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What are symptoms of blood clots in legs: Deep vein thrombosis – Symptoms and causes


Pulmonary Embolism | Deep Vein Thrombosis

What is a pulmonary embolism (PE)?

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. It usually happens when a blood clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs. PE is a serious condition that can cause

  • Permanent damage to the lungs
  • Low oxygen levels in your blood
  • Damage to other organs in your body from not getting enough oxygen

PE can be life-threatening, especially if a clot is large, or if there are many clots.

What causes a pulmonary embolism (PE)?

The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung.

Who is at risk for a pulmonary embolism (PE)?

Anyone can get a pulmonary embolism (PE), but certain things can raise your risk of PE:

  • Having surgery, especially joint replacement surgery
  • Certain medical conditions, including
    • Cancers
    • Heart diseases
    • Lung diseases
    • A broken hip or leg bone or other trauma
  • Hormone-based medicines, such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy
  • Pregnancy and childbirth. The risk is highest for about six weeks after childbirth.
  • Not moving for long periods, such as being on bed rest, having a cast, or taking a long plane flight
  • Age. Your risk increases as you get older, especially after age 40.
  • Family history and genetics. Certain genetic changes that can increase your risk of blood clots and PE.
  • Obesity

What are the symptoms of a pulmonary embolism (PE)?

Half the people who have pulmonary embolism have no symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they can include shortness of breath, chest pain or coughing up blood. Symptoms of a blood clot include warmth, swelling, pain, tenderness and redness of the leg.

How is a pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosed?

It can be difficult to diagnose PE. To make a diagnosis, your health care provider will

  • Take your medical history, including asking about your symptoms and risk factors for PE
  • Do a physical exam
  • Run some tests, including various imaging tests and possibly some blood tests

What are the treatments for a pulmonary embolism (PE)?

If you have PE, you need medical treatment right away. The goal of treatment is to break up clots and help keep other clots from forming. Treatment options include medicines and procedures.


  • Anticoagulants, or blood thinners, keep blood clots from getting larger and stop new clots from forming. You might get them as an injection, a pill, or through an I.V. (intravenous). They can cause bleeding, especially if you are taking other medicines that also thin your blood, such as aspirin.
  • Thrombolytics are medicines to dissolve blood clots. You may get them if you have large clots that cause severe symptoms or other serious complications. Thrombolytics can cause sudden bleeding, so they are used if your PE is serious and may be life-threatening.


  • Catheter-assisted thrombus removal uses a flexible tube to reach a blood clot in your lung. Your health care provider can insert a tool in the tube to break up the clot or to deliver medicine through the tube. Usually you will get medicine to put you to sleep for this procedure.
  • A vena cava filter may be used in some people who cannot take blood thinners. Your health care provider inserts a filter inside a large vein called the vena cava. The filter catches blood clots before they travel to the lungs, which prevents pulmonary embolism. But the filter does not stop new blood clots from forming.

Can pulmonary embolism (PE) be prevented?

Preventing new blood clots can prevent PE. Prevention may include

  • Continuing to take blood thinners. It’s also important to get regular checkups with your provider, to make sure that the dosage of your medicines is working to prevent blood clots but not causing bleeding.
  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating, exercise, and, if you smoke, quitting smoking
  • Using compression stockings to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

  • Moving your legs when sitting for long periods of time (such as on long trips)
  • Moving around as soon as possible after surgery or being confined to a bed

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) – Craig Hospital

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

What is a DVT?

A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a vein, deep in the body. Veins are blood vessels with valves that help blood flow in one direction. When your muscles contract the blood is pushed through the veins in your legs and arms. Blood clots can block the flow of blood through the body. This can cause swelling and other problems in your body. Another concern is that the clot may break lose, travel through the bloodstream and block blood flow in the lungs, heart, or brain.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a blood clot travels to the lungs. The blood clot stops or severely slows the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the heart. This may cause permanent damage or even death.

What are the causes of a DVT?

Anything that damages the blood vessel can cause the blood to clot. Some things that can damage blood vessels are:

  • Smoking
  • Not having enough oxygen in the blood
  • Having an injury or surgery to your body

Many people with spinal cord injury and brain injury lose some function or movement in their legs and/or arms or are less active than before the injury. Because you aren’t moving around as much, circulation of blood through the body slows down. The slower the blood moves, the higher the risk that a blood clot will form.

Certain situations will make it even harder to move around after spinal cord injury putting you at even greater risk for a blood clot to develop. These situations include being sick, being on bed rest (e.g. skin sore), or sitting in one position for a lengthy period of time (e.g. airline travel).

If you have certain health problems you may have a higher risk that a blood clot will form. Some of these are:

  • Family history of a DVT
  • Varicose veins
  • Cancer
  • Heart attack or failure
  • Stroke
  • Pregnancy
  • Taking hormone replacement therapy or birth control medication
  • Trauma – fractures or breaks to bones or joints
  • Have a port or IV delivering medications directly to your veins
  • Sepsis
  • Blood disorders
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • Surgery
What are the symptoms of a DVT?

Typically, blood clots develop in legs and arms. The signs and symptoms of a blood clot or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are:

  • Swelling in the limb
  • Warmth or coolness on the skin of the affected limb
  • Discoloration – red, purple, pale, white, or bluish colors of a leg or arm
  • Tenderness or pain in a leg or arm
  • Fever and chills
  • Increased muscle spasms

The signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism (PE) or blood clot in the lungs are nonspecific and can include:

  • Sudden chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
  • Coughing up blood
  • Loss of consciousness (fainting)

CALL 911 right away if you have these symptoms or if you think you have an emergency.

How are DVT’s diagnosed?

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history as well as do a physical exam. They may order some tests including blood tests to look for blood clotting proteins. Another common test is a “duplex venous ultrasound” which uses sound waves to detect changes in blood flow. Your doctor may also order a “venography” which is an x-ray taken after dye is injected into a small vein to show areas of normal and abnormal blood flow.

How do you prevent DVTs?

To prevent blood clots and DVTs your doctor may prescribe an anticoagulant, often called a blood thinning medication. Examples of blood thinners are Heparin, Lovenox (Enoxaparin), Fragmin (Dalteparin), Innohep (Tinzaparin), Arixtra (Fondaparinux), and Coumadin (Warfarin). You may be on these for three to six months. Depending on the medication that is ordered, your doctor may order routinely scheduled blood tests. Monitoring these blood tests helps the doctor keep your blood thinner from being too high (which can put you at risk for bleeding) or too low (which can put you at risk for blood clots).

Because blood clots often cause swelling in your legs, for initial rehabilitation, after surgery, or during inpatient upgrade program at Craig Hospital, your legs will be measured every night. Measuring your legs can help early detection of blood clots. Because the risk for blood clots decreases with time after your initial injury, your legs will not have to be measured forever. Talk to your nurse and doctor about how long your legs will be measured and about your risk for developing DVTs.

How do you treat DVT’s?

If you’re diagnosed with a DVT, treatment will begin immediately. The purpose of treatment is to stop the clot from growing and to prevent a pulmonary embolism or stroke.

If you are not already on an anticoagulant or blood thinner you may be started on one. Treatment may last for several months and regularly scheduled blood tests will be ordered to make sure you are getting the right dose.

As their name implies, blood thinners thin your blood making it harder for your body to form a clot. This puts you at increased risk for bleeding if you are injured. You will want to avoid cuts or injury. Report any easy bruising and bleeding, for example if your gums bleed when brushing your teeth.

Maintaining the medication at a certain level is important to work properly. Plan ahead for medication refills so that you don’t run out.

If you are taking blood thinners it is important that you discuss with your doctor all medications, herbal medication, over-the-counter medications, as well as your diet. There are certain foods that affect how blood thinners work, too. Make sure you know what you can and cannot eat. Always check with your doctor before taking a new medication even if you consider the drug safe.

In some cases, a filter may be placed to trap any blood clots that break loose so they don’t travel up to the lungs, brain, and heart. The filter is usually placed in the inferior vena cava which is a major vein in which the blood from your lower body goes back up to the heart. If needed, the filter is usually inserted in a vein through the groin under fluoroscopy. A fluoroscopy is a special type of x-ray that allows the doctor to place the filter easily and without surgery.

You may also have to rest in bed, elevate the affected limb above the heart, and wear compression stockings.


You are an important member of the healthcare team. Know the signs and symptoms of blood clots so that you can talk with your doctors and nurses about what is normal and not normal for you. After all, you know your body better than anyone.

A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a vein, deep in the body. Injury, decreased movement, and slower blood flow through the body can put people with SCI and TBI at increased risk for DVTs. Medications and physical activity can help prevent them. If they are detected they can be treated.

If you have more questions about DVTs, talk with your doctors and nurses about your specific health concerns and condition.

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Revised: 1/2015

How To Check For DVT At Home And Why You Really Should: Goke Akinwande, MD: Vascular and Interventional Radiologist

With national pulmonary rehabilitation week just around the corner (March 14-20) now seems like the perfect time to talk about deep vein thrombosis or DVT for short. Deep vein thrombosis is a serious condition caused by a blood clot in the vein (usually the leg) so it’s important to know how to check for DVT at home.

DVT is one of the major causes of pulmonary embolism and occurs when a blood clot travels up from the deep veins in the leg causing a blockage in the lungs. If not treated, it can be fatal.

The clot itself is formed when blood turns from a liquid into a solid state particularly in areas where blood flow is slow or has been disturbed and typically occurs after surgery or after long periods of inactivity – hence the concern and publicity about the dangers of long haul flying.

The good news is that if caught early, deep vein thrombosis can be treated but it’s important to know what to look out for.

DVT Symptoms To Be Aware Of

Just like many ailments, DVT comes with a wide range of signs and symptoms all of which should alert you to the potential dangers. These include:

  • Swelling in one or both legs
  • Changes in the color of the affected leg – typically to a blue or purple shade
  • A warm feeling of the skin on the affected limb
  • Leg tenderness or pain
  • Tired or restless leg that doesn’t appear to go away
  • Reddening or discoloration of the skin on the leg
  • Visible veins appearing more prominent than usual

These symptoms or signs may appear suddenly or occur slowly over time, so it pays to keep a close eye on your lower limbs at home, particularly if you are in a high-risk category.

So what constitutes a high-risk category?

If you:

  • Are over the age of 50
  • Have a family history of either DVT, vein problems or pulmonary embolism
  • Are overweight or obese
  • Suffer from chronic medical illnesses such as lung disease, heart disease or Crohn’s disease
  • Have recently undergone major surgery
  • Have recently had long periods of bed confinement; or
  • You are a smoker

…then you are at higher risk of developing vein problems leading to deep vein thrombosis.

So if you do notice any of the signs at home and you fall into one of the categories above then you should schedule an appointment with your doctor as a matter of urgency.

Can I do anything to prevent getting DVT?

To avoid getting deep vein thrombosis you should look to keep your weight down- particularly if you fall into that overweight or obese category. It’s thought that even small amounts of weight loss are enough to reduce the risk of developing DVT. Also, try to stay as active as possible. Taking regular exercise such as walking can also help to keep DVT at bay.

If you do happen to be bedridden for long periods – particularly during convalescence, try to flex and stretch the legs, wiggle your toes, and move your ankles regularly to keep the circulation moving in the lower limbs.

So there you have it… how to check for DVT at home and why you really should!

Here at the Midwest Institute for Non-Surgical Therapy (MINT), we can help you to tackle the problems of leg pain including poor circulation before you develop DVT.

Dr. Goke Akinwande and his team are well-equipped and highly skilled to treat both vein and arterial problems including peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We will perform a comprehensive evaluation to determine the cause of your problem and treat it accordingly.

If you are concerned about the possibility of developing DVT or have any of the symptoms listed above, then get complete peace of mind and schedule an appointment at a MINT clinic near you.






Signs & Symptoms of Blood Clotting Disorders

Clinical Spectrum of Clotting

The signs and symptoms of blood clots range from deep vein thrombosis to pulmonary embolism. The symptoms of a blood clot depend on the location of the affected blood vessel and whether the vessel is totally or partially blocked by the clot.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Blood clots may form in the deep blood vessels, most commonly in the legs and groin, and can block normal blood flow returning from the legs to the heart. Clots in the veins that form in regions of slow to moderate flow are made of a mixture of red cells, platelets, and fibrin, and are known as mixed platelet fibrin thrombi.

Clots in the deep veins of the legs or abdomen that partially block the vein may cause subtle symptoms and sometimes may not cause any symptoms until the normal blood flow is significantly disturbed.

Learn the signs of deep vein thrombosis

Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism occurs when a part or all of a deep vein clot breaks loose and is carried by the bloodstream to the lungs, where it blocks another blood vessel.

The size of the clot and the location of the blocked blood flow in the vessel determine the extent and severity of the pulmonary embolism. Clots in veins that are closer to the body center are more likely to lead to deadly pulmonary embolism as compared to clots in the calf veins.

The occurrence of deadly pulmonary embolism can be greatly reduced if the patient’s deep vein thrombosis is treated with blood thinners.

Learn the signs of pulmonary embolism

Superficial Vein Swelling

Superficial swelling of the veins, called thrombophlebitis, is the result of blood clots that form in veins that are closer to the surface of the skin. These are associated with inflammation. Superficial thrombophlebitis is often observed in individuals who are heterozygous or homozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) | Frankel Cardiovascular Center

About DVT

Deep vein thrombosis, commonly referred to as DVT, is a condition that results from the formation of a thrombus, or blood clot, in a vein deep within the body. In addition to causing leg pain and swelling, the condition also can be complicated by pulmonary embolus (PE) should a piece of clot break loose and travel into the pulmonary (lung) circulation. A PE can seriously impair breathing (oxygenation), stress the heart, and can result in death.

Symptoms and Risk Factors for DVT

These are symptoms you may experience with DVT. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms now, you should seek immediate medical evaluation and treatment:

  • Sudden swelling of the limb
  • Pain or aching of the limb
  • Warming sensation in one leg
  • Skin discoloration in severe cases

Risk Factors for DVT Include:

  • Extended periods of inactivity (e.g. bedrest, lengthy plane flight)
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy
  • Use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy
  • Obesity
  • Family history or previous history of DVT or PE
  • Recent surgery
  • Malignancy

Treatment Options for DVT

Treating deep vein thrombosis requires medication to thin the blood. Heparin, Lovenox, Coumadin and other new blood thinners are commonly prescribed. These anticoagulants helps to prevent further clotting while the body attempts to dissolve the venous blood clot.

If you are diagnosed with DVT, you will likely be advised to begin a walking regimen or other physical activity, which have been shown to lead to a decreased incidence of long-term swelling and pain and helps to ensure a successful recovery.

DVT and Postphlebitic Syndrome

If you’ve had an occurrence of DVT, you may develop postphlebitic syndrome, a form of chronic venous insufficiency. Incompetent valves lead to two-way venous flow and ineffective venous return to the heart. This results in high venous blood pressure, venous dilation and valvular insufficiency of additional veins not previously involved.

Signs or symptoms of postphlebitic syndrome may include:

  • Leg aching and fatigue
  • Aching
  • Swelling
  • Hyperpigmentation or skin discoloration
  • Itching and dry skin of the affected leg

The hyperpigmentation or skin discoloration is caused by the breakdown of red blood cells as they pass through this high pressure area. The skin in this area then becomes dry and flaky, causing itching. Continued inflammation and irritation can lead to skin breakdown, eczema and the development of skin ulcers. The ulceration occurs more often in the inside part of the ankle and the margins are usually irregular with an uneven base.

The Venous Health Program at the University of Michigan Frankel Cardiovascular Center

The Venous Health Program at the University of Michigan Frankel Cardiovascular Center is an all-inclusive resource for the treatment of venous disease. This program brings together established and experienced vascular surgeons, vascular medicine specialists, interventional radiologists and nurse practitioners to provide seamless multidisciplinary care.

Patient Resources

Make an Appointment

To make an appointment to discuss your need for treatment for DVT or any other venous condition, contact us toll-free at 888-287-1082 or email us at [email protected]. To learn more about what to expect when you call us, visit our Make an Appointment page.

Deep vein thrombosis | healthdirect

On this page

What is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that occurs in a deep vein; that is, a vein that is not on the surface of the skin. DVT can occur anywhere, but is most often seen in the leg.

If you think you might have DVT, see a doctor. The most serious complication of DVT is pulmonary embolism, which is when a piece of the blood clot breaks off and lodges in the lung. This causes a serious illness and is potentially life-threatening.

What are the symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?

The main signs and symptoms of DVT are pain and swelling in the affected area – usually your calf or thigh.

Some people have no signs or symptoms.

When to seek help

DVT is a serious condition, so if you think you may have DVT, you should see a doctor without delay.

Call an ambulance on triple zero (000) if you:

The main signs and symptoms of DVT are pain and swelling usually in the calf or thigh.

What causes DVT?

Anything that slows blood flow in deep veins can cause DVT.

People who have DVT may have:

Women who are pregnant or who have recently had a baby are also at increased risk of DVT. So are people who are overweight, or who smoke.

DVT can also happen spontaneously, with no apparent cause. Some people with spontaneous DVTs have a genetic condition that makes their blood more likely to clot.

How is a DVT diagnosed?

To diagnose DVT, the doctor will need to talk to you about your symptoms and examine you to look for signs of DVT, such as swelling and pain.

After this, if your doctor thinks you may have DVT, they may suggest you have an ultrasound. A blood test called a D-dimer test can also be done to help detect blood clots. If the doctor thinks there is a risk that part of the blood clot has travelled to your lungs, they may order a chest CT scan.

How is DVT treated?

If you have DVT, you will be treated with medicine that reduces blood clotting (called anticoagulant medication). This can be given either as tablets or via injections and you will probably need to take it for several months.

In very severe cases, a medicine is used to break down the clot. The person normally needs to stay in hospital when this is given as it can cause bleeding.

You may also be asked to wear compression stockings to bring down the swelling.

What are the complications of a DVT?

Bits of the blood clot can break off and travel around the body, affecting the heart or lungs.

After having a DVT, the leg can remain swollen and ulcers may develop.

How is DVT prevented?

If you are travelling or are hospitalised, you can reduce your risk of developing DVT by wearing compression stockings, moving your feet and legs as much as possible, and drinking plenty of water.

If you have already had a DVT, it is very important to quit smoking, keep fit and maintain a healthy weight. Some people may need to stay on low-dose anticoagulant medication long-term or use it prior to long haul flights.

Blood Clots in the Legs and Lungs : SLU

Venous Thromboembolism & Pulmonary Embolism Treatments

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a vein in the leg. Symptoms
include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins in the leg.

Left untreated, DVT can break off and travel through the bloodstream into the lung,
where it becomes trapped, blocking oxygen supply to the body and causing heart failure.
This is known as a pulmonary embolism (PE), which can be fatal. With early treatment, people with DVT can reduce their
chances of developing a life-threatening pulmonary embolism to less than one percent.

DVT and PE can be treated safely and effectively through a minimally invasive image-guided
procedure known as catheter-directed thrombolysis. This clot-busting treatment is
performed by a minimally invasive specialist called a vascular interventional radiologist.

Restoring Healthy Blood Flow

To open up a blocked vein in the leg, the interventional radiologist makes a tiny
incision in the groin or behind the knee to access the clot. Using specialized X-ray
equipment, the physician passes a catheter (small tube) into the affected vein, and
guides it near the location of the block. The catheter tip is placed into the clot
and a clot-busting drug is released. The fresher the clot, the faster it dissolves
– one to two days.

In some patients, an alternative approach to treatment may be medically advised. SLUCare
minimally invasive specialists may treat blood clots by inserting a vena cava filter,
a small device that functions like a catcher’s mitt to capture blood clots but allow
normal liquid blood to pass.

Why Choose SLUCare for Treatment of Blood Clots?

We are minimally invasive image-guided specialists. Our fellowship-trained doctors offer expertise in both DVT and PE, with a high rate
of success.

No stitches needed. Our minimally invasive approach uses an incision so tiny it can be covered with just
a Band-Aid®.

Our collaborative approach assures comprehensive care. SLUCare interventional radiologists work with pulmonologists and critical care physicians
to deliver the best possible outcome for the patient.

Schedule a consultation with SLUCare

For an appointment, call 314-977-5600.

Find an Interventional Radiologist

90,000 How to recognize thrombosis and thrombophlebitis – blog of the ON Clinic medical center

Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis are common venous diseases that can cause serious complications. Up to 20% of people face thrombosis of the legs and in half of the cases the disease occurs against the background of varicose veins. About 70% of cases are women.

What is thrombophlebitis and thrombosis?

Thrombophlebitis is a disease in which the walls of blood vessels become inflamed and a blood clot forms – a thrombus.Most often, the disease affects the superficial vessels, saphenous veins and their tributaries. Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is less common and accounts for up to 10% of all diagnosed cases. Pathological changes occur in the veins of the lower leg and thigh.

The main causes of thrombophlebitis are:

  • neglected varicose veins;
  • circulatory disorders with low physical activity;
  • transferred infectious diseases;
  • Mechanical damage to blood vessels during intravenous fluids or injections;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • tumor lesion of the vascular walls;
  • intake of hormonal and diuretics.

The risk of developing thrombophlebitis of the legs increases during pregnancy and after childbirth.

Thrombosis is a disease in which the patency of the veins is impaired due to the formation of a blood clot. Pathology develops against the background of increased blood clotting, which leads to a decrease in blood flow velocity. The causes of vein thrombosis are:

  • blood stagnation with varicose veins, decreased physical activity;
  • inflammatory processes in the walls of blood vessels;
  • pathological changes in the circulatory system in case of cancer, metabolic disorders, severe cardiovascular diseases.

An increased risk of blood clots is associated with age-related changes in people over 40. Particular attention to the health of the veins should be paid to those who lead a lot of a sedentary lifestyle.

Signs of thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is accompanied by pain in the affected area, which increases with touching and walking. Patients notice redness and thickening of the skin, persistent edema of the legs. Acute thrombophlebitis is manifested by an increase in temperature to 39 ° C and chills, accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes.

What are the main symptoms of thrombosis?

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT):

  • Leg pain is the main symptom of deep vein thrombosis;
  • Limb edema If you notice that one of your bones is suddenly swollen, this may be an early symptom of DVT;
  • Appearance of red streaks on the skin;
  • tachycardia;
  • chest pain;
  • lack of air;
  • hemoptysis;
  • abdominal pain;
  • vomiting.

About the symptoms of thrombosis

The signs of thrombosis are similar to those of thrombophlebitis. Patients are worried about pain that increases when walking, standing still and touching the affected area. There is swelling of the limb, which is accompanied by a feeling of fullness and heaviness. A pronounced venous pattern is visible under the skin. The temperature of the affected limb is slightly higher than that of the healthy one. The skin around the inflamed area becomes pale with a specific shine, cyanosis may appear.

Thrombosis does not always have clear symptoms. In some cases, the disease does not manifest itself with pronounced symptoms.

Acute thrombosis is accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature, general malaise, fever and chills. Such changes require urgent medical attention to diagnose and treat the disease. Detachment of a blood clot and its entry into deep veins can lead to dangerous complications.

What is the difference between thrombophlebitis and varicose veins?

Thrombophlebitis and varicose veins have similar symptoms, but a different nature.With varicose veins, the vessels are constantly dilated, and their walls become thinner. The disease leads to impaired blood flow and the formation of nodes in the vessels. With thrombophlebitis, the walls of the vein become inflamed and a blood clot forms. Blockage of the vessel lumen causes impaired blood circulation and swelling of the affected vessel.

How to treat thrombophlebitis at home?

If you suspect inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, you should contact a phlebologist who will diagnose and prescribe treatment.Only mild forms of the disease, in which superficial vessels are involved in the inflammatory process, can be treated at home. Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities requires mandatory hospitalization due to the risk of embolism.

The patient is prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs that reduce blood clotting (anticoagulants). In the process of taking them, it is necessary to regularly take tests to control blood counts. Medication is aimed at preventing new blood clots from forming.For external use, drugs are used based on heparin, which promotes the resorption of blood clots.

For outpatient treatment, the patient must be kept in bed. In the prone position, the legs should be raised up. Drinking plenty of fluids is recommended to thin the blood.

Thrombosis – treatment with folk remedies

The possibility of treating thrombosis with folk remedies should be discussed with your doctor. Patients with a tendency to form blood clots need to eliminate the causes of leg edema.Regular physical activity prevents vascular congestion. The most useful for varicose veins and venous insufficiency are walking, cycling, swimming.

Avoid overheating and prolonged exposure to the sun. To relieve tension from diseased vessels, you need to lift your legs up so that they are above the level of the heart with support along the entire length of the lower leg.

How long does one live with deep vein thrombosis?

Deep vein thrombosis is life threatening only with the development of complications.The most serious of them are pulmonary embolism and the transition of the disease to a purulent form, leading to phlegmon (acute subcutaneous infection caused by the spread of pus), gangrenous lesions. Seeing a doctor when the first signs of venous pathology appear, timely diagnosis and treatment allow you to avoid complications that can lead to death.

Acute thrombosis and thrombophlebitis may recur. This primarily applies to people who have a sedentary job or activities associated with long trips.Smoking, lack of fluid in the body, taking drugs that increase blood clotting also contribute to the formation of blood clots.

Patients with varicose veins are at increased risk. If a diagnosis of thrombosis is made, it is necessary to be regularly monitored by a doctor, to follow his recommendations. The duration and quality of life for venous diseases directly depends on the patient’s lifestyle. The combination of drug therapy and moderate exercise prevents blood clots from forming.

The diet should have a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits that help thin the blood and prevent blood clots. Garlic and kiwi are natural anticoagulants, and they also tend to thin the blood. Citrus fruits and red grapes help to strengthen the walls of blood vessels.

Treatment of deep vein thrombophlebitis

Methods of treatment of deep vein thrombophlebitis depend on the nature of the disease. If the inflammation does not pose a threat to life, drug therapy is prescribed.It consists in taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and venotonic drugs, using external agents. During the treatment period, it is recommended to wear special compression stockings.

Surgical operation is necessary when there is a threat of purulent complications with the appearance of abscesses in the area of ​​the affected vein or pulmonary embolism (PE), if the inflammation passes from the leg to the thigh. With PE, the artery is blocked by a thrombus. In 9-11% of cases, thromboembolism is fatal.

Another serious complication of inflammatory venous disease is chronic venous insufficiency. Violation of the patency of the veins causes pain, cramps in the legs, ulcers on the skin.

Treatment of thrombosis

Conservative methods of thrombosis therapy include wearing compression stockings, taking medications that thin the blood and promote the resorption of blood clots. With purulent complications, the risk of blockage of the pulmonary artery or vessels supplying blood to the intestines, surgical treatment is indicated.

Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis are diseases that are successfully treated by modern medicine. Taking care of your health and a timely visit to a doctor will help to identify vascular diseases at an early stage and avoid dangerous complications.

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Thrombolysis for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis


Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein in the leg.The blood clot can split and move into the lungs, which in turn can lead to a potentially serious blockage of blood flow (pulmonary embolism or PE). Because of damaged leg veins, post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) can develop at any time during the next couple of years. Symptoms include leg pain, swelling, skin pigmentation, and leg ulcers resulting in loss of mobility. Anticoagulants are the standard treatment for deep vein thrombosis or leg vein thrombosis. They thin the blood to reduce further clotting and prevent PE, however, PTSD can still develop.Thrombolysis destroys a blood clot. For DVT, drugs such as streptokinase, urokinase, and muscle plasminogen activator are injected into a vein in an arm or leg, or, in some cases, directly at the site of a blood clot using a catheter and under X-ray control. Hemorrhagic complications, stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage are potential adverse events with both treatments.

Research characteristics and main results

Results of the review are based on 17 controlled clinical trials in which a total of 1103 people with acute DVT (within 21 days of symptom onset) were randomized (randomized) to receive thrombolysis or anticoagulant therapy.The tests were carried out mainly in the USA, Scandinavia, Germany and the UK. All trials included men and women between the ages of 18 and 75, with most of the participants being elderly.

This review (updated to February 2016) has shown that thrombolysis may have advantages over standard anticoagulant therapy. Thrombolysis effectively dissolves the thrombus, so complete destruction of the thrombus is more likely to occur with thrombolysis than with standard anticoagulant therapy.The blood flow in the affected vein (venous permeability) was also better preserved. Three trials (306 participants) lasted more than six months and found that fewer people experienced post-thrombotic syndrome with thrombolysis treatment (45% versus 66% in the standard anticoagulant group). Two trials (211 participants), which lasted more than five years, also showed that fewer people developed post-thrombotic syndrome when treated with thrombolysis.

People who received thrombolysis had more hemorrhagic complications than people who received standard anticoagulant therapy (10% versus 8%). Most of the bleeding and deaths occurred in earlier studies. The use of stringent criteria appears to have increased the safety of this treatment, which is effective in directly targeting a thrombus through a catheter or through blood flow from another vein.

Quality of evidence

Using the GRADE score, the quality of the evidence was rated as moderate (moderate) due to the low number of participants in many studies.However, the results across studies were consistent and we are fairly confident in these results.

Vein thrombosis – types, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Thrombus is a blood clot, physiologically formed during injury to prevent blood loss. Everyone has encountered a blood clot in a cut or scratch — a blood “crust” that prevents bleeding from continuing. That is, a blood clot is a natural defense reaction of the body against blood loss.But blood clots can also form in pathological conditions, this situation is called thrombosis. In this case, a blood clot forms in the bloodstream – a vessel and a cavity of the heart and can be extremely dangerous for human life and health.

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, arteries and veins. Consequently, blood clots can form both in the heart cavity and in arteries and veins. Depending on the localization of blood clots, an appropriate clinical picture develops, requiring specific treatment.

Intracardiac thrombi usually develop with arrhythmias or after myocardial infarction. Most often, blood clots in the heart do not manifest themselves in any way, their diagnosis is carried out by ultrasound of the heart (ECHO KG). However, blood clots from the heart can “fly out” into the arterial bed, then the clinical picture of arterial thrombosis will develop: if the arm artery is damaged, arm ischemia will develop, if the leg artery is leg ischemia, the cerebral artery – stroke, and so on. Therefore, it is extremely important for heart disease to undergo regular examinations and be monitored by a cardiologist.Optimally selected antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant therapy can save your life and health.

Arterial thrombosis leads to the development of acute ischemia of the corresponding organ. Most often it is an arm or a leg. The limb turns pale, grows cold, turns blue, movements and sensitivity disappear, a pronounced pain syndrome develops, in the worst case, gangrene occurs. Arterial thrombosis is treated with the help of an operation – thrombectomy: with a special device – a thrombextractor, the surgeon removes blood clots from the arteries and restores blood flow to the limb.In case of damage to the arteries of the brain, a stroke develops, which is usually treated conservatively by neurologists (drug therapy).

The most effective treatment for arterial thrombosis in 4-6 hours. Therefore, if the above symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor or call an ambulance.

Venous thrombosis is a rather serious and dangerous disease. The most terrible and formidable complication of venous thrombosis is called PE (Pulmonary Artery Embolism).PE develops if the blood clots “break off” and enter the heart with the torus, and from there – into the pulmonary artery. This extremely life-threatening condition requires immediate hospitalization and treatment.

Venous thrombosis can be in deep and superficial veins. Deep vein thrombosis is called phlebothrombosis, and the leg swells, becomes purple, and the muscles are painful. Phlebothrombosis usually requires hospitalization and is treated conservatively – drug therapy. On average, inpatient treatment takes about 1-2 weeks, then outpatient treatment can take six months or more.

Thrombosis of superficial veins is called thrombophlebitis, most often develops as a result of varicose veins. This is manifested by pain, compaction, redness along the vein – along the inner side of the thigh and / or lower leg. The situation requires an emergency operation – crossectomy – transection of the great saphenous vein so that a blood clot cannot enter the heart.

It is important to remember that a timely visit to a doctor can save your life and preserve your health.


Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities (DVT) is an acute disease caused by the formation of blood clots in the veins of the legs, with the appearance of edema, discoloration of the skin, in severe cases – trophic disorders (ulcers).

Deep veins (as opposed to subcutaneous ones) run deep in the muscles. These veins carry the main outflow of blood from the legs to the heart against gravity. Contractions of the muscles of the legs squeeze the veins, pushing up the blood in them, and the venous valves, which let the blood through only from the bottom up, prevent its reverse movement.Thus, the blood moves from the legs to the heart against gravity. The collection of venous valves in the body is called the “second heart”. But, the second heart works only when walking, running, physical activity. When standing or sitting for a long time, the first heart has to work for two.

Blood clots more often develop in the deep veins of the leg, thigh or pelvis, which is facilitated by a tendency to increased thrombosis, a sedentary lifestyle, prolonged forced sitting or lying position (for example, during long flights, in the treatment of fractures and injuries), overweight, diabetes, inflammatory and oncological diseases.Blood clots can form on the valves, causing venous thrombosis.

Diagnosis and treatment of acute DVT

If the blood clot does not completely block the vein, the disease may be asymptomatic. With blood clots that completely close the lumen of the main vein, there is swelling of the leg, pain and impaired movement. In some cases, urgent surgical treatment is required.
If deep vein thrombosis is suspected, an ultrasound scan of the veins is performed, according to the results of which the doctor chooses the tactics of treatment.If thrombosis occurs in large veins, then anticoagulants are prescribed – drugs that slow down blood clotting in order to prevent further clot growth and improve blood flow in the lower extremities. After a certain time (from a month to a year, depending on the volume of the thrombus), recanalization occurs – numerous tubules are formed in the thrombus and the patency of the vein is partially restored. But, the normal operation of the venous valves is disrupted, which is accompanied by the development of post-thrombophlebitic syndrome with periodic leg edema and varicose veins of the superficial veins, which requires long-term conservative treatment.

Currently, there are more radical methods of treating DVT in the world, aimed at the complete dissolution and removal of all blood clots. One of these methods is catheter-guided thrombolysis (CAT). In CUT through a puncture under local anesthesia, a thin catheter is inserted directly into the thrombosed veins and a thrombolytic (a drug that dissolves blood clots) is slowly injected into the blood clots. The treatment lasts from 1 to several days. Sometimes it is necessary to help the medication: remove some of the blood clots outward through a catheter (thrombaspiration) and expand the narrowed part of the vein with a balloon (angioplasty) (if there is such a block in the blood flow).The combined approach accelerates the onset of the desired result and significantly increases the effectiveness of the treatment. In Russia, this modern type of treatment has been mastered so far only in a small number of medical centers, in Bashkortostan it is used so far only in our clinic.

Example of catheter-guided thrombolysis treatment:

The patient was admitted with thrombosis of the main veins of the lower extremity (according to ultrasound – thrombosis of the veins of the leg, popliteal, superficial femoral, great saphenous, small saphenous, iliac veins of the left lower extremity with no blood flow through the indicated veins).Complaints of pain and pronounced edema of the limb.

An intermediate result of catheter-guided thrombolysis is the appearance of minimal blood flow in the initially totally thrombosed iliac and common femoral veins.

An intermediate result of catheter-guided thrombolysis is the appearance of minimal blood flow in the initially totally thrombosed superficial femoral vein.

The final result of catheter-guided thrombolysis is a complete restoration of blood flow with the dissolution of all thrombi in the initially totally thrombosed iliac and common femoral veins.

The final result of catheter-guided thrombolysis is complete restoration of blood flow with dissolution of all thrombi in the initially totally thrombosed superficial femoral vein.

The patient was discharged with recovery: the pains disappeared completely, the swelling of the limb subsided.

Pulmonary embolism. Diagnostics

In case of late diagnosis or insufficiently effective treatment of DVT, the disease can progress, the blood clot grows, becoming a threat.The most severe complication of DVT is pulmonary embolism (PE) – a thrombus detachment, its migration to the heart and blockage of the pulmonary artery, which leads to disability or even instant death caused by the cessation of blood flow in the lungs.

Thromboembolism most often develops in case of loose fixation of a thrombus to the vessel wall. Particularly dangerous are floating blood clots – blood clots, fixed to the venous wall only by a thin leg. Such a thrombus does not completely block the lumen of the vein; the disease may be asymptomatic.The separation of blood clots can provoke massage of the sore leg, increased physical activity (including sharp tension of the abdominal press, cough), trauma, surgery on the affected limb.

Dangerous and chronic embolism with small blood clots, which proceeds as an inflammation of the lungs and leads to pulmonary failure. The appearance of attacks of shortness of breath, pneumonia against the background of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities requires the obligatory consultation of a vascular surgeon and an ultrasound of the veins! The appearance of edema of the lower leg, or of the entire lower limb, also requires this study!

PE treatment

In case of PE that has already occurred, the use of drugs that dissolve blood clots is effective.Such treatment is usually carried out for severe PE, accompanied by low blood pressure. A thrombolytic agent can be injected both into a peripheral vein and through a catheter directly into a thrombosed pulmonary artery. The catheter is able to break a large blood clot into smaller fragments, which increases the efficiency of thrombolysis.

Warning TELA

At a high risk of PE, the X-ray endovascular surgeon installs a special wire-like device – an antiembolic cava filter – into the lumen of the inferior vena cava.In this case, the detached thrombus does not enter the heart and lungs, but is retained by the filter. This device is easy to install, freely passes blood, but creates a reliable barrier for blood clots. The filter is passed under local anesthesia through a skin puncture through a catheter with a diameter of 2-3 mm. The filter itself does not eliminate the cause of the development of blood clots; this is the task of drug treatment. However, it prevents a detached blood clot from embolizing a pulmonary artery and reduces the risk of sudden death. Filters are usually implanted temporarily and removed after the risk of PE has been eliminated.The decision to remove the filter is made after repeated ultrasound of the veins, in which the dynamics of resolution of thrombosis is assessed. Removal of the filter does not require general anesthesia and is also performed under X-ray control through a puncture. If it is impossible to eliminate the risk of PE, the filter can be left permanently.

After discharge from hospital

, it is mandatory to take blood thinners – most often it is warfarin, Pradaxa or Xarelto.In the presence of chronic venous insufficiency, dispensary observation by a vascular surgeon, the use of phlebotonics and the wearing of compression hosiery are necessary.

In our clinic, in the treatment of patients with acute DVT and PE, it is possible to use all the methods described in the article. The decision on the choice of the method of treatment is made individually.

Questions related to angiographic and X-ray endovascular interventions at Medservice LLC, you can ask:

Tel.: +7 (3476) 39-52-38, email mail: [email protected]

Ivanov Andrey Gennadievich (Head of the Department of X-ray Surgical Methods of Diagnostics and Treatment, doctor of the highest category, specializing in X-ray endovascular diagnostics and treatment)

90,000 How to identify the first symptoms of thrombosis

Thrombosis is a dangerous disease in which blood clots (thrombi) appear in the vessels. They can slow down or stop blood flow altogether.The latter is especially dangerous. Due to a lack of nutrition in the area where the thrombus has appeared, tissue or organ necrosis may begin. But a vessel blocked by a thrombus can be very large.

There are a variety of reasons for the formation of blood clots, from trauma to the vascular walls to increased blood clotting. The risk group for developing thrombosis includes people over 65 years of age, with bad habits, obesity and leading a sedentary lifestyle.

Even a long flight can cause thromboembolism (blockage of a blood vessel by a thrombus).

Thrombosis is also a rare but dangerous side effect of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Note that after careful consideration of the potential risks, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) concluded that the benefits of vaccination outweigh the potential harm.

Of the 20 million people who received the AstraZeneca vaccine, only 79 patients developed thrombosis, but 19 died as a result. It is important to consider this risk and understand what symptoms indicate an urgent need to seek medical attention when making a choice in favor of vaccination.

First, most of the blood clots caused by the AstraZeneca vaccine appeared in the veins of the patients’ brains. The medical diagnosis of this condition is called venous sinus thrombosis. This type of thrombosis can lead to stroke, seizures, loss of sensation in parts of the body, and subsequently death.

Second, it is already known that most blood clots were found in women under 60 years of age within two weeks of vaccination.

Therefore, the UK Vaccines and Immunization Committee warns people under the age of 30 against being vaccinated with AstraZeneca.Unless they’ve already received the first dose.

General WHO recommendations for people who have received the AstraZeneca vaccine are to control their own condition.

If the patient experiences shortness of breath, severe swelling of the extremities, chest pain or prolonged abdominal pain, headache and blurred vision, it is recommended that he see a doctor immediately.

Side effects such as pain and swelling at the injection site, as well as mild soreness in other parts of the body are considered normal in the first few days after vaccination, doctors also note.

However, dangerous side effects of vaccination are extremely rare. Besides, there is other good news.

If a thrombus is detected early, complications of thrombosis can be easily avoided. The condition is usually treated with blood clotting drugs (anticoagulants).

It is worth noting here that it is impossible to take drugs that reduce blood viscosity (for example, aspirin) without consulting your doctor. These drugs can cause stomach ulcers or provoke bleeding that is no less dangerous for the body.

More important medical news can be found in the “Medicine” section of the “ Watching ” media platform.

90,000 Patients – From varicose veins to thrombosis – just one step: 5 important questions about the causes and danger of varicose veins – No varicose veins, laser surgery clinic in Yekaterinburg, laser treatment of varicose veins Yekaterinburg, removal of spider veins, a phlebologist’s appointment in Yekaterinburg, a vascular surgeon’s appointment, treatment of varicose veins on legs, sclerotherapy

How to understand when to run to the hospital and what will happen if you do not receive treatment

It is necessary and possible to treat varicose veins before it’s too late

Today it is difficult to meet a person, who never felt heaviness in the legs or did not notice the scattering of spider veins on the body.But, as a rule, no one thinks about the serious consequences of this familiar to many symptoms. For example, to the formation of a blood clot, which at any time can come off the vessel wall and lead to a sad outcome.

Therefore, Thrombosis Day is celebrated all over the world in October to remind people once again how insidious and dangerous this disease can be.

According to the latest medical research, deep vein thrombosis is five times more likely to develop in adult patients with varicose veins.Surgeon-phlebologist of the “No varicose veins” clinic for laser surgery Hrant Ambaryan answered the most popular questions about the treatment and prevention of varicose veins and how to prevent thrombosis.

Why are varicose veins dangerous?

Varicose veins are a disease accompanied by a thinning of the venous wall and an increase in the lumen of the veins. Because of varicose veins, the risk of blood clots increases, skin diseases appear – itching, burning, eczema and even venous ulcers, that is, painful deep defects of the skin and fatty tissue.Bleeding may even occur because the dilated, thinned vessel wall is easily damaged.

“If treatment is not started on time, irreversible consequences will occur, including death,” says Dr. Ambaryan.

Why does varicose veins appear?

The main reasons are a sedentary lifestyle or, conversely, heavy physical exertion of a constant nature.

– Drivers and office workers spend a lot of time in a sitting position, while loaders, hairdressers, salesmen, factory workers, on the contrary, work on their feet all day.Both have a bad effect on the health of blood vessels, ”says Hrant Ambaryan. “In addition, varicose veins are more common in women, partly to blame for high heels and heavy bags. And, of course, you should always take into account bad habits – smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet.

Therefore, it is very important to regularly exercise without lifting weights, give up fatty and smoked foods, fast food, excessive amounts of sweets, soda, strong tea and coffee, and alcohol.Avoid wearing clothes that are too tight or uncomfortable high-heeled shoes. While resting in a horizontal position, the legs should be kept slightly higher than the body. And, of course, get rid of excess weight and all addictions, especially tobacco.

How to understand that varicose veins have begun?

If at the end of the day there is a feeling of heaviness in the legs, buzzing, tingling, numbness, burning, edema occur, even just a trace from the elastic of socks – this already indicates a violation of the exchange of fluid between tissues and blood vessels.Spider veins, discoloration of certain areas of the skin, noticeable outlines of large blue veins, cramps that occur during the daytime when walking or while resting – all these are reasons for an immediate visit to the doctor. And for preventive purposes, a phlebologist should be visited once a year.

What happens if varicose veins are not treated?

Most people with the above symptoms do not attach much importance to them.

– When varicose veins appear on the legs, patients believe that it can be cured at any time, and postpone the visit to the doctor, says Dr. Ambaryan.- This is a very big mistake, since varicose veins and its consequences lead to serious complications and even death. For example, venous thrombosis may develop. In 80% of cases, this happens gradually and secretly.

Often, the disease is diagnosed already with the development of life-threatening complications. So, one patient of the clinic “No varicose veins” came for examination when she already had an advanced stage of varicose veins. She ignored him for years. Doctors conducted an examination, did an ultrasound scan and noticed a blood clot.The patient was sent by ambulance to the hospital, where the blood clot was removed on time. If the woman continued to delay with the appeal, everything could end in disaster.

How are varicose veins diagnosed and treated now?

The gold standard for the diagnosis of varicose veins is ultrasound, Doppler and angiography. These methods show the speed of blood flow and help determine its violation in individual vessels. Most often, this is enough for the doctor to make an accurate diagnosis.

At the moment, there are three ways to treat varicose veins.The conservative method is suitable for patients with the initial stages of the disease: it does not reverse the pathological process, but helps to partially eliminate the symptoms of the disease. Minimally invasive treatment – sclerotherapy and percutaneous laser coagulation – is used in the first and second stages of varicose veins. These methods are on the border between surgical and drug treatments.

The most effective outpatient methods for treating varicose veins in the middle and late stages are combined phlebectomy, endovasal laser coagulation and radiofrequency ablation of the great or small saphenous veins.

“Of course, it’s better not to bring the situation to an operative intervention, so you need to listen carefully to your body and be examined in time,” Hrant Ambaryan summed up.

Symptoms of blood clots are named

The symptoms of blood clots are named

British doctors have listed the main symptoms that indicate the development of blood clots.RIA Novosti, 16.03.2021

2021-03-16T17: 13

2021-03-16T17: 13

2021-03-16T17: 13



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MOSCOW, March 16 – RIA Novosti. British doctors have listed the main symptoms indicating the development of blood clots.Doctors warned that blood clots most often form in the lower extremities. One of the most common signs of thrombosis is swelling of the legs. As the disease progresses, itching develops into pain, and if the clot is in the lower leg, then the person may have spasms. Difficulty breathing, severe cough, chest pain, and dizziness. In this case, experts recommended communicating immediately for medical help.

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society, health

MOSCOW, March 16 – RIA Novosti. British doctors have listed the main symptoms that indicate the development of blood clots.

Doctors warned that blood clots most often form in the lower extremities.One of the most common signs of thrombosis is swelling of the legs.

“Itching may intensify in the legs, and the skin becomes red or blue,” the portal Express quotes doctors.