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Dandruff vs. dry scalp: Causes, treatment, and prevention

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A dry scalp can cause dandruff, but the two conditions are distinct.

Dandruff causes the scalp to flake and may cause visible flakes on clothing or in the hair. In some cases, it is due to a fungal or other scalp infection. Dry scalp, by contrast, occurs when the scalp does not produce or hold enough moisture.

Understanding the difference between dandruff and a dry scalp can help with choosing the right treatment.

Dry scalp

A dry scalp occurs when the scalp does not have enough oil for the skin to feel lubricated.

Like other forms of dry skin, this can cause itching, flaking, and irritation. It can also cause the hair to look dry, since oil from the scalp helps condition the hair.

People with dry skin are more prone to dry scalp. This means that many of the things that cause dry skin can also cause a dry scalp including:

  • dry air, particularly during the winter months
  • excessive washing
  • skin conditions, such as eczema


The scalp, like the rest of the skin, sheds dead skin cells. Dandruff occurs when this process speeds up. Dandruff flakes are actually dead skin cells.

The faster the scalp sheds dead skin, the worse dandruff becomes. Some factors can alter the rate at which the skin sheds.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, researchers do not fully understand what causes dandruff. Potential causes of dandruff include:

  • fungal infections of the scalp
  • oils secreted by the scalp
  • sensitivity to substances, such as hair products

These three factors may work together to make some dandruff worse. For example, people with fungal scalp infections may develop worse dandruff if they have sensitive skin or a very oily scalp.

Most people have a fungus called Malassezia living on their scalp that does not cause any problems. However, in people with dandruff, this fungus causes irritation and flakes. This irritation may be due to the way the fungus interacts with other factors.

A 2016 study found a close relationship between the presence of certain scalp bacteria and dandruff.

People with a dry scalp may notice flakes shedding from their scalp. Unlike true dandruff flakes, however, the flakes associated with dry scalp tend to be smaller and whiter.

Dandruff flakes are larger and may be yellow-tinged or look oily. While both dandruff and dry scalp tend to come and go, dandruff that is due to a fungal infection is unlikely to get better without treatment. Dry scalp, however, may improve with less frequent shampooing.

Both conditions can make the scalp itchy and irritated. If symptoms are severe, people with either condition may scratch their scalp so frequently that it turns red or develops small sores.

Differences between dandruff and dry scalp

Most people find it difficult to tell the difference between dandruff and dry scalp, and it is also possible to have both dandruff and a dry scalp. In general, flakes are more likely to be dandruff:

  • if the scalp feels oily
  • when there is intense scalp itching even when the scalp does not feel dry
  • if the hair looks greasy

Both dandruff and dry scalp can usually be managed at home. However, some scalp conditions can look like dandruff.

Scalp psoriasis, for example, causes redness, flakes, and itching but is caused by an autoimmune disorder. A form of severe dandruff called seborrheic dermatitis can cause intense, painful inflammation.

People should see a doctor for a flaky scalp:

  • if there are other symptoms, such as redness or sores
  • if home treatments do not work
  • if there are open wounds on the head or face

People with autoimmune disorders and chronic illnesses should talk to their doctor before treating dandruff. Symptoms that resemble dandruff may be due to another condition, and a weakened immune system increases the chances that a scalp condition will quickly get worse.

Most cases of dandruff can easily be treated at home. People with dandruff should aim to shampoo their hair with anti-dandruff shampoo regularly. This can treat many underlying causes of dandruff, including minor fungal infections.

Most dandruff shampoos contain pyrithione, and many different types of anti-dandruff shampoo are available online.

Another option to treat dandruff is coal tar shampoo. However, this shampoo may change the color of light hair, so people with blonde or gray hair may prefer another option.

Dandruff shampoo can have a strong smell. Some people may wish to alternate between dandruff shampoo and traditional shampoo, or shampoo with a different shampoo immediately following treatment with dandruff shampoo.

People who prefer natural remedies, or who dislike the smell of dandruff shampoo, may wish to try tea tree oil shampoo. Tea tree oil has antimicrobial properties.

An old study found that a 5-percent tea tree oil shampoo could effectively treat dandruff without causing serious side effects. However, there is a lack of recent research to back this claim up.

People whose dandruff does not improve with home treatment should see a doctor. Identifying the cause of the dandruff — which could be a bacterial or fungal infection — can be helpful. Prescription-strength treatments usually clear up dandruff.

The idea that poor hygiene causes dandruff is a myth. Going long periods of time without shampooing, however, may make dandruff more visible.

As researchers do not fully understand what causes dandruff, it is unclear if it can be prevented.

In most people, dandruff is a chronic condition that tends to go away and then come back. While some people think that lifestyle changes improve their symptoms, there is little research on this topic.

It may be possible to prevent dry scalp by:

  • using less irritating shampoos
  • switching to a moisturizing shampoo
  • shampooing the hair less frequently
  • using a humidifier to keep the skin from getting dry
  • drinking more water

Dandruff remains a mystery to many doctors who do not understand how a fungus that is harmless on one person’s head can cause severe dandruff on another person. There are no guarantees with any dandruff treatment. There is no way to predict who will develop dandruff, or how severe it will be.

Both dandruff and dry scalp are annoying but not harmful. With home treatment, they usually go away.

People who do not see improvements with home treatment should consider that the problem might be something other than dandruff. Only a doctor can conclusively diagnose the cause of a flaky scalp.

Dry Scalp: Causes and Treatments

An itchy, dry, flaky scalp is a common complaint. A frequent cause of it is a condition called seborrheic dermatitis, also called seborrheic eczema, dandruff, or, in babies, cradle cap. It’s not contagious, it doesn’t indicate poor hygiene, and it doesn’t cause serious damage to your hair or scalp.

The severity of seborrheic dermatitis varies from mild flaking and a little itchiness to an intense itch and thick, greasy scales encasing the hair. Treatment is often topical and may consist of over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription lotions or shampoos.

AndreyPopov / Getty Images


Not everyone with seborrheic dermatitis will have symptoms, but many people with it have flaking and/or itching.


At its mildest, this condition may just cause very small, thin flakes. When more severe, the flakes can be thicker, and are often yellowish or greasy as well.

If you have silvery scales on your scalp, it may be from an overlap with psoriasis, a condition sometimes referred to as sebopsoriasis.


Seborrheic dermatitis may or may not be itchy. When it does itch, it can be mild or intense. Some people say the itch bothers them the most at night, and some may wake up scratching.

Irritated, itchy skin may also be red, even if you haven’t scratched it.

Other Areas

This rash can actually affect many areas other than the scalp, especially those that have a lot of sebaceous glands, including:

  • Over the eyebrows
  • Between the eyebrows
  • Sides of the nose
  • Chest
  • Groin

Rare, Life-Threatening Complication

In rare cases, seborrheic dermatitis can be widespread and affect the majority of the skin’s surface. This is called erythroderma, and it’s a severe, potentially life-threatening condition. Erythroderma is more common in people with compromised immune systems, such as from HIV/AIDS.

DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND


Seborrheic dermatitis has many possible causes and triggers. Among the causes are:

Certain factors can trigger flare-ups of this condition, such as:

  • Alcohol-based skin products
  • Cold, dry air
  • History of rosacea, acne, psoriasis, or other skin conditions

When to See a Doctor

If you haven’t been previously diagnosed with or treated for sebhorreic dermatitis or any other skin condition, you should see your doctor about an itchy, dry scalp if your symptoms:

  • Are severe
  • Impact your sleep or daily life
  • Spread beyond your scalp
  • Aren’t improving with OTC treatments

If you’re already being treated for it, you should talk to your doctor if your symptoms:

  • Get worse
  • Flare up after being under control for a while


You have a lot of treatment options for seborrheic dermatitis. The first one many people turn to is OTC dandruff shampoos. Look for ones that contain ingredients that may help address the underlying cause(s) of the condition, including:

  • Zinc/pyrithione zinc: Believed to have beneficial effects on nutritional deficiency, fungus, inflammation, androgen hormones, immune function, and important cellular processes
  • Ketoconazole: An anti-fungal medicine that may kill Malassezia yeast
  • Selenium: Has anti-fungal properties that may kill Malassezia yeast
  • Salicylic acid: Has anti-inflammatory properties, dissolves oil plugs, and stops overactivity of the sebaceous gland
  • Tar: Helps slough off dead cells and slows the excess growth of skin cells; less popular than it used to be due to an unpleasant smell and possible cancer-causing effects of long-term use

If OTC shampoos don’t work, you doctor may prescribe an anti-fungal shampoo, such as:

  • Nizoral (ketoconazole)
  • Loprox (ciclopirox)

In most cases, you’ll use it a few times a week until your scalp clears up, then use it less often to keep symptoms from coming back. Your doctor can tell you the best treatment regimen for you.

In some moderate to severe cases, doctors prescribe shampoo containing topical steroids, which are powerful anti-inflammatories. Brands include:

  • Luxiq (betamethasone valerate)
  • Clobex (clobetasol)
  • Capex (flucinolone)
  • Synalar (flucinolone solution)

If you have a severe or stubborn case of seborrheic dermatitis, you may want to see a dermatologist.


Seborrheic dermatitis usually is considered chronic, meaning you may have occasional flares of symptoms throughout your life. However, it usually improves considerably with treatment and can be well-controlled for the long term.


If you’re prone to seborrheic dermatitis, you probably won’t be able to prevent it entirely. However, you can reduce your risk of flares, and possibly of developing it in the first place, by:

  • Getting enough sleep
  • Managing stress in healthy ways
  • Avoiding intense or prolonged sunlight but getting a few minutes of sun exposure daily

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between dandruff and dry scalp?

The main difference between dandruff and dry scalp is that dandruff is caused by excess production of oils on the scalp that causes skin cells to build up before they’re shed, while in dry scalp, the skin gets irritated and flakes off.

A Word From Verywell

The visible flakes and itching from seborrheic dermatitis can be annoying and embarrassing. Fortunately, you have plenty of treatment options that are likely to control it pretty well, so don’t think you just have to live with it!

It’s simple to start working toward managing the condition, and if you need something more than what’s available without a prescription, talk to your doctor.

What Is It, Diagnosis & Treatment


Seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp.

What is seborrheic dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common, noncontagious, easy-to-manage skin condition. This type of dermatitis causes itchy red patches and greasy scales on your skin along with white or yellow crusty or powdery flakes on your scalp.

“Seborrheic” refers to the “sebaceous” glands while “derm” means “skin.” It’s called “dandruff” (pityriasis capitis) when it’s on a teenager’s or adult’s scalp, and “cradle cap” when it’s on a baby’s.

Seborrheic dermatitis can occur in other areas of your body. These are areas with the most sebaceous (oil) gland activity: your upper back and chest, face/forehead, the creases at the base of your nose, behind your ears, navel (belly button), eyebrows, under your breasts and in the creases/bends of your arms, legs and groin.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a lifelong condition that appears, disappears with treatment, and flares up from time to time.

Who gets seborrheic dermatitis?

About 11% of the population has seborrheic dermatitis. It occurs most often in infants younger than three months old and in adults ages 30 to 60. It is more common in men than in women, and in Caucasians more than African Americans.

If you are born with naturally oily skin, you are more likely to get this type of dermatitis. A history of psoriasis in your family makes you vulnerable as well. If you live in a dry, cold region, the weather doesn’t cause the seborrheic dermatitis, but it does make it worse.

If you have these health issues, you’re more prone to seborrheic dermatitis:


Psychiatric disorders:

Neurological diseases:

Congenital disorders:

You’re also more prone to seborrheic dermatitis if you take these psychotropic medications:

  • Lithium.
  • Buspirone.
  • Haloperidol decanoate.
  • Chlorpromazine.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis?

  • Itchy white flakes of skin on your scalp (dandruff). When scratched, the flakes come loose, mix in with your hair, or fall onto your neck and shoulders.
  • Red scales on your skin.
  • Crusty yellow scales on infants’ heads (cradle cap). Cradle cap shouldn’t itch, but scratching may cause additional inflammation in the area and break the skin, leading to bleeding or mild infections.
  • Blepharitis (scaly redness on the edges of your eyelids).
  • Pinkish plaques (thick skin) of scales on both sides of your face.
  • Flaky patches on your chest and at your hairline that are shaped like a flower petal or a ring.
  • Redness in the folds and creases of your genitals, armpits and beneath your breasts.
  • Inflamed hair follicles on your cheeks and the upper half of your trunk.

What are the causes of seborrheic dermatitis? What aggravates it?

Researchers aren’t sure of the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis. They think there may be many causes. Factors that are thought to play a role include:

  • A type of yeast called Malassezia, which is present on everyone’s skin, but overgrow in some people.
  • An increased level of androgens (a hormone).
  • An increased level of skin lipids.
  • An inflammatory reaction.
  • Family history (dermatitis runs in the family).

Other factors that trigger or worsen seborrheic dermatitis include:

  • Stress.
  • Cold and dry climate.
  • Oily skin.
  • Using alcohol-based lotions.
  • History of other skin disorders, including rosacea, psoriasis and acne.

Does the weather make seborrheic dermatitis worse?

Dry air during the winter months will make your seborrheic dermatitis worse.

The dermatitis behaves best during the summertime. The sun’s UV-A and UV-B light have been shown to kill the type of yeast that overgrows on the skin of people who get seborrheic dermatitis. Just watch out for sunburns!

Do certain foods trigger or reduce seborrheic dermatitis?

Although there are theories out there, true experts have yet to find that food causes or reduces seborrheic dermatitis. Diet does not affect dandruff.

What’s the difference between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis?

Psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis can mimic each other. Both are patches of red skin with flakes. Both can be found on your scalp and back.

Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 2% to 4% of the population. The scales of psoriasis are often thicker than that of seborrheic dermatitis. The edges of those scales are very well-defined. On the scalp, psoriasis scales are closer to a silver color than white or yellow.

There is a condition called sebopsoriasis where seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis overlap. In that case you have the symptoms of both: both white flakes and silver flakes, both on the scalp or back, both itchy.

If you’re concerned about whether you have psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis, consult your healthcare provider. Treatment for one may not work as treatment for the other.

Does seborrheic dermatitis cause hair loss?

No, seborrheic dermatitis does not cause hair loss.

Is seborrheic dermatitis related to acne?

Seborrheic dermatitis and acne can appear at the same time, in the same places on your body. Both are affected by oils in your skin. People who have acne are more likely to have dandruff.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is seborrheic dermatitis diagnosed?

Seborrheic dermatitis is an easy condition to diagnosis because of its appearance on the affected skin and where it appears on your body. No blood, urine or allergy tests are needed. Your dermatologist may perform a skin biopsy to rule out other diseases if your condition does not respond to treatment.

Management and Treatment

How is seborrheic dermatitis treated?

In teenagers and adults, seborrheic dermatitis usually doesn’t disappear on its own without treatment. Type of treatment depends on the area of the body that is affected and how severe your condition is.

The goal of treatment is to reduce the visible signs of seborrheic dermatitis and itching and redness. Treatment includes use of over-the-counter products and prescription products. Prescription products include topical antifungals, calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids. Ongoing maintenance treatment is often needed. You may need to use a combination of these treatments:

Scalp Treatment

Cradle cap (infants)

  • Cradle cap usually clears up without treatment when the child is between eight and 12 months old. It may be treated daily with a mild baby shampoo.
  • Massage or brush the scalp with a soft brush several times a day and after each shampoo. Be careful not to cause a break in the skin, which can lead to infection.
  • If the problem continues, or the baby seems uncomfortable and scratches the scalp, contact your pediatrician or dermatologist. He or she may prescribe a prescription shampoo or lotion.
  • Other areas of affected skin may be treated with a gentle steroid lotion.

Adolescents and adults:

For mild cases, look for over-the-counter dandruff shampoos that contain selenium, zinc pyrithione or coal tar. Shampoo with it twice a week or as directed on the label of the product. For long-term control, your healthcare provider may prescribe antifungal shampoos that contain ciclopirax (Loprox®) or ketoconazole (Nizoral®). These shampoos are used from daily to two or three times a week for several weeks until the dandruff has cleared, then once every week to two weeks to prevent flare-ups. Your healthcare provider will give you specific directions for use.

For moderate to severe cases, your healthcare provider may prescribe a shampoo containing betamethasone valerate (Luxiq®), clobetasol (Clobex®), fluocinolone (Capex®) or fluocinolone solution (Synalar®). Shampoo your hair as directed. Some products are used daily, others are used twice daily for two weeks then two times a week.

Ask your healthcare provider about what side effects to watch for while using these shampoos.

Face and Body

Treatments for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body include topical antifungals, corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors.

Topical antifungals include ciclopirox, ketoconazole or sertaconazole. These products, available in creams, foams or gels, are usually applied to the affected areas twice daily for up to eight weeks and then as needed.

Topical corticosteroids include betamethasone valerate, desonide, fluocinolone or hydrocortisone. These products come in creams, lotions, foams, gels, ointments, oil or solution. They are taken once or twice a day. Your healthcare provider might prescribe these products if antifungal products aren’t successful in clearing your seborrheic dermatitis or for treating flare-ups. Corticosteroids can cause a thinning of your skin and should not be used continuously for weeks and months at a time without a break. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are an alternative to corticosteroids. These products include pimecrolimus cream (Elidel®) or tacrolimus ointment (Protopic®). They are applied to the affected area twice daily. If your case is severe, your healthcare provider may prescribe an oral (pill) antifungal agent or phototherapy (a specific wavelength of ultraviolet light to decrease inflammation in the skin).

Ask your healthcare provider about the side effects of these medications and what to watch for. Follow your provider’s instructions about how to take these medications. You and your healthcare provider will work closely together to select products and develop a treatment plan that will be most helpful to treat your unique case of seborrheic dermatitis.


How can I reduce my risk of seborrheic dermatitis?

There’s little that can be done to prevent seborrheic dermatitis. Cradle cap is a natural, harmless condition. It can be simply treated at home. If you are a teenager or an adult with seborrheic dermatitis, you might be more prone if you have higher than normal levels of androgens, a higher level of lipids in your skin or have an overgrowth of the yeast that is always present on your skin’s surface.

Some simple healthy things you can do to reduce your risk include getting plenty of rest, controlling your emotional stress and getting a daily small doses (minutes) of sunshine (UV light). Stay away from the midday sun.

Always follow your healthcare provider’s instructions for using medicated shampoos and skin products. Under treatment or inappropriate treatment can result in flare-ups of your condition and return visits to your healthcare provider.

Outlook / Prognosis

What can I expect if I have seborrheic dermatitis?

Cradle cap happens in most babies. It’s generally a harmless condition that doesn’t cause pain, itching or discomfort. It appears within the first weeks to months of life and is rarely seen after 12 months of age in most babies. It can be easily managed with simple at-home care.

In adolescents and adults, seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp (dandruff) or the face and body is a condition that comes and goes throughout life. Fortunately, it can be controlled with treatment. The condition improves quickly with regular treatment.

See your healthcare provider if your condition doesn’t respond to self-treatment, or if the affected area becomes painful, forms crusts, or drains fluid or pus.

Living With

How do I take care of myself?

If you have seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, you can try some of the over-the-counter dandruff shampoos. If one shampoo doesn’t work, look at the active ingredient and try another product with a different active ingredient (see treatment section). Shampoos should remain on your scalp for at least five minutes before rinsing off.

If you think you have seborrheic dermatitis on your face or body, see your healthcare provider or dermatologist. They will examine you to determine the extent and severity of your condition. You will work together to develop the best treatment approach to get your condition under control and manage flare-ups. Follow all instructions and never hesitate to call your healthcare provider if you have questions or concerns.

When should I see my healthcare provider?

You should see a dermatologist if your symptoms get worse or you experience a flare-up. Your healthcare provider may need to change your dosage, add a different medication to your treatment regimen or change medications.

What questions should I ask my healthcare provider?

  • Do my symptoms indicate seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, atopic dermatitis or psoriasis?
  • What over-the-counter treatment or combination of treatments would work best for me?
  • Is there a specific brand of dandruff shampoo, cream or lotion that you recommend?
  • Is there a prescription shampoo, cream or lotion you can prescribe? (If your at-home remedies aren’t working.)
  • How often should I see a dermatologist regarding this condition?
  • What should I do if I have an allergic reaction to a shampoo/cream/lotion?
  • Is my acne treatment covered by my insurance? (Many cosmetic procedures are not covered by insurance.)

Although seborrheic dermatitis is itchy and uncomfortable, it does not harm your health. The condition can be managed with treatment. Itchy skin and white flakes on your black shirts shouldn’t be a normal part of your day!

Dandruff (for Parents) – Nemours Kidshealth

If you’ve ever had dandruff, with its telltale white flakes, you probably know that it can be a little embarrassing. This is especially true for kids and teenagers, who may already be self-conscious about their looks.

Fortunately, dandruff is harmless and can almost always be controlled, often with simple over-the-counter remedies.

About Dandruff

Dandruff is another name for a condition called seborrheic dermatitis, or seborrhea, specifically seborrhea that happens on the scalp. It’s a very common condition in kids and adults alike, regardless of age or race.

Dandruff causes flaky, white, or yellowish skin to form on the scalp and other oily parts of the body. Other areas that can get seborrhea include the eyebrows, eyelids, ears, crease of the nose, back of the neck, armpits, groin, and bellybutton.

In some cases, dandruff can cause redness in the affected area and may appear crusty and start to itch, sometimes pretty badly. On rare occasions, dandruff can even lead to hair loss if it isn’t treated. Any lost hair should grow back once the dandruff is treated, though.

Dandruff is not contagious or an indication of poor hygiene, and it often can be controlled by daily shampooing with a gentle shampoo. In more severe cases, a doctor may recommend a medicated shampoo or cream.


The exact cause of seborrhea isn’t known, although some researchers believe it can be caused by an overproduction of skin oil (sebum) in the oil glands and hair follicles. A type of yeast (fungus) called malassezia can grow in the sebum along with bacteria. This may be another factor in the development of seborrhea. Seborrhea happens in people (like teenagers) with high hormone levels, which also may play a role.

The flakes associated with dandruff sometimes can be caused by conditions other than seborrhea, including:

  • dry skin, such as the kind caused by cold, dry winter air
  • other skin conditions like eczema, acne, or psoriasis that can cause dead skin cells to build up on the scalp
  • shampooing too often or not often enough
  • using hair-care products or hair dye that leave a dry, flaky residue or having a bad reaction to these products

Dandruff often runs in families. Men are a little more likely than women to get it. Other things can also make dandruff more likely, like having oily skin, stress, a neurological condition such as Parkinson’s disease, or a condition like HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) that harms the body’s immune system.



Often, the first symptom someone with dandruff will notice are white flakes of dead skin in the hair or on the shoulders. The scalp may also become itchy and scaly.

Other signs of seborrhea:

  • dry, flaky skin that gets worse in cold weather
  • dry skin on the face, forehead, ears, or eyebrows
  • flaky skin on the chest or other parts of the body that have hair
  • greasy or oily areas of skin on the scalp or other parts of the body
  • mild redness in the affected area
  • temporary hair loss

When to Call the Doctor

Most cases of dandruff won’t require a doctor’s visit and can be treated with special dandruff shampoos available without a prescription.

Sometimes the dandruff is particularly hard to treat, or the rash is coming from a completely different problem. If your child’s dandruff doesn’t get better after a few weeks of using dandruff shampoo, or if the skin becomes red, swollen, or drains fluid, you should contact your doctor. Also call if your child’s seborrhea gets worse, spreads to other parts of the body, or causes hair loss.


Many cases of mild dandruff can be treated just by shampooing every day with a gentle shampoo. This will reduce oiliness and keep dead skin cells from building up.

Moderate cases of dandruff usually can be treated with an over-the-counter dandruff shampoo. Many types are available and not every one works for every person, so you may need to experiment until you find the one that works for your child.

The different types of dandruff shampoos include:

  • Selenium sulfide shampoos. These help slow the rate at which skin cells die and may fight the fungus that can cause seborrhea.
  • Tar-based shampoos. Made from coal tar, these also slow down the rate at which skin cells die and flake off.
  • Zinc pyrithione shampoos. These tackle the fungus on the scalp that can cause seborrhea.
  • Salicylic acid shampoos. These help remove flaky skin from the scalp but may leave it dry, which can lead to more flaking.
  • Ketoconazole shampoos. These antifungal shampoos, available in stronger doses with a prescription, are designed to reduce fungus on the scalp.

At first, kids with dandruff may need to use one of these shampoos every day to get their dandruff under control. After that, most can cut back to once or twice a week.

Have your child massage the shampoo into the scalp and let it sit for at least 5 minutes before rinsing it out. After rinsing, kids can use regular shampoo or conditioner if they want, as the treatment shampoos tend to be a little smelly.

If over-the-counter dandruff shampoos don’t improve your child’s dandruff, or if seborrhea develops in places other than the scalp, talk to a doctor. You may need to get your child a prescription-strength shampoo, an antifungal lotion, or cream containing steroids.

After treatment, some people will notice that areas of skin that had seborrhea will be lighter in color than the rest of their skin. This is more common in those with darker skin. This color difference will fade over time and the skin’s color will eventually return to normal.

Dandruff is a chronic condition, meaning it can’t be cured, but it can almost always be kept under control. Once it’s under control, it’s usually impossible to detect and will go from being a problem to something that’s barely on your child’s mind.

Dandruff Vs. Dry Scalp—Similar Issues With Different Causes

The views expressed here are those of the expert and, as with the rest of the content on Health Guide, are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider.

Roughly one in five Americans suffer from dandruff, making it an extremely common condition. Men are often diagnosed more often than women, and it’s believed this is because of the impact of male hormones, which increases sebum and natural oil production. There are also certain medical conditions that have increased association with dandruff, namely Parkinson’s disease, HIV, and other conditions that cause a weakened immune system. We all have organisms that normally live on our skin and bodies. For most people, they never cause any issues. But for the immunocompromised, the balance may get thrown off—leading to dandruff.

It’s easy to confuse dry scalp with dandruff since they can both present with white flakes, but there are some important distinctions. First and foremost, dandruff is a result of a build-up of natural oils on the scalp (though this can be due to several different causes), while dry scalp is a result of too little moisture, resulting in dry skin specifically on the scalp.


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All flakes are not alike, and once you learn to tell them apart, it’s relatively easy to distinguish between actual dandruff and a simple case of dry scalp. But their different symptoms are just a reflection of the fact that they have different root causes.

Dandruff can get a little confusing in terminology. Seborrheic dermatitis is the medical term for dandruff, but the term isn’t always used. The easiest way to think about this is that “dandruff” can be treated with over-the-counter anti-dandruff shampoos. If it needs a stronger treatment, like a prescription, we’ll then refer to it as “seborrheic dermatitis.”

Dry scalp occurs when your skin has too little moisture. This often happens when the barrier function of the skin is interrupted, and moisture is not retained effectively in the outer skin layers. This can result from low humidity environments (dry air), genetics, skin conditions like atopic dermatitis, or even the results of overly harsh personal care or hair care products.

The causes of dandruff are more complicated. Some people believe that there’s a commensal yeast—one that gains benefits from us but doesn’t give us any benefits, though it does no harm—that lives on everyone’s skin called Malassezia. Normally, it doesn’t affect us, but some people theorize that it causes dandruff in susceptible individuals, like those who have an imbalance due to being immunocompromised. Nutritional deficiencies as a cause of dandruff are uncommon but possible. When they exist, it can be niacin, riboflavin, and pyridoxine (members of the vitamin B family) or zinc.

If you have a reaction to a hair care product, that’s something else entirely called allergic contact dermatitis. You can easily tell the difference because the symptom onset would be more acute, and you would likely experience more significant redness, burning, itch, and peeling.

We get really hung up generally on flaky scalps because they’re aesthetically displeasing, but the flakes actually reveal a lot about what’s going on if you take a closer look at them

We get really hung up generally on flaky scalps because they’re aesthetically displeasing, but the flakes actually reveal a lot about what’s going on if you take a closer look at them. Dandruff is a result of too much oil on the scalp, and the main side effect is flaking that tends to be larger pieces of skin that are oily in nature. Dry scalp, on the other hand, is usually a fine, very dry scale that is much smaller in size—and, of course, it is not due to oil production since it’s characterized by dryness. The larger dandruff flakes can also be white or yellowish in color, while the smaller flakes associated with dry scalp are typically white.

Due to the excess oil involved with dandruff, you may also experience oily or greasy-feeling hair. This may also be accompanied by an itchy scalp, though a dry scalp may also cause persistent itching.

There is also sometimes confusion with psoriasis, which can mimic dandruff when confined to the scalp. Psoriasis is a type of atopic dermatitis that causes skin cells to multiply ten times faster than normal skin cells. This excess of skin cells builds up in red, bumpy patches on the body that are also scaly. Scalp psoriasis may mimic the look of flakes of skin associated with dandruff or dry scalp.

Since the causes of these conditions are different, the way we treat them needs to be as well. Dry scalp is treated in several ways, but these treatment options are aimed at getting to the root of the issue. If it’s a personal care product that’s stripping out too much moisture, it can be treated with gentle shampoos and hair products. Avoiding over-processing hair with chemicals and high heat dryers can help. Use a conditioner and apply a scalp oil as a moisturizer to hydrate the skin.

If you experience dry scalp due to the weather, a humidifier may help but not completely. Dry scalp is generally multifaceted, so there’s more than one cause of the issue. Some people, for example, are simply genetically predisposed to dry skin. But any intervention that helps hydrate the skin will help.

Dandruff can be treated with over-the-counter or prescription products. These include shampoos with zinc pyrithione (also called pyrithione zinc), coal tar, salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, and ketoconazole—ingredients that address multiple aspects of this condition. Some gently remove dead skin cells before they can flake off, while others combat the yeast-like fungus associated with dandruff. Everyone’s response to treatment is different, but you should see a significant improvement within two weeks of use. Over-the-counter and at-home remedies such as tea tree oil are sufficient to completely resolve symptoms for many. It is only when these are insufficient that one needs to see a specialist.

If you have tried and failed to improve your symptoms, schedule an appointment with a board-certified dermatologist. When these over-the-counter agents are not strong enough, there are prescription strength anti-dandruff shampoos as well as leave-in scalp treatments. These options tend to use anti-inflammatory ingredients and can be prescribed by a medical expert. First and foremost, it is critical for your dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other causes of flaking and related symptoms. And second, it is important for them to design the correct treatment protocol. This may involve checking for an underlying skin condition if nothing else has helped with your symptoms.

Dandruff vs. dry scalp: How to know why your scalp is flaky

A flaky scalp can not only be inconvenient and embarrassing, but it can also be accompanied by discomfort such as tightness, itching and stinging. Find out what causes a dry flaky scalp and how you can help reduce the symptoms and even prevent the condition from coming back.

Dandruff vs. dry scalp: what’s the difference?

When it comes to dandruff vs. dry scalp, there are some key differences that will help you in your dandruff/dry flaky scalp treatment. Read on to find out what causes these two flaky scalp concerns.

What is dandruff?

Humans and animals both shed (skin, hair, fur, feathers) in a natural process known as “dander”, which is possibly where dandruff gets its name. While everybody naturally sheds skin, usually these tiny cells remain invisible and are whisked off into the air to become dust. Dandruff, however, is when these dead skin cells build up on the surface of the skin and cluster in large, visible white flakes. They then break off from the skin and settle along the hair fiber and on your shoulders.

What is dry scalp?

Just as we are born with a certain eye or haircolor, genetics also determine our natural skin type. These skin types are usually divided into oily, sensitive, combination, normal and dry. The latter, dry skin, is caused by the skin’s incapacity to produce enough sebum and natural oils to keep itself moisturized. As a result, the top layer of the skin dries out, cracks and sheds as fine flakes, which could be the reason why you notice small white flakes of skin on your scalp and in the hair. This condition can be diagnosed through a dry itchy flaky scalp, while dandruff does not often cause irritation.

Dandruff vs. dry scalp: similar symptoms, different causes

Dandruff is not necessarily due to your skin type, and usually looks different to the small white flakes that are caused by a naturally dry flaky scalp. While dry skin accompanies dry-looking hair, dandruff isn’t related to your skin type – so you can have either greasy hair or dry hair with a flaky scalp. This is an important distinction, because dandruff is not treated in the same way as a dry flaky scalp.

How to treat dandruff vs. how to treat dry scalp / flaky scalp causes

How to manage dandruff: To remove flakes of dandruff without irritating the skin, use a gentle clarifying product like the Serie Expert Instant Clear Anti-Dandruff Shampoo for flaky scalp concerns. It contains zinc pyrithione which clarifies and purifies the scalp and all down the hair lengths. Regular use will help balance the skin’s moisture levels and help prevent visible flakes from forming.

How to treat dry flaky scalp causes: Treat your dry scalp just as you would a dry complexion – through moisturizing with the best shampoo for dry flaky scalp concerns. The Nutrifier haircare collection from Serie Expert contains glycerol and coconut oil: the range is ideal for moisturizing both the skin and hair fiber itself. The Nutrifier Masque is popular for replenishing damaged hair and soothing a dry scalp, and the shampoo for flaky scalp problems is also a firm favorite.

Other causes for an itchy flaky scalp

Some other reasons for scalp sensitivity and dry flaky scalp treatment suggestions.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis occurs on areas of the body that produces a lot of oil, which is why it is common on the scalp, upper back and nose. In infants it is known as “cradle cap”, and it can be triggered by stress, hormones, irritants (harsh detergents, chemicals, solvents etc.), cold dry weather and certain medications. The most common symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis include redness, excess oil, white/yellowish flaky scalp, pink inflamed patches and a burning or itchy flaky scalp. If you have these signs you might want to consult your doctor for a dry itchy scalp treatment.

How to treat an itchy scalp: If your itchy flaky scalp is due to sensitivity, it is important to soothe the scalp while also removing the excess flakes by using the best shampoo for flaky scalp conditions. Try Source Essentielle Delicate Shampoo or Serie Expert Sensi Balance shampoo for flaky scalps, both specifically formulated for sensitive skin prone to dandruff.

Another cause of an itchy flaky scalp could be psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune disease caused by skin cells multiplying far faster than the normal rate. As a result, dead cells build up into red, cracked and often painful scales. On the scalp, this can prevent new hair from growing, so hair thinning is often noticed around the inflamed area. Psoriasis can occur in flare-ups throughout life and, while it is not yet fully known exactly what the cause behind it is, psoriasis is believed to be related to genetics, and is not infectious.

How to manage psoriasis: dry itchy scalp treatments for psoriasis can include prescribed oral medication and topical application of ointments designed to soothe the inflammation. If you recognize the symptoms of psoriasis or any serious skin condition, it’s highly recommended to see a dermatologist for a dry flaky scalp treatment.

In addition to an expert advice, you should also adopt a sensitive cleansing haircare routine to help care for your dry itchy flaky scalp.

Image credit: Getty Images – Tharakorn

How scalp exfoliation can fix your hair drama.

Some things are better when they’re dry. Humour. Martinis. Towels. Dry scalp, however? That one can go. Because with dry scalp comes itchiness, redness, and flakiness. 

Lucky for you & your scalp, I know how to get to the root of this problem. Literally. 

What causes dry scalp?

#letsbefrank, your face doesn’t end at your hairline. Think of the skin on your scalp as an extension of the skin on your face. With more hair. Just like you get dry skin on your sweet cheeks, you can get it on your scalp. Dry scalp happens when the skin on your scalp is missing out on some much needed moisture. When it’s lacking moisture, it becomes extremely dry, irritated, and flakey. Hello, dry scalp.


The lack of moisture on your scalp can be caused by dry air, stripping shampoos, too many styling products. Blame the weather, your bathroom cabinet, and dehydration. Your scalp is thirsty and it needs a drink. 



What’s the difference between dandruff & dry scalp?

Both cause flakes, so it’s easy to get the two mixed up. There’s also no shame with either. Dry scalp is caused by a lack of moisture, while dandruff is caused by too much moisture. Mind. Blown. With dandruff, excess oil on your scalp causes a layer of skin cells to build up and eventually shed in larger flakes.


So, which one is it?

Both dandruff & dry scalp can make your head itchy and red. But the difference is in the details: dandruff flakes are bigger and can be white or yellowish. If you have dandruff, you’re also likely to have an oily scalp. Dry scalp is seasonal, but dandruff can happen 365 days a year.


How to stop dry scalp?

A tale as old as time but as important as ever: read the labels and switch up your hair products. Out with the old, in with the natural. If your products are packed with sulfates, they’re likely stripping your hair of important oils, causing redness, dryness, and itching.


Use a gentle shampoo, a moisturising conditioner (or this hair mask instead), and buff away dead skin buildup with a scalp scrub. Give your scalp the extra moisture it’s begging for. 


Stopping dry scalp is the long-game. How to help dry scalp, ASAP?

This is the part where I want you to get handsy. That’s right. I’m talking about scalp massages. Of all the massages, this one will help the most with your dry scalp as well as dandruff. Although I won’t stop you if you want to try the full body massage route. 


Scalp massages can cleanse, hydrate, and wake up your scalp. They help with flaking, exfoliate dead skin, and encourage blood flow in your scalp. Consider it a facial for your dry, parched skin.  


Can a scalp massage help reduce buildup?

Scalp buildup happens when dead skin cells and excess oil pile up on your scalp. Shampoo isn’t getting rid of it. Dry shampoo is making it worse. You need something stronger and more serious to break it up. This is the part where I introduce you to my Caffeinated Scalp Scrub. 


Not only will it help get rid of the buildup of dead skin cells, product, and oil, it’ll cut down your excess flakes (and subsequent shakes).


Who benefits from scalp massages the most?

You guessed it: babes with dry, itchy, flaky scalps. Scalp massages can calm itching, manage oil production, and improve scalp health. So they’re one of my favourite ways you can touch yourself. And if you don’t have a dry, itchy scalp, it still feels good and can help with hair growth. Bonus point.


Saving the best for last: How to exfoliate your scalp (aka massage it)?

It’s as simple as running your fingers through your hair and rubbing them into your scalp. Or getting someone else to. Your next date perhaps? 


Like french kissing, it’s best when it’s done daily. Cleanse your hair regularly, massage it daily, and use a scalp treatment 1-2 times a week. Pair your massage with a product that goes the extra mile to buff away dry skin and get your blood going. Haaave you met my Non-Stop Hair Duo? Packed with antioxidants found in Green Coffee, anti-inflammatory ingredients like Eucalyptus, and calming ingredients like Comfrey Root, it’ll whip your scalp (and hair) into line. So you can whip it back and forth. 



How to exfoliate your scalp?


First, scrub: Wet your hair and part it in the middle. Take a pea-sized amount of my Caffeinated Scalp Scrub and rub it down the length of your part, straight onto your skin. Massage it in, gently and slowly. Close your eyes. Pretend you’re in Hawaii. Open and repeat until your scalp is covered in scrub. 


Then, mask: Wash out with shampoo, towel dry hair, then apply my Caffeinated Hair Mask to add the moisture your hair needs to be strong, luscious, and healthy. Enough to cover your strands from root to tips. Leave for 10-15 minutes. Then rinse, dry, and flip your hair all over the place. 


Remember, babe: with any committed relationship, consistency is key.

For hair softer than Hair-ry Styles’, look no further than my Non-Stop Hair Duo.

90,000 reasons, symptoms, treatment methods. Medical center “Medyunion”

Seeing dry red spots on your skin? It can be psoriasis – a chronic skin pathology. These patches are called psoriatic plaques. Most often they appear on the head, lower back, elbows.

Causes of psoriasis

In the process of plaque formation, both the skin and the entire human body are involved. Causes can be viral, infectious, hereditary, psychosomatic, or mixed.

  • constant nervous stress, breakdowns, depression;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • hormonal failure;
  • allergic reactions;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • liver disease;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • viral, bacterial, fungal infections;
  • frequent mechanical injury and irritation.

Psoriasis can appear spontaneously and also disappear spontaneously.Since the disease is chronic, there are periods of exacerbation and remission.

Human skin can act as a mirror that reflects the physiological and emotional state of a person. The skin is sensitive to changes in the body. This is called the psychosomatic cause of psoriasis. Therefore, when treating a disease, it is worth paying attention to the psychological state of the patient.

Psoriasis symptoms:

  • raised spots with white scales;
  • itching at the site of the rash;
  • dryness and flaking;
  • cracks or blisters;
  • deformed nail plate;
  • bleeding from cracked plaques;
  • joint pain.

Types of psoriasis

  • Simple. It is diagnosed in 85% of cases. There is redness in areas of the skin with white scales. Such psoriasis on the head is common. The skin under the scales is easily injured, and wounds can bleed and cause pain.
  • Reverse. It appears at the folds: under the breast in women, in the folds of the skin, armpits, inner thighs, external genitals.
  • Pustular.This type of psoriasis produces transparent blisters. Red inflamed skin around the pustule.
  • Rupiod. In addition to the presence of plaques, this species is characterized by acute inflammation of the epidermis. The skin under the patches is pink and wet.
  • Drop-shaped. It features a large number of small bubbles of red or purple color. They resemble dots or drops in shape. Such psoriasis appears on the arms, head, neck, shoulders, back, hips.

Is psoriasis transmitted?

This is a common question that worries patients and their families.The disease is not contagious, since the cause of its occurrence is not associated with pathogens. It is assumed that psoriasis can only be transmitted genetically, that is, when there is a genetic predisposition. Often in healthy people, psoriasis on the nails is a concern. After all, the patient touches any surfaces. However, don’t worry.

Diagnosis of psoriasis

If you find symptoms of psoriasis in yourself or your child, you need to seek an examination by a dermatovenerologist.Since psoriasis lesions on the body are of a special nature, additional laboratory research may not be needed to make a diagnosis. If psoriatic arthritis is diagnosed, a rheumatologist’s consultation is required.

How to treat psoriasis?

To get rid of the disease and improve the patient’s quality of life, an integrated approach is used to treat psoriasis, which consists of the following:

  • Local treatment. Ointments and creams do an excellent job with flaking and itching in small areas of localization of the disease.It is especially effective in treating psoriasis on the face and hands. Hormonal ointments, salicylic acid, retinoids, moisturizers.
  • Drug therapy. An additional method of effective treatment for psoriasis when ointments do not help. Medicines reduce inflammation, swelling and itching, and block the increased activity of skin cells. However, the pills have many side effects, such as increased fatigue, decreased appetite, and increased blood pressure. Therefore, follow all the doctor’s recommendations for the dosage of the drug.
  • Therapeutic shampoos. When psoriasis is localized on the head and neck, medicated shampoos are used: antifungal, tar, containing corticosteroids. Shampoo eliminates pathogens of pathological inflammation, eliminates scales, relieves burning and itching.
  • Healing injections. Antihistamines block severe itching, and biological drugs have a beneficial effect on the immune system.

For the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis in adults and children, sign up for the Medyunion clinic in Krasnoyarsk by calling +7 (391) 201-03-03.

Seborrheic dermatitis in dogs: Symptoms and treatment

A healthy dog ​​should have a soft and pleasant coat. Changes in its structure quickly become noticeable. The appearance of dandruff, excess oiliness of the skin and hair makes owners think that their pet may be sick. Such manifestations can be characteristic of seborrhea, in addition, against this background, an inflammatory process can develop. Owners confused by the quality of their pet’s coat can conduct self-diagnostics and self-treatment at home by searching for available information on the Internet, for example, for “seborrheic dermatitis in dogs photo”, “seborrheic dermatitis in dogs photo treatment” and so on.It should be noted that a clinical picture similar to seborrheic dermatitis can be observed in a number of other diseases that have a fundamentally different approach to treatment. At the same time, seborrhea can be one of the consequences of a systemic disease of internal organs, being one of the most noticeable clinical signs to the owner.

Seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis in dogs

In dogs, seborrhea is a chronic skin disease characterized by a disturbance in the normal keratinization process (keratinization defect), manifested by excessive scaling or excessive oiliness of the skin and coat, and sometimes secondary inflammation.Depending on the specific localization on the body involved in the process, some patients may have dry and oily areas of the skin at the same time.

The manifestation of the dry form of seborrhea in the Golden Retriever. On the coat, there is a large number of grayish scales that are poorly exfoliated from the skin. (Photo courtesy of O.V. Roeva, a dermatologist at the Biocontrol veterinary clinic).

In veterinary medicine, the terms seborrhea sicca, seborrhea oleosa and seborrheic dermatitis have become entrenched.Seborrhea sicca denotes dry skin and coat, focal or diffuse peeling is noted with the appearance of non-sticky whitish or grayish scales, the coat can be dull and dry. The oily form of seborrhea (Seborrhea oleosa) , on the other hand, is characterized by oily hair and skin, and an excess amount of sebaceous secretion is felt well to the touch and has an unpleasant odor, which is strongly pronounced in severe form of this disease.

Etiological reasons for the development of seborrhea

Distinguish between primary and secondary seborrhea, and they proceed with similar clinical symptoms.Primary seborrhea is a hereditary disease and is manifested by a violation of keratinization of the skin. It is most commonly seen in American Cocker Spaniels, English Springer Spaniels, West Highland White Terriers, and Basset Hounds, but Irish Setters, Dobermans, Shar Peis, Dachshunds, Labrador Retrievers, and German Shepherds are also at increased risk of developing … Primary seborrhea is detected at an early age and is diagnosed with a skin biopsy. In this form of the disease, it is also important to exclude the causes leading to secondary seborrhea.

Secondary seborrhea can be caused by external or internal factors, which leads to disruption of the normal desquamation of the surface cells of the skin epithelium. Almost any skin disease during its acute phase or recovery period can lead to the development of seborrhea. In general, the mechanisms by which the normal process of keratinization of the skin is disrupted are not fully understood.
It is believed that the inflammatory process on the skin, some endocrine diseases (hyperadrenocortisis, hypothyroidism), nutritional deficiencies (unbalanced diet, impaired digestion and absorption) and environmental factors (excessive bathing, low air humidity) contribute to the development of secondary seborrhea.Diagnosis of seborrhea is simple and based on a characteristic clinical picture; it is much more difficult to determine the cause of its development. The diagnostic approach varies from case to case. The veterinarian, in addition to collecting the obligatory anamnesis (medical history), performs an analysis of the diet, microscopy of skin scrapings and a trichogram (examination of the condition of the hair), excludes intestinal parasites and signs of indigestion and intestinal absorption. When lesions are present on most of the skin surface (generalized seborrhea), a skin biopsy is usually not required.

Symptoms and clinical presentation

Clinical signs of primary seborrhea may differ among patients. Frequent manifestations are dull hair with excessive flaking of the skin, oily skin with an unpleasant odor, itchy patches with flaking of the skin (manifestation of seborrheic dermatitis), as well as a special form of inflammation of the external auditory canal (hyperplastic ceruminous otitis media). Clinical signs are especially pronounced around the eyes and mouth, on the auricle, armpits, or in the groin area.

Secondary seborrhea is manifested by peeling and increased oily skin, inflammation of the external auditory canal (ceruminous otitis media) can also be observed. The severity of clinical symptoms depends on the primary cause, the disease proceeds individually in each patient. In general, systemic signs (endocrine disorders, nutritional deficiencies, bowel or liver disease) lead to a generalized form (when lesions are present on most of the body surface), which initially proceeds without itching.Itching occurs when seborrhea is complicated by a bacterial and / or fungal infection.

Seborrheic dermatitis in dogs is a complication of seborrhea. The skin has peeling, greasy appearance with signs of local or generalized inflammation. As with the oily form of seborrhea, so with seborrheic dermatitis there is a high risk of active growth of bacteria or fungi ( Malassezia or Candida spp. ) on the skin. The vital activity of fungal microorganisms further aggravates the already increased oily skin.In addition, malassezia fungi increase the rate of division of skin cells, creating a vicious circle. That is, increased fat content and peeling of the skin are favorable conditions for the reproduction of fungi, and malassezia fungi, in turn, enhance the production of sebaceous secretions, aggravating the course of seborrheic dermatitis. This should not be forgotten, since even in advanced cases, the manifestations of seborrhea can be eliminated, however, clinical signs can only disappear when an effective antifungal treatment is prescribed.

The classic, localized form of canine seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by rounded, hairless plaques with redness and scaling, and later with the development of hyperpigmentation (darkening of the skin). This form must be distinguished from other diseases, for example, pyoderma (purulent skin lesions) or dermatophytosis (lichen), in which very similar lesions appear on the skin. In addition, in the early stages of the development of a generalized form of demodicosis (a parasitic disease), the skin in dogs can be either greasy or have peeling.

Seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis in dogs: Treatment

Primary seborrhea cannot be cured, treatment is symptomatic, aimed at eliminating the manifestations of the disease. The main goal of treating secondary seborrhea is to find and eliminate the cause that caused it, in this case, with correct diagnosis, the clinical signs of the disease should pass spontaneously in 30-60 days, in severe cases, a longer period of time is required for recovery (3-4 months). Since seborrheic dogs are prone to secondary staphylococcal and fungal infections, antibacterial and antifungal treatments may be required.Eliminating secondary infections along with the underlying cause of seborrhea can lead to very rapid improvement in skin symptoms.

Topical therapy can be used to treat primary and secondary seborrhea; in long-haired dog breeds, it is recommended to trim the coat before using it. Dogs are bathed using special shampoos twice a week for 1-2 weeks. Patients with very oily coats may need to bathe every other day for 2-3 weeks. Unlike primary seborrhea, local therapy for secondary seborrhea may differ from patient to patient and will be selected individually, since the degree of clinical manifestations of the disease will largely depend on the successful treatment of the underlying cause.As the underlying disease is treated, the interval between bathing increases.
Excessive bathing of dogs aggravates seborrhea. If on the appointed day of bathing the coat is satisfactory, then the procedure should be postponed until the coat again reaches an unsatisfactory appearance.

The choice of means for bathing a dog depends on the form of seborrhea. In the presence of dry and inflamed skin, moisturizing hypoallergenic shampoos, cream shampoos with colloidal sulfur, softening shampoos based on chlorhexidine and antimicrobial shampoo with spherulites are used.For more severe skin peeling, products based on sulfur and salicylic acid are suitable, and for fungal overgrowth, products with antifungal activity are suitable.

In the presence of an excessively contaminated coat, before using antiseborrheic shampoos, preliminary bathing with usual means is performed. To achieve the maximum effect, specialized shampoos are left for 10-15 minutes, then the dog is thoroughly washed.
For the treatment of the oily form of seborrhea, shampoos with a stronger effect are used, while bathing is carried out more often than with the dry form.These dogs are more susceptible to developing secondary infections and should be treated accordingly. Dogs with soft to moderately oily skin can be bathed with shampoos containing sulfur, salicylic acid, or tarry products. Dogs with very oily skin are often bathed with selenium sulfide or benzoyl peroxide shampoos. After successful treatment of excess oily hair, shampoos with a weaker effect are used.
As an additional agent for the treatment of a localized form of seborrhea, antiseborrheic drops for external use can be used.Such preparations are applied to dry skin areas observed in dry form ( seborrhea sicca ). The drops are able to restore the lipid barrier of the skin.
For the treatment of inflammation of the external auditory canal, agents are used to help dissolve and remove earwax. The frequency of use is selected individually at the discretion of the veterinarian dermatologist.

Differential (excluding) diagnoses

Parasitic disease heiletilla disease caused by ticks Cheyletiella spp and seborrhea may have a similar clinical picture.Heyletiella is found in cats, rabbits, and dogs. Infection occurs through contact or through the environment. Hayletiella live in the upper layers of the skin, females lay eggs and attach them to their hair. Adult mites have a whitish tint, and are similar to scales in dry seborrhea, due to their ability to move along the coat of these parasites are sometimes called “walking dandruff”. With heylethillosis, dogs develop itching and flaking of the skin, especially in the back. For treatment, drugs against ectoparasites and anti-seborrheic shampoos are used.

Whitish scales on the coat of a dog with cheyletilla – “walking dandruff”, adult mite Cheyletiella spp . (Photos are kindly provided by the veterinarian-dermatologist of the Biokontrol clinic V.V. Kulik).

Ichthyosis has similar clinical manifestations. It is a rare congenital disorder that affects a variety of dog breeds, most commonly Golden Retrievers, Jack Russell Terriers, West Highland White Terriers, and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.Usually it is mild, but some owners note the development of large, soft, whitish or grayish scales on their pet’s torso, which adhere more tightly to the skin and are more difficult to comb off than with dry seborrhea. In some cases, dogs develop bacterial folliculitis (purulent inflammation of the hair follicles), which causes itching and, accordingly, the veterinarian may confuse this condition with allergies.

Allergic reactions, including food allergy , are also one of the differential diagnoses.As a rule, lesions on the skin are similar precisely to oily seborrhea. Allergy causes similar skin lesions, but, unlike seborrhea, allergic reactions are immediately accompanied by itching.

In the presence of such a clinical sign with skin diseases such as itching, the veterinarian may prescribe Apokwell to the animal. Apoquel is one of the drugs that relieve the symptoms of itching and inflammation in dogs with allergic reactions. It successfully relieves the symptoms of any allergy, starting on average 4 hours after giving the pill.The drug is approved for long-term use and is well tolerated by dogs. Apoquel relieves swelling, redness and itching of the skin, including in the external auditory canal. Unlike other drugs aimed at eliminating the symptoms of an allergic reaction, this drug does not affect the results of clinical and diagnostic tests that will be performed at a dermatologist’s appointment.

Author: Pashintseva Natalya Valentinovna, morphologist at the Biokontrol veterinary clinic, candidate of biological sciences.

90,000 Peeling skin on the face [causes of the problem and what to do]

Dryness and flaking (desquamation) are the most common skin problems that can be experienced by any type of wearer. If visible lines of dehydration appear on the skin, the relief of the face has become uneven, and the color is dull, it means that the barrier functions of the skin are impaired (the hydrolipid mantle is damaged), moisture intensively evaporates from the surface of the epidermis, dehydrating its cells.

Signs of peeling skin on the face

First of all, peeling appears due to a lack of skin hydration and a decrease in NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor) – a natural moisturizing factor consisting of molecules and other components of the intercellular fluid that are responsible for moisturizing and retaining moisture in the skin.The destruction of the natural protective lipid layer leads to transepidermal loss of moisture by cells and intense dehydration of the epidermis.

The causes of peeling can be many: from genetically inherent dry skin type to hypovitaminosis. With insufficient moisture, the skin quickly loses its tone, strength and freshness, the synthesis of natural hyaluronic acid and collagen decreases, and the aging process of cells accelerates.

Desquamation of the skin is often accompanied by a number of accompanying symptoms that cause discomfort:

  • Dehydrated cells do not have time to regenerate, they accumulate on top of each other in layers and exfoliate from the scalp.This causes the appearance of white flakes, thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, the appearance of creases of dehydration and a grayish complexion.
  • Decreases protective functions, decreases pH, the skin becomes more vulnerable to external negative factors of influence;
  • There is a feeling of tightness of the skin, sometimes itching, irritation.
  • The sensitivity of the epidermis increases, against the background of peeling, an allergic reaction or exacerbation of acne often occurs (with oily problematic skin type).
  • Dry and dehydrated skin loses its sensitivity to active formulas of cosmetics for care, the ability of cells to absorb nutrients decreases.

Strong peeling also makes it impossible to apply a neat, even make-up – decorative cosmetics roll off with particles of dead cells, creating a mask effect.

Consequences of severe peeling of the skin

If you do not take timely measures and do not provide the skin with the necessary care aimed at moisturizing and softening the epidermis, then its condition may worsen.

  • Firstly , dehydration is the main reason for the accelerated aging process of the skin: with insufficient moisture, the synthesis of collagen and elastin decreases, the skin loses its ability to quickly regenerate, facial wrinkles become more noticeable on the face, lines of dehydration appear, the skin loses its firmness and elasticity, loses natural glow. The image looks tired even if you get enough sleep.
  • Secondly , peeling also causes clogged pores and leads to acne.Oily skin often suffers from dehydration and flakes, keratinized scales mix with sebum and fill the enlarged pores, being an ideal breeding ground for acne bacteria.
  • Thirdly , dry flaky skin is characterized by increased reactivity and sensitivity to the environment. In case of violation of protective functions, the skin often reacts with allergies, hypersensitivity, itching, irritation appears. Without sufficient care, microcracks may appear on the skin, accompanied by pain and discomfort.

There are two ways to improve the complexion, to make it fresher, lighter and more uniform – by cleaning the stratum corneum of the epidermis and increasing the moisture content in it.

Why does the skin on the face peel off?

Due to the reduced supply of water and glycerin from the dermis to the epidermis and insufficient synthesis of the phylagrin protein, 20% of people have a genetic predisposition to dehydration and flaky skin.

In addition to genetics, external and internal factors of skin peeling are distinguished.

External factors

  • Prolonged stay in a room with dry air (due to the operation of air conditioners or heating devices).
  • Incorrectly selected care for skin type or too aggressive formulas of cosmetics.
  • Neglect of moisturizing – remember that you need to moisturize regularly for skin of any type and at any age.
  • Temperature change: In summer, the epidermis is dehydrated and can get sunburn without UV protection.In winter, due to strong winds and extremely low temperatures, the skin’s hydrolipid barrier is disrupted and dehydration appears.
  • Excessive exfoliation (re-cleaning with peels, scrubs) or insufficient facial skin care after cleansing. Exfoliate the skin no more than 2 times a week (depending on its type and condition, sensitive and thin skin requires deep cleansing no more than once every 7-10 days).
  • Use of decorative cosmetics with dry textures.

Internal factors

  • Propensity to allergic reactions.
  • Hypovitaminosis (lack of vitamins and minerals) of the body is also the cause of tissue dryness and desquamation.
  • Certain diseases, for example, of the endocrine system or gastrointestinal tract.

If peeling of the skin appeared unexpectedly, against the background of stable routine care and regimen, then to find out the cause of dehydration, it is recommended to consult a specialist.

Causes of peeling in women and men

In addition to the listed general causes of desquamation, there are exclusively “female” and “male” factors of dehydration of the epidermis.

Peeling of the skin of the face in women

  • With the onset of menopause (45+ years), a woman’s body undergoes many changes, one of which is the loss of the skin’s natural ability to produce lipids (fats). Since the onset of menopause, a woman’s skin loses up to 57% of lipids, resulting in dryness, itching, flaking and a feeling of tightness of the skin.
  • Incorrect care: alcohol-containing aggressive formulas, excessive cleansing, insufficient moisture, or completely incorrectly selected products for skin type.
  • Abuse of mineral powders (matting formulas) can also cause desquamation of the skin: absorbing mineral particles further dry the skin.
  • Frequent uncontrolled diets and unbalanced nutrition are all features of eating behavior that can cause deterioration of the epidermis from the inside.

Peeling of facial skin in men

  • Regular shaving of the stubble: a feature of the male half, which also causes dry skin. No matter how dense the male epidermis is, due to insufficient care and frequent shaving, the skin becomes sensitive, peeling, itching, inflammation and rashes appear: the razor blade partially removes the most superficial layer of cells.
  • Lack of sufficient facial skin care: if a man refuses from day and night care, then care for and after shaving should be in the beauty arsenal.

What to do to get rid of persistent flaking of the skin of the face?

If you experience flaking, taking timely measures will help your skin to recover.

  • First, observe your drinking regime and consume your daily intake of plain water. Lack of fluid in the body causes tissue dehydration and desquamation.
  • Secondly, provide yourself with the necessary air humidification: normally the room should have at least 60% humidity.
  • Third, provide your skin with sufficient care aimed at: gentle cleansing, moisturizing, softening, restoring and protecting the skin.

Cosmetics for home care against peeling skin

We will analyze the mandatory stages of a beauty routine for caring for dehydrated flaky skin and consider options for effective cosmetics to combat an urgent problem.


  1. Wash and shower in warm water: hot water disrupts the skin’s natural hydrolipidic film and causes peeling.After washing your face, gently pat your face dry with a towel, excluding pulling or rubbing movements.
  2. During the procedure, use mild cleansers with delicate gentle formulas, for example, Lipikar Syndet AP + Lipid-Restoring Cleansing Cream-Gel for Face and Body, instantly softens and soothes dry sensitive skin of the face and body.
  3. An alternative way to cleanse the skin is Micellar water ULTRA Reactive micellar water is suitable for allergic hypersensitive skin, thoroughly cleanses the skin from impurities without water, removes makeup from the eye area, reduces redness and tightness, soothes and moisturizes the skin.
  4. No more than 1-2 times a week, use a delicate peeling to exfoliate keratinized skin scales and accelerate cell regeneration, La Roche-Posay soft scrub is suitable, gently exfoliating, cleansing and smoothing the skin.

Cleansing – preparing the skin for cream or serum application procedures. After cleansing your skin, be sure to use a moisturizer or emollient to prevent tightness and flaking again.

Corrective care

Mask helps to quickly and permanently prevent transepidermal moisture loss in the deep layers of the skin. The mask is applied 1-2 times a week (unless otherwise provided by the manufacturer) and provides a visible result after 1 application.

  • Hydraphase Intense Masque for dehydrated facial skin contains liquid paraffin, fragmented hyaluronic acid, shea butter and La Roche-Posay thermal water.Intensively moisturizes, strengthens, restores comfort and elasticity of the skin, improves complexion, restores smoothness and softness to the skin.

Serum is a highly concentrated cosmetic product of narrowly targeted action. It can act as a self-care or skin preparation for further procedures. Active formulas with powerful hydro-fixing agents will help the skin stay hydrated for a long time and prevent flaking.

  • Concentrated moisturizing serum Hyalu B5 with pure hyaluronic acid (low molecular weight and high molecular weight), medecassoside, vitamin B5 and La Roche-Posay thermal water.Instantly moisturizes, soothes, accelerates the restoration of the skin barrier, stimulates collagen synthesis, restores the intercellular matrix of the skin, increases density and elasticity, and helps to reduce wrinkles.

Cream – when choosing a product, pay attention to its ability to restore the natural protective functions of the skin – the higher it is, the better. By restoring the hydrolipid mantle, you will prevent dehydration from reoccurring. Choose nourishing creams based on fatty acids for dry and sensitive skin.

  • Cicaplast Gel B5 – care that accelerates the restoration of the skin barrier with softening vitamin B5, antibacterial copper, zinc, manganese, regenerating malecassoside and hyaluronic acid. Suitable as a care after deep cleansing and exfoliation of the skin, preventing repeated dryness and flaking.

A moisturizer should become a guest of your arsenal for skin care. Pay attention to the composition of the cosmetics: intensive moisturizers and hydro-fixing agents must be included in the basis of your basic care formula.

  • Toleriane Senstive Riche – moisturizing cream for sensitive skin prone to dryness. Has a rich and enveloping texture, instantly soothes the skin, making it soft and delicate, protects against dryness and flaking.

Salon treatments against skin peeling

A visible result in a relatively short time will help to achieve a course of aesthetic cosmetic procedures, for example:

  • Biorevitalization – injection of preparations based on hyaluronic acid into the upper layer of the skin.
  • Lactic acid peeling – superficial exfoliation of the stratum corneum, moisturizing and restoring skin tone.

Remember that after salon treatments, your skin needs sufficient supportive care to maintain and maintain a positive effect.

How to avoid flaky skin on the face: 4 tips from a dermatologist

  1. Investigate the root cause of the dehydration of the skin and, if possible, correct it.
  2. Use cosmetics for very dry skin with delicate hypoallergenic formulas.
  3. Apply moisturizing masks and gently exfoliate 1-2 times a week to accelerate skin renewal.
  4. Spray thermal water on your face throughout the day.

How to smear dry skin of a newborn?

Dry skin in a baby is a very common problem in the first months of his life. Dryness of the skin, peeling and microcracks on the face, legs or other parts of the body, bother the baby, make him feel uncomfortable.But loving parents can help a child.
90 004 Causes of dry skin in babies

According to pediatricians and dermatologists, in the overwhelming majority of cases, the manifestation of dryness on the surface of the skin in an infant is a natural phenomenon that naturally follows from a change in the surrounding microclimate. The newborn’s skin has not fully adapted to the air environment after the warm and moist mother’s womb.
However, dry and flaky skin in an infant may well be a signal of insufficient care or illness.

Dry skin in a baby often worries new parents. How to get rid of dryness and flaking of delicate baby skin and prevent this in the future – read in this article
External factors provoking dryness:

  • Cold, windy season.
  • Insufficiently humidified air, use of heating devices, air conditioning, lack of wet cleaning of the room.
  • Soap or shampoo not suitable for the child.
  • Careless care of the baby’s groin area.
  • Application in washing of powders not intended for children’s clothes.
  • Bathing in water above 37 ° C – high temperatures cause dry skin in the baby.
  • Overheating due to excessive wrapping of the newborn.
  • Direct contact with synthetic fabrics that irritate baby skin.

Vitamin deficiency is one of the most common causes of dry skin in babies
Internal disorders of the body, manifested by dryness:

  • Lack of vitamins A and PP in the body.
  • Incorrect, unbalanced nutrition of the child after birth (or mother during pregnancy).
  • Changes in metabolism, disruption of internal organs.
  • Allergy to infant formula, breast milk or other dietary ingredients. SARS, colds, fever.
  • Atopic dermatitis is a skin disease characterized by itching, redness, flaking, irritation of the skin, most often expressed on the cheeks.
  • Ichthyosis is a “family” disease that is inherited (“fish” scales on the skin).

Basic rules for baby skin care

Baby’s dry skin needs proper care. Children are fragile creatures, their skin is several times thinner and more sensitive than the skin of an adult.
That is why it is necessary to provide the child with optimal conditions (control the microclimate of the room, food, purchase high-quality non-synthetic clothing, monitor the baby’s hygiene, daily routine).
Monitor the air temperature and humidity level in the children’s room – the optimal indicators are 18-20 degrees and 70%, respectively
Famous pediatrician Komarovsky formulated the following rules for caring for newborns:

  • The ideal air temperature in the children’s room should be 18-20 ° C. At the same time, the air humidity reaches 50-70%.

To achieve these parameters, a humidifier or a large aquarium in the baby’s room is suitable.

  • Daily wet cleaning of the premises without the use of chemicals.
  • Absence of things in the interior that accumulate a lot of dust (carpets, large fabric toys).
  • Materials for clothes and bed linen must be natural, without harmful dyes.

Clothes of a newborn should be washed only with baby powder, rinsed thoroughly and ironed on both sides

  • When washing, use baby powder – so the child will not have an allergic reaction.After washing, be sure to rinse things.
  • Excessive wrapping of the infant should be avoided.
  • Small children do not need a pillow while sleeping. But that the mattress is firm enough (ideally – orthopedic), you need to take care.
  • Daily bathing after the umbilical cord wound has healed. Until this time – wiping with baby wipes or (with caution) bathing in boiled and filtered water.
  • Treatment of a wound on the navel until healing with hydrogen peroxide, cotton swabs and brilliant green.
  • You can touch the child with extremely clean hands with short nails and without jewelry.

Daily walks in the fresh air are excellent prevention of dry skin in babies

  • Everyday walks (except when the child suffers from a fever). If it is hot outside or, on the contrary, frost, there is no need to prolong the stay in the air.
  • Gymnastics and light massage should also be done every day.
  • Feeding is carried out according to the mixed type (a compromise between feeding on demand and according to a strict hourly regime): you need to give the baby food only after his signal, but the intervals between feedings should remain within 3 hours.

Baby creams for dry skin

If the baby has dry skin, he needs two types of cream: moisturizing and soothing.
The difference between them is that a moisturizing cream restores the protective function of the skin after bathing, while a soothing cream is used to prevent diaper rash, irritation, and rash.

Children’s hypoallergenic cream “Umka” combines both properties – both moisturizes and soothes. This cream helps protect delicate skin, reduces inflammation, and has healing properties. It does not contain parabens. Ingredients: panthenol, chamomile extract and olive oil.

French emulsion Mustela Stelatopia moisturizes the skin, restores elasticity, eliminates redness and itching. Specially designed for dry baby skin, fast acting.

Johnson’s Baby Cream (Gentle Care) has a softening, moisturizing and nourishing effect.The aroma of the product is pleasant, no fragrances are used. The composition contains extracts of aloe, chamomile, olive, sunflower and soybean oil.

Baby cream “Freedom” is familiar to everyone in the post-Soviet space. Natural components of the composition and low cost attract parents. The remedy is effective for diaper rash, prickly heat, helps to get rid of burning, itching, refreshes and moisturizes the skin.

How to properly bathe a child with dry skin

If the baby suffers from dry skin, experts recommend bathing every other day.In the first 30 days of a child’s life, water must be boiled and filtered.
Potassium permanganate should not be added to the bath: dermatologists emphasize that it has a drying effect on the skin.
You need to bathe your baby in warm (36-37 degrees) boiled water with the addition of herbs
Herbal decoctions (chamomile, calendula, string) are used as folk antiseptic agents. They are also recommended for use in bathing children with diaper dermatitis.
When bathing an infant with dry skin, add a tablespoon of flaxseed oil for additional hydration.
After bathing, you should use a moisturizing baby cream.

Features of dry scalp care

Pediatricians say: a flaky scalp in an infant under the age of one year is the norm.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to exclude diseases and factors negatively affecting the scalp:

  • the use of soap and shampoos should be reduced to 1 time per week;
  • you need to purify water from chlorine using a filter or boil it;
  • air humidity should reach 50% and not exceed 70%;
  • a headdress is required in the hot season;
  • clothes and underwear should be made only of natural fabrics.

Features of dry skin care for allergies

If your baby is diagnosed with an allergy that has resulted in dry skin, take note of the following care rules:
Do not use sponges made of coarse materials for bathing babies

  • Control the humidity in the room.
  • Avoid coarse textured washcloths.
  • Bathing water must be boiled.
  • After bathing, do not rub the skin, but gently pat it dry with a towel.
  • Treat the skin with a hypoallergenic moisturizer (Realba, Mustela Stelatopia).
  • Do not use ammonia-containing products during cleaning.

What to do if baby’s skin is dry and cracked

First of all, you need to identify the cause of the dryness. It is necessary to analyze whether the child is being properly cared for.
Wet cleaning of the children’s room is mandatory when there is a baby in the family
The following key questions will help in this process:

  1. Is the air humidified enough?
  2. Is there daily wet cleaning?
  3. How often are heaters or air conditioners used? Is the air temperature comfortable for the baby?
  4. Has the infant’s behavior become restless?
  5. How long have changes in skin condition been noticeable?
  6. Does the child come into contact with synthetic fabrics (clothes, toys)?
  7. Has your son or daughter recently changed their diet?
  8. Has food allergen testing been conducted?
  9. Is the infant hygiene carefully and accurately carried out (especially after urination and defecation)?
  10. Is the bathing water too hot?

If cracks appear on the baby’s dry skin, be sure to contact the pediatrician – he will select the correct treatment
If cracks are observed on the child’s skin, the baby itches, often rubs the skin, there is a danger of infection in the child’s body.In this case, you should consult your doctor.
It is forbidden to use potent medicinal preparations on your own. However, the well-being of the baby can be facilitated by careful observance of the rules of care (in accordance with the recommendations of specialists) and the use of baby cream or oil.

Child skin care according to the season

Pediatricians note that a child’s skin is extremely sensitive to temperature changes – therefore, caring for it will be different in winter and summer.
In winter, before going outside, treat your baby’s skin with a protective cream

Winter care

In the cold season, a special protective cream should be applied to the face and other open areas of the baby’s skin. Such creams have an increased density, which creates a reliable lipid barrier on the skin, preventing chapping.
It is necessary to use the product half an hour before going outside.
The child’s condition during a winter walk is monitored by looking at his cheeks: pink color indicates that the baby is comfortable, and pallor or “marble” white-pink stains – that the baby is very hypothermic.In this case, you should rather take it to a warm place.
It is strictly forbidden to rub the skin with frostbite. You need to wait until the baby warms up and apply D-Panthenol or Bepanten on the newly pinked cheeks.
To prevent colds, it is effective to apply Masque baby aqua baby warming cream on the baby’s chest and limbs.

See also: What is a serological blood test?

If the walk ends on time, a regular moisturizer for children is used at home after the walk.

Summer care

In summer, children often have prickly heat, diaper rash. For prevention, dermatologists recommend bathing the baby 2 times a day, to provide natural ventilation of the skin.
To do this, you should easily dress the child, and, if possible, undress. Increased attention should be paid to timely diaper change and post-bowel hygiene.
Change diapers on time – this rule applies not only to summer, but in general any season
Reduce the use of soap when bathing.Also, in the hot season, the abuse of various creams is not recommended, especially based on oils and petroleum jelly – this leads to clogging of the skin.
A sunscreen with SPF 30 protection is essential during the hot season. It is also helpful to wipe your face with clean water from time to time.

During a vacation outside the city, the installation of an inflatable children’s pool is encouraged if the weather is warm and calm.

To prevent the child’s skin from suffering from dryness, parents must provide proper care: a comfortable environment, a balanced diet, hypoallergenic shampoos, creams and washing powders, daily hygiene, and the use of moisturizers after bathing.In addition, during winter frosts, baby’s skin needs a protective cream.
Source: https://kidteam.ru/suxaya-kozha-u-rebenka-na-lice-nozhkax-prichiny-i-chto-delat.html

Dry skin of hands and body in a newborn: why and what to do

The skin of a newborn is different from that of an adult. It loses heat much faster, because the ratio of the baby’s body surface to its weight is several times greater than that of an adult.
“Newborns have a very thin epidermis,” says Alexander Prokofiev, dermatovenerologist, medical expert of the La Roche-Posay brand.- That is why baby’s skin is very delicate and easily injured.
Until a certain age, it has insufficiently acidic pH (due to low sebum production), therefore it is more susceptible to various microbes.
In addition, it has significantly less protective pigment melanin. ”
In newborns, the density of the sweat glands is higher due to the smaller skin surface compared to adults. But by the time of birth, these glands are not mature and cannot cope with the mission assigned to them – sweating.Therefore, when the ambient temperature rises, the baby’s skin tends to overheat.

According to Alexander Prokofiev, “the main reason for the baby’s dry skin is insufficient work of his sebaceous and sweat glands. In the womb, these glands are dormant and begin to activate only after birth. Gradually, this physiological state of skin vulnerability disappears. ”

The skin of newborns is very delicate, thin and easily injured
There are several other factors responsible for dry skin in babies.

  • Too dry air In dry and warm air, the load on the child’s unformed thermoregulation increases. Therefore, it is so important to use humidifier devices.
  • Overheating Excessive wrapping, bathing in too warm water, hot weather all cause dry skin.
  • Chemicals Detergents, disinfectants, chlorinated water, and poor-quality care products can adversely affect the skin condition of children.
  • Lack of liquid From the first months of life, teach your child to drink water, and not juice, compote or tea.

Caring for a baby requires great responsibility and hygiene from parents.

  • Mom should have neat, short-cut nails and clean, well-groomed hands. Otherwise, there is a risk of injury to the baby’s delicate skin and infection.
  • Twice a day, the baby needs to process the umbilical wound until it is completely healed.
  • Keep your baby’s skin clean and change the diaper every 3 hours or immediately after a bowel movement.
  • Bathe your baby daily. If the quality of tap water is poor, then use boiled water with a temperature not higher than 37 degrees Celsius (and not lower than 34).

Here the recommendations depend on the location of the dry skin areas.

Wash the newborn with a cotton pad dipped in boiled water

  • Head In the parietal region, newborns often develop dry flaky crusts – gneiss.Half an hour before bathing the child, lubricate them with warm vaseline or vegetable oil, and during washing, gently rinse them off the scalp. If the first time you can’t cleanse the scalp, that’s okay. Repeat the skin treatment on subsequent baths. The main thing is not to pick the skin or peel off the crusts, so as not to cause additional skin irritation.
  • Face Dryness can occur due to frequent contact with water (especially hard water), dry indoor air, hot and windy weather.Wipe the skin of the newborn’s face 2 times a day with cotton pads dipped in boiled water. Don’t forget to clean the folds behind the ear as well. Then apply a moisturizer.
  • Body Dryness can appear due to contact with clothing that contains particles of detergents or aggressive dyes. After the umbilical wound has healed, use special moisturizing oils or chamomile decoction for bathing. Dry your baby’s skin without rubbing it, but gently blot it with a soft towel. Then apply a newborn moisturizer.

Many parents are very worried about the dry skin of their babies. And they have some reason for that.
Mistakes when caring for a child can provoke dry skin.

  • Too long bathing. Newborns are bathed for no longer than 7-8 minutes.
  • Long-term use of diapers. They must be changed, as we said above, every 3 hours or immediately after a bowel movement. It is important to do air baths between shifts.
  • Incorrect removal of crusts on the head.In no case should they be torn off, otherwise there is a risk of injury to the skin and infection.

It is better to bathe a newborn in boiled water
One of the reasons for dry skin in babies is the composition of the mother’s milk (it largely depends on the diet of the nursing mother) or the reaction to formula milk. With artificial feeding, you will have to go through a path of trial and error. If you observe dryness and redness of the skin of the crumbs, switch to hypoallergenic food.
A nursing mother is advised to remove milk, red fish, coffee, chocolate, red vegetables and fruits from the diet.If your baby’s skin remains dry after that, consult a pediatrician.

  • Humidify the air in the baby’s room.
  • Use boiled water for bathing or install a filter – often dry skin in newborns causes high levels of chlorine in tap water.
  • For washing children’s clothes, use special detergents.
  • After bathing or washing, lubricate your baby’s skin with baby oil or cream.
  • Breastfeeding mothers should avoid eating foods that can cause an allergic reaction.

Since the skin of a newborn is very delicate, it makes sense to buy products for her care, developed under the supervision of pediatricians, from an assortment of pharmacy brands. For bathing, it is necessary to use gentle formulas that do not dry out the skin.

For example, Lipikar bath and shower oil from La Roche-Posay. It gently cleanses and soothes the baby’s skin, restores the protective barrier and removes the feeling of tightness, and provides intensive lipid replenishment.

After bathing, the skin must be moisturized; for this, the soothing multi-regenerating balm La Roche-Posay Cicaplast Baume B5 is suitable.
Source: https://skin.ru/article/suhaja-kozha-u-novorozhdennogo/

What to do when skin peeling in a newborn

In the second week of life, mothers may notice peeling of the skin in a newborn. It can appear on any part of the body. Mom does not need to run to the doctor and worry if skin peeling in a newborn baby is not accompanied by redness and swelling.
It’s just the body’s reaction to a change in the environment, because now, instead of amniotic fluid, it is surrounded by air. This can last 2 weeks, after which it will disappear without a trace, even if nothing is done. But the mother can prevent the development of this reaction and reduce the manifestations – by her departure.

What does peeling skin look like in newborns

Peeling of the skin is manifested in newborn babies in different places. It can even be on the head and heels and looks like light scales and crusts.Dry husks seem to come off the skin. It can be whitish or yellowish. In no case should you shoot, rip it off by force. It should come off by itself or with the help of cosmetics and steaming.

Why does peeling appear in newborns on the body

The causes of skin peeling in newborns on the head are not fully known. But as for the rest of the skin, the reason lies in the fact that in the first days of life, the glands do not yet produce protective lipid substances.Then, upon contact with air, the top layer dries and exfoliates.
But sometimes adaptive skin peeling in a newborn on the body can provoke negative factors associated with nutrition, clothing, microclimate. And in such situations, the child can be helped to endure this period without intense peeling, if you take proper care of the skin.

  • Reason 1: the air in the children’s room is too dry, especially in winter – due to the operation of heating radiators.
  • Solution: achieve a humidity level of 50-70%, for this you can use a special humidifier device or hang wet terry towels on the radiators and put bowls of water in the room.
  • Reason 2: frequent bathing, the addition of potassium permanganate (which has the property of drying the skin).
  • Solution: the baby is bathed no more than 1 time a day, until the navel heals – in boiled water.
  • Reason 3: improper bathing – the use of cosmetic detergents (foams, gels) every day.

Solution: use milk or bath gel once a week, make sure that there is no allergic reaction to the cosmetic product. You can not wash the baby with ordinary soap for adults, but it is best to use decoctions of herbs (motherwort, succession).
Reason 4: if after walking the skin of the newborn appears on the face, it means that it is chapped, frostbitten or burns in the sun.

  1. Solution: half an hour before going outside, apply a nourishing winter or summer sunscreen, protect the baby in the stroller from the wind.
  2. Reason 5: an allergic reaction to any product consumed with food by the mother and passed to the baby through breast milk.
  3. Solution: Track what foods the mother ate before the appearance of flaky skin in the newborn on the face and other parts of the body.
  4. Reason 6: peeling of the skin of a newborn on the legs, arms, torso appears after the appearance of new clothes or washing them – an allergic reaction to fabrics and detergents.
  5. Solution: wear only undershirts, bodysuits and rompers made of breathable 100% cotton fabrics, use only baby detergent or replace it with another.
  6. Reason 7: Scaling of the scalp in a newborn from a cap or shampoo.
  7. Solution: It is important to wear a bonnet according to the temperature and not to overheat the head and sweat, and also not to use an adult shampoo.

See also: How does rubella manifest in children?

If mothers do not understand the reasons for peeling skin in newborns, they can only make every effort to exclude as much as possible every factor influencing the delicate skin of the baby.And also a mother can try to delicately eliminate the results of skin peeling in a newborn with timely and gentle care.

Proper care and prevention of skin peeling in a newborn

Knowing how to smear the skin of a newborn when peeling and what measures to take, you can smooth the process of adaptation of the baby to life in a new environment.

  • If you see peeling of the skin of the newborn on the abdomen and groin, try to use diapers less often and more often allow this part of the body to be in natural conditions.
  • When the scalp of a newborn is peeling, take vegetable oil, boil in a water bath, cool and apply on the crusts. Put on the crumbs a cap, and after an hour bathe – remove the steamed peeling residues with a cotton pad or by combing out with a soft brush.
  • After bathing, do not rub the skin with a hard towel – you can only soak it with a special children’s terry cloth.
  • After bathing your baby, apply moisturizing milk or oil. The main thing is that it does not contain lanolin, which often provokes an allergic reaction.
  • If the skin reacts negatively to body cosmetics by peeling, replace them with warm vegetable oil: olive, sunflower, peach, wheatgrass.
  • Flaky skin on a newborn’s face can be triggered by a moisturizer applied just before going outside during the cool season.
  • If dry skin of a newborn, peeling is quite worried about, when processing integuments with oil, do not forget about a fold on the neck, behind the ears, between the fingers, in the groin and buttocks, as well as under the armpits and on the elbows.

Tips and Tricks for Parents

Sometimes the cause of skin peeling in a newborn can lie in completely unexpected factors. If you are having trouble coping with routine withdrawal from this manifestation and it only gets worse, look at the following things.

  1. Is the pet sleeping on the baby’s linen and clothes, or in direct contact with him. If this is the case, eliminate this effect of the fur on the skin.
  2. If there is too much chlorine in your domestic tap water, use a filter for any water that comes into contact with your baby, even for bathing and washing.
  3. During breastfeeding, mom needs to give up sweet muffins and donuts, milk chocolate, dishes with a lot of preservatives and dyes that can provoke excessive flaking.
  4. The washing powder should be free from intensely smelling fragrances and chlorine. You do not need to use a fabric softener. Even if this does not help, wash the undershirts and clothing adjacent to the body with baby soap.
  5. After bathing, use a towel made of light-colored material, that is, not dyed.The dye in bright and dark towels can also lead to flaking.

If skin peeling in a newborn baby is accompanied by anxiety, itching, inflammation, redness, you need to contact a pediatrician to rule out such dangerous diseases as seborrhea, lichen or atopic dermatitis.
Source: https://bezsoski.ru/chto-delat-pri-shelushenii-kozhi-u-novorozhdennogo/

Dry and rough skin in a child: what is it and how to help a baby?

Dry skin in babies is a common occurrence in babies in the first months of life.Dryness can be accompanied by the appearance of microcracks and rough spots on the skin, peeling.
At the same time, babies feel uncomfortable, become restless, capricious. How to help the child and relieve him of unpleasant sensations, read the article.

Features and functions of baby skin

Newborns have very thin, fragile skin that loses heat very quickly. It also has insufficient pH up to a certain point, which causes various microbial diseases.
In addition, infants have a very low concentration of melanin, a pigment that protects against ultraviolet rays.
The thickness of children’s skin becomes close to adult parameters only by the age of 7 years.
The epidermis is the most important part of the human body, it performs the following functions:

  1. Protective. In newborns, this quality is poorly expressed, so their skin is often inflamed and damaged.
  2. Respiratory. The skin absorbs oxygen and evacuates carbon dioxide.The intensity of skin respiration in infants is much stronger than in adults.
  3. Sensitive. Receptors that perceive irritation are localized precisely in the skin. In babies, the most sensitive parts of the body are the hands, face and soles of the feet.
  4. Thermoregulation. The epidermis gives off heat and evaporates sweat. In babies, thermoregulation is imperfect, so they quickly overheat and supercool.
  5. Immune. The skin contains cells that carry out many immune responses.

The epidermis is the place where biologically active substances, enzymes and vitamins are formed. This is why it is so important to keep your skin healthy.

What affects dry skin

Dry skin in a newborn is a natural phenomenon due to a change in microclimate. The epidermis does not fully adapt to the environment familiar to an adult; it suffers after a humid and warm microclimate of the womb.
But in some cases, rough spots on the body of a baby may indicate insufficient care or pathology.
The main causes of dry skin in a child include:

  1. Insufficient humidity in the child’s room. Especially often dry spots on the skin come to light in the cold season, when batteries are heated or an air heater is used.
  2. Improper hygiene. Babies cannot be washed every day using detergents. Children should be washed with plain water, and liquid soap should be used once a week. The epidermis can also dry out from rare hygiene procedures, when an inflammatory process develops and dry spots appear on the skin that flake off.
  3. Incorrect functioning of the sweat and sebaceous glands. These glands begin to function only after the baby is born. Over time, the dryness of this etiology is eliminated on its own.
  4. Disturbed metabolism. This can be caused by pathologies of the pancreas or thyroid gland.
  5. Vitamin deficiency. It is usually found in babies who are breastfeeding if the mother does not receive vitamin E and A.
  6. Allergic manifestations.Dry dermatitis occurs as a reaction to food that mom consumes, medicines, hygiene products, diapers.

You also need to monitor the indicators of external temperatures. The skin dries out if you bathe your baby in hot, not warm water.
If you are feeding your baby with formula, do not forget to give him water to drink.
After all, thirst is the underlying cause of dry epidermis. A child’s nutrition is an important factor affecting the condition of the skin. The diet of a lactating woman or the choice of milk formula is important.
Peeling of the skin in babies occurs if the mother eats red vegetables, trout, salmon, chocolate, drinks a lot of coffee. The body of babies is not able to perceive such products.

About dermatitis separately

Infant atopic dermatitis is based on allergic inflammation. Pathology is associated with malfunctions of the immune system, when an irritant acts on the baby from the outside and at the same time is in the child’s body.

Allergens trigger an unhealthy reaction, foci of inflammation begin to appear, in which disease-causing cells are concentrated.They synthesize active substances that support inflammation even after the irritant has been eliminated.
The addition of a fungal infection can intensify the allergic reaction. In this case, long-term anti-inflammatory therapy is required.
At the initial stage, dermatitis is manifested by the appearance of dry pink spots on the belly and on the face of the child.
Other signs of atopic dermatitis are:

  • rough dry flaky skin;
  • intense itching;
  • the appearance of diaper rash.

The kid is anxious, does not sleep well. If there is no treatment, then the disease becomes chronic.

Treatment methods

If the dryness of children’s skin is not associated with a disease, and its cause has been eliminated, then the condition of the epidermis can be improved at home. Choose preparations containing vitamin E, dexpanthenol, and plant extracts.
You can use medicated creams, ointments, and cosmetic oils: Bepanten, Bubchen, almond, peach oil.The products soften the skin well, heal and moisturize the epidermis.
With dry skin, you can not bathe the crumbs in trays with the addition of a string, oak bark, chamomile. Herbs have a pronounced drying effect.

Care instructions

To prevent dryness from recurring again, arrange for a healthy environment for the child.
The optimum air temperature in the children’s room should not exceed 22 degrees – higher values ​​lead to drying out of the air. The room where the baby is located, and the whole house, must be kept clean: do wet cleaning several times a week.

In winter, use a humidifier; if you don’t have one, hang wet towels on the batteries. Only wash your baby’s clothes with high-quality baby powder, and always iron them on both sides.
Buy baby wardrobe items only from natural fabrics, synthetic clothing irritates the skin.
Daily care requires special attention. Bathing allows you not only to keep the child clean, but also improves blood circulation, strengthens the child’s nervous system.In the summer, often wash your baby’s face with a cotton pad dipped in water, and also bathe daily.

See also: How to moisturize the skin of a newborn?

The skin on the buttocks and groin area should be washed after each diaper change, without using soap. To prevent the epidermis from drying and flaking, lubricate the ass with diaper cream. You can also use the powder, but not at the same time with the cream.

Parent Errors

  1. Some moms and dads, unwittingly, worsen the condition of children’s epidermis.

Such incorrect manipulations include:

  1. Prolonged water procedures – bathing should not last more than 10 minutes.
  2. Bathing in hot water – the water temperature should not exceed 37 degrees.
  3. Rare diaper change – change the diaper every 2 hours.
  4. Lack of air baths – the baby should be allowed to be without a diaper every day for a short period of time.
  5. Removing crusts on the head – such actions lead to skin damage and infection.

With improper care, children’s skin dries up, becomes vulnerable, susceptible to microbes and viruses.
This can cause allergic reactions and even neurological damage.


Dry skin in babies should not scare parents, because this is a natural state. Following the described recommendations, you can easily moisturize and restore the epidermis.
The situation should be alerted if the dryness does not go away for a long time, and the child is restless, whiny.If so, see a dermatologist.
Source: https://its-kids.ru/suhaya-i-shershavaya-kozha-u-rebyonka.html

Dry skin in a newborn: what to do with peeling in a baby

A newborn baby with its appearance brings not only joy and happiness, but also many reasons for concern related to his health. One of them is dryness of the skin, which gives the baby great discomfort.
Newborns often suffer from dry skin

Newborn skin features

A newly born baby has a much thinner epidermis layer than adults, which is why the skin is so soft and delicate, and also very vulnerable.
The ratio of surface area to body weight in newborns is much higher than in adults, so the loss of internal heat, as well as overheating, occur several times faster.
Sebum and the protective pigment melanin in babies are almost not produced, which leads to an almost neutral (and not acidic, as usual, pH level) and increased susceptibility to microbes.

What Causes Dry Skin in Babies

Dry skin of hands and feet causes and treatment
Immediately after birth, the baby is coated with a protective lubricant, reminiscent of cheese paste, which is cleaned off by pediatricians during the first treatment.Upon contact with external air, the baby’s skin, left without lubrication, dries up and can peel off within 3-4 weeks, this is a physiological process that does not require intervention.
Dry skin in a newborn can begin to crack and peel off under the influence of such factors as:

  • Higher or lower ambient temperature, which reduces air humidity;
  • Too long stay in water, which washes away the already thin protective greasy layer;
  • Use of regular “adult” toilet soap, which, in addition to dryness, can irritate the baby’s skin.

In some cases, the cause of trouble may lie in various kinds of diseases:

  • eczema;
  • dermatitis;
  • ichthyosis;
  • epidermolysis bullosa and others.

Baby’s skin may dry out with dermatitis
Important! If the child is worried about incessant itching, swelling or bleeding of wounds on the skin appears, a fever begins, an urgent need to visit a pediatrician.

The importance of nutrition

The skin of infants can begin to dry out due to inappropriate milk formula – on artificial feeding or when reacting to the mother’s diet – during breastfeeding.Dryness and redness can occur in an infant if breast milk contains a lot of substances from chocolate, red fish, coffee and red vegetables that are not perceived by the baby’s body.
If the cause of skin troubles is due to nutrition, you should switch to hypoallergenic mixtures, and your mother should go on a diet.

Care rules

To prevent dry skin in a newborn or baby, it is necessary to properly care for him from the first days.
The most comfortable conditions for the baby should be created, because he himself cannot yet say what he does not like.
The room must always be kept clean, the air humidity should be at the optimum level for the child. Everything that touches sensitive skin should be natural and gentle.
Cream for very dry skin of hands

If the child is cold, he instinctively begins to tighten his legs, the skin of the palms and feet becomes cool, you should immediately cover him. When overheated, the baby turns red, an air bath will help here.

The smallest children need special care with their daily toilet.
Morning washing of the face is carried out with a cotton pad dipped in heated water, the nasal passages from milk crusts and mucus are cleaned with a cotton swab with baby oil.
Particularly careful care is required for the baby’s skin in the gluteal and groin areas – these are the places that most often come into contact with aggressive media (feces and urine) and most often suffer from dryness and flaking. To avoid such troubles, newborns should be changed diapers more often – after each toilet.
Before replacing the baby, they are thoroughly washed with running water, after which they are gently blotted with a towel (if home conditions are unavailable, baby wipes can be used).It is advisable to use a special diaper cream that will protect the delicate skin from moisture and other irritations.
An important point of care is daily bathing, which helps to keep sensitive skin clean, as well as improves blood circulation and strengthens the baby’s nervous system.

During bathing, thoroughly rinse all skin folds, especially around the genitals and buttocks. Also, the head is washed with a special baby shampoo to avoid the appearance of seborrheic crusts due to frequent sweating.
After bathing and getting wet (not wiping it off!) Moisture, sprinkle the baby’s skin with talcum powder.
Important! Do not use powder and baby cream on the same areas.

If the baby has dry skin

If the skin of the newborn begins to dry and flake, you should provide him with special care. For bathing such children, it is better to use not soap, but special foams based on medicinal herbs.
They well cleanse the baby’s body from dirt, act as antihistamines and anti-inflammatory drugs, but do not dry or irritate him due to the absence of lye in the composition.
A few drops of this foam are enough to take a full bath.
If the skin peels on the hands
Often, babies develop a dry crust on the crown. Such skin should be smeared with heated oil and after 30 minutes, gently rinse off in the bathroom, helping with a soft brush-comb.
Note! You cannot pick out the crusts and tear them off, otherwise irritation will begin on the delicate skin.
Dry skin on the baby’s head should be cleaned with a brush

For children with a tendency to dry skin, it is important that the clothes are ironed, especially from the inside.Ironing during the first few months of life is necessary in order to evaporate traces of washing powder.

Council. Before using a new cosmetic product, it is imperative to check it for allergies by applying a little on the child’s shoulder or behind the ear and watching for irritation.
If a baby has dry skin associated with diseases, special ointments, sprays, moisturizing compresses prescribed by a pediatrician and dermatologist are used simultaneously with the main treatment.

Consequences of dry skin in a newborn

If you take care of your baby’s skin incorrectly and allow it to dry out and peel off, harmful substances in the environment can easily enter the child’s body through damaged skin and cause various health problems: from allergies to neurological disorders. Also, the injured skin opens the way for various microbes and viruses. Typical mistakes that can lead to dry skin:

  • bathing too long;
  • long stay in the same lye diaper – they must be replaced at least once every 2-3 hours and immediately after the baby has pooped;
  • neglect of air baths;
  • coarse cleaning of crusts on the head;
  • Incorrect removal of crusts on the head, in no case should they be torn off, otherwise there is a risk of injury to the skin and infection.

Prevention measures

It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it later. For the prevention of dry skin in newborns, certain conditions must be observed:

  • refusal from “adult” soap when caring for a child;
  • bathing time limit;
  • application of moisturizing lotions after water procedures;
  • washing clothes only with special products for children;
  • use of room air humidifiers, especially during the heating season;
  • selection of the baby’s wardrobe strictly taking into account the current weather conditions;
  • selection of only high-quality diapers that absorb not only urine, but also liquid feces of a newborn.

Which care products to choose

All cosmetics that will be used in baby care must be of high quality, certified, stored in proper conditions and have a sufficient shelf life.
Additional Information. Dermatologists recommend using different products from the same manufacturer to avoid unpleasant reactions from the sensitive skin of the newborn.
The care products should not contain:

  • silicone;
  • paraben;
  • dyes;
  • synthetic oils;
  • of any chemical compounds recognized as harmful (lauryl sulfate, paraffin, petroleum jelly).

All these substances can dry out the skin of an infant, so it is better to use products with herbal ingredients.
In the “dowry” the baby should have: baby soap, special baby shampoo, cotton wet wipes, universal baby cream for moisturizing and lubricating folds, relieving irritation, baby oil after bathing.
Baby’s skin is soft and velvety. At the same time, she is very delicate and vulnerable. In order to prevent dryness and irritation on it, careful care and selection of cosmetics for the baby are necessary.
Source: https://ameno.ru/uxod-za-licom-i-telom/suxaya-kozha-novorozhdennogo.html


Life 2021

The most volatile element of our body is hair. They can be styled and modernized several times to give our personality a completely different look. This makes absolutely necessary


The most volatile element of our body is hair.They can be styled and modernized several times to give our personality a completely different look. This makes it absolutely imperative to take care of our hair to keep it tidy, clean and healthy, as well as prevent dandruff and dry scalp. Dandruff and itchy scalp can be very annoying and embarrassing. Both of these conditions usually occur for different reasons and need to be treated in different ways.

Comparison table

Comparison table for dandruff and dry scalp
Dandruff Dry scalp
ICD-9 classification 690.18 NA
Disease Classification DB 11911 NA
Definition Dandruff (also called plaque and historically referred to as Pityriasis capitis) is an excessive separation of dead cells from the scalp. Dandruff can also be caused by frequent exposure to extreme heat and cold. A dry scalp can also cause itching, which causes the white scales of the skin to fall off in small pieces.

The detailed comparison continues below.

Symptoms of dandruff and dry scalp

Dandruff and dry scalp have similar symptoms.

Dandruff Symptoms

An itchy scalp can be caused by dandruff, which is white or gray visible flakes falling off the scalp. Hair may be oily, but skin flakes continue to fall off the scalp. They can sometimes be as large as a quarter of an inch and appear oily. Another sign of dandruff can be scalp redness or irritation that doesn’t go away with a simple wash.

Dry scalp

Dry scalp can also cause itching. Dry scalp causes the white scales of the skin to fall off in small pieces. This is usually accompanied by dryness in the rest of the body.

Causes of dandruff and dry scalp

Causes of dandruff

In people with dandruff, skin cells can mature and fall out in 2-7 days, as opposed to about a month in people without dandruff. As a result, dead skin cells are secreted in large oily clumps that appear as white or grayish patches on the scalp and clothing.

Dandruff is the result of three essential factors:

  1. Sebum, commonly called sebum or sebum
  2. Metabolic by-products of skin microorganisms (especially Malassezia yeast)
  3. Individual susceptibility

Plain old literature cites fungus Malassezum fur (formerly known as Pityrospor ) the cause of dandruff. Although this fungus occurs naturally on the skin surface of both healthy people and people with dandruff, it was later discovered that a scalp-specific fungus, Malassezia globosa , is the responsible agent.

In rare cases, dandruff can be a manifestation of an allergic reaction to chemicals in hair gels / sprays, hair oils, or sometimes even dandruff medications such as ketoconazole. There is also some evidence that food (especially sugar and yeast), excessive sweating, and climate play an important role in the pathogenesis of dandruff.

Causes of dry scalp

Changes in temperature and humidity cause dry scalp. For example, in winter, when the heater is turned on, the scalp is exposed to a drier environment, resulting in flaking and flaking.

Treatment for dandruff and dry scalp

Treatment for dandruff

Anti-dandruff shampoos use a combination of ingredients to fight dandruff. Salicylic acid (used in Sebulex) removes dead skin cells from the scalp and slows down the rate at which they form. Zinc pyrithione kills Pityrospore (a fungus that causes dandruff). Selenium sulfide or ketoconazole gives results for both salicylic acid and zinc pyrithione.

Dry scalp treatment

The simplest and most effective way to treat dry scalp is to moisturize the scalp with plenty of water.The natural oils in your hair should be restored by avoiding washing your hair regularly. Hair oil or hair care will allow the body to adjust to the new moisture level in a few days and the scalp will return to normal.

90,000 Question to an expert: how to choose a peeling for the scalp?

The masters told why there is such a noise around the peelings for the scalp – and advised products that not only cleanse, but also restore the hydrolipid barrier and skin microflora.

The scalp needs regular exfoliation as much as the skin of the face – and sometimes more. After all, hair interferes with the natural process of cleansing the scalp from sebum and dead scales of the stratum corneum.

The first mistake is a lack of cleansing, due to which dead cells and secretions of the sebaceous glands accumulate at the hair roots, weakening the hair. The second mistake is cleansing too zealously, which leads to irritation and dryness.

Modern scalp peels contain salicylic acid, which does a double job: it exfoliates and cleans gently but thoroughly.

The experts told how to choose the right peeling depending on the needs and skin type: for those who rarely wash their hair, for sensitive skin or skin with dandruff.

To learn more about the products, hover your mouse over the numbers

Armen Asatryan

stylist authentica club



R + Co Crown is one of the few scrubs that immediately works like a shampoo – which means it doesn’t complicate shampooing.You need to properly wet your hair, squeeze a walnut-sized product into your palm and massage into the scalp. Rinse off the foam that appears in a minute with water – and apply the nourishing conditioner to the hair lengthwise.

The Korona scrub contains three cleansing components that complement each other.

Salicylic acid removes impurities, from styling residues to sebum, and generally reduces the oiliness of the skin. Ecuadorian Palm Seed Powder acts as a mild exfoliant.Kaolin absorbs those impurities that miraculously remained in the hair, due to it after washing, volume appears at the roots.

Honestly, for the first time, the process of applying a scrub may seem complicated: it has a rather thick texture. For the process to start, both hair and scalp must be very moist. On the other hand, as I said, this is a convenient 2-in-1: well worth getting used to, and really normalizes the scalp.

Dmitry Karchevsky

stylist, trainer Aveda



Pramasana Cleansing Gel should be applied to damp scalp before shampooing, massaging for 1-2 minutes.Volume – 3-4 clicks. Apply shampoo directly to the gel and rinse. By the way, shampoo – even sulfate-free – will foam much better than usual. And the gel itself is easy to apply and spread even in the case of very thick hair.

An important feature of Pramasana gel is that, in addition to cleansing components, it contains lactobacilli that restore the skin microbiome.

An imbalance in microflora leads to dry and irritated skin. On the contrary, the restoration of healthy microflora helps to strengthen the protective functions.

The main cleansing component is salicylic acid, which is obtained from the haulteria plant. It removes any impurities without injuring the skin. The gel also contains mild cleansing ingredients derived from babassu, coconut, algae, which even out the hydrolipid balance: dry skin becomes more hydrated, oily skin normalizes.

Maxim Biryulkin

stylist authentica club



The Alterna scrub has a fluid texture and a comfortable brush that gently but thoroughly removes dandruff particles from the scalp. Apply to damp scalp and massage for 3-4 minutes.

It fights dandruff fungus (formulated with zinc pyrithione), moisturizes the skin and relieves itching (thanks to panthenol).Also, the scrub formula includes the most gentle cleansing components – fruit enzymes.

Enzymes destroy protein bonds in the scales of the stratum corneum, and also break down fats and fatty acids.

The scrub also contains salicylic acid: it helps control the activity of the sebaceous glands without causing irritation.

Recorded by: Marina Divich

Photo: Lyubov Kozorezova

90,000 causes, types and treatment

Zinocap is a non-hormonal drug for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.Possesses anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity, reduces skin itching, stimulates the natural renewal of skin cells, eliminating dryness and flaking.

Get the price …

Seborrheic dermatitis can occur with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or with prolonged use of hormonal drugs.

How to restore healthy looking skin?

Without timely treatment, seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp can lead to baldness.

Learn more …

Accurate fulfillment of all doctor’s recommendations, exercise of patience and perseverance will help to overcome seborrheic dermatitis.

More …

Skin condition is a reflection of human health – therefore, one of the universal criteria for beauty has always been the absence of signs of peeling and inflammation on the skin. Dermatologists admit that many of the diseases they have to deal with cause patients primarily psychological discomfort.Stress can be both a root cause and a consequence of many skin diseases, turning them into a vicious circle. Seborrheic dermatitis is no exception. Let’s see what are the features of this disease and how can you get out of the vicious circle of its symptoms?

What is seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin disease that each of us may encounter at some point in our lives. This is an inflammatory disease that occurs in areas of the body where there are many sebaceous glands: on the scalp, behind the ear and the nasolabial triangle, as well as in the space between the shoulder blades and on the front surface of the chest.

Seborrheic dermatitis is caused by a yeast-like fungus of the genus Malassezia, but it is incorrect to call this disease infectious: the causative agent is a conditionally pathogenic microorganism that lives on the epidermis of almost every healthy person. The life cycle of this fungus is associated with fatty acids in the sebum, which is produced by the sebaceous glands. If, for some reason, they begin to secrete a secret in an enhanced mode, then the number of microorganisms in this area increases sharply, which leads to an inflammatory reaction, accompanied by itching and peeling of the skin.

Who is at risk

Doctors have identified several causes that can lead to seborrheic dermatitis. It has been proven that severe or chronic stress (which, alas, is a frequent companion of many people) leads to disruption of the normal function of the sebaceous glands. Therefore, seborrheic dermatitis often occurs in people who have suffered a nervous shock, patients with mental disorders and those who, due to the peculiarities of their professional activities, are forced to work under stressful conditions.

Another risk factor: limitation of physical activity, characteristic of people with disabilities and people who are overweight. In addition, the influence of some hormones on the production of sebum has been proven, therefore, adolescents in transitional age, infants who are breastfed (they receive hormones from mother’s milk, and the manifestations of the disease naturally go away after changing the diet), as well as men and women in whom the content of androgenic hormones predominates.
Finally, the relationship between some pathologies of the immune system and the inflammatory response to the reproduction of skin microflora has been noted: people with congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies develop seborrheic dermatitis much more often than the average population.

Causes of seborrheic dermatitis

The causative agent of the disease produces special lipolytic enzymes that can break down fatty acids contained in sebum. When there are too many fungi, these chemicals provoke an inflammatory reaction, which is accompanied by the destruction of skin cells (it looks like peeling on the outside), as well as the release of histamine, a chemical that causes itching.Scratching the itchy areas aggravates the inflammation and worsens the appearance of the skin with seborrheic dermatitis.

Signs and localization of the lesion

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis develop gradually. In the initial stages, yellowish-red scaly spots and vesicles appear in the affected areas, which can combine into large plaques covered with fatty scales. As a rule, seborrheic zones are located symmetrically (for example, on the wings of the nose or auricles on the right and left).Dense crusts form on the scalp, and cracks appear in the area of ​​natural skin folds. The severity of seborrheic dermatitis is determined by the area of ​​skin lesions and the intensity of the inflammatory process.

The “favorite” localization of seborrheic dermatitis is the scalp and face, but often the disease also affects the trunk. In severe cases, patients develop generalized seborrheic dermatitis, in which all parts of the body rich in sebaceous glands are simultaneously affected.

Allocate dry, oily and mixed forms of seborrheic dermatitis. The first option is typical for adolescents (the secretion of sebum is reduced at the same time), the second is accompanied by the separation of a liquid or thick skin secretion. In the latter case, dermatitis is exacerbated by the formation of acne, which is most typical for male patients. With a mixed form of the disease, both dry and fatty plaques are observed in different parts of the body.

Features of the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis

The tactics of helping patients with seborrheic dermatitis include two main areas.First, the fight against the causes of the disease: normalization of metabolism and suppression of the activity of the skin microflora. Secondly, the elimination of the symptoms of the disease, which cause both physical and psychological discomfort to patients.

Diet therapy

Since the pathological process is based on the disruption of the sebaceous glands, it is important to eliminate all factors that can affect the mechanism of their work. It is known that an important role in this is played by the human diet and the state of the gastrointestinal tract.Therefore, patients with seborrheic dermatitis are advised to limit the use of sweet, fatty, smoked and spicy foods, and they are also prescribed enzyme preparations that facilitate digestion.

Doctors have long noted the connection between the nature of the course (and even the occurrence) of many skin diseases and the health of the stomach, intestines and liver, therefore, patients are often advised to undergo a preventive examination by a gastroenterologist, and in the presence of chronic diseases in this area, to resume treatment.

There are many popular recipes for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis – all kinds of decoctions, infusions and masks, which are offered to be prepared on their own or bought in specialized stores and shops ready-made. It is believed that the naturalness of the components reduces the likelihood of the development of side effects of treatment, but do not forget that the effectiveness and safety of most of these recipes has not been scientifically proven, and it is impossible to predict the individual reaction of the body to certain biologically active substances.Therefore, doctors recommend giving preference to drugs sold in pharmacies.

Systemic therapy

This type of treatment involves the use of vitamin and mineral complexes and antimicrobial drugs. Vitamin therapy is aimed at improving the condition of the skin and accelerating metabolic processes – the emphasis should be on taking vitamins A, C and group B. Antimicrobial drugs are designed to fight both the causative agent of the disease and concomitant infection, which often complicates the course of seborrheic dermatitis.Your doctor may prescribe you a course of systemic antimycotics (antifungal agents) – these include fluconazole, terbinafine, intraconazole, and others, as well as broad-spectrum antibiotics such as doxycycline.

In some cases, with a severe inflammatory reaction and itching, the patient may be additionally prescribed antihistamines, such as loratadine, cetirizine, chlorpheniramine and others.

Topical treatments for seborrheic dermatitis

Products applied to the skin help combat the symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis, usually in the form of ointments, gels and aerosols.Their advantage is that they act in a targeted manner: they help relieve inflammation, itching, fight dryness and flaking, and also – depending on the form of the disease – they are able to moisturize or dry the epidermis. There are also antifungal and antibacterial ointments that allow you to suppress excess microflora locally, without negatively affecting the gastrointestinal tract.

External agents effective for seborrheic dermatitis can be conditionally subdivided into two subgroups: hormonal and non-hormonal.

Hormonal preparations

The property of synthetic steroid hormones is a rapid inhibition of inflammatory reactions and an immunosuppressive effect. This makes them extremely effective in relieving the main symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis. The most common drugs are betamethasone (Akriderm), hydrocortisone (hydrocortisone ointment), methylprednisolone (Advantan), momentzone (Gistan-N) and triamcinolone (Ftorocort).

Meanwhile, one should be aware that hormonal drugs have many side effects, so they should be used only in severe exacerbations of seborrheic dermatitis, and canceled with caution, as this can worsen the course of the disease and cause withdrawal syndrome.

Contraindications for the use of topical glucocorticosteroids are any bacterial or viral skin infections, hypersensitivity and skin tumors in the area of ​​application. Long-term use of hormonal ointments leads to skin dystrophy and a decrease in local immunity, which, in turn, can easily lead to the addition of a secondary infection.

Despite affordable prices and quick results from the use of glucocorticosteroid ointments for seborrheic dermatitis, most doctors are wary of their appointment.Topical steroids are prohibited for long-term use (no longer than 5 days), they cannot be applied to large areas of the body (if more than 20% of the skin is affected), as well as non-sensitive areas – face, neck, folds. Unfortunately, many patients do not know about this and abuse this group of drugs, using them on their own. This often leads to an aggravation of the pathology.

Non-hormonal preparations

A more gentle, but often not inferior in effectiveness approach to the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis is the use of non-hormonal preparations based on zinc pyrithione (Zinocap), ketoconazole (Sulsen), salicylic acid (salicylic acid ointment), birch tar (tar ointment).Each group of these funds has certain advantages, but most importantly, they are devoid of serious side effects of hormonal ointments and creams.

A frequent contraindication to the appointment of non-hormonal drugs is individual intolerance to one or another of their components. It is not always possible to predict this, therefore it is important to be especially attentive to the condition of the skin in the first days of using a new product. Side effects can be dry skin, increased photosensitivity and allergic reactions.

Some drugs from this group affect only part of the symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis, for example, tar has antiseptic properties, but does not help reduce itching, and salicylic acid, suppressing the inflammatory process, cannot normalize the natural renewal of the epidermis. The universal drugs that act on most of the pathogenetic mechanisms of seborrheic dermatitis include ointments and creams based on zinc pyrithione, therefore, agents from this group often become the main ones in the external therapy of the disease.

Despite the fact that seborrheic dermatitis does not pose an immediate threat to the patient’s life and does not deprive him of his ability to work, this ailment can significantly impair the quality of life and reduce the self-esteem of a sick person (especially young girls and adolescents). Therefore, it is important to start treatment already at the first signs of an exacerbation, and if the disease manifests itself for the first time, you should definitely consult a qualified dermatologist.

Seborrheic dermatitis starts with … dandruff?

Like seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff is caused by overgrowth of Malassezia fungi.However, the symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis occur when the proportion of the pathogen among the entire microflora on the scalp is more than 83%, and dandruff – when this value reaches 74% (normally Malassezia should be no more than 50% of the microflora). Thus, dandruff can be considered as the initial stage of the disease, so you should not take it lightly and neglect the use of medicines.

Anti-dandruff shampoos – even those sold in pharmacies – are often not able to fight the causes of the disease, they only eliminate its symptoms.It is much more effective to use non-hormonal agents for treatment, especially those based on zinc pyrithione, such as the OTCPharm Zinocap drug. Thanks to zinc pyrithione, “Zinocap” has anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity, reduces itching, stimulates the natural renewal of skin cells, eliminating dryness and flaking, restores the barrier function of the skin and reduces its sensitivity to the damaging effects of microorganisms. Zinocap also contains D-panthenol (provitamin B5), which restores the structure of the scalp, promotes healing, and also has a beneficial effect on the health and appearance of hair.”Zinocap” in the form of a cream has a light texture, is quickly absorbed and softens the skin, and the “Zinocap” aerosol is equipped with a special nozzle for application to hard-to-reach areas of the body (for example, on the scalp).