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What body system secretes hormones: Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones




LOQ 2-6 How does the endocrine system transmit information and interact with the nervous system?

endocrine [EN-duh-krin] system the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.

So far, we have focused on the body’s speedy electrochemical information system. But your body has a second communication system, the endocrine system (FIGURE 2.8). Glands in this system secrete hormones, another form of chemical messenger. Hormones travel through our bloodstream and influence many aspects of our life—growth, reproduction, metabolism, and mood.

Figure 2.8: FIGURE 2.8 The endocrine system

Some hormones are chemically identical to neurotransmitters. The endocrine system and nervous system are therefore close relatives. Both produce molecules that act on receptors elsewhere. Like many relatives, they also differ. The speedier nervous system zips messages from eyes to brain to hand in a fraction of a second. Endocrine messages trudge along in the bloodstream, taking several seconds or more to travel from the gland to the target tissue. The nervous system transmits information to specific receptor sites with text-message speed. The endocrine system is more like delivering an old-fashioned letter.

adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.

But slow and steady sometimes wins the race. The effects of endocrine messages tend to outlast those of neural messages. Have you ever felt angry long after the cause of your angry feelings was resolved (say, your friend apologized for her rudeness)? You may have experienced an “endocrine hangover” from lingering emotion-related hormones. Angry feelings can hang on, even when we’ve chosen to move past them. When this happens, we need a little time to simmer down. Consider what happens behind the scenes when you hear burglar-like noises outside your window. Your ANS may order your adrenal glands to release epinephrine and norepinephrine (also called adrenaline and noradrenaline). In response, your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar will rise, giving you a surge of energy known as the fight-or-flight response. When the “burglar” turns out to be a playful friend, the hormones—and your alert, aroused feelings—will linger a while.

pituitary gland the most influential endocrine gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

The endocrine glands’ control center is the pituitary gland. This pea-sized structure, located in the brain’s core, is controlled by a nearby brain area, the hypothalamus (more on that shortly). The pituitary releases a number of hormones. One is a growth hormone that stimulates physical development. Another is oxytocin, which enables contractions during birthing, milk flow in nursing, and orgasm. Oxytocin also promotes social interactions. When couples bond, or when we experience feelings of group togetherness or social trust, oxytocin’s pleasant presence is paving the way (De Dreu et al., 2010; Zak, 2012).


Pituitary secretions also direct other endocrine glands to release their hormones. The pituitary, then, is a master gland (whose own master is the hypothalamus). For example, under the brain’s influence, the pituitary triggers your sex glands to release sex hormones. These in turn influence your brain and behavior.

This feedback system (brain → pituitary → other glands → hormones → body and brain) reveals the interplay between the nervous and endocrine systems. The nervous system directs endocrine secretions, which then affect the nervous system. In charge of this whole electrochemical orchestra is that master conductor we call the brain.

Retrieve + Remember


•Why is the pituitary gland called the “master gland”?

ANSWER: Responding to signals from the hypothalamus, the pituitary releases hormones that trigger other endocrine glands to secrete hormones, which in turn influence our brain and our behavior.



•How are the nervous and endocrine systems alike, and how do they differ?

ANSWER: Both of these communication systems produce chemical molecules that act on the body’s receptors to influence our behavior and emotions. The endocrine system, which secretes hormones into the bloodstream, delivers its messages much more slowly than the speedy nervous system, and the effects of the endocrine system’s messages tend to linger much longer than those of the nervous system.

The hormone system and cancer

This page is about the hormone system and how cancer may affect it. It also tells you how hormone therapies can treat some types of cancer. There is information about

The hormone system

Hormones and how they work

The hypothalamus

The pituitary gland

The pineal gland

The thyroid and parathyroid glands

The adrenal glands

The pancreas

The ovaries

The testes

Hormones and cancer

The hormone system

The hormone system is a network of glands and organs in the body that produce hormones. It is also called the endocrine system. The diagram shows the main parts of the hormone system.

Hormones and how they work

Hormones are natural substances made by the glands and organs of the hormone system. Each gland makes a different hormone and most make more than one.

There are many different hormones. They are carried around our body in our bloodstream and act as messengers between one part of our body and another. 

Each hormone has a different function. They control how we respond to changes in the environment around us as well as:

  • growth and development
  • how the body works
  • our mood
  • sexual function
  • reproduction

The glands produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream. The hormones then travel from the gland to its target cells and connect to a part of the cell called a receptor. The connection triggers a response in the cell. The type of response depends on the type of hormone.

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland in the brain control the whole hormone system including the levels of hormones in the body.

The hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is part of the brain and not actually part of the endocrine system. It works with the pituitary gland to control the activity of the other glands. 

The hypothalamus reacts to changes in the amount of hormones in the body. When the level of a hormone drops the hypothalamus signals to the pituitary gland. The pituitary then produces hormones  that tell other glands to produce the hormone that the body needs.

For example, the thyroid gland makes thyroid hormones. It only does this when the hypothalamus detects that the level of thyroid hormones is low. The hypothalamus signals to the pituitary gland to produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones. 

When the thyroid hormones are at the right level the hypothalamus signals to the pituitary gland to stop producing TSH. The thyroid gland then stops making thyroid hormones. Doctors call this a negative feedback mechanism. This is how the body controls hormone levels.

The pituitary gland

This is a small gland at the base of the brain. You can see it in the diagram above. The pituitary makes a number of hormones and controls many different body functions. Many of the pituitary gland hormones signal to other parts of the hormone system to make or stop making other hormones.

Pituitary hormones control:

  • growth by producing growth hormone
  • the speed of body processes (metabolism), by producing thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH)
  • steroid levels, by producing adrenocorticotropic hormone that tells the adrenal glands to make steroids
  • breast milk production after birth by producing prolactin that makes the breasts produce milk

The pituitary gland also controls the egg production in women and sperm production in men. It produces 2 hormones called follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH). These control oestrogen and progesterone levels in women and testosterone levels in men. FSH and LH levels are in turn controlled by the hypothalamus.

The pineal gland

The pineal gland is a very small gland deep in the brain. It makes the hormone melatonin. This helps control sleep patterns. 

The thyroid and parathyroid glands

The thyroid and parathyroid glands are at the base of the neck. 

The thyroid gland

The thyroid makes these hormones:

  • T3 which is also called tri iodothyronine
  • T4 which is also called thyroxine
  • calcitonin

The hormones T3 and T4 help to control how fast your body works. This is your metabolic rate. You put on weight and feel very tired if your thyroid gland doesn’t make enough of these hormones, This is often called underactive thyroid.

You lose weight and have an increased appetite if your thyroid gland makes too much of the T3 and T4 hormones. This is an overactive thyroid. You may also feel anxious and find it difficult to relax.

Calcitonin helps to control the amount of calcium in the body.

Parathyroid glands

The parathyroid glands are 4 very small glands next to the thyroid gland. They make parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Along with calcitonin and vitamin D, PTH controls the level of calcium in the blood.

The adrenal glands

You have 2 adrenal glands, one above each kidney.

The adrenal glands make several hormones. Cortisol is a natural steroid hormone that affects the level of sugar in the blood. Aldosterone helps to regulate the body’s water and salt balance, and the blood pressure.

The adrenal glands also produce small amounts of the male and female sex hormones, oestrogen and testosterone.

Another important hormone made in the adrenal gland is adrenaline (epinephrine). Adrenaline helps us to respond quickly when under stress. Another similar hormone noradrenaline (norepinephrine) also helps us to respond quickly under stress.

The pancreas

The pancreas is quite high up in your tummy (abdomen). It lies across the body, where your ribs meet at the bottom of your breastbone, just behind your stomach. It is the yellow structure in the diagram.

The pancreas is about 6 inches (15cm) long and shaped like a leaf. It makes insulin, which controls the amount of sugar in our blood. It also makes other hormones that help with digestion including:

  • glucagon
  • somatostatin
  • pancreatic polypeptide

The ovaries

The ovaries produce 2 sex hormones:

  • oestrogen
  • progesterone

Together they control the menstrual cycle (periods).

During puberty oestrogen helps the development of female sexual characteristics. This includes breast growth and the maturing of the womb (uterus) and vagina.

Progesterone plays a part in maintaining pregnancy.

The testes

The testicles or testes produce the hormone testosterone.

Testosterone gives male qualities such as a deep voice and beard growth. It also controls sex drive (libido) and the ability to have an erection.  


Hormones and cancer

Some cancer cells can produce hormones that circulate in the body and cause symptoms. This is called paraneoplastic syndrome. The symptoms depend on the particular hormone produced. For example, some types of lung cancer cells produce hormones that may cause:

  • pins and needles
  • numbness in the fingers or toes
  • muscle weakness
  • dizziness
  • a change in the balance of salt and water in the body (SIADH)

Hormones and cancer treatments

Cancer treatments called hormone therapies can change the amount of hormones the body produces. They usually lower the levels of particular hormones. They may do this by:

  • blocking the action of hormones
  • reducing the amount of the hormone that the body makes

These treatments can reduce the chance of a cancer coming back after other treatments. Or it might stop or slow the growth of a cancer for some time.

You can read about hormone therapies and their side effects.  

Hormones and endocrine regulation of the female body – Femigeston

The concept of hormones and the endocrine system of the female body

kov), are controlled to a greater extent namely hormones. They are produced by the glands of the organs of the human body, the most famous of them include: the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, female ovaries and male testicles, adrenal glands.

Hormones are biologically active substances, they also regulate the normal functioning of the body and are produced by the glands. These “intermediaries” affect both the body as a whole and a specific organ separately. Hormones actively interact with each other.

There are two types of glands that contribute to the production of hormones, these are:

– exocrine;

– endocrine.

The exocrine glands are simpler in their effect and work in the body. They affect a separate organ, that is, they have a local effect. Through special ducts, the produced hormones enter the desired organ, where they produce certain effects.

The vast majority of glands in the human body are endocrine and do not make their way through specially designated ducts, but are transported into the blood. Directly from the circulatory system, they move to the desired cell, for which they were produced. The hormone performs its main function in given cells. It is phenomenal that even if the production of the hormone was carried out in the vicinity of the desired organ, it will get to it only after having traveled all the way through the blood stream.

There are glands that are simultaneously responsible for both internal and external secretion. Among these is the pancreas. It reproduces juices for digestion by the exocrine method and, accordingly, they enter the intestine through special ducts. On the other hand, the cells of this gland control the level of sugar in the blood. For such work, they need to act on cells located in completely different organs.

The multifunctional glandular system that is responsible for the production of hormones that enter the blood is called endocrine system . These endocrine glands are located throughout the body, but they are closely interconnected. Control and management of all body functions occurs due to the well-coordinated, uninterrupted work of the endocrine and nervous systems.

Even if you introduce an artificial hormone into the human body with the best of intentions, you need to understand that this will lead to hormonal imbalance. With frequent and prolonged administration of a synthetic hormone, irreparable changes in the body can occur, which in turn can provoke the development of various serious diseases.

The most important thing is that if the glands work together and the hormonal balance works properly, the body will function normally and remain healthy.

Regulation of the reproductive system of the female body

Regulation of the most important functions of the ovaries in a woman is carried out by a center located in the brain. If we consider a more precise location, then this center is located in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. The main concentration of nerve cells-neurons is located in the hypothalamus. Under the influence of nerve impulses in neurons, substances are obtained – neurohormones. They come from both the external environment and internal organs.

Hypothalamus is a small area located in the diencephalon, consists of a large number of cells and is considered to be a transducer of mental processes into physiological ones. So the hypothalamus reacts to stressful situations of the body, as a result of which an increase in body temperature can be observed. It is also directly related to the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a process that is located in the Turkish saddle in the depths of the brain, has the shape of an oval formation. It produces hormones that affect the functioning of the reproductive system, as well as metabolic processes in the body, human growth.

The pituitary gland is composed of three lobes:

– anterior,

– intermediate,

– posterior.

Through the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus connects the nervous system with the endocrine system. Also in this area there are processes of binding and placement of certain neurohormones. They also affect the pituitary gland and thus stimulate or stop its secretion.

The hypothalamus is responsible for the production of gonadoliberins (Gn-RH) and luliberins (LH-RH) in the reproductive system. In men, only the production of GnRH occurs, because, according to physiology, in men, an egg cannot mature and a corpus luteum cannot form.

The pituitary gland, as the basis of the hormonal system, “manufactures” hormones (tropic) that regulate all peripheral endocrine glands.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, FSH) is reproduced under the action of gonadoliberin and is responsible for the development of follicles in the ovary and the maturation of the egg. Under the influence of luliberin, luteinizing hormone (LH, LH) is produced. It is he who promotes ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum.

The anterior pituitary gland produces the hormone prolactin. It in turn blocks FSH and LH. Responsible for the production of milk during lactation after childbirth. It seems to be in the opposite phase from FSH and LH.

The endocrine glands of a woman – the ovaries (female gonads), is a paired organ of the reproductive system, which is located in the small pelvis. In their cavity, the maturation of eggs occurs, the formation of the necessary female hormones. They are also responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics. And also for the menstrual cycle

The ovaries obey the gonadotropic hormones of the pituitary gland. The follicle grows under the influence of the pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Under the same influence, the ovum also matures. The follicle produces estrogens :

– estrone;

– estriol;

– estradiol.

Estrogen also has a charming name – “hormone of femininity”. It determines beauty and sexuality, is responsible for secondary sexual characteristics. This hormone is responsible for changes in the cervix, the formation of cervical secretions. After menstruation, under the influence of estrogens, the uterine mucosa is restored.

Ovulation occurs under the influence of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). When the follicle bursts, it becomes a corpus luteum and produces progesterone – this phase of the cycle is called the luteal phase. And progesterone has a beautiful, gentle name – the “hormone of motherhood.”

It prepares the lining of the uterus (endometrium) to receive the fetus, becoming loose and filled with useful micronutrients for the formation of the fetus. From the first days of pregnancy and up to 12 weeks, progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum to ensure the normal development of the child.

Menstrual-ovarian cycle

on average last a month. During this period, there are changes in the lining of the uterus (menstrual cycle) and changes in the ovaries (ovarian cycle). Hence the single name of the menstrual-ovarian cycle. The beginning of this cycle is considered to be the first day from the day of the onset of menstruation, and the end is the first day of the next menstruation. A full cycle in a healthy woman can last from 21 to 35 days.

Every month a follicle matures in the ovary, sometimes there are several of them, but this happens rarely. Each of them contains an egg. In the middle of the cycle, the follicle ruptures and the egg is released from it – this is the period of ovulation. The egg moves into the fallopian tube and there, meeting the sperm, it is ready to be fertilized. After that, it enters the uterus itself and attaches to its wall, so the beginning of pregnancy begins.

Fertilization of the egg can only occur within 12-24 hours after leaving the ovary, otherwise it dies.

If we consider a 28-day cycle, then from 1 to 14 days – I phase – in the ovaries FSH promotes the growth and maturation of the follicle. The follicle produces estrogen. Under their influence, the mucous membrane is compacted at times. In the middle of the cycle, ovulation occurs, which is facilitated by the release of LH and then the egg leaves the follicle.

After that comes Phase II (from 14 to 28 days) . LH “turns” an empty follicle into a corpus luteum, as a result of which a hormone is produced – progesterone . It also creates favorable conditions for the acceptance and fixation of a fertilized egg.

During the first stages of pregnancy, the corpus luteum becomes the corpus luteum of pregnancy and supports development. Progesterone also blocks the development of follicles and thus the menstrual cycle ends. If the egg is not fertilized, after leaving the follicle, it dies and leaves the body, the concentration of sex hormones in the blood decreases sharply, which leads to the release of the endometrium – menstruation.

In order to determine the onset of ovulation, one of the methods is the measurement of basal body temperature (BBT). This is the body temperature that is measured in the rectum every day. It is very important after waking up not to get up, not to spin, but to carry out the measurement in complete rest. Due to the fact that estrogens and progesterone have different effects on thermoregulation, it is possible to trace the onset of ovulation. Progesterone provokes an increase in temperature, and therefore if in the second phase it rises by 0.5-0.8 ° C, this means that ovulation has occurred. If, for some reason, the process of ovulation did not occur, then the basal temperature will remain low, since the absence of the appearance of the corpus luteum provokes the absence of progesterone.

A healthy woman can have 2-3 anovulatory cycles per year – without ovulation. This is considered quite normal. Thus, a realistic picture of the onset of ovulation can be obtained after measuring BBT for several consecutive cycles.

An important factor is the duration of the rise in temperature (phase II), the duration of 12-14 days is considered the norm. This indicator should not be less and does not depend on the duration of the menstrual-ovarian cycle, whether it be 21 days or 35.

In addition to measuring BBT, you can use special tests to determine ovulation, which are easily purchased at the pharmacy.

causes and consequences of disorders in its work


  • 1 Pituitary gland: disorders, causes and treatment
    • 1.1 Pituitary gland: causes and consequences of disorders
    • 1.2 What is the pituitary gland and how does it function?
    • 1.3 Causes of disorders of the pituitary gland
    • 1.4 Consequences of disorders of the pituitary gland
    • 1.5 pituitary glands: the causes and consequences of violations of its work
      • 1.5.1 What is pituitary insufficiency and how to treat it
    • 1.6 YEARS: The causes and consequences of its work violations
      • 1.6.1 What is a hyprophappal tumor and how to treat it to treat it
    • 1. 7 Consequences of pituitary surgery
      • 1.7.1 Complications after surgery for removal of pituitary tumors
      • 1.7.2 Possible consequences in the treatment of children
      • 1.7.3 Consequences of surgery to increase the pituitary gland
      • 1.7.4 Rehabilitation after pituitary surgery
    • 1.8 What factors influence the functioning of the pituitary gland?
      • 1.8.1 Lack of sleep
      • 1.8.2 Malnutrition
      • 1.8.3 Stress
      • 1.8.4 Bad habits
    • 1.9 Diagnosis of disorders pituitary function
      • 1.9.1 Blood test for hormones
      • 1.9.2 Neuroradiological examinations
      • 1.9.3 Eye examinations
    • 1.10 Methods of treatment and prevention of disorders of the pituitary gland
      • 1.10.1 Treatment
      • 1.10.2 Prevention
    • 1.11 How to reduce the risk of pituitary disorders?
    • 1.12 Pituitary gland and its relationship with other body systems
      • 1. 12.1 Endocrine system
      • 1.12.2 Nervous system
      • 1.12.3 Reproductive system
      • 1.12.4 Immune system
    • 1.13 Related videos:
    • 1.14 Q&A:
        • What are the functions of the pituitary gland?
        • What are the disorders of the pituitary gland?
        • What causes hypofunction of the pituitary gland?
        • Can disorders of the pituitary gland lead to mental disorders?
        • What are the treatments for hypofunction of the pituitary gland?
        • Can pituitary tumors cause hyperfunction of the pituitary gland?

Learn about disorders that can occur in the pituitary gland, from hormonal disruptions to tumors. What are the symptoms and how is it diagnosed and treated?

The pituitary gland is a gland in the brain that controls the hormonal system of the human body. This organ plays an important role in the regulation of growth, development, metabolic processes, the functioning of the thyroid and adrenal glands, the reproductive system and other vital functions.

Disorders of the pituitary gland can lead to various undesirable effects, such as stunted growth and development, metabolic disorders, sexual dysfunction, lack of menstruation, mental retardation and other diseases associated with insufficient or excessive secretion of hormones.

In this article, we will look at the most common causes and consequences of pituitary disorders, as well as possible methods of treatment and prevention.

The pituitary gland: causes and consequences of disorders

The pituitary gland is the main gland of the endocrine system, which regulates the work of all other glands in the body. Violations of its work can lead to various diseases.

The causes of disorders of the pituitary gland can be different: pathologies within the gland itself, disorders in neighboring organs (for example, the brain), genetic factors.

The consequences of disorders of the pituitary gland can manifest themselves in various symptoms: changes in the growth and development of the body, sleep and digestion disorders, disorders in the functioning of the heart and circulatory system. There may also be problems with the reproductive system, changes in metabolism, etc.

It is important to note that disorders of the pituitary gland, especially in children, can cause serious consequences, including growth and developmental delay, delayed puberty, and problems with the musculoskeletal system. In this regard, if there is a suspicion of problems with the pituitary gland, it is necessary to seek the advice of specialists.

    • Sources:
      1. A.G. Kalashnikov. Fundamentals of endocrine physiology. – M.: Nauka, 2005.
      2. Endocrine system. (2019). Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia.

What is the pituitary gland and how does it function?

The pituitary gland is the main part of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which controls many body functions. The pituitary gland is located in the brain and consists of two parts: the anterior and posterior lobes.

The posterior pituitary, in turn, controls some of the glands in our body, such as the adrenal and mammary glands. This part of the pituitary gland also secretes antidiuretic hormone, which controls the excretion of water from the body.

The work of the pituitary gland is associated with the production of hormones that are delivered by bleeding to various organs and tissues of our body. Disruption of the pituitary gland can lead to various diseases such as hypopituitarism and anterior pituitary syndrome.

For the proper functioning of the pituitary gland, it is necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle, monitor the diet and level of physical activity, as well as carry out preventive examinations with an endocrinologist.

Causes of disorders of the pituitary gland

The interaction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland allows you to control the production of hormones that affect various processes in the body. However, disturbances in this complex mechanism can lead to malfunctions of the pituitary gland, which can cause serious damage to human health.

In women, disorders of the pituitary gland can lead to menstrual irregularities, infertility and other reproductive problems. In men, such violations can lead to dysfunction of the gonad, and as a result – to impotence, infertility and other problems.

To avoid problems with the pituitary gland, you need to be attentive to your overall health, eat right, lead a healthy lifestyle, and undergo regular medical examinations to identify possible problems and begin their timely treatment.

Consequences of disorders of the pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is the main endocrine organ that controls the work of all other endocrine glands. Violations of its work can lead to serious diseases and complications.

      • Hypofunction of the pituitary gland is an insufficient secretion of hormones. This can lead to growth retardation in children, hypothyroidism, infantilism, weight loss and abnormalities in the development of internal organs.
      • Hyperfunction of the pituitary gland is an excessive production of hormones. It can cause acromegaly, which leads to increased bone size, high blood pressure, and heart failure.
      • Pituitary Dysfunction is a malfunction of the pituitary gland when abnormal amounts of hormones are produced. This can cause various diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism and other diseases.

Therefore, in order to avoid serious problems, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the pituitary gland and consult a doctor in a timely manner if any suspicious symptoms appear.

The pituitary gland: causes and consequences of malfunctions

What is pituitary insufficiency and how to treat it

Pituitary insufficiency is a disease in which the pituitary gland does not produce enough hormones. It can develop due to a variety of reasons, including genetic disorders, tumors, and head trauma.

Depending on the cause of the disease, the treatment may be different. In some cases, replacement treatment with hormones that are not enough in the body is simply necessary. In other cases, treatment of the underlying disease that caused pituitary insufficiency may be required.

Timely diagnosis and proper treatment of pituitary insufficiency is important, as this problem can lead to serious health problems, including physical and mental retardation in children.

      • Hormone replacement therapy. Hormones that are lacking in the body are injected into the patient in the form of drugs.
      • Treatment of the underlying disease. If the pituitary insufficiency is caused by another disease (such as a brain tumor), then treatment should be directed at eliminating this problem.
      • Surgical treatment. In some cases, surgery may be required, such as to remove a tumor.

Pituitary: Causes and Consequences of Pituitary Growth

What is a Pituitary Tumor and How to Treat It

One of the most common disorders of the pituitary gland is a pituitary tumor that occurs as a result of inappropriate growth of cells in this gland. This tumor is usually benign, but its presence can cause serious health problems.

Among the most common symptoms of a pituitary tumor are: headaches, visual changes, decreased sexual function, sleep disturbances and emotional state. In some cases, pituitary tumors can cause problems with other glands in the body, such as the thyroid and adrenal glands.

The most common treatment for a pituitary tumor is surgery, such as removal of the tumor through endoscopy. However, in some cases, conservative methods of treatment, such as drug therapy or radiotherapy, may be used. Specific treatments depend on the type and size of the tumor, as well as the symptoms it causes.

      • A pituitary tumor is a benign tumor in the pituitary gland that can cause serious health problems.
      • Symptoms of a pituitary tumor are headaches, visual changes, decreased sexual function, sleep disturbances and emotional state.
      • Pituitary tumors are treated with surgical methods, such as endoscopy, as well as conservative therapies, such as drugs and radiotherapy.

Consequences of pituitary surgery

Complications after pituitary tumor removal surgery

Surgery to remove pituitary tumors can cause a number of complications, such as visual impairment, changes in smell, hormonal imbalance and others. After the operation, the patient may feel headache, fatigue, weakness, nausea, dizziness and other unpleasant symptoms. There may also be a risk of infectious complications, bleeding, and problems with scarring on the head.

Possible effects in the treatment of children

Treatment of pituitary disorders in children may cause delayed puberty, growth retardation, impaired sexual development and other problems in the future. Children may experience difficulties with learning and social adaptation.

Consequences of Pituitary Augmentation Surgery

Pituitary Augmentation Surgery can lead to cardiovascular strain, hypertension, headache, taste and smell changes, bladder strain, reproductive dysfunction and other health problems.

Rehabilitation after pituitary surgery

After pituitary surgery, long-term rehabilitation may be required, including constant monitoring of health, medication and diet. Patients may temporarily lose the ability to work or do their favorite activities, as well as experience emotional and psychological problems. It is important to go through the entire course of treatment, follow the recommendations of doctors and take care of your health.

What factors influence the functioning of the pituitary gland?

Lack of sleep

Lack of sleep can affect the functioning of the pituitary gland. Sleep is essential for the regulation of certain hormones, such as growth hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland. If a person does not get enough sleep, it can lead to decreased production of this hormone and other hormones, which can lead to various health problems.

Improper nutrition

Nutrition is an important factor for the normal functioning of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland controls metabolism, growth rate, sexual development and other functions through the production of various hormones. Improper nutrition can lead to a lack of essential nutrients, which can adversely affect the work of the pituitary gland and other body systems.


Stress can cause various changes in the functioning of the pituitary gland. Stress can lead to an increase in the production of certain hormones, such as cortisol, which can decrease the production of other hormones, such as growth hormone. In addition, prolonged stress can also reduce the ability of the pituitary gland to regulate the functions of other glands in the body.

Bad habits

Bad habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol can affect the functioning of the pituitary gland. Smoking can increase the production of cortisol and certain other hormones, which can lead to problems with the pituitary gland and other glands. Drinking alcohol can also disrupt the normal functioning of the pituitary gland and other body systems.

Habits and living conditions affecting the work of the pituitary gland: Factor Influence on the work of the pituitary gland Negative effect on metabolism and the ability of the pituitary gland to regulate body functions Stress Changes in the functioning of the pituitary gland, decreased ability to regulate the functions of other glands Bad habits Violation of the normal functioning of the pituitary gland and other body systems

Diagnosis of disorders of the pituitary gland

Blood test for hormones

One of the main methods for diagnosing disorders of the pituitary gland a is a blood test for hormones. Blood is taken at certain times of the day, depending on the hormone to be tested. For example, to determine the level of growth hormone, blood is taken in the morning. In this case, the value of growth hormone should correspond to the age and sex of the patient.

Neuroradiological examinations

If a pituitary tumor or other disorders of the pituitary gland are suspected, neuroradiological examinations are performed. These include MRI and CT of the brain. These methods allow you to see the state of the pituitary gland and its surrounding tissues, as well as to identify the presence of a tumor or other changes in its structure.

Vision test

Some disorders of the pituitary gland may affect vision. Therefore, when diagnosing the pituitary gland, doctors conduct an examination of vision. This is usually done using perimetry, a method that determines the patient’s field of view, as well as using ophthalmoscopy, an examination of the fundus of the eye.

      • Important: Seek emergency medical attention if you have high or low blood pressure, headaches or eye pain, visual impairment, rapid weight loss or weight gain, changes in skin color, menstrual irregularities.

If any disorders of the pituitary gland are detected, doctors prescribe an individual treatment aimed at correcting the hormonal balance and improving the patient’s condition.

Methods of treatment and prevention of disorders of the pituitary gland


Hormone therapy is one of the main methods of treatment of disorders of the pituitary gland. It consists in taking hormones that the pituitary gland does not produce enough. For example, with a lack of growth hormone, synthetic preparations of this hormone are used.

Surgery may be necessary in cases where the pituitary tumor begins to press on brain structures. In such cases, the tumor is removed and the normal functioning of the pituitary gland is restored.


Proper nutrition is one of the most important points for the prevention of disorders of the pituitary gland. It is necessary to monitor the consumption of a sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. You also need to consume enough vitamins and minerals.

Limiting bad habits , such as smoking and drinking, may reduce the risk of various diseases, including pituitary gland diseases.

Regular medical examinations will help to detect disorders of the pituitary gland at an early stage and start timely treatment. This is especially important for people who have a family history of diseases of the pituitary gland or other endocrine glands.

How to reduce the risk of pituitary disorders?

Proper nutrition and moderate physical activity. Avoid excess fatty, spicy, salty and sugary foods that can lead to obesity. Moderate physical activity helps maintain a healthy weight and strengthens the immune system.

Maintain healthy sleep. Establish regular sleep and avoid nighttime anxiety and stress. Lack of sleep can affect the production of pituitary hormones and lead to malfunctions.

Check your health regularly. Get regular medical check-ups, including hormone levels. This will help to recognize possible violations of the pituitary gland in a timely manner and prevent their further development.

Avoid exposure to harmful factors. This may include exposure to radiation, chemicals, infections, and toxins. For prevention, strengthen the immune system and avoid contact with possible sources of harmful factors.

Observe nominal operation . Reducing the duration of work, especially physical, will enable the pituitary gland to recover.

Avoid stress. Stress can affect the work of the pituitary gland, disrupt its normal functional regime.

Be aware of the risk of self-medication. Never take medicine without consulting your doctor, even if it is a common remedy for pain or a cold. Many drugs can have a negative effect on the functioning of the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland and its relationship with other body systems

The endocrine system

The pituitary gland is part of the body’s endocrine system. It controls the work of other endocrine glands and produces hormones that regulate many physiological processes. In turn, other glands produce hormones that act on the pituitary gland and regulate its work.

Nervous system

The pituitary gland is also connected to the body’s nervous system. It is located in close proximity to the hypothalamus, the part of the brain responsible for controlling the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland, which cause the release of certain hormones.

Reproductive system

The pituitary gland plays an important role in the reproductive system of the body. It produces hormones that control the maturation of the ovaries in women and sperm in men. In addition, pituitary hormones regulate the menstrual cycle in women and are involved in the pregnancy process.

The immune system

The pituitary also interacts with the body’s immune system. The hormones that it produces affect the functioning of immune cells and are involved in protecting the body from infections. One of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland is adrenocorticotropic hormone, which enhances the body’s immune response to stress.

Body system Communication with the pituitary gland

Endocrine Gland control and hormone production
Nervous Reception of signals from the hypothalamus
Reproductive Control of ovarian and sperm maturation, regulation of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy
Immune Regulation of immune cells and participation in body defense

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What are the functions of the pituitary gland?

The pituitary gland is a gland that produces hormones that control other glands in the endocrine system. These hormones regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction and other important physiological processes.

What are the disorders of the pituitary gland?

Disorders of the pituitary gland may be associated with a decrease or increase in its functions. The first case is called hypofunction, the second – hyperfunction. Hypofunction can be caused by an insufficient amount of hormones, and hyperfunction can be caused by their excess.

What causes hypofunction of the pituitary gland?

There can be several direct causes of hypofunction. It can be a hereditary factor, trauma, infectious diseases, brain tumors and others. Hypofunction can also be caused for other reasons, for example, as a result of a decrease in metabolism or thyroid activity.

Can disorders of the pituitary gland lead to mental disorders?

Yes, disorders of the pituitary gland can lead to mental disorders. They can cause depression, anxiety, apathy, low spirits, and other negative emotions.