrients lost through vomiting and diarrhea. An ORS is safe for babies, children, and adults. An ORS can come in several forms, including a powder that you mix with water, a liquid that is already mixed, and as frozen popsicles. You can purchase these at most grocery stores and drugstores.

To use an ORS for vomiting, try giving small amounts of ORS often, such as 1 teaspoonful every minute. If the person is able to keep the drink down, slowly increase how much you give. If the person vomits after you give the ORS, wait 30 to 60 minutes after the last time he or she vomited, and then give him or her a few sips of an ORS. Small amounts every few minutes may stay down better than a large amount all at once. When the person stops vomiting, you may increase how much of the ORS you give each time and add clear broths or clear sodas. Remember, small amounts are less likely to cause an upset stomach. If a person only has diarrhea and isn’t vomiting, he or she may have an ORS and other liquids as needed. Your doctor may ask you to keep track of how much the child or senior drinks. You can use a dropper, a spoon, or a measuring cup to help you keep track.

Nausea and Vomiting | Cancer.Net

Nausea and vomiting are common and sometimes serious side effects of cancer treatment. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other cancer treatments can cause nausea and vomiting.

Nausea is feeling queasy, sick to your stomach, or like you might throw up. Vomiting is throwing up the food and liquid in your stomach.

These symptoms can be mild or severe. Mild nausea and vomiting can be uncomfortable but does not usually harm your health. Vomiting a lot can cause other health problems, such as dehydration, weight loss, and fatigue. Always tell your doctor if you feel nausea or experience vomiting, even if it is mild. There are many anti-nausea treatments available today. You might take 1 medicine or a combination of medicines to help prevent or reduce these side effects.  

It is important that your nausea and vomiting are controlled and managed. If they aren’t, these problems can affect your daily life, mental health, physical health, and even delay treatment. Relieving side effects, also called palliative care or supportive care, is an important part of cancer care and treatment. 

What causes nausea and vomiting?

You may have heard that cancer treatment always causes nausea and vomiting. This is not true. Only some treatments will cause you to have an upset stomach or throw up. Some people are also more likely to experience nausea and vomiting than others.

When you have cancer, the causes of nausea and vomiting can include:

Chemotherapy. Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of certain chemotherapy drugs. This may be called chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) by your health care team.  And, a higher dosage of chemotherapy can make your side effects worse. 

Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy to large areas of the body and specifically to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or brain can cause nausea and vomiting. A higher dosage of radiation therapy is also more likely to cause these symptoms.

Other medications used in cancer care. Other drugs used to treat cancer, including targeted therapy and immunotherapy, can cause nausea and vomiting. Some medications to help with side effects can also cause nausea and vomiting. For instance, pain medications commonly cause stomach problems. 

In general, some medicines are more likely to cause nausea and vomiting than others. The medical term “emetic” means something that causes vomiting. You can learn about different emetic oral and intravenous (IV) medicines that may cause nausea and vomiting. Please note that these PDF links take you to a different ASCO website.

Certain cancers. Brain tumors, liver tumors, and GI tumors are more likely to cause nausea and vomiting.

Dehydration, infection, pain, and other problems. Nausea and vomiting may be caused by other symptoms and side effects. It may also be caused by other diseases, like kidney disease. 

Anxiety. Nausea and vomiting can be caused by the stress and anxiety caused by cancer and its treatment.

You may be more likely to experience nausea and vomiting during your cancer treatment if you are a woman or if you are younger than 50 years old. You are also more likely to experience these side effects if you:  

  • Have a history of morning sickness during pregnancy

  • Often experience motion sickness

  • Have a history of anxiety

  • Experienced nausea and vomiting during previous chemotherapy or radiation treatments

Talk with your health care team about each medicine prescribed for you and its risk of causing nausea and vomiting. Ask if you could be at a higher risk for nausea and vomiting. And, let them know regularly how you are feeling or about side effects you are experiencing, so that they can find ways to help you feel better.

How are nausea and vomiting treated and prevented during cancer care?

If you have nausea and vomiting during your cancer care, your doctor can prescribe medicine to help relieve your symptoms. Your doctor may also prescribe medicine to prevent nausea and vomiting. These types of medicines are called “antiemetics.”

ASCO recommends the following options, based on the level of risk that a specific anti-cancer drug will cause nausea and vomiting:

High risk of nausea and vomiting. Some types of chemotherapy nearly always cause nausea and vomiting if given without antiemetics. The recommended options for preventing vomiting from these treatments are listed below.

Adults usually receive a combination of 4 medicines to prevent vomiting:

  • An NK1 receptor antagonist

  • A 5-HT3 receptor antagonist

  • Dexamethasone (available as a generic drug)

  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa)

Adults treated with high-dose chemotherapy for a bone marrow/stem cell transplant should receive a combination of 3 medicines to prevent vomiting, with the option of adding a fourth, olanzapine: 

Children usually receive a combination of 2 or 3 medicines to prevent vomiting. These may include:

Moderate risk of nausea and vomiting. Adults usually receive a combination of 2 or 3 medicines to prevent vomiting:

Children usually receive a combination of 2 medicines to prevent vomiting. These may include:

  • A 5-HT3 receptor antagonist

  • Dexamethasone

  • Aprepitant (Cinvanti) or fosaprepitant (Emend), if a child cannot receive dexamethasone

Low risk of nausea and vomiting. Adults usually receive 1 of the following:

Children usually receive 1 of the following:

  • Odansetron (Zofran, Zuplenz)

  • Granisetron (Sancuso, Sustol)

Minimal risk of nausea and vomiting. Adults and children usually do not receive medicine when the risk is very low.

When your cancer is treated with radiation therapy, your doctor may prescribe different medications depending on where on the body you will receive radiation therapy and how likely it is to cause nausea and vomiting. ASCO recommends the following options:

High risk of nausea and vomiting. Radiation therapy directed at the entire body nearly always causes nausea and vomiting if given without antiemetics. To prevent vomiting, people usually receive a combination of 2 drugs:

Moderate risk of nausea and vomiting. People receiving radiation therapy with a moderate risk of nausea and vomiting usually receive a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. This is sometimes combined with dexamethasone.

Low risk of nausea and vomiting. People receiving radiation therapy that is less likely to cause nausea and vomiting may receive antiemetics after treatment if they feel nauseated or vomit.

  • For those who received radiation therapy to the brain, dexamethasone is generally used if nausea or vomiting develops.

  • For those who received radiation therapy to the head and neck, chest, or pelvis, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, or a dopamine receptor antagonist are options if nausea or vomiting develops.

Minimal risk of nausea and vomiting. People usually receive a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, or a dopamine receptor antagonist if nausea or vomiting develops.

People receiving radiation therapy along with chemotherapy usually also receive the antiemetics recommended for chemotherapy or targeted therapy, unless they are receiving radiation therapy with a higher risk of causing nausea and vomiting.

Learn more about ASCO’s guidelines on preventing nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy or radiation therapy with medicine. Please note that this link takes you to a separate ASCO website.

What if I feel nauseated or throw up before treatment?

You may start feeling sick before each treatment appointment, especially if your treatments have been making you nauseous. This is called anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Tell your doctor if this happens to you. You can take anti-nausea medication or try other ways of making your nausea feel better, such as relaxation techniques. Sometimes an anti-anxiety medication called lorazepam (Ativan) is also recommended.

Are there other ways to reduce nausea and vomiting?

There are ways to help relieve nausea and vomiting that do not use medicines. These include:

  • Changing what foods or how you eat, such as eating smaller meals more often, and staying hydrated. An oncology dietitian can help with this.

  • Distracting yourself and doing things that relax you

  • Doing meditation or focusing your mind on a positive picture, scene, or idea

  • Acupressure and acupuncture

Some herbal products can also help nausea, such as ginger. Always talk to your doctor before using any alternative or complementary treatment. If your doctor prescribes anti-nausea medicines, do not stop taking them or use something else without asking your doctor.

You might be curious about using marijuana to relieve nausea and vomiting. Doctors do not yet have enough evidence to recommend it as a treatment. But you can take medicines called dronabinol (Marinol or Syndros) and nabilone (Cesamet). They are synthetic forms of cannabis, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved them as medicines. You might try these if other anti-nausea medicines do not work well for you.

Questions to ask your health care team

Consider asking your health care team these questions about nausea and vomiting before you start cancer treatment.

  • Is this cancer treatment likely to cause nausea and vomiting? If so, when could those side effects start?

  • Is there a way to prevent these side effects of cancer treatment?

  • Who should I tell if I start experiencing nausea or vomiting?

  • How can my nausea be relieved if it starts?

  • Do you think certain anti-nausea medicines will work better for me? Why?

  • What are signs that nausea and vomiting are affecting my hydration or nutrition?

  • Should I tell you right away if this antiemetic treatment doesn’t relieve my symptoms?

  • Should I keep track of my nausea and vomiting? If so, how should I track my symptoms?

  • What should I do if I’m very anxious about nausea and vomiting?

  • Do these recommended antiemetic medications have any side effects I should know about?

  • Who can I talk to if I have trouble paying for the medicine or need one that costs less?

During your treatment and recovery, please tell your doctor or someone else on your health care team if you have nausea and vomiting so that they can treat it as soon as possible. If they know how you are feeling, they can find ways to relieve or manage your side effects to help you feel more comfortable, continue your treatment as planned, and potentially keep side effects from worsening.

Related Resources

Side Effects of Chemotherapy

Side Effects of Radiation Therapy

Fear of Treatment Side Effects

Nutrition Recommendations During and After Cancer Treatment

More Information

American Cancer Society: Nausea and Vomiting

CancerCare: Nausea and Vomiting

National Cancer Institute: Nausea and Vomiting

Official website of the urban district Verkhnee Dubrovo

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Free gasification

On April 21, 2021, in a message to the Federal Assembly, Russian President Vladimir Putin instructed to develop a plan for gasification of citizens’ households without attracting funds from the population.

On April 30, 2021, the Government of the Russian Federation approved an action plan for the implementation of a socially oriented and economically efficient gasification and gas supply system for the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. This plan regulates the actions of the federal authorities, the bodies of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation and gas distribution organizations (hereinafter GDO) to organize the connection of citizens’ households to gas without attracting funds from the population.

On June 1, 2021, the State Duma of the year adopted in the third reading amendments to the law on gas supply (Federal Law of 11.06.2021 No.184-FZ), according to which the construction of gas distribution networks to the borders of the land plots of citizens will be carried out without charging a connection fee (for more details, see below).

The opportunity to supply gas to the house for free made many people happy. Who can do this, and how, we understand this article.

What is free gasification?

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Dear fellow countrymen!

Since March last year, the Verkhnee Dubrovo urban district, together with the entire country, has been able to survive two waves of a new coronavirus infection, but, alas, not without losses.To date, the coronavirus in the Sverdlovsk region continues to aggressively attack again. The epidemic situation not only remains tense, it is deteriorating, and this requires additional protective measures.

I provide information on the examination and medical supervision of citizens in the urban district of Verkhnee Dubrovo as of to July 8, 2021 starting from March 20, 2020 :

– a total of 493 people fell ill;

– recovered – 445 people;

– in the hospital – 6 people;

– under medical supervision – 42 people;

– removed from medical supervision – 445 people.

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The heads of 14 municipalities approved 16 inter-municipal projects that will serve to develop the Yekaterinburg agglomeration and improve the quality of life of Sverdlovsk residents.The meeting of the coordination council of the urban agglomeration was held on July 7 on the sidelines of the INNOPROM international industrial exhibition.

On behalf of the governor of the Sverdlovsk region, the heads of the cities were greeted by the first deputy head of the region, Alexander Vysokinsky.

“The municipal aspect is one of the main in the implementation of national projects. Since people do not live in industries, but in territories. The list of projects has been developed by expert groups, professionals in their field, and it will expand.They relate to the spheres of health care, education, the road industry and many others. Our common goal is to create an effective agglomeration management system in order to develop territories, new relationships, including human, industrial and infrastructural relationships, ”said Alexander Vysokinsky, First Deputy Governor of the Sverdlovsk Region.

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In connection with quarantine measures

RECEPTION OF CITIZENS TEMPORARILY SUSPENDED

to 03 August 2021 inclusive.

Contact by phone: 8-343-77-5-32-54 or

Send requests to: Email address is being protected from spambots. Javascript must be enabled in your browser to view the address.

Administration of the city district Verkhnee Dubrovo

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ADMINISTRATION

CITY DISTRICT VERKHNEYE DUBROVO

REGULATION

dated March 24, 2020 No. 87

On the introduction of a high alert regime on the territory of the Verkhnee Dubrovo urban district

and taking additional measures to protect the population from a new coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV)

(as amended by the resolution of the Administration of the urban district of Verkhnee Dubrovo dated June 23, 2020 No. 203, as amended by resolutions dated June 25, 2020 No. 207, dated June 26, 2020 No. 208, dated June 30, 2020 No. 212, dated June 30, 2020 No. 214, dated July 07, 2020 No. 220, dated July 13, 2020 No. 227, dated July 20, 2020 No. 237, dated July 27, 2020 No. 241, dated 03 August 2020 No. 249, dated 03 August 2020 No. 253, dated 11 August 2020 No. 266, dated 18 August 2020 No. 276, dated 25 August 2020 No. 281, dated 28 August 2020 No. 288, dated September 01, 2020 No. 293, dated September 08, 2020 No. 300, dated September 15, 2020 No. 307, dated September 21, 2020 No. 315, dated September 29, 2020 No. 324, dated October 06, 2020 No. 350, dated October 13, 2020 No. 363, dated October 27, 2020 No. 377, dated October 29, 2020 No. 379, dated November 06, 2020 No. 393, dated November 16, 2020 No. 407, dated November 20, 2020 No. 418, dated November 26, 2020 No. 425, dated November 27, 2020 No. 442, dated December 08, 2020 No. 456, dated December 11, 2020 No. 468, December 15, 2020 No. 480, dated December 21, 2020 No. 482, dated January 18, 2021 No. 07, dated February 01, 2021 No. 25, dated February 02, 2021 No. 28, dated February 05, 2021 No. 35, dated February 15, 2021 No. 49, dated March 02, 2021 No. 62, dated March 15 2021 No. 70 )

Coronavirus: what is the dangerous syndrome found in British children and how is it related to Covid-19?

  • Michelle Roberts
  • BBC News online

Photo author, Getty Images

British physicians are urged to pay attention to a rare but very dangerous syndrome in children that may be associated with coronavirus …

An emergency alert sent to British family doctors says that children are being admitted to intensive care units in London and other cities in the country in very serious condition and with unusual symptoms, which include multiple inflammations with signs of flu.

At the same time, some, although not all sick children, tested positive for coronavirus.

It is not yet known exactly how many children showed this reaction, but most likely there will be few of them.

According to the head of the National Health Service (NHS) England Stephen Powys, the authorities are aware of rare cases of severe illness among children.

“Messages about this began to arrive only in recent days, and we have already turned to specialists so that they immediately study this issue,” Powis assured.

The NHS statement expresses growing concern that children are developing coronavirus-related inflammatory syndrome or that it may be another infection, the nature of which has not yet been determined.

Meanwhile, all sick children of different ages are in extremely serious condition. Their symptoms are similar to the so-called toxic shock syndrome, which is characterized by high fever, low blood pressure, rash, and difficulty breathing.

Some children also show signs of gastrointestinal upset – abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea – as well as inflammation of the heart muscle and negative changes in the composition of the blood.

According to experts, all these signs are observed when the body is overstrained, which is trying to fight infection.

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“Defeat the huge coronavirus!” How children see life in a pandemic

The recommendation to physicians says that all such cases require urgent medical attention.

At the same time, experts emphasize that very few children are seriously ill with coronavirus. According to data from all over the world, it is this category of the population that suffers least of all from this infection.

Cambridge Pediatric Intensive Care Consultant Dr. Nazima Patan points out that doctors in Italy and Spain are reporting similar symptoms in children in these countries.

“Some children had signs of toxic shock and a rash, which is exactly what is usually seen with toxic shock syndrome or Kawasaki disease (which affects the blood vessels and heart), – says Dr. Patan. – But in general, children are better resistance to serious lung infection caused by coronavirus and the number of pediatric patients admitted to intensive care units is relatively small. “90,021 90,269 Fewer than 20 such cases are known to the NHS in England, and although an investigation into the link between this syndrome and the coronavirus is ongoing, it has not yet been established.

The Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) believes this should reassure parents, but if they are concerned about their child’s health for any reason, they should see a specialist immediately.

As noted by Professor Simon Kenny, who is responsible for children’s health in the national NHS system, the advice to parents remains the same: if you are concerned about something, immediately call the dedicated hotline, your family doctor or directly to the emergency room, and if the doctors tell you go to the hospital – go there immediately.

What should you pay special attention to?

Photo author, Getty Images

Although children can in principle be infected with the coronavirus, most of them are unlikely to have a serious illness. A child’s poor health is more likely to mean a cold or the common flu, not a coronavirus.

However, RCPCH recommends that you immediately call an ambulance or take the child to the hospital yourself if:

  • The child turns pale, blotchy and unusually cold to the touch
  • Pauses between breaths, breathes unevenly, or starts wheezing
  • breathe, he is restless or faints
  • His lips turn blue
  • Has convulsions or seizures
  • Is clearly distressed (cries nonstop despite attempts to distract him), disoriented, overly sleepy (difficult to wake up) or not reacts to external stimuli
  • He has a rash that does not disappear when pressed (if, for example, pressing on the skin with the wall of a glass)
  • Experiencing pain in the scrotum, especially in the case of a teenager

One of the main methods of controlling the spread the coronavirus is social distancing: quarantine.This is how it works.

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Why should we stay at home? The simple answer is

If you don’t have a sanitizer, you can make one at home.

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Antiseptic is in short supply. How to make it at home?

And, of course, it is important to keep not only your hands clean, but also your smartphone.Here are the instructions:

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How to wash your smartphone and not ruin it

Doctors talked about the symptoms of coronavirus in children

Diarrhea and vomiting in children may indicate coronavirus, Chinese doctors warn. These symptoms are observed even when the child does not have a cough or breathing problems. Timely analysis for SARS-COV-2 in this case will help to diagnose the disease in time and, possibly, even save the life of the child.

Diarrhea and nausea may be the main symptoms of COVID-19 in children, warn doctors at the Wuhan Children’s Hospital, and there may be no respiratory symptoms at all. The researchers spoke about this in an article in the journal Frontiers in Pediatrics .

“Most children were only marginally affected by COVID-19, but a few severe cases had frequent health problems. It’s easy to miss the disease early on when a child has no respiratory symptoms, says one of the study’s authors, Dr. Wenbin Li.“Based on our experience with COVID-19, children with gastrointestinal disorders, especially fever, should be tested for coronavirus.”

The authors of the work described five cases when children were admitted to hospitals with complaints that did not indicate coronavirus.

In one of them, a 10-month-old child with a high fever suffered from loose stools, subsequently, against the background of an increase in temperature, he developed convulsions and developed pneumonia, and blood appeared in the stool. Despite the efforts of doctors, the child died of multiple organ failure.

Another child, 5 years old, was admitted to the hospital with acute appendicitis and peritonitis. Although he had no respiratory symptoms, he was in contact with a grandmother who was sick with COVID-19. Further examination showed that the boy also had coronavirus pneumonia.

The third child, 8 months old, had no gastrointestinal symptoms – he suffered from seizures, which doctors first attributed to a recent head injury. The examination showed a cerebral hemorrhage and coronavirus pneumonia.

The fourth was a one-year-old boy who for six days suffered from diarrhea, vomiting, and only finally from shortness of breath. Symptoms were more indicative of rotavirus infection, but after a week of treatment, tests showed a positive result for SARS-COV-2. The child was on mechanical ventilation, he underwent blood purification. This was the first case of severe COVID-19 in China.

The fifth child, 2 months old, had drowsiness and diarrhea for several days.At the hospital, doctors found pneumonia, the test for SARS-COV-2 was positive.

In all cases, except the first, the children were saved.

“These children were admitted to the emergency room with other symptoms. But they all had pneumonia and tested positive for COVID-19, says Lee. –

It is important that in four out of five cases, the symptoms of the digestive tract were the first manifestation of the disease. ”

The authors hope that doctors can use this information to quickly diagnose and isolate patients with similar symptoms, which will help to start treatment on time and reduce the transmission of infection.

Researchers have also linked gastrointestinal symptoms to an additional potential route of infection.

“The gastrointestinal symptoms seen in these children may be related to receptor distribution and transmission,” Lee explains. – The virus infects humans through the ACE2 receptor, which can be found in certain cells in the lungs as well as in the intestines. This suggests that COVID-19 can infect patients not only through the respiratory tract, but also through the gastrointestinal tract through contact or fecal-oral transmission. “

In addition, children and adolescents are at a much greater risk of complications from COVID-19 than previously thought, 90,270 warn 90,271 researchers at Rutgers University in the United States.

“The idea that COVID-19 is sparing young people is just a lie,

– says pediatrician Laurence K. Kleinman. – More often children who have chronic diseases, including obesity, get sick. But children without chronic diseases are also at risk. Parents must take the virus seriously. “

Researchers reviewed cases of the disease in 48 children and adolescents. More than 80% of them suffered from chronic diseases – obesity, diabetes, immunodeficiency. Of these, 40% required specialized care due to developmental delays and genetic abnormalities.

More than 20% suffered from the failure of two or more organ systems due to COVID-19, almost 40% required intubation or mechanical ventilation. At the end of the three-week follow-up period, a third of the children were still in hospital, some still required a ventilator, and one was on life support.Two died.

On average, children do carry the disease more easily than adults, the researchers conclude. However, the difference is not so great as to consider that the virus is practically not dangerous for them – children, especially those with chronic diseases, can experience severe complications, up to death.

Eating Disorders | Suomen Mielenterveysseura

Eating disorders (eating disorders) are mental health disorders in which a person’s attitude towards food, physical activity, their physical image (the idea of ​​how they look and feel from the outside) or other ideas about themselves have negative impact on his health.Symptoms of eating disorders include, for example, dangerously low or, conversely, excessive food intake, vomiting, or obsessive physical activity.

The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa (commonly referred to simply as anorexia), bulimia, and binge eating (binge eating disorder). Eating disorders can also combine the symptoms of all of these. An eating disorder is usually a combination of these disorders, for example, anorexia is relatively rare in the way it is described in the diagnostic criteria.

Common to all eating disorders are self-loathing, anxiety and depression, self-isolation, and compulsive eating behaviors such as avoidance or, conversely, preference for certain foods. In many disorders, there is also a kind of self-punishment, for example, after a meal, a more grueling run is required.

Pathological weight loss, excessive exercise, or continued violent vomiting can cause chronic harm to the body.People with an eating disorder often also have depression or some other psychiatric disorder.

Eating disorders are not directly related to age or gender, although the majority of patients are young girls or women. Eating disorders are not a new historical phenomenon, but their widespread occurrence is believed to have begun in the 60s of the last century with the beginning of the admiration for thinness as the ideal of beauty that had come into vogue.

A patient with an eating disorder, as well as his family, usually needs the help of a doctor, psychiatrist or psychologist, as well as the help of a nutritionist.In the case of anorexia, it is important to initially bring the patient’s weight to a safe level and normalize nutrition. When binge eating, they try to even out the imbalance between eating and losing weight.

Various therapeutic options include dietary counseling and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy helps the patient to understand the causes of the current situation and the occurrence of the disease. Psychotherapy can be individual or group and include hospitalization if necessary.

Anorexia

Anorexic patient with normal weight considers himself fat and wants to lose weight.He cannot and does not want to stop weight loss, and his weight in relation to his height is reduced to dangerous limits. Low weight is maintained through malnutrition or excess movement. Diagnostic criteria for anorexia include severe fear of weight gain, weight loss below 85% of the norm, persistent refusal to gain weight, and cessation of menstruation in women.

Compulsive (obsessive) ways of organizing food and physical activity are often observed in patients with anorexia.They may, for example, only eat certain foods and strictly avoid others, and exercise excessively. Sometimes depression precedes the development of anorexia. Depression can also occur along with anorexia.

Thinness dictates the self-esteem of patients with anorexia

It has been noticed that diligent, intelligent and ambitious girls get sick with anorexia more often than others. People with anorexia may find it more difficult to express negative emotions such as frustration or anger than usual.Patients often set difficult goals for themselves in many areas of their lives and place too high demands on themselves.

However, it must be remembered that not all anorexics fit into the framework described above; children, adults, women and men can get anorexia. In people with anorexia, thinness can be the most important criterion for self-esteem, and weight gain causes strong feelings of dissatisfaction and an inferiority complex.

Stereotypes prevailing in the immediate environment and imposed by the media can influence the development of the disease

In our culture, being slim is often associated with success and happiness.The ideal of beauty is a woman whose weight is below normal. For young people, diet can seem like an alternative in solving their problems, and at first it can give the impression of being in control.

However, abnormal or compulsive diets are dangerous to both physical and mental health. Losing weight can also lead to life changes, such as divorce or school change, or, for example, other people’s comments about your appearance.

Among the cases of diseases, anorexia occurs much more often among relatives of patients with anorexia.Traditions and stereotypes passed down in the family partially explain the increased propensity for the disease, and, according to studies of twin pairs, the predisposition to anorexia is inherited in an as yet inexplicable way.

Anorexia is a serious illness, but most patients recover completely

Anorexia is a very serious illness that can be fatal due to excessive weight loss. Therefore, it is important to seek help in time. The choice of treatment is influenced by the patient’s weight, general physical health and motivation to recover.

Treatment is usually carried out on an outpatient basis, but hospitalization is necessary in severe cases. For example, a dangerously low heart rate or blood pressure as a result of weight loss, metabolic disorders, changes in the ECG (cardiogram), or serious mental health problems are grounds for hospitalization. The goal of therapy is to normalize malnutrition and eating behavior, as well as eliminate mental symptoms. That is, the challenge is to influence both nutrition and mental health.

Treatment usually involves collaboration between the patient, family, doctor and other professionals, and possibly the school. Together with the patient, commitments are made regarding his diet and exercise, his weight is monitored. As treatment progresses, there is a shift from weight control to talking about the patient’s thoughts and feelings.

Anorexic patients may require additional individual psychotherapy or family therapy. If depression is associated with anorexia, drug therapy may be helpful.Various groups of practice, such as art therapy (art therapy), can also contribute to recovery. Despite the fact that anorexia is quite a serious illness, most patients recover completely.

Research shows that Finns have an average of three years of illness. During this time, the disease can significantly limit normal life, but, according to observations, those who have recovered from anorexia take part in work and school life, and also have a family and children in the same way as their other peers.Those who have suffered from anorexia for many years can also fully recover, therefore, with anorexia, you should always seek help. Read more about seeking help.

Bulimia

The symptoms of bulimia are repeated bouts of binge eating followed by violent vomiting. Bulimia is also characterized by an increased fear of getting fat and a focus on weight control. Overeating usually takes place in secret from loved ones and causes a strong sense of shame in bulimic sufferers.

During bouts of binge eating, a bulimic person feels that they are unable to stop eating or cannot control how much they have eaten. They try to prevent weight gain by inducing vomiting, taking diuretics or laxatives, using fasting or increased physical activity. Not all patients with bulimia vomiting is directly related to overeating; many patients suffer from vomiting when eating normal or very small portions of food.

Many people with bulimia are of normal weight and have no previous eating disorders.Sometimes people who have had anorexia before get sick with bulimia. Bulimia occurs on average at an older age than anorexia, and is often caused by a desperate attempt to lose weight. In a bulimic patient, weight often dictates personal self-esteem: gaining weight or the thought of increasing it causes feelings of inferiority and anxiety. The self-esteem of patients is usually underestimated.

The effect of bulimia on health

Repeated vomiting causes, among other things, disturbances in the body’s salt balance, menstrual irregularities and cardiac arrhythmias, damage to tooth enamel.Also, a person with bulimia usually has enlarged salivary glands, so the face may be swollen. Vomiting can damage the esophagus and cause stomach pain and nausea.

People with bulimia are more likely to have other mental health disorders than usual. The most common of these are anxiety disorders and depression. People with bulimia also have other forms of self-harm, such as cuts.

Bulimic predisposing factors and treatment

The predisposing factors for bulimia are generally the same as those for anorexia.The onset of the disease is often influenced by the position of the surrounding culture and family, as well as facts from the person’s previous life, such as school bullying or isolation from society.

Many different treatments have been developed to treat bulimia. Typically, treatment combines, for example, dietary advice, provision of information about the disease, psychotherapy and measures to improve physical health. Antidepressants are sometimes used as well. They try to establish control over their health by keeping a food and symptomatic diary.Patients can also learn to overcome destructive patterns of thought and behavior, such as weight dictating self-esteem.

Bulimic patients often seek help after several years of the onset of their first symptoms. The reason for this, in particular, may be that the course of the disease has a wave character: sometimes a bulimic person does not feel the urge to overeat or vomit, or is able to overcome them, despite the desire. Sometimes the urge to binge and the accompanying vomiting cannot be controlled, and these symptoms make life much more difficult.

Bulimia treatment programs can teach patients how to prevent recurrence and control their symptoms. With the help of treatment, a constant improvement is achieved: those who have suffered from bulimia for a long time can completely recover from the disease.

Atypical eating disorders

Despite its name, Atypical Eating Disorder is the most common form of eating disorder. An atypical eating disorder resembles anorexia or bulimia, in which any of the main symptoms are absent.A person with an atypical eating disorder may have, for example, binge eating, but not vomiting, unlike bulimia. In addition, if the criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia are strictly adhered to, the diagnosis of anorexia cannot be made to a woman who has not stopped menstruating. In this case, the disorder is not classified as anorexia, but as an atypical eating disorder.

The line between an eating disorder and the so-called norm can be blurry. For example, over-regulated and restricted eating behavior of the dieter can be difficult to distinguish from diagnostic criteria for disease.Treatment can only be prescribed based on the nature of the symptoms and their severity, and it is not necessary to accurately designate the eating disorder itself.

Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a common atypical eating disorder

Binge Eating Disorder eli BED is a disorder that leads to obesity. This disorder is characterized by the ingestion of large meals without so-called compensatory behaviors, such as vomiting or taking laxatives.It is estimated that one in five people seeking help for obesity suffers from this disorder.

Overeating sufferers experience large fluctuations in weight and also cause severe anxiety. A binge sufferer may try to control food by skipping meals, but skipping breakfast or lunch, for example, can lead to an evening binge bout. For binge sufferers, regular and healthy eating is important. Also, patients need to avoid strict weight loss diets, as they can aggravate and increase bouts of binge eating.

Muscle dysmorphia

Muscle dysmorphia is a condition in which a person has an obsessive need to increase the volume of his muscles and is ready to spend a significant amount of time on it. Despite the fact that muscle dysmorphic sufferers usually have well-developed muscles, they themselves consider themselves thin and weak. The body image is distorted in the same way as in anorectics, who imagine themselves to be fat, although in reality they are thin.Muscle dysmorphic sufferers often experience severe anxiety, and hard training can help them overcome bad moods. Hazardous substances such as hormones can also be used to increase muscle volume.

Orthorexia

A patient with orthorexia has an obsessive desire for a healthy diet. He may spend many hours planning menus and preparing meals, and may refuse to eat certain foods altogether. Orthorexia can develop, for example, in a person who plays a lot of sports and wants to prevent injury.Fear of weight gain can cause obsessive desire for healthy eating, such eating behavior, little by little, leads to an eating disorder. Orthorexia can lead to the development of anorexia or bulimia.

Compulsive gains in muscle mass are most common among men related to eating or body image disorders. muscle dysmorphia, and obsession with healthy eating, i.e. orthorexia. Men can also develop anorexia and bulimia.

Harm of surrogate alcohol and alcohol-containing liquids

Are alcohol substitutes poisoning dangerous? Of course, they are dangerous, since they are often accompanied by severe, up to death, lesions of the liver, kidneys, eyes, and the central nervous system.Some of the poisoning is associated with the use of counterfeit alcoholic beverages. At the same time, people sometimes suffer who do not abuse them at all. Chronic alcoholics also often drink surrogates. They often use not at all “edible” household chemical products, industrial alcohols, medicinal liquids, which leads to very severe poisoning.

Alcohol surrogates and their types

What are alcohol surrogates? These are alcohol-containing liquids used in everyday life and for technical needs.They are used for the purpose of intoxication when ordinary alcoholic beverages are unavailable. It also includes counterfeit alcoholic beverages (wines, cognacs, vodka, moonshine, liqueurs, cocktails) made using improper raw materials or with violations of technology. Along with ethyl alcohol, they contain harmful impurities of various substances.

Surrogates are divided into two groups – containing ethanol, or true surrogates, and substances that do not contain ethyl alcohol, but cause intoxication – false surrogates.The true surrogates containing ethanol include medicines – tinctures of motherwort, hawthorn, various lotions, colognes, technical ethyl alcohol. More dangerous surrogates are household liquids such as solvents, glass and surface cleaners, varnish; brake fluid, antifreeze; glue BF. They may contain hydrolytic and sulfate alcohols, denatured alcohol, impurities of methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, aldehydes, essential oils, acetone, chloroform, dyes, and other toxic substances.False surrogates include methyl, propyl, butyl, amyl and formic alcohols, ethylene glycol, dichloroethane and liquids for various purposes, in which they are included in high concentrations. They are extremely poisonous and cause dangerous damage to various organs. Counterfeit alcoholic beverages are especially dangerous. Poisonous compounds trapped in them, especially methyl alcohol, sometimes lead to fatal poisoning.

Signs of poisoning with alcoholic surrogates

The first signs of alcohol surrogates poisoning are nausea, then vomiting, feeling lightheaded, dizziness, abdominal pain, and excruciating headache.The clinical picture is initially the same as in case of poisoning with a large amount of vodka. Further symptoms depend on what caused the poisoning and how large the dose was drunk.
Consider two examples:
Methanol (methyl alcohol). The condition of the victim directly depends on the amount of alcohol consumed. The lethal dose of methanol is 100 ml. The first signs of poisoning will be nausea and vomiting, flies before the eyes. The patient’s skin is dry and red. Over the next day, his condition worsens.There is thirst, abdominal pain, at the same time headache, severe pain in the calf muscles, double vision. In severe cases, blindness often occurs. Convulsions, agitation, tension of the occipital muscles appear. The heart rhythm is disturbed, the pressure drops. If the amount of alcohol consumed is close to the lethal dose, coma and respiratory arrest occur. Possibly lightning-fast development of fatal poisoning. If ethanol-containing drinks were consumed at the same time, the picture of poisoning may be less severe, since ethyl alcohol partially neutralizes methanol.Similar symptoms occur with formic alcohol poisoning.

Ethylene glycol. Its lethal dose is 150 ml. After 6-8 hours from taking ethylene glycol, headache, back pain, abdominal pain occur; thirst, diarrhea, vomiting. The skin and mucous membranes are dry, red, with a bluish tinge. In severe poisoning, the patient is agitated, the pupils are dilated. Later, convulsions appear, the patient loses consciousness. In the terminal stage, heart failure develops with pulmonary edema, acute hepatic and renal failure.

What to do in case of poisoning with alcohol substitutes

If you suspect poisoning with alcohol substitutes, you must urgently call an ambulance, since the severity of the condition can grow very quickly. If the victim is conscious, before the doctor arrives, he should be given a large amount of warm water to drink and then induce vomiting. The unconscious patient is placed on his side, the mouth and nasopharynx are cleaned of vomit. In order to prevent the tongue from sinking, it is removed from the oral cavity and fixed.If it is known for sure that the poisoning was caused by methyl alcohol, the patient who is conscious can be given cognac or vodka to drink. The ethyl alcohol contained in them partially neutralizes methanol.

Prevention of poisoning with alcohol substitutes

The most reliable prevention of poisoning is never to use alcohol substitutes. To avoid accidental poisoning, store household chemicals separately in labeled containers. You need to buy all alcoholic beverages in well-tested, specialized stores.Taking activated charcoal before drinking alcohol will help the body get rid of toxins.

Remember, alcohol is bad for your health!

GOBUZ “Novgorod Regional Narcological Dispensary” Catharsis “

Premium food for dogs and cats

Dogs love to taste everything they find on earth. Sometimes it is fraught with poisoning.
Let’s figure out what are the symptoms of poisoning in dogs and what to do in this case.

There are several types of poisoning: food poisoning (when the dog eats
something toxic), respiratory (when the dog inhales poisonous substances through the nose) and contact
(through the skin). The first type of poisoning is most often recorded. Its main signs are: vomiting, diarrhea,
cramps or muscle weakness, general depression – the animal refuses to feed,
whines.

It is necessary to deliver the animal to the veterinary clinic as soon as possible and provide qualified assistance.
Also, try to give the dog first aid yourself. To do this, you need to provoke
she has profuse vomiting: dilute a tablespoon of salt in a glass of warm water and pour in
dog in the mouth.

What to give a dog in case of poisoning?

Use adsorbents – substances that bind poisons in the intestines.Regular preparations from your own will do.
first aid kits: enterosgel or other medicines of a similar effect that are at your fingertips.
The easiest way to inject them is with an ordinary syringe without a needle.

If your dog is poisoned by carbon monoxide, take him to fresh air. Provide her peace, make sure that she has
there was enough water in the bowl. If the carbon monoxide poisoning is severe, you will need
assistance of a veterinarian.

If chemicals (such as alkaline cleaners) come into contact with the animal’s skin, rinse the area with plenty of warm
soapy water. If the dog is full of such chemicals, under no circumstances do
gastric lavage, as with normal food poisoning. In this case, vomiting poisons can additionally
damage the lining of the esophagus. Just rinse the dog’s mouth and muzzle with warm water and take it urgently
her to the veterinarian.

A separate item is poisoning with two poisons popular among dog hunters – isoniazid (pills for tuberculosis)
and rat poison. In the first case, the dog will not vomit and diarrhea, but will
severe convulsions and poor coordination.

In this case, a one percent solution of vitamin B6 (aka pyridoxine) should be kept in the medicine cabinet.Make the dog
intramuscular injection of 30-50 ml (depending on size and weight
pet).

A sign of rat poisoning is blood in the feces and vomit. Another sign is the smell of garlic from the mouth.
In this case, you need to improve blood clotting: an injection of vitamin K will help.

Do not forget that only a veterinarian can prescribe treatment for a dog for poisoning, so at the first sign you need
call him immediately or call an ambulance for veterinary help.All of the above tips –
This is the first aid that the owner can give the dog before meeting with the veterinarian.

After giving first aid, take the animal to the clinic as soon as possible. Do not under any circumstances
home treatment.

For most poisonings, you will need qualified help: for example, in case of poisoning with acids and alkalis
will require gastric lavage with a probe.After rat poison, the dog will be prescribed a complex
medications. Also after any poisoning to an animal for some time
rest and a restorative diet will be needed, as prescribed by your veterinarian.

If your dog is poisoned
something at home, after a visit to the veterinarian, conduct a thorough revision: remove
from the access zone of the animal all the slightest bit dangerous substances, cleaning agents, medicines and other
chemicals.

If your dog is poisoned on the street, pay more attention to training afterwards. Try to wean the animal from picking up
something from the ground. Keep a close eye on what your dog is sniffing at,
do not let the animal off the leash near garbage cans and in unfamiliar parks.

Vomiting in a child – Causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vomiting in children

What happens during vomiting?

Vomiting is a defensive reflex in which the contents of the stomach and the initial sections of the intestine are ejected back through the mouth.As a rule, it is preceded by nausea. It is caused by irritation of the receptors of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or a direct effect on the vomiting center, which is located in the brain stem.

The gag reflex is realized by contraction of the diaphragm, intercostal and abdominal muscles with the simultaneous opening of the lower esophageal sphincter, which normally prevents the return of food eaten from the stomach into the esophagus. This closes the epiglottis and stops breathing, which prevents the entry of vomit into the respiratory tract.

As a result, the contents of the stomach, including enzymes and fluid, leave the body through the oral cavity. Also, due to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, salivation increases, sweating occurs. All this leads to loss of fluid – dehydration, which becomes a serious problem with prolonged vomiting.

Causes of vomiting in a child

Vomiting is one of the most common symptoms in children and can be associated with a variety of diseases and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, functional disorders and other reasons.

Intestinal infection in children

The most common cause of vomiting is gastrointestinal infections (video 1). As a rule, they occur when eating contaminated food or water, as well as when personal hygiene is not followed. Clinical manifestations can vary significantly depending on the specific disease.

The most common variants of intestinal infections in children are:

  • Intestinal influenza (rotavirus infection) caused by viruses from the family Reoviridae .It is transmitted through contaminated water and through direct contact with a sick person.
  • Viral gastroenteritis. In addition to rotaviruses, inflammation of the stomach and small intestine can also be caused by other viruses: adenovirus, norovirus, astroviruses.
  • Salmonellosis caused by bacteria Salmonella . Typical sources of infection are eggs, meat, poultry, milk and products prepared from them, such as pastry creams.
  • Dysentery (shigellosis).The causative agent is bacteria of the genus Shigella . It can be transmitted through water, food (most often milk and dairy products), as well as through household items.
  • Escherichiosis (travelers’ diarrhea) caused by bacteria from the genus Escherichia , often E. coli. The transmission factors are: water, dairy products, prepared meat products, drinks, as well as household items, such as toys.
  • Listerosis. The causative agent is Listeria monocytogenes .It is most often found in semi-finished meat products and ready-to-eat meat products (canned food, sausages), soft cheeses and cold smoked fish products.

In addition to vomiting, infectious lesions of the gastrointestinal tract in children also cause other symptoms, such as diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, slowdown in weight gain, etc.

Video 1. What to do in case of intestinal infection.

Diseases of the digestive organs

Another common cause of vomiting in childhood is gastrointestinal diseases.Most often it is:

  • Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining.
  • Duodenitis – inflammation of the duodenum.
  • Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas.
  • Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder.
  • Intestinal obstruction.

In infancy, persistent regurgitation may be associated with pyloric stenosis and pylorospasm. Pyloric stenosis is a structural deformation of the pylorus that prevents food from entering the duodenum.With pylorospasm, similar changes occur, but they are temporary, since they are caused by an increased tone of the stomach muscles.

What are the symptoms of gastrointestinal problems?

General symptoms that suggest the development of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in children are:

  • Pain in various areas of the abdomen that occurs immediately after eating or after a while.
  • Stool disorders: diarrhea or constipation.
  • Pathological impurities in feces, undigested food particles.
  • Flatulence, sour or rotten belching.

Food poisoning in a child

Food poisoning, like infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, is caused by the ingestion of contaminated food. However, in food poisoning, the key role is played not by the bacteria themselves, but by their waste products released into the nutrient medium in which these bacteria have been for a long time.In this way, a large amount of bacterial toxins enters the child’s body at the same time, which causes vomiting and other symptoms of poisoning.

Vomiting can be a sign of poisoning. Photo by Mac DeStroir: Pexels

The previously mentioned salmonella, as well as the bacteria Clostridium botulinum , which cause botulism, can release a large amount of toxins into food. The reason for the development of botulism is most often poor-quality canned food, pickles, as well as insufficiently heat-treated meat and fish.

Important! Vomiting is one of the first reactions to eating unsuitable food, such as poisonous mushrooms, berries or raw meat.

Acute appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the appendix (appendix of the cecum). It belongs to the most common surgical pathologies of the abdominal cavity.

Often, the first signs of appendicitis in childhood are constant acute abdominal pain, which later move to the right iliac region, and an increase in body temperature to 37.5 ° C (Fig.one). In addition, nausea and one or two vomiting often occur.

Acute appendicitis requires immediate surgical intervention – removal of the inflamed appendix of the intestine.

Figure 1. Classic symptoms of “acute abdomen”, often accompanying acute appendicitis. Source: Adobe Stock

Foreign body in the esophagus

A common cause of vomiting in childhood is the ingestion of foreign bodies, often small toys or parts thereof, such as construction kit parts.At the same time, it is paroxysmal in nature, has nothing to do with food intake, and the gag reflex may not be accompanied at all by the evacuation of stomach contents. In such cases, seeking medical attention is indicated.

Acetone vomiting in children

The syndrome of cyclic acetonemic vomiting is a set of manifestations resulting from a sharp increase in the level of ketone bodies in the blood plasma of a child.

This condition may be the result of constitutional abnormalities (neuro-arthritic diathesis) or prolonged fasting, the body’s reaction in the postoperative period, or the manifestation of certain diseases and conditions: severe infections or endocrine pathologies (diabetes mellitus).

A characteristic feature of acetone vomiting in children is the recurrence of episodes that occur at regular intervals – from 15 to 60 minutes. Between them, the child usually feels good. Also noted: the smell of acetone from the mouth, fever and diarrhea.

Neurological disorders in children

The gag reflex can be triggered by a direct effect on the medulla oblongata – the part of the brain stem in which the so-called vomiting center is located.This occurs with concussion against the background of traumatic brain injury, with infectious lesions of the central nervous system (meningitis, encephalitis) and increased intracranial pressure against the background of hydrocephalus.

Neurotic or psychogenic vomiting in a child

In preschool and early school children, vomiting can be caused by intense emotional distress, fear or stress. Surges in blood pressure, increased sweating, pallor, dizziness and general weakness are often associated phenomena.

Vomiting on motion sickness

Children are more prone to kinetosis or motion sickness. It is manifested by nausea and vomiting against the background of monotonous prolonged fluctuations and occurs during long travel by car, on buses and trains, on a sea vessel. Also, this pathology is accompanied by dizziness, general weakness, pallor and sweating (video 2).

The mechanism of motion sickness development is the prolonged irritation of the vestibular apparatus located in the inner ear.Normally, he perceives the position of the body in space. However, when traffic is moving, information received visually is often perceived by the brain as a static position, although there is a certain movement. It is this heterogeneity of the information received that causes motion sickness.

Video 2. What to do if the child is seasick.

Symptoms of intoxication in the presence of vomiting

In case of poisoning, infectious and inflammatory diseases, vomiting is accompanied by the so-called intoxication syndrome.This is a combination of symptoms caused by the ingress of various toxins, tissue breakdown products, etc. into the bloodstream.

Intoxication syndrome, in addition to possible nausea and vomiting, includes:

  • General weakness, malaise and increased anxiety.
  • Increase in body temperature to 37-40 ° C and increased sweating.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Headache, which at a young age is manifested by constant, sometimes monotonous crying.

How to deal with vomiting?

The actions of the parents depend on the reasons for the development and characteristics of the vomit. If vomiting is single and not accompanied by other symptoms, no special action is required from the parents. Otherwise, the following recommendations are recommended:

  • Constantly supervise the child. The infant should be held vertically in the arms; older children should be laid on their side or brought into a semi-sitting position.This will avoid inhaling vomit.
  • After vomiting, flush the infant’s mouth with clean water using a bulb or a large syringe. Older children should be helped to rinse out their mouth.
  • Avoid using any medication on your own without knowing the cause of vomiting. At best, the pills will simply come out along with a new portion of vomit, at worst, they can harm and complicate the diagnosis.

Profuse vomiting in children is accompanied by dehydration due to significant fluid loss along with vomit.Therefore, it is important to restore losses with the help of mineral waters, special solutions, and in their absence – ordinary water.

If possible, the child should be given a drink when vomiting. Photo: AndrewLozovyi / Depositphotos

When should I see a doctor?

If vomiting is persistent and accompanied by other alarming symptoms, seek medical attention as soon as possible. Call a doctor at home if:

  • Vomiting appeared immediately after traumatic brain injury.
  • Vomiting is accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
  • Vomit is bright green or yellow-green in color and contains blood or brown vomit that resembles coffee grounds.
  • Vomiting is accompanied by severe abdominal pain.
  • Rashes appeared on the child’s body.
  • There is suspicion of ingestion of foreign bodies.
  • There is a suspicion of eating poisonous substances.

Signs of severe dehydration: lack of urination for more than 3 hours, dry skin, tongue and mucous membranes, crying without tears, abnormal sleepiness and irritability, “sinking” of the abdomen and cheeks.

Rash and vomiting is a reason to call a doctor. Photo: natulrich / Depositphotos

Treatment of vomiting in children

The general management of vomiting depends on its origin. For example, in case of food poisoning, the main role in first aid is played by gastric lavage as soon as possible and the use of enterosorbents (activated carbon).

Treatment of vomiting, in addition to eliminating the main cause of its occurrence, includes the restoration of water and electrolyte balance. This is especially important with severe, prolonged and frequent vomiting, due to which the body loses a large amount of fluid.

To compensate for the loss of liquid, ordinary mineral waters, slightly sweetened tea or special solutions are used, powders for the preparation of which can be purchased at the pharmacy. In severe cases, intravenous drip therapy is also used.

If it is impossible to establish the cause of vomiting or eliminate it, the use of antiemetics is indicated. Depending on the situation, the following can be used:

  • Anticholinergics (scopolamine).
  • Antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, haloperidol).
  • H1 blockers (clemastine, promethazine).
  • Dopamine receptor blockers (metoclopramide and domperidone).

Conclusion

Vomiting in children is extremely multifaceted. It can be both a variant of the normal reaction to food intake in an infant, and the first sign of serious, life-threatening illness. In addition, it is important to properly care for the child and compensate for the loss of fluid, which will avoid additional complications.

Sources

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  2. Dubrovskaya M.I., Mukhina Yu.G., Shumilov P.V., & Volodina I.I. (2007). The syndrome of regurgitation and vomiting in children of the first year of life: differential diagnosis and management tactics. Pediatrics. Journal named after G.N. Speransky, 86 (6), 18.
  3. Forbes D., Fairbrother S. Cyclic nausea and vomiting in childhood // Aust. Fam. Physician. – 2008 .– 37 (1-2).
  4. Boles R., Powers A., Adams K. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Plus // J. Child Neuro. – 2006 .– 21 (3).
  5. Muminova D.A. “Nosoological structure of recurrent vomiting in children” FORCIPE, no.