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Hiccups: Causes & Treatment

Overview

What are hiccups?

Hiccups are repeated spasms of your diaphragm paired with a ‘hic’ sound from your vocal cords closing. Your diaphragm is a muscle under your ribcage, separating your chest and stomach area. This muscle is an important part of the breathing process. It moves downward when you breathe in and upward when you breathe out.

Two things happen when you hiccup:

  • Your diaphragm pulls down between breaths, making you suck in air.
  • The glottis (space between the vocal cords) closes to stop more air coming in.

These actions make the ‘hic’ sound of the hiccup. The process of the hiccup happens very quickly and you’ll usually return to normal within minutes to a couple of hours without treatment.

Can hiccups happen to anyone?

Yes. Hiccups can happen to adults, children and babies.

Who commonly gets hiccups?

Hiccups are more common in men. They can also have hiccups for a longer period.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes hiccups?

It’s not clear why people get hiccups. There are several reasons hiccups might happen, including low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood and irritated nerves. The phrenic nerve (which connects the neck to the diaphragm) and vagus nerve (which connects the brain to the stomach) are important parts of the breathing process.

Mild hiccups (those that go away in a short time) can happen when you:

  • Eat and drink too quickly.
  • Drink carbonated beverages or alcohol.
  • Eat too much.
  • Experience stress – including fear and excitement.
  • Over-stretch your neck.
  • Take drugs (particularly those for anxiety – benzodiazepines).
  • Drink a very hot or very cold drink.
  • Go through chemotherapy.
  • Are anesthetized for a procedure.
  • Inhale toxic fumes.

What does it mean if the hiccups last for more than two days?

If your hiccups don’t go away within a few days, they are called ‘persistent. ’ If they last for a few months they are called ‘intractable’ (long-lasting hiccups). Long-lasting hiccups are rare. They can be stressful and exhausting. Intractable hiccups can be part of a larger, underlying medical problem and might not go away until that issue is corrected.

Some of these larger, underlying conditions include:

  • Cancer and tumors.
  • Stroke.
  • Disorders of the stomach or esophagus, including GERD (a gastrointestinal and abdominal disorder).
  • Pleurisy of the diaphragm.
  • Uremia.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Bowel diseases.
  • Pancreatitis and bladder irritation.
  • Hepatitis and liver cancer.
  • Tumors and lesions.

Hiccups can also happen after surgery and during the recovery process from a procedure. See a healthcare provider if your hiccups last for a long period of time.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are hiccups diagnosed?

Diagnosing hiccups is not complicated. Your healthcare provider needs only to listen to the ‘hic’ sound.

However, your healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to see if an underlying condition may be causing your hiccups. If the physical examination reveals anything of concern, he or she may order tests such as imaging tests, endoscopic tests and lab tests.

What questions might my healthcare provider ask?

  • How long have you had hiccups?
  • How often do you hiccup?
  • Have you tried any home remedies to fix your hiccups?
  • Are you interested in taking medication to fix your hiccups?
  • Do you have GERD?
  • Is there a history of cancer in your family? Strokes? Tumors?
  • Are you experiencing any other symptoms?

Management and Treatment

How do I treat hiccups?

Because the exact cause of hiccups is uncertain, some remedies may or may not work. These home treatments will not hurt you, so there is typically no harm in trying them. Home treatments include:

  • Drinking water quickly.
  • Swallowing granulated sugar, dry pieces of bread, or crushed ice.
  • Gently pulling on your tongue.
  • Gagging (sticking a finger down your throat).
  • Gently rubbing your eyeballs.
  • Gargling water.
  • Holding your breath.
  • Breathing into a paper bag (do not use a plastic bag).

Are there any medications I can take for serious hiccups?

Hiccups that last for a long time can be treated by medication. Prescription drugs used for long-lasting hiccups include:

  • Gabapentin.
  • Baclofen.
  • Chlorpromazine.

What are the side effects of long-term hiccups?

  • Trouble eating.
  • Trouble sleeping (including insomnia) and feeling tired.
  • Some people feel embarrassed.

How do I stop my kid’s hiccups?

Babies get hiccups just like children, teenagers and adults. In fact, even babies in the womb can get hiccups! Babies under 12 months often get hiccups and they’re unharmed by them. If you want, you can try to stop them by breastfeeding or giving them some water. However, if the hiccups don’t stop after a couple of hours, see your healthcare provider.

Kids can try the home treatments listed above.

Never hesitate to contact your pediatrician if you have a concern about your child.

Prevention

How are hiccups prevented?

Sometimes medications taken before a treatment can prevent hiccups from happening. For example, hiccups caused by anesthesia can be prevented by taking metoclopramide beforehand. Steroids with ramosetron might prevent chemotherapy-related hiccups.

Again, mild hiccups (those that go away in a short interval) can happen because of the following. Therefore, you may try to avoid the following to prevent hiccups from happening. Try not to:

  • Eat and drink too quickly.
  • Drink carbonated beverages or alcohol
  • Eat too much.
  • Experience stress – including fear and excitement.
  • Over-stretch your neck.
  • Take drugs (particularly those for anxiety – benzodiazepines).
  • Drink a very hot or very cold drink.
  • Go through chemotherapy.
  • Are anesthetized for a procedure.
  • Inhale toxic fumes.

Outlook / Prognosis

How long will I have hiccups?

Hiccups can last minutes, hours, days or, if severe, weeks. The longest known and recorded bout of hiccups lasted 60 years!

Can hiccups go away on their own?

Yes. Often no treatment is needed, either home remedies or treatment provided by your healthcare provider.

Living With

Can I live a normal life with hiccups?

Hiccups shouldn’t prevent you from enjoying your daily activities.

When should I go see a healthcare provider?

If your hiccups last only minutes to a couple of hours, you probably don’t need to see your healthcare provider. However, if the hiccups last more than a few days (typically two), you should see him or her. When the hiccups happen at the same time as symptoms like a headache, trouble keeping your balance, or numbness, it can be a sign of something more serious. If you have those symptoms with hiccups, see your healthcare provider immediately or go to the nearest emergency room.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Hiccups are usually harmless. Most stop without treatment, or with simple home remedies. They don’t reduce your quality of life. However, remember to keep an eye on how long they last. Hiccups may be a symptom of a serious illness, or they could just be annoying.

Hiccups: Causes & Treatment

Overview

What are hiccups?

Hiccups are repeated spasms of your diaphragm paired with a ‘hic’ sound from your vocal cords closing. Your diaphragm is a muscle under your ribcage, separating your chest and stomach area. This muscle is an important part of the breathing process. It moves downward when you breathe in and upward when you breathe out.

Two things happen when you hiccup:

  • Your diaphragm pulls down between breaths, making you suck in air.
  • The glottis (space between the vocal cords) closes to stop more air coming in.

These actions make the ‘hic’ sound of the hiccup. The process of the hiccup happens very quickly and you’ll usually return to normal within minutes to a couple of hours without treatment.

Can hiccups happen to anyone?

Yes. Hiccups can happen to adults, children and babies.

Who commonly gets hiccups?

Hiccups are more common in men. They can also have hiccups for a longer period.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes hiccups?

It’s not clear why people get hiccups. There are several reasons hiccups might happen, including low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood and irritated nerves. The phrenic nerve (which connects the neck to the diaphragm) and vagus nerve (which connects the brain to the stomach) are important parts of the breathing process.

Mild hiccups (those that go away in a short time) can happen when you:

  • Eat and drink too quickly.
  • Drink carbonated beverages or alcohol.
  • Eat too much.
  • Experience stress – including fear and excitement.
  • Over-stretch your neck.
  • Take drugs (particularly those for anxiety – benzodiazepines).
  • Drink a very hot or very cold drink.
  • Go through chemotherapy.
  • Are anesthetized for a procedure.
  • Inhale toxic fumes.

What does it mean if the hiccups last for more than two days?

If your hiccups don’t go away within a few days, they are called ‘persistent.’ If they last for a few months they are called ‘intractable’ (long-lasting hiccups). Long-lasting hiccups are rare. They can be stressful and exhausting. Intractable hiccups can be part of a larger, underlying medical problem and might not go away until that issue is corrected.

Some of these larger, underlying conditions include:

  • Cancer and tumors.
  • Stroke.
  • Disorders of the stomach or esophagus, including GERD (a gastrointestinal and abdominal disorder).
  • Pleurisy of the diaphragm.
  • Uremia.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Bowel diseases.
  • Pancreatitis and bladder irritation.
  • Hepatitis and liver cancer.
  • Tumors and lesions.

Hiccups can also happen after surgery and during the recovery process from a procedure. See a healthcare provider if your hiccups last for a long period of time.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are hiccups diagnosed?

Diagnosing hiccups is not complicated. Your healthcare provider needs only to listen to the ‘hic’ sound.

However, your healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to see if an underlying condition may be causing your hiccups. If the physical examination reveals anything of concern, he or she may order tests such as imaging tests, endoscopic tests and lab tests.

What questions might my healthcare provider ask?

  • How long have you had hiccups?
  • How often do you hiccup?
  • Have you tried any home remedies to fix your hiccups?
  • Are you interested in taking medication to fix your hiccups?
  • Do you have GERD?
  • Is there a history of cancer in your family? Strokes? Tumors?
  • Are you experiencing any other symptoms?

Management and Treatment

How do I treat hiccups?

Because the exact cause of hiccups is uncertain, some remedies may or may not work. These home treatments will not hurt you, so there is typically no harm in trying them. Home treatments include:

  • Drinking water quickly.
  • Swallowing granulated sugar, dry pieces of bread, or crushed ice.
  • Gently pulling on your tongue.
  • Gagging (sticking a finger down your throat).
  • Gently rubbing your eyeballs.
  • Gargling water.
  • Holding your breath.
  • Breathing into a paper bag (do not use a plastic bag).

Are there any medications I can take for serious hiccups?

Hiccups that last for a long time can be treated by medication. Prescription drugs used for long-lasting hiccups include:

  • Gabapentin.
  • Baclofen.
  • Chlorpromazine.

What are the side effects of long-term hiccups?

  • Trouble eating.
  • Trouble sleeping (including insomnia) and feeling tired.
  • Some people feel embarrassed.

How do I stop my kid’s hiccups?

Babies get hiccups just like children, teenagers and adults. In fact, even babies in the womb can get hiccups! Babies under 12 months often get hiccups and they’re unharmed by them. If you want, you can try to stop them by breastfeeding or giving them some water. However, if the hiccups don’t stop after a couple of hours, see your healthcare provider.

Kids can try the home treatments listed above.

Never hesitate to contact your pediatrician if you have a concern about your child.

Prevention

How are hiccups prevented?

Sometimes medications taken before a treatment can prevent hiccups from happening. For example, hiccups caused by anesthesia can be prevented by taking metoclopramide beforehand. Steroids with ramosetron might prevent chemotherapy-related hiccups.

Again, mild hiccups (those that go away in a short interval) can happen because of the following. Therefore, you may try to avoid the following to prevent hiccups from happening. Try not to:

  • Eat and drink too quickly.
  • Drink carbonated beverages or alcohol
  • Eat too much.
  • Experience stress – including fear and excitement.
  • Over-stretch your neck.
  • Take drugs (particularly those for anxiety – benzodiazepines).
  • Drink a very hot or very cold drink.
  • Go through chemotherapy.
  • Are anesthetized for a procedure.
  • Inhale toxic fumes.

Outlook / Prognosis

How long will I have hiccups?

Hiccups can last minutes, hours, days or, if severe, weeks. The longest known and recorded bout of hiccups lasted 60 years!

Can hiccups go away on their own?

Yes. Often no treatment is needed, either home remedies or treatment provided by your healthcare provider.

Living With

Can I live a normal life with hiccups?

Hiccups shouldn’t prevent you from enjoying your daily activities.

When should I go see a healthcare provider?

If your hiccups last only minutes to a couple of hours, you probably don’t need to see your healthcare provider. However, if the hiccups last more than a few days (typically two), you should see him or her. When the hiccups happen at the same time as symptoms like a headache, trouble keeping your balance, or numbness, it can be a sign of something more serious. If you have those symptoms with hiccups, see your healthcare provider immediately or go to the nearest emergency room.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Hiccups are usually harmless. Most stop without treatment, or with simple home remedies. They don’t reduce your quality of life. However, remember to keep an eye on how long they last. Hiccups may be a symptom of a serious illness, or they could just be annoying.

What Causes Hiccups | Prevention

A hiccup usually means one of just a very few things: You ate that burger way too fast, you washed it down with that beer way too fast, or you got a little overexcited that you were about to have a burger and a beer.

These are occasional hiccups that rarely last more than a few minutes. “All a hiccup is is an abrupt closure of your vocal cords,” says Kenneth Brown, MD, a Dallas-area board-certified gastroenterologist and the cofounder and chief medical officer of Atrantil supplements. The vocal cords snap shut thanks to an involuntary contraction of your diaphragm. “It’s an electrical current making the diaphragm jump when it shouldn’t, like a little spark going off,” he says. Sounds (relatively) harmless. (Get A Free Trial of Prevention + 12 Free Gifts)
 
But in some instances, hiccups can become a little more troublesome. Anything that irritates the diaphragm, or the vagus nerve that runs through it from your brain to your belly, can lead to hiccups, and sometimes—although it’s rare—those irritants can be serious.

Technically, Brown says, “persistent” hiccups last more than 48 hours. “Intractable” hiccups last more than a month. (Can’t. Even. Imagine.) He admits those are pretty generous categorizations. “Anybody who’s had hiccups for more than 48 hours would go in and get them checked out,” he says, and even 12 hours is enough to warrant a doctor visit.

MORE: 13 Power Foods That Lower Blood Pressure Naturally

That doesn’t mean you should expect the worst the next time you find yourself unable to get a word—hic—out—hic. We just think you should know what you’re up against, should you need to get thee to a doctor. If you have other symptoms, like fever, pain, or shortness of breath, here are a few things those hiccups could actually mean.

You might have acid reflux.

Monica Schroeder / Science Source/getty images

Bloating and heartburn can irritate the diaphragm, Brown says, and these types of GI issues are a major cause of persistent hiccups. The good news is that treating the GI problems usually gets the hiccups to vanish, too. So if yours just won’t let up, and if you’ve also got that trademark burning pain in your stomach, chest, or throat, consider bringing up your symptoms with your doc.

Or nerve damage.
Maybe your spastic diaphragm is linked to damage to that vagus nerve, whether it’s temporary, due to tonsillitis or a hair tickling your eardrum (this is a thing!), or permanent, like from a tumor or an accident. Just about anything that screws with the nerve’s work throughout your neck, throat, chest, and abdomen can lead to disruptive hiccuping, Brown says.

MORE: 7 Weird Things Your Teeth Are Trying To Tell You

You could be having a stroke.

stockdevil/getty images

A serious case of the hiccups—so bad that you’re likely to drag yourself to the ER—can actually be a sign of a stroke. Experts don’t totally understand why, except that a particular type of stroke, one that occurs in the back of the brain rather than the top, is linked more often to hiccuping, and it’s a type of stroke seen more frequently in women. These stroke-signaling hiccups would typically be accompanied by chest pain, numbness, or a little blurry vision, but the hiccups are likely to be so bad, you might not even notice other symptoms.

Or your kidney function could be slipping.
There aren’t a lot of clues that your kidneys are in trouble, but if you’re slowly losing kidney function, toxic waste products the organs would typically usher out may begin to build up in your body, Brown says. That’s not so comfy for the diaphragm and vagus nerve and might result in frequent hiccups, one of just a handful of signs of worsening kidney function. If your hiccups are paired with muscle twitching, excessive thirst, or increased pallor in your skin, bring ’em up with your doctor. Kidney-related hiccups may be a sign you’ll need treatment, Brown says. “We often see hiccups before dialysis, and then they start to go away.”

MORE: Drink This, Sleep 90 Minutes More A Night

You might (but you probably don’t) have a brain tumor.
A 2010 BBC documentary profiled Chris Sands, who tried for more than 4 years—years!—to quell a debilitating case of the hiccups before he was diagnosed with a tumor on his brain stem, home to the beginning of the vagus nerve. It took doctors 3 hours to remove two-thirds of the tumor, according to the BBC. Four months after surgery, Sands was hiccuping noticeably less, but expected to stop altogether when the swelling from the procedure had subsided. Keep in mind it’s beyond rare and file this information away as “possible but not probable.”

Or you could (maybe, possibly) be pregnant.

HyperionPixels/getty images

While there’s little to no scientific explanation for this one, Brown says, there are a number of women who claim one of the first ways they know they’re pregnant is more frequent hiccuping. It’s possible, Brown says, that hormonal changes or swings in stress levels might lead to more anxiety-induced hiccups. Or maybe it’s an uptick in acid reflux, common during pregnancy, leading to the hiccups. But it may also be a little wishful thinking: If you’re hoping you’re preggers, you may be guilty of reading into every hic and burp and grumbling of your stomach, simply thinking your body’s up to something new. We say go old-fashioned: Wait until you’ve actually missed a period.

Sarah Klein
Sarah Klein is a Boston-based writer, editor, and personal trainer currently with LIVESTRONG.com, and previously of Health.com, Prevention magazine, and The Huffington Post.

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How to Get Rid of Newborn Hiccups

Whether you felt them during pregnancy or they’re a whole new experience, newborn hiccups can come as a surprise to you — and your baby.

Startling as baby hiccups are at first, they’re likely bothering you much more than your newborn. That said, there are a few tricks to know to keep these noisy spasms at bay.

How do you get rid of newborn hiccups?

You probably know about a dozen “cures” for a case of the hiccups as an adult, but these tricks won’t work on your newborn (offering water, for instance, can be dangerous for babies under 6 months old — plus babies can’t yet consciously regulate their breathing or swallowing the way an adult can).

So what’s the best way to deal with newborn hiccups? Wait them out. If you’re worried that your baby’s hiccups are bothering him, you can try feeding him or letting him suck on a pacifier, which may quell the attack.

How to stop newborn hiccups during feedings

If you notice your baby gets hiccups more frequently during breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, there are a couple of tricks you can try:

  • Take a break. A change of positions, a burp or even just a little relaxation can help calm hiccups. If, after a few minutes, your baby’s hiccups haven’t eased up, feeding your baby again may calm him down.
  • Switch up your routine. If your baby hiccups frequently, try feeding your baby smaller amounts at more frequent intervals, which can help keep him from swallowing as much air during each feeding time.
  • Burp more frequently. If you’re bottle-feeding, try burping your baby more frequently, such as after every 1 or 2 oz.

Why do newborn babies get hiccups?

It’s perfectly normal for a newborn to get a case of the hiccups. In fact, some babies even get the hiccups before they’re born, starting around month 6 of your pregnancy, when your baby’s lungs start developing (if you ever noticed regular little spasms in your abdomen, that’s what they likely were).

Chances are, if your baby hiccupped a lot on the inside, he’ll hiccup plenty in the first few months on the outside, too. But even if you didn’t notice your baby practicing his hiccups before he was born, newborn hiccups are not uncommon and are not a cause for concern.

Just like with adults, there’s no single cause for newborn hiccups — although there are theories. Hiccups may be brought on by air trapped in little stomachs during a feeding. They may also simply be yet another in baby’s repertoire of reflexes. Later on, giggles may bring on the hiccups.

Sometimes, hiccups can be a sign of infant GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), or acid reflux, where stomach acid flows back up the esophagus. But babies with GERD will have other symptoms, too, such as arching of the back while feeding, crying while feeding, being irritable in general, spitting up and coughing. If you notice these symptoms, contact your pediatrician.

Hiccups: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

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  • Little Remedies Blog – Natural Ways to Get Rid of Hiccups

    Everyone gets hiccups occasionally, even newborns. Hiccups, which can be triggered by overfeeding or swallowing too much air, are actually small contractions in the diaphragm like tiny muscle spasms.

    Did you know babies get hiccups in utero? Mine did. Usually around 2:00 a.m. The first time it happened, I didn’t know what to think. Then I realized the rhythmic movements were not mine, they were my baby’s. I quickly looked on online and discovered hiccups in utero were totally normal.

    We’re not exactly sure why babies get hiccups in the womb, but it is believed that this occurs as the central nervous system is forming, so the brain is mimicking or practicing the same reflexes your baby will experience after birth. Baby is also drinking and/or breathing amniotic fluid, so that could also trigger hiccups. Either way, if your baby bump has the hiccups, don’t fret! They will go away on their own.

    While hiccups aren’t a big problem for adults and children, they can disrupt feedings, digestion and daily routines for babies. If you’re looking for natural ways to soothe your baby’s hiccups, here’s a list of suggestions to try that work much better than old wive’s tales like scaring them away or tricking them away with a spoonful of sugar!

    Feed Baby Smaller Amounts

    When a hungry baby takes in too much milk too fast, that can cause the stomach to distend, which can cause hiccups. Instead of one big feeding, feed baby half as much, but twice as often. That way your baby can digest her milk more slowly, avoid a too-full tummy and alleviate gas pressure that can trigger hiccups.

    Don’t Nurse a Fussy Baby

    If your baby is getting cranky or fussy during a feeding, there’s a chance she’ll swallow air, which can cause hiccups. Instead of continuing to breast feed or bottle-feed a cranky baby, stop the feeding for a little while and see if you can calm your baby down. The fussing and the nursing can lead to hiccups and spitting up, so taking a sort break may help baby relax and swallow less air.

    Change Baby’s Feeding Position

    It took me a while to figure this out when I was a new mom, but sitting baby upright during feedings can ease hiccups. This position allows gas to rise and pass naturally, easing a distended tummy situation. By more upright, I mean hold her at a 30-45 degree angle instead of laying her down in the crook of your elbow. You can also subtly shift baby during feeding breaks to see if that will stop a bout with hiccups.

    Burp Baby Between Feedings

    An easy way to slow down baby’s milk intake is to burp her in the middle of a feeding. If you’re breastfeeding, burp her when you switch breasts. If you bottle-feed, burp her when she’s halfway done with her bottle. This is a great opportunity to sit baby upright and gently rub or pat her back, or lay her head on your shoulder and give her a chance to pass air bubbles. The less air bubbles, the less likely your baby is to get hiccups.

    Latching Correctly During Nursing

    If you’re breastfeeding your baby, make sure she is latching on correctly. If not, she may be swallowing extra air during her feedings. Most breastfed babies don’t make a lot of gurgling and gulping sounds. If your baby is doing this or seems to get fussy, try to latch her on again, so you have a tight seal on your nipple. And if you’re a new mommy, don’t worry! Breastfeeding is not always easy during the first few weeks, but you’ll get the hang of it. And so will your baby!

    Holding Bottle Correctly

    If you bottle-feed your baby, tilt the bottle so the milk completely fills the nipple — the less air that collects at the bottom of the bottle, the better. Make sure your baby’s head is slightly elevated. If you hold her at a 45-degree angle, she should be able to see your face. Also, make sure you are using good nipples on the bottle. Hand-washing bottle nipples instead of putting them in the dishwasher can make them last longer.

    Massage Baby’s Back

    If your baby has hiccups that won’t subside within a few minutes, you can place baby on the ground and let her move around on her tummy. Sometimes the pressure will immediately stop hiccups. You can also gently massage your baby’s back to help the process.

    Look for Signs of Colic

    Colicky babies who suffer from tummy pain and spitting up may have reflux that causes hiccups. If your baby seems to have hiccups all of the time, this could be the culprit. This is when you can add products like Little Remedies Gripe Water or Little Remedies Gas Relief Drops to your feeding routine. These products work in minutes to soothe colic symptoms, making your baby much more comfortable and much happier during feedings.

    Think your baby has colic? Check out 5 Things You Should Know About Colic.

    Babies’ frequent hiccups may be tied to brain development, scientists say

    Hiccups are a nuisance, especially when they show up at an embarrassing moment, or they won’t dissipate easily. But the reason they happen has been something of a mystery. 

    A new study from the University College London suggests that as newborn babies our hiccups help the brain learn to regulate breathing.

    In the study, published in the journal Clinical Neurophysiology, researchers used brain scans of newborn infants to better understand why fetuses and newborn babies hiccup so much. Fetuses start to experience hiccups as early as nine weeks gestational age and pre-term infants spends about 1% of their day hiccuping.

    “A hiccup occurs when the brain sends a signal for the diaphragm to shift forcefully downward, suddenly pulling a lot of air into the back of the throat,” Harvard Health explains. The ‘hic’ sound of the hiccup is caused by a part of the throat closing temporarily.

    “The activity resulting from a hiccup may be helping the baby’s brain to learn how to monitor the breathing muscles so that eventually breathing can be [voluntarily] controlled by moving the diaphragm up and down,” the study’s senior author, Dr. Lorenzo Fabrizi said in a statement.

    “When we are born, the circuits which process body sensations are not fully developed, so the establishment of such networks is a crucial developmental milestone for newborns.” 

    Researchers included 13 newborn infants in the study. Some of the babies were full-term while others pre-term. Gestational ages ranged from 30 to 42 weeks. 

    They used electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes on the top of the head and movement sensors on the upper body to analyze the relationship between brain activity and hiccups.

    When the diaphragm muscle contracted during a hiccup, there were three corresponding large brainwaves, researchers found. The third brainwave makes the connection between the sound of the hiccup and the movement of the diaphragm. All the hiccups occurred while the babies were either awake or engaged in active sleep.

    “The muscle contraction of a hiccup is quite big – it’s good for the developing brain because it suddenly gives a big boost of input, which helps the brain cells to all link together for representing that particular body part,” Research Associate Kimberly Whitehead, the study’s lead author told CNN.

    She added, “Our findings have prompted us to wonder whether hiccups in adults, which appear to be mainly a nuisance, may in fact [be] a vestigial reflex, left over from infancy when it had an important function.”

    Science: Science and technology: Lenta.ru

    Persistent hiccups can be one of the symptoms of coronavirus. This is stated in a report published in The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, writes The Sun.

    Doctors described the course of the disease in a 62-year-old patient from Chicago suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary heart disease. In April, he consulted doctors for four days of hiccups. At the same time, he did not have the main symptoms of coronavirus, such as cough, fever, nasal congestion, sore throat or chest, and shortness of breath.

    According to the results of the examination, the patient had an elevated temperature – 37.3 degrees, and the test for COVID-19 showed a positive result. On a chest x-ray, the man found slight darkening in the lungs. After that, he was sent to the coronavirus ward, where his condition worsened.

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    “To our knowledge, this is the first report of persistent hiccups as a complaint from a patient who tested positive for COVID-19 in the emergency medicine literature,” the publication said. Doctors urged colleagues to pay close attention to other patients who complain of constant hiccups and noted that the coronavirus infection is showing more and more atypical symptoms.

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    90,000 What processes in the body are signaled by hiccups, yawning and stretching?

    Yawning

    The reason for this is hypoxia, when the brain does not have enough oxygen. That is why we need not a simple, but a forced inhalation (strong and deep), during a yawn we inhale much more air than during a regular inhalation.The airways open and a significant amount of oxygen is quickly absorbed into the blood. Why do we yawn when we want to sleep or are tired? From fatigue, an excess of carbon dioxide accumulates in the tissues, the same hypoxia. We also yawn when we’re bored and need to do something we don’t want to do. This means that we work “through I don’t want to”, we get tired much faster. And again – tiredness and yawning to get oxygen.

    Why is it transmitted? Someone yawned – and everyone starts after him. Psychologists say that we got this reflex from our ancestors: everyone yawned, as if on command, since ancient times, when a tribe of primitive people went to bed at the same time.True, this is only a theory.

    We sneeze

    This is a defensive reaction. Dust accumulates in the nasal cavity, the mucous membrane dries up, the nerve endings are irritated, and a sneeze occurs – a sharp exhalation, which helps to throw out everything unnecessary from the nose so that no debris gets into the nasopharynx and further. By the way, the speed of exhaled air while sneezing is 130 km per hour. If a person sneezes two or three times in a row, that’s okay. But if more than 10, then already a problem. Most likely, swelling on the nasal mucosa.The body perceives it as an irritant and tries to get rid of it. If you sneeze many times in a row, try vasoconstrictor drops to help relieve swelling.

    Stretching

    This is how the body prepares the muscles for physical activity. Have you followed the cats? They never get up immediately after sleep, but first stretch with all their paws, restore blood circulation before taking a step. Stretching not only wakes you up in the morning. From fatigue, lactic acid builds up in the muscles, and in order to disperse it, you need to stretch the muscles, just like after training.

    Ikaem

    Small children hiccup when they are cold, thirsty, or overeat. In adults, this is a signal that something is wrong with digestion. Most likely, the person ate too much, greedily and quickly, and poorly chewed large chunks irritate the vagus nerve, which runs from the brain along the pharynx and esophagus to the diaphragm and stomach. This nerve sends signals to the muscle fibers in the esophagus and stomach, causing spasms. With their help, the body, as during sneezing, tries to get rid of the swelling of the esophageal mucosa.

    How to beat hiccups? It depends on the reason. Drinking cold liquid in small sips will save you from “drunken” hiccups; holding your breath can help from hiccups due to overeating. Both methods inhibit irritation of the vagus nerve. But to scare the hiccuping is definitely not worth it. This “treatment” is not medically approved.

    Falling asleep, shudder

    It happens that, falling into a dream, we suddenly wake up abruptly, because our arms and legs twitched by themselves. This is fine. The fact is that breathing calms down, the pulse slows down, the muscles relax, and the body is afraid that we might fall asleep… at all. And by this very start, the brain wakes us up, makes us resume normal breathing, so that it is not too infrequent. Here is such a constant control.

    “Old fingers”

    When we lie in a bath or wash something for a long time, the pads of the fingers become wrinkled. Children love to look at drawings on “old fingers”. It is believed that these patterns appear on the skin so that the toes and hands in the water become more tenacious and do not slip. In fact, everything is much simpler.The skin on the pads of the toes and heels is four times thicker than on other areas of the body. Therefore, it absorbs water better and swells.

    Goosebumps

    “Goose bumps” occurs when we are cold, but it also happens that the music or film is impressive “to goose bumps.” Everything is explained simply, and again by the heritage of the ancients. They had a thicker hairline. And when our ancestors were freezing or frightened, the hair on their bodies stood on end (for warmth, fluffiness and intimidation). The wool has fallen out over the centuries, so, fortunately, we only got goosebumps.

    Sweat

    Sweating is a normal reaction to heat. To cool the skin, the body secretes fluid, it evaporates from the surface of the body and takes away excess heat.

    Another probable cause of sweating is disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system. In this case, sweat can be released from excitement, in stressful situations.

    Reddening

    Vessels dilate, the skin turns red. If it is hot, then this comes from the temperature, and sometimes from shame, joy, love and other emotions, that is, there is a reaction to a change in the concentration of hormones in the blood (including adrenaline). The same mechanism works when we turn pale, only in this case the vessels are compressed.

    Tears

    Why tears flow when a speck enters the eye, many people know: to wash away the dirt and protect the eye from scratches and damage. Why do we want to cry in pain and emotion? Tears relieve pain and relieve stress in the cerebral cortex.

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    reasons for the appearance and how to get rid of

    Many people are familiar with the hangover condition.A person experiences pressing pain in the temporal lobe and a state of weakness, is faced with nausea and weakness. Sometimes hiccups occur after alcohol, which is uncomfortable. It arises abruptly and lasts a long time. There are different ways to relieve the condition – folk remedies and medicines.

    Causes of hiccups

    Everyone is faced with hiccups. A sharp sound occurs when the muscles of the diaphragm and larynx contract. This process cannot be controlled, therefore a person is faced with uncomfortable sensations.

    Hiccups is a physiological process that does not have a negative impact. It continues reflexively. Hiccups help to remove excess air, which for various reasons accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Natural hiccups

    It occurs due to the large ingress of oxygen into the stomach. Increased gassing also occurs. The syndrome occurs abruptly and unexpectedly, passes without the use of drugs and folk remedies. This syndrome does not cause discomfort.

    When the syndrome occurs, the epiglottis opens. This relaxes the diaphragm. When air enters the lungs, the epiglottis slams shut and a rather harsh sound is emitted.

    Hiccups after consuming alcoholic beverages

    Hiccups when drinking alcohol differs from physiological. Symptoms occur when the body is poisoned in excess of ethyl alcohol and poisons. There are several main reasons and factors that lead to the formation of hiccups:

    1. Distribution of toxic toxins in the body.They affect all systems and internal organs. With excessive use of ethyl, a sharp deterioration in health occurs.
    2. Enlargement of the liver. When the organ expands, there is increased pressure on the muscles of the diaphragm.

    Hiccups from alcohol require special attention. She often indicates danger. The syndrome can last for a long time and cause discomfort. Internal organs wear out faster and cease to function normally.

    A person is faced with a severe headache. The body is gradually weakening. There are situations when hiccups provoke more serious and negative consequences. When a person consumes a large amount of alcohol, then the actions become out of control. In a horizontal position, vomiting often occurs. In severe alcoholic intoxication, suffocation may occur with one’s own vomit.

    Often, hiccups with a hangover occur against the background of latent pathological conditions. They develop in the body when a person drinks alcohol for a long time. There are several common diseases that provoke the appearance of this syndrome:

    1. Polyneuritis. Pathology develops as a result of toxic damage to the nerves. A person feels weakness in the muscles, paresis of various forms, impaired sensitivity.
    2. Microinfarction. If the hiccups do not stop for a long time, then it may indicate that an emerging microinfarction is taking place.

    The drinker often perceives hiccups against the background of alcohol intoxication as a natural physiological process. The body through this symptom speaks of the development of serious pathologies.

    Ways of rendering assistance

    When hiccups from alcohol appear, traditional medicine or a qualified doctor will tell you how to get rid of. There are proven methods that were developed by folk healers. The main task is to help the internal organs and the body.It is important to use all means to eliminate toxins and other poisons. To do this, you need to induce a gag reflex.

    How to remove hiccups after alcohol using proven folk methods:

    1. Drinking plain water. To eliminate hiccups, use water without gas. You need to drink in slow sips, gradually. This is a safe and easy way. Water helps to eliminate irritation to the nerves that are in the area of ​​the gastrointestinal tract. You can go to the sink, tilt your torso forward and drink liquid.
    2. Eating bitter or sweet foods. When they enter the digestive system, spasms are relieved. You can drink a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, put a slice of lemon on your tongue.
    3. Mixing a small amount of sugar with beer. This mixture helps to relieve cramps.
    4. Getting rid of hiccups by reflex. To do this, you need to put your finger in your mouth, induce a gag reflex. You do not need to be brought to extreme measures for vomiting to appear.This method helps to eliminate the rhythm of the hiccups.

    There is another effective option – it is to hold on to the tongue. When hiccups attack, you need to open your mouth, grab your tongue, pull it slightly. It must be held in this position for 3-4 seconds.

    Useful advice

    Sometimes, drinking water while lying on the floor can help patients. The hiccups reflexes begin to gradually switch to swallowing, so the syndrome stops.You can sit down and do breathing exercises. First, they take a deep breath, draw air into the lungs, hold their breath for a few seconds. The method is used when alcoholic and physiological hiccups occur.

    It is possible to brew not strong tea from mint or chamomile. It has a calming effect on the body. A maximum of three cups of tea are allowed during the day. If you exceed the established rate, then there is an increased load on the work of the cardiovascular system. You need to drink tea slowly, in small sips.

    You can chew several brown bread croutons. They cannot be washed down with water. Dry food can help eliminate hiccups. It is allowed to apply a warm heating pad to the chest area. It shouldn’t be hot. The duration of the procedure is 25 minutes.

    Use of medicines

    When folk methods proved to be ineffective and did not bring the expected result, it is necessary to resort to the use of medicines. First you need to pass all the tests, make an appointment with a doctor, and undergo a comprehensive examination.Therapy is prescribed after diagnosis.

    In most cases, prolonged hiccups are associated with diseases of a neurological nature. For treatment, doctors can prescribe the following anti-anxiety medications to the patient:

    1. Antipsychotics. They have a sedative effect, relieve increased sensitivity of the vagus nerve.
    2. Muscle relaxants. These are good medicines that act in a relaxing way on the body. After consumption, the negative effects on muscle tissue and the diaphragm are minimized.
    3. Enzyme preparations. These medicines not only calm the body, but also help to improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, inflammatory processes of various etiologies are stopped.

    It is important to remember that you cannot buy medicines yourself and use them without consulting your doctor. All medicines have their own indications and contraindications for use.

    How not to help with hiccups?

    When a person is hungover, he experiences a sharp deterioration in health and well-being.Many have heard that fear helps relieve the condition. But this is not an effective and dangerous way. Often it leads to a sharp deterioration in the condition. There is a possibility of a nervous shock.

    It is important to take into account that after prolonged and prolonged use of alcoholic beverages, the human body and all internal organs are depleted. The nervous system is also weakened, so the response to fear can be unpredictable. Another common mistake is drinking carbonated drinks.

    Such water does not help to minimize excessive stress on muscle tissue. Soda makes the situation worse. When you have a hangover, do not overeat. When to see a doctor:

    • Prolonged hiccups that last more than 60 minutes
    • seizures are repeated several times a day;
    • , along with hiccups, the chest begins to hurt, heartburn or discomfort when swallowing occurs.

    You should never eliminate hiccups and fight hangover with alcoholic beverages.In this case, there is a possibility of prolonged binge drinking. It leads to serious violations of all internal organs and systems.

    Preventive measures

    When the hiccups stop, it is necessary to see a doctor to assess the condition of the body. Often a person has hidden pathologies that occur without symptoms. When the work of internal organs is adjusted, the body is cleansed of toxins and poisons, hiccups will not come back again.

    To avoid unpleasant situations in the future, you must strictly monitor the amount of alcohol. If hiccups occur, you need to think about your own lifestyle.

    What diseases will hiccups tell about and how to deal with it

    This phenomenon is very unpleasant, spontaneous and unpredictable. Surely, each of us has encountered hiccups, and more than once. Among other things, it has an amazing feature, to arise at the most inopportune moment. Agree that during a meeting, report, business meeting or a serious conversation, hiccups are not entirely appropriate, or, more precisely, they are completely inappropriate.So that the next time it also suddenly appears, you can get rid of it quickly and painlessly, we suggest using certain methods.

    What is a hiccup

    But first, let’s figure out what a hiccup is and why it occurs. To do this, we will have to turn to the school course of anatomy and remember the structure of the human body. Between the chest and abdomen is muscle tissue called the diaphragm.Thanks to the diaphragm, we breathe in and out, providing our lungs with air. Inhalation occurs when the diaphragm is tensioned, and exhalation occurs when it relaxes. In addition, the diaphragm is in close proximity to the heart and digestive organs. Sometimes, as a result of irritation of the nerve endings in the diaphragm, it contracts. This causes a sharp breath through the glottis. But since the inhalation is accompanied by a characteristic sound, during its pronunciation, the glottis closes, and you hold your breath.

    Causes of hiccups

    There can be many reasons for the start of hiccups. The most common of these are overeating, which causes distension of the stomach, and eating in a hurry. Eating at a fast pace, you can not only harm your stomach, but also swallow excess air along with food or liquid, which later will cause the onset of sudden hiccups. Also, the diaphragm can become irritated as a result of slowing down the gastric emptying process, which negatively affects its condition and can lead to prolonged hiccups.So, if you do not want to be in an awkward situation, starting to hiccup at the most inopportune moment, take care of your diet and eat right and measured.

    Hiccups can be caused not only by minor problems with the stomach, quite often the causes of its occurrence are quite serious diseases. Remember that the diaphragm is tightly bordered by the heart and lungs, and any deviations from the norm cannot but affect it, and it, in turn, signals them in this way.Let’s start with the lungs. Frequent and prolonged hiccups may indicate the onset of pneumonia or the development of lung cancer, which is common in heavy smokers.

    Hiccups can also be caused by a hernia or inflammation in the esophagus or liver. Practice shows that in case of toxic poisoning, hiccups are considered to be quite common. However, despite all the factors listed above, no physician can say with certainty what actually causes hiccups.That is why there is still a theory that hiccups appear when someone often remembers us.

    How to get rid of hiccups

    If you still did not manage to avoid this annoying phenomenon, and the hiccups took you by surprise, try to get rid of it using existing and rather effective methods. For those who often suffer from hiccups and prefer treatment with pharmacy drugs, we can advise you to do an intramuscular injection of cerucal when an attack of hiccups occurs.Motilium, atropine and scopolamine also do an excellent job with it. These drugs will relieve you of hiccups if it is associated with a digestive system disorder. If these remedies do not help, and you need to get rid of hiccups as soon as possible, you can try pipolfen or haloperidol. They affect the functioning of the central nervous system, relieving irritation from the diaphragm and stopping spasms. But medicines are often not the best option for eliminating hiccups; alternative methods are much more effective and safe.

    As mentioned earlier, hiccups are caused by breathing difficulties and, therefore, to get rid of it, you need to restore this very breathing and return it to normal mode. There are several special exercises for this, one of which will probably suit you. Take as much air as possible into your lungs and exhale it in small portions, holding your breath briefly before each subsequent exhalation. For the next method, you will need a paper bag. Grasp the edge with both hands and press it firmly against your face.Then inhale and exhale as quickly and intensely as possible, thus making several dozen breaths. Do not allow outside air to enter the package, otherwise the expected effect will not be achieved. When breathing faster, you should experience maximum tension to ensure that the diaphragm resumes normal operation. Drink a glass of water in small sips without interruption. It also stabilizes the breathing process, as with each sip you breathe in and out a certain amount of air in a specific rhythm.

    If the problem lies in the disruption of the digestive system, then breathing exercises are unlikely to help you. In this case, it is better to eat something sweet, such as a spoonful of sugar or honey. But there is an opinion that not only sweet, but also sour helps to get rid of hiccups. That is why, try eating a slice of lemon or drinking water with lemon juice if it is not possible for you to eat pure lemon.

    Ice often helps in the fight against hiccups.Drink ice water, or simply suck on a piece of ice, and in a few minutes the hiccups will stop. Some people prefer to put a hot water bottle filled with ice on the diaphragm area, which is also very effective. Many argue that the following, rather simple method helps them cope with hiccups. As soon as the hiccups start, lightly pull on your tongue, grasping it with your thumbs and forefingers. But the main thing here is not to overdo it and not injure yourself from a strong jerk.

    Manual therapy and acupressure have long been proven effective in the fight against certain diseases.Not without them in the case of hiccups. If the hiccups have not gone away for a long time and all of the above methods have not worked, try massaging your eyes, closing them and relaxing. Do this with your index fingers, making light circular motions. Then massage your abdomen by periodically applying pressure to the bowel area. You can also massage around the junction of your chest with your collarbone. Plug your ears with your fingers and press them on the auricle several times, while slightly scrolling.Sit, curl up with your legs tightly pressed to your chest, and sit that way for a few minutes. Breathing calmly and measuredly, with each exhalation, squeeze the middle phalanx of the little finger, thus making a kind of acupressure.

    An unconventional method of getting rid of hiccups is tickling. It is believed that if you make a person suffering from this ailment laugh, the hiccups will go away on their own. The essence of this method lies in the fact that during tickling it is necessary in every possible way to restrain laughter, and, consequently, to hold your breath.This will help restore it and heal the hiccups. Another, no less strange, but no less effective way is to scare the martyr. In such cases, the main thing is not to overdo it, because a strong fear can lead to undesirable consequences in the form of mental disorders and stuttering. Therefore, it is better to reserve this method as a last resort and use it only in emergency situations or when all others have failed.

    If hiccups haunt you constantly and do not stop for several hours, and all the tried and tested methods of dealing with it do not help, you need to seek help from a doctor who will find out the cause of the hiccups and prescribe appropriate treatment.After all, hiccups are not always an ordinary nuisance, often it is she who is a symptom of a serious illness. And if you are worried about frequent hiccups, it is better to take timely measures and avoid serious complications.

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    Read comments (10) 90,000 news, folk signs, health, people, beauty and health

    Sometimes a person’s external respiration function is impaired, which leads to convulsive contractions of the diaphragm, manifested by intense movements of the respiratory system. The cause may be overeating, hypothermia, alcohol intake and much more. Several signs and beliefs are associated with this phenomenon among the people.

    Beliefs and omens about hiccups:

    1. If a hiccup suddenly attacked for no reason, it means that at the moment someone is remembering. To find out who this person is, you need to list all your friends one by one, starting with the closest people. On which name the abbreviations stop, then that person remembers.

    2. It is believed that hiccuping heralds the onset of favorable weather.

    3. So that at this time the evil spirits do not take possession, you need to be baptized.

    4. Hiccuping while eating, according to the signs, indicates that one of the acquaintances is jealous.

    5. Sometimes hiccups are hard to bear. In this case, this is a sign that some unkind person is scolding, discussing behind his back.

    6. Light hiccup – someone remembers with love, responds well.

    7. If it does not go away for a long time and is hard to bear, it is a sign that something needs to be changed in life, for example, to stop abusing alcohol, swearing with neighbors, and gambling.

    8. To find out exactly who remembers with an unkind word, you can wind the hair pulled out of the head on a finger. With each revolution, you need to name some letter of the alphabet. On which letter the hair ends, according to the signs, the name of the remembering person begins with that letter.

    Hiccup by day of the week:

    1.On Monday – someone remembers, but bad or good, it is impossible to determine. It could be an ex-boyfriend or a boss.

    2. On Tuesday – a representative of the opposite sex yearns, remembering with kind words.

    3. Wednesday – a serious conversation will take place soon or important news will be received.

    4. Thursday is a sign that a long-awaited meeting will take place in the near future.

    5. On Friday – to quarrels with a loved one.

    6. On Saturday – the second half will be very jealous and cause scandals.

    7. On Sunday – to joyful events, happiness.

    It is believed that during hiccups it is necessary to cover your mouth with your palm so that anger and negativity do not settle in your soul.

    Photo: © Belnovosti

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    Chud, Pam, Hiccup and other Permian Komi legends in the Territory series

    The mini-series “Territory”, which takes place on the territory of the Permian Komi Autonomous Okrug, is dedicated to local legends and legends.They served as the basis for the genre component of the telehorror and were closely intertwined with the plot. Permian Komi shaman (tödis) and ethnographer Vasily Gagarin told Gazeta.Ru about the myths that were used to create the project.

    The plot of the new horror series “Territory” is centered on the story of 19-year-old Yegor Chudinov and his uncle, who went in search of the parents of a teenager who disappeared during an ethnographic expedition across the Perm Territory. During the search, they had to face not only the usual obstacles that await city dwellers in foreign territory, but also the mysterious spirits of these lands: hiccups, nap, Pamom and others.

    Ikotka

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    Hiccup, which has become perhaps the most popular creation of the series, traditionally represents a spirit that takes possession of a person’s body and will. Hiccup causes pain while moving around the body of the wearer, is able to control what food he eats, interfere with religious rituals (does not allow baptism and prayer), and interfere with work.

    In her book “Hiccup: a mythological character in the local tradition,” folklorist and anthropologist Olga Khristoforova highlights such qualities as the mastery of the speaker’s (person’s) speech and having a proper name.At the same time, she points to a common mistake made by researchers who interpret the presence of a name as a manifestation of the anthropomorphism of hiccups.

    “Despite the indicated tendency to ascribe a human appearance to a speaking hiccup, the presence of articulate speech and name does not necessarily imply the anthropomorphism of the mythological character. So, our informants found it difficult to say about the hiccups by the names of Vasily Ivanovich, Fyodor Ivanovich and others, who exactly – a person or not a person – “sits” inside his “mistress,” writes Khristoforova.

    As the local historian and head of the Bolshe-Kochin Museum of Ethnography and Folklore, as well as the shaman (“tödis” – knowing) Vasily Gagarin explained to Gazeta.Ru, many details of the hiccups myth were omitted from the series.

    “We call this phenomenon iköta (sounds iketá), and in Russian it is sheva, was widespread in the Russian North. “Ikota” are small furry creatures that look like worms. And they feed them with crushed eggshells. “Ikotas” may die, but this never causes the death of a hiccup, ”the specialist said.

    Gagarin added that hiccups can also enter the human body “with foam in a foamy drink,” which is why even modern Permian Komi blow off the foam before drinking such a drink. Another method is called “downwind” transmission of hiccups.

    “In this case, the sorcerer leaves a hiccup on the post where this person usually walks. And passing by, a person just feels that some kind of midge has got into his mouth (here he presented it on the TV series – such a fat worm is flying in the wind). Attitudes towards hiccups were never hostile, they were often run for advice, because many hiccups had the gift of divination.The fact that hiccups can predict and indicate something is shown correctly, ”he said.

    Pile

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    Another striking character of the Permian Komi folklore, which was mentioned in the “Territory”, is the owner of the pile forest. In fairy tales, the pile most often takes the form of a bear, which does not prevent him from covering huge distances by flying over the forest. His voice was compared to the voice of an owl, and his appearance was compared to a tornado.

    “The bear, as the owner of the forest (devil), had power over all wild animals, and later his power also extended to domestic animals. Confirmation of this is the tradition of writing “bondage” to the owner of the forest for the loss of livestock, and initially it was written to the bear-devil, and later to the saints – the patrons of livestock, “wrote Yulia Koshkarova, candidate of cultural studies at the Academy of Marketing and Social Information Technologies, in her work” Perm Model archetypal image of a bear ”.

    Sometimes the pile turned into a human form – sometimes he appeared to be a naked giant as tall as a tree, and sometimes – just a strong and tall man in a black caftan. In a number of legends it was mentioned that the owner of the forest has a dog, whose barking did not have an echo, with which he walked around the land. The reason for the absence of an echo in the pile dog could be that the spirit of the forest (which occupied a special place in the pantheon among Komi hunters) lived in a world parallel to ordinary reality.

    “A distinctive feature of the spirits of Permian Komi mythology is that they are the guardians of nature and its riches, monitor the balance in nature, punish greedy hunters and fishermen.Spirits help people, but they can also punish them. In case of punishment, a “myzha” is sent to a person – the curse of spirits, gods and ancestors, ”Gagarin explained.

    Local historian also told about a way to get rid of this curse:

    “Cheroshlan (cheshlan) – literally” hanging an ax. ” This magical rite is carried out when someone has sent a “weed” – a curse on a person. There are many gods, spirits and ancestors, and sometimes it is difficult to find out who cursed a person and for what. So they do this rite to find out the name of the one who sent the “myzha”.And as soon as they find out, they do special rituals to appease him. ”

    Separately, he noted how the series depicts the way in which an ordinary person can outwit a forest spirit.

    “As for the character who resembles a goblin, here only the ritual of deceiving the forest owner is correctly shown – if he gets a man lost in the forest, leads him into a thicket, then all clothes must be turned inside out. Then you can get out of the forest and find the right path, ”Gagarin said.

    He emphasized that there are as many as four characters in the Permian Komi mythology that fit the description of what is traditionally called “Leshim”.

    “This is Yagmort – the patron spirit of pine forests and forest edges, with his wife Yag-yin. These are Wormort (Wermort) – the guardian spirit of forest animals and birds, Voris (Varis) – the Master of the forest, the patron saint of hunters, and Vorkul (Verkul) – the god of all Parma-taiga. They all perform different functions, but they are only associated with the forest. Naturally, if a person violates any prohibitions, then these spirits can punish them. Including for the fact that we entered the forest without a demand or a gift, ”added the local historian.

    Pam

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    As can be seen from the example of hiccups, the clash of the traditional beliefs of the Permian Komi with the implanted Christian religion often changed and sometimes distorted the essence of ancient myths. An example in this respect can be called an example with the image of the pagan sorcerer Pam the centurion, whose name is given to one of the heroes of the “Territory”.

    As noted by Pavel Limerov, a leading researcher at the Institute of Language, Literature and History of the Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the name of Pam-centurion was immortalized by Saint Epiphanius the Wise, the author of the life of Saint Stephen of Perm, a preacher of Christianity in the Komi lands.

    “Giving a characteristic to Pamu the centurion, Epiphanius is not stingy with negative epithets:“ this evil sorcerer, sorcerer ”; Stephen calls him “a deceiver and initiator of corruption, a Babylonian seed, a Chaldean clan, a Canaanite tribe, a darkened child of darkness …”.It seems that all the attributes of the satanic appearance of the pagan sorcerer are present, but only a negative attitude towards Pamu the centurion does not explain the fact that Epiphanius pays so much attention to him in the plot of the Life of Stephen, ”Limerov emphasizes in the article“ Pam-centurion: an artistic image in the making identity of Komi literature ”.

    According to Limerov, Pam in Epiphany’s texts draws attention to himself “by the ability to conduct polemics about the meaning of religions.” He calls this approach “innovative” and cites a quote from the preface of Doctor of Philology Gennady Tiraspolsky to the translation of the Life of Stephen: “Creating the image of the sorcerer Pam, Epiphanius fearlessly overcomes the hagiographic tradition, which in this case required the depiction of a primitive performer of satanic intrigues.Pam is portrayed by Epiphanius as an extraordinary, in his own way tragic person, a worthy opponent of the first baptist of the Permians. ”

    Pam in a dispute with St. Stephen defends the faith of his fathers and people from Christianity already recognized by the state.

    The researcher also points out that the authenticity of the personality of Pam is confirmed by the Vychegorod-Vymskaya chronicle for 1380, 1384 and 1392. From the end of the 14th century to the 18th century, the name Pam is practically not found in the sources, however, by the 500th anniversary of the memory of St. Stephen, the clergy began to publish brochures, where they painted negative images of Pam and the pagans.

    In secular literature, the image of Pam first appeared in the unfinished poem by the founder of Komi literature Ivan Kuratov “Pama”. Turning to the life of Stephen of Perm, the poet and linguist Kuratov rethought this hero and brought him out not according to the hagiographic canon, but proceeding from the “popular view of Christianization,” making the main character of the enemy holy missionary.

    Vasily Gagarin drew attention to the fact that information about Stephen of Perm is usually distorted and unclear to the uninitiated.

    “Stefan did not baptize the Komi-Perm, but the Komi-Zyryans, who now live in the territory of the modern Komi Republic. The Permian Komi was already baptized by Stephen’s successors, bishops Gerasim, Pitirim and Jonah. That is, Stephen baptized Malaya Perm, therefore Perm, and Perm Komi lived on the territory of Perm the Great with the capital in the city of Cherdyn, ”he explained.

    The ethnographer also noted that in the case of Stefan Permsky, one cannot speak of a successful baptism.

    “Only Jonah died a natural death, two others were killed by local residents.And did the Perm Komi become Christians? They believed in their gods, worshiped their idols and could not worship painted gods.

    Therefore, a unique phenomenon for Orthodoxy arises – the Perm wooden gods. God began to be called Yen (the supreme deity of the Permian Komi), the cross began to be called Perna (Perna is the sign of the god Yen), and the sign of the cross was simply Pernapas (literal translation is the sign of the god Yen), ”he said.

    Gagarin emphasized that hospitals and schools did not appear in the region along with Christianization, therefore, both then and now, many turn to healers and sorceresses for help:

    “And it is impossible to say who the modern Permian Komi is, Orthodox or pagan.In the morning he can pray to Christ, then he goes into the forest to pick mushrooms and berries and put the first fungus on a tree stump – Vörisya, and in the evening, while milking the cow, he will begin to recite a spell so that the cow would stand still. Well, he also honors ancestors as guardian spirits. ”

    Chud

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    Speaking about the question of identity, one cannot ignore the fact that the hero of Gleb Kalyuzhny, nicknamed “Pam”, bears the speaking surname Chudinov, referring to the concept of “chud”, in the definition of which experts differ.In general, “Territory” refers very much to the legends about the Chud people and even quotes one of them almost literally – about the Chud girl. The finale of the show turns out to be directly related to the chud.

    “About the monsters in the series, the mythology is shown correctly, that they went underground, were great wizards and so on. But the etymology of the word itself is still incomprehensible. And many peoples believe that Chud are their ancestors. There are many Chud settlements and burial grounds on the territory of the Okrug, all of them date back to around the 4th-8th centuries, ”Vasily Gagarin said.

    The Permian Komi still has a tradition of venerating “old parents”, “Vajzhez” (ancients) – for this purpose, they go to funerals at the Chud burial grounds.

    “So, next to us there is a Chud burial ground of the 5th century, and every year there are performed special rituals of veneration“ vajzhez ”. There is, as it were, a meeting and a meal of the living and the dead, and every Perm Komi, wherever he lives on the territory of Russia, seeks to come home that day. Stories about chud can be found in different regions of Russia – apparently, these are some kind of ancestors of the Finno-Ugric peoples, ”added the local historian.

    The ancestors themselves become guardian spirits, and their second soul – “Ort” – invisibly accompanies the descendants all their lives.

    “The Permian Komi have two souls – fishing and ort,” added Gagarin.

    Vasily Gagarin noted the positive role that Territory can play in popularizing local culture among Russians.

    “Naturally, the series did not set itself the goal to fully and thoroughly tell about all the mythological characters of the Permian Komi. There is still a lot to be filmed from local materials.But the series is also a series in order to capture the most mystical moments and keep the viewer in suspense. Those who are interested in our mythology can independently find materials on it, study it, come to the Permian Komi District, ”said the local historian.

    90,000 During pregnancy, a baby hiccups in the stomach: why does this happen

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    What is a hiccup?

    Hiccups, whether in a newborn or in an adult, is an involuntary reflex sharp contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm due to irritation of the vagus nerve.It travels through the diaphragm from the chest to the abdomen, and when it contracts under certain circumstances, hiccups occur.

    Can a fetus really hiccup?

    Yes, the embryo begins to hiccup from gestational age corresponding to 10-12 weeks of gestation. Many women are interested in how to understand that a baby hiccups in the stomach? The expectant mother begins to feel the hiccups of the unborn child from 25-26 weeks of pregnancy, when the fetus is already large enough, and it is almost impossible not to notice its movement 1 .

    Ladies who are expecting the birth of not their first baby may begin to feel hiccups, as well as fetal movements, earlier – from the middle of pregnancy.

    Scientists from University College London, having conducted brain scans of newborns (including premature babies) in 2019, concluded that hiccups are an important tool for brain development. Every time a child hiccups, he triggers a series of nerve impulses, with the help of which he learns to regulate breathing 2 .These signals help your baby learn to control the muscles that control the diaphragm and, as a result, breathing.

    Therefore, the intermittent short hiccups of the fetus are not a cause for concern, but a sign of a normal and timely developing central nervous system of your future baby.

    Intrauterine hiccups do not cause any pain or discomfort to the baby (such as an adult feels when hiccupping). Its manifestations are extremely individual: it can happen once a week, and several times a day, last 2-3 minutes or up to half an hour 3 .

    Why does the fetus hiccup?

    Since at the moment it is impossible to conduct full-fledged studies of a developing organism in the mother’s womb, there is no reliable information about the cause of hiccups in the fetus, but there are a number of scientific and pseudo-scientific assumptions.

    So, according to some experts, a child hiccups in the stomach during pregnancy when it swallows excess amniotic fluid, especially after the mother has eaten something sweet and glucose has entered the waters, making them more tasty for the inhabitant (remember that when undergoing cardiotocography 4 doctors suggest “waking up” a quiet baby by eating a piece of chocolate).Or, as an option, if the baby swallowed excess amniotic fluid when yawning or sucking a thumb.

    Others argue that through hiccups, the unborn child trains the diaphragm and lungs, preparing for a quick life outside the mother’s body and breathing independently. However, it is known for sure that hiccups in adults are associated with tremors of air, and in children who have not yet been born – with the expulsion of fluid, since there is no air in their lungs yet, and therefore the theory of breathing training can also be considered unconfirmed.

    Look what can not be done during pregnancy:

    Still others suggest that in this way the baby works out the skills of swallowing, and the fourth – that the grown fetus in the third trimester is already very cramped in its “house”, and hiccups can contribute to an uncomfortable position of the body, in which his respiratory organs are pinched, due to the posture adopted by the mother.

    Do not worry if the estimated date of birth is getting closer, and you feel hiccups in the upper abdomen – this does not mean at all that the baby is in breech position, because he is hiccuping not with his mouth, but with all his little body flinching.

    Is there a relationship between hiccups and fetal hypoxia?

    Despite the fact that there is no scientific evidence and this connection, some researchers consider frequent hiccups in the fetus a clear sign of hypoxia. In their opinion, due to a lack of oxygen, the center of the brain, which is responsible for the motor function of the diaphragm, is irritated in the unborn child, and, as a result, its rhythmic contractions begin.

    But don’t intimidate yourself. Hiccups caused by oxygen starvation are usually accompanied by other pronounced symptoms: the baby in the womb behaves too actively, while he has a slow heartbeat, and hiccups appear very often and do not go away for a long period of time.

    If you find that these symptoms are characteristic of your pregnancy, this is a reason for an emergency visit to the doctor.

    You will be offered to additionally undergo an ultrasound scan with a Doppler 5 , with the help of which you can assess how the cardiovascular system of the fetus works, whether its vessels are well supplied with blood and whether there are blood flow disturbances in the mother-placenta-fetus system. You should also undergo cardiotocography: it will show whether the tone of the uterus is normal and how the fetal heart rate reacts to its movements.

    What should the expectant mother do?

    Pregnant women may not even notice the hiccups of the future baby, or they may feel it annoyingly often. To calm down your hiccuping belly, you can try to take a walk in the fresh air or change your body position if you are resting: turn on the other side or in the knee-elbow position, take cover warmly if you feel that you are cool. Also, many babies respond positively to stroking their belly and talking quietly, since they already know the voices of their parents.

    A pregnant woman should not abuse sweets, and it is better to limit herself to the use of sweet fruits and berries, and not cakes. You definitely don’t need to take any anti-anxiety medication without consulting your doctor and generally get too nervous about it.

    Hiccups of the unborn child is not a pathology, and therefore no one needs to be treated or corrected in this situation. Therefore, stock up on calmness and a healthy dose of humor in relation to this situation.

    1.What causes hiccups in babies in the womb? Medically reviewed by Valinda Riggins Nwadike, MD, MPH – Written by Bethany Cadman on July 4, 2018. www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322372#

    2. K. Whitehead, L. Jones, M.P. Laudiano-Dray, J. Meek, L. Fabrizi. Event-related potentials following contraction of respiratory muscles in pre-term and full-term infants // Clinical Neurophysiology. 2019, Dec; Volume 130, Issue 12, Pages 2216-2221. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1388245719312362?via=ihub

    3.E.E. van Woerden, H.P. van Geijn, F.J.M. Caron, R. Mantel, J.M. Swartjes and N.F.Th. Arts. Fetal hiccups; characteristics and relation to fetal heart rate // European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 30 (1989) 209-216 Elsevier https://www.ejog.org/article/0028-2243(89)

    -8/pdf

    4.https: //ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiotocography

    5.https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Dopplerography

    Read also:

    12 the most useful products for pregnant women

    7 unexpected “decorations” of pregnancy

    “50 is the new 40”: what the science says about late childbirth

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