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What do you do when you throw out your back: The request could not be satisfied


Throwing Out Your Back | My Back My Life

What is throwing out your back? Perhaps you’ve experienced this intense, sharp pain that we call “throwing out your back.” Of course, that is a figure of speech. Your back is not actually thrown anywhere. But the pain is real! It can feel like parts of your back have moved, or that something needs to be put back in place to heal. This acute back pain can be very unpleasant, and can keep you sidelined from your activities.

Common Signs You’ve Thrown Out Your Back

Throwing out your back is characterized by a sudden, severe pain in your back. This usually occurs in the lower back, and happens during physical activity. It can be caused by a muscle spasm, arthritis, a slipped or ruptured disc, or the cause can remain a mystery. The most common cause is muscle strain or spasm. It can happen to you even if you don’t have a history of back pain or problems.

Herniated Discs and Back Pain

Due to the degree of their pain, many people assume that they have a herniated disc. A herniated or slipped disc occurs when a disc ruptures or bulges. Our spines are made up of vertebrae, and in between them are discs filled with a jelly-like center encased in a tough exterior. When a disc is herniated, the jelly-like center leaks out. This can cause pain and pressure on the spinal nerves.

More often than not, however, a disc is not the cause for the acute back pain of throwing out your back. Causes vary from person to person, and the pain may go away on its own. Here are some tips for treating your acute back pain:

  • Rest – Stop what you are doing and rest. Try to lie down in a back-neutral position. This means your spine will be aligned. Lay on your back with your head supported by a pillow and your knees bent.
  • Ice it – Apply ice packs to the affected area of your back for 20 minutes. This will help with inflammation.
  • Anti-inflammatories – Take an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
  • Heat it up – After the first 24-48 hours, you can switch from ice to heat. Apply a heating pad or other forms of heat for 20 minutes.

If you are still in agony after two days, it’s time to contact a physician. If you are experiencing leg numbness or shooting pains down your leg, it’s also important to get in touch with a physician.

If you’ve thrown out your back or if you’re experiencing back pain, contact us. Or call our dedicated Medical Concierge at 800-890-1964 to set up an appointment to learn more.

What to Do After You Throw Out Your Back

One wrong move followed by that dreaded pop and you know it: You’ve thrown out your back.

“Most of the time the culprit is the lumbar spine,” says Liz Owen, a Boston-based yoga teacher and coauthor of Yoga for a Healthy Lower Back. “That’s the five vertebrae that people usually point to when they complain about lower back pain.”

This area of the spine bears the bulk of your body weight and is responsible for most of the movements your back is capable of. That’s a big job for a small area. All that pressure makes the surrounding muscles, ligaments, and spinal discs vulnerable to injuries. According to Owen, the sacroiliac joints just beneath your spine that connect to the sacrum are similarly vulnerable, along with your wing-like hip bones.

Hopefully if you find yourself incapacitated, you have a doctor, chiropractor, or massage therapist on speed dial, who can help fix issues you weren’t even aware of. But if you’ve hurt yourself while going about your day, you probably can’t make it to the massage table right away.

Follow these simple steps immediately following an injury to protect yourself from exacerbating the problem and give your body a chance to start healing.

1. Straighten Yourself Out

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If you’ve just hurt yourself, the first thing you should do is to get upright and into a posture that will keep you from doing further damage. You want your spine to be in a neutral position, advises Owen.

If you’ve hurt yourself while bending over: “Gently bend your knees, and place your hands on your thighs. Keeping your knees bent, exhale and drop your tailbone slightly toward the floor. Now slowly lift your trunk and gently straighten your legs, keeping your tailbone long. You’ll know you have a neutral spine when your shoulders are over your hips — as if you’re standing against a wall — and your lower back feels long, rather than overarched.”

Once you’re standing up, gently engage your core muscles. If tightening a muscle seems like a dangerous idea when you’re already in pain, consider this: One of your abdominal core’s main functions is to stabilize your lower back, so engaging your core will create a steadying effect.

Owen advises bending your knees, resting your hands on your thighs, and imagining a string drawing your navel back toward your spine. Slowly straighten your legs, maintaining your core muscle engagement. “You should feel your core muscles hugging back toward your lower back so it doesn’t overarch,” she says.

2. Don’t Bend, Lift, or Twist

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“Once you are upright and stabilized, do whatever you can to stay that way so your injury doesn’t worsen,” says Keith Puri, a chiropractor based in Arlington, Massachusetts. That means avoiding what’s known as BLT — bending, lifting, and twisting — while you’re hurt.

If you need to pick something up off the floor, keep your spine straight and your core engaged, and drop your tailbone toward the floor in a squat. “Looking up to the ceiling can help keep your spine straight,” says Puri, which will help prevent you from leaning forward and putting stress on your back.

When you need to lean forward to brush your teeth or wash dishes, try a hip hinge: Maintain a straight, neutral spine while bending forward from your hips.

To avoid twisting your spinal muscles, think about turning rather than rotating, Puri says. That means turning your whole body to face whatever you need to be reaching for, rather than leaning to the side or reaching around yourself. Puri explains that stability should be a higher priority than convenience, even if that means a multistep process for things like getting into and out of your car. “It is definitely less efficient, but the benefits significantly outweigh the time lost,” he says.

3. Try These OTC Remedies

Mitch Mandel

Puri also recommends keeping a tube of pain relief gel like arnica gel in your purse, gym bag, or briefcase. When injury strikes, it can give the the injured area a mild cooling sensation and bring down inflammation and swelling to help blood flow to the area.

Over-the-counter ibuprofen tablets can also be taken immediately for their anti-inflammatory properties. But remember that medication may mask your symptoms, so continue to treat yourself as if you have an injury.

And don’t skimp on water. If you hurt yourself while exercising, you may already be dehydrated from the sweating process.Puri warns that chronic dehydration can also affect the strength and quality of your spinal muscles, making injuries more common and long-lasting. Aim for nine or more glasses per day, especially when you’re nursing an injury.

4. Do These Safe Self-Care Treatments

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Once you get to a place where you can rest, Puri advises trying some basic self-care practices to maintain the stability. Try lying on your back on a firm sofa or bed with pillows under your knees. Your goal here is to encourage the entire lower back to rest against a solid surface, allowing the muscles to release.

Owen adds that lying on the floor on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor — or even standing against a wall if you can’t lie down — can help back muscles come out of a spasm. When you’re ready, try hugging one knee into your chest while gently stretching your other leg straight onto the floor. As you inhale and exhale, move the bent leg slightly away from and then closer to your chest. Repeat this with the other leg.

5. Above All, Be Patient

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If your situation doesn’t significantly improve or even resolve in a day or two, it is probably time to consult a physician, chiropractor, or certified massage therapist. But worrying that you’ve done permanent damage to your back is not only emotionally draining; it could actually cause you to further tighten your already-hurting body.

“When a lower back episode occurs, it’s natural to feel scared that your back will never get better,” says Owen. “As much as your back may be challenged at the moment, remember that your muscles are simply overworking, doing a temporary job of trying to support your spine. Listen to your pain, take care of your back, and as the injury subsides, your muscles will relax, and they will most likely return to normal in a short period of time.”

Holly Lebowitz Rossi is the coauthor of Yoga for a Healthy Lower Back: A Practical Guide to Developing Strength and Relieving Pain and a freelance writer.

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Thrown out Back: Information, Prevention & Treatment

Krista Bugden Human Kinetics & Rehab Exercise Expert

You’ve thrown out your back. It’s painful. It’s limiting what you can do. Great. Now what?

Lifting heavy boxes or simply twisting the wrong way can cause sudden, sharp, and intense pain in the lower back. And this pain may last for weeks or even months at a time. It’s the number one reason that individuals miss work.

If you’ve thrown out your back – whether it’s a mild or a more intense pain – you may be after an easy route to pain relief. While pain relief is entirely attainable, it may come down to the cause of your back pain as to what exactly fully relieves your back pain dilemma. Back pain can happen due to a variety of reasons, which we’ll explore in more detail below. If the pain is severe, we recommend seeking out the advice of your healthcare provider. They may be able to offer treatment more specific to your unique situation, as they know you and your health history the best,.


Why Do I Have Back Pain?

The back and spine is a complicated structure with 33 vertebrae and 23 intervertebral discs, as well as multiple attachment points for muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Damage or problems with any of these structures may lead to lower back pain. So, what’s likely the cause of your back pain? Let’s take a look!

Cause #1: You pulled a muscle

If your back pain began when lifting a heavy object, you might have pulled a muscle. As mentioned, there are many muscles and tissues that you can accidentally pull in the back. There’s the back extensors, which are a common muscle group to pull. Usually, this muscle group helps you extend your back. Yet, if you lack flexibility, it can be an easy one to strain. The obliques or quadratus lumbar muscles in the sides and bottom of your low back are other muscles that are easy to pull – especially if they are weak.

A pulled muscle, also known as a strain, happens when the tissue is pulled past its limits. This can occur in the ligament and tendon tissue as well. Other than lifting heavy objects, a strain may arise from repetitive movements or a direct blow. Maybe you spent the day moving heavy boxes from a neighbours garage. The next day, you notice a twinge in your low back. Or perhaps you overworked it at the gym. You raised your weights or something didn’t feel quite right when you were performing that deadlift.

What should you do?

  • If you have intense pain that radiates down the legs, or the pain is a result from a direct blow or a fall, book an appointment with your doctor.

  • Rest for 24-48 hours. This doesn’t mean you should just lie in bed. Instead, avoid movements that may aggravate your back. Move, but do so lightly and cautiously.

  • If it helps, apply ice for 15-20 minutes at a time. Make sure you place a cloth between the ice pack and your skin. Wait about 45 minutes between ice applications. Aim to ice the affected area about 3-4 times over the first couple of days. If preferred, you may use heat for pain relief instead. This often comes down to an individual preference.

  • Consider over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen, or aspirin. Follow the directions on the label, and limit your usage after 10 days. Long-term use of these medications may cause gastrointestinal issues and other adverse health effects.

  • Sleep on your side with your pillow between your knees. Many individuals with back pain find this to be the most comfortable. However, don’t force it if it doesn’t feel right.

  • Eventually, start using gentle stretches and core exercises to prevent future back pain incidences.

Typically, a strain fully heals within 4-6 weeks. Yet, this may vary from person to person

Cause #2: You have a ruptured or herniated disc

The spine is made up of 33 vertebrae. The intervertebral discs between the vertebrae make it easy for you to move and flex, extend, or twist your torso. They also act as shock absorbers for the spine.

A healthy and a herniated disk.

However, as you age, these discs naturally lose their hydration. They become worn down. This may result in a ruptured or herniated disc. This ruptured or herniated disc slips out from its place in between the vertebrae. Consequently, it may press on the spinal cord. The spinal cord contains various nerves. When these nerves become compressed, pain may result.

What should you do?

  • Similar to a pulled muscle, apply ice or heat to the affected area – especially during the first 24-48 hours. The same goes for rest. Take it easy the first few days, but don’t limit yourself to your bed. A little bit of movement is better than none. Walk. Try simple stretches.

  • Consult with your doctor or better yet, a physical therapist. Your doctor may even recommend you see a physical therapist to determine strategies to deal with your chronic back pain. Your physical therapist will recommend exercises for you to help relieve the pain, as well as perform certain techniques to help you heal.

Cause #3: You Might Have Osteoarthritis.

Arthritis and disc issues are more common in older individuals. And osteoarthritis is the type of arthritis that typically affects the facet joints in the spine. Unsurprisingly, the spine takes a lot of stress over the course of your lifetime. As a result, the joints and discs become worn down. However, if it is osteoarthritis, pain may arise as a more gradual occurrence as opposed to a sudden event.

Osteoarthritis of the spine

In some cases, spinal stenosis may result from arthritis in the spine. This is a condition where the spinal canal narrows, compressing nerves and causing pain.

What should you do?

  • If you suspect arthritis, it’s a good idea to get a proper diagnosis from your doctor. They may perform various tests and imaging to determine the cause of your back pain.

  • Again, ice and heat may relieve pain, especially if you’ve had a sudden flare-up.

  • Movement is usually encouraged in osteoarthritis patients. But if a flare-up is occurring, limit or avoid movements that aggravate the pain. As aforementioned, being immobile in bed is not recommended.

  • Your doctor may refer you to a physical therapist. Your physical therapist will determine an appropriate exercise rehab program for you that will help you alleviate and combat the pain caused by arthritis.

Skeletal irregularities, such as a curved spine, or osteoporosis are other less common causes of back pain. Similar to osteoarthritis, it’s more likely these will have a gradual onset as opposed to a sudden cause. Although, in the case of osteoporosis, a fracture may occur in the lower spine suddenly causing pain.


Some causes of back pain involve a long-term game plan. In these cases and even once you’ve recovered from a single bout of back pain, prevention should be at the top of your list. Were you lifting the object wrong? You may need to learn proper lifting techniques. Was it because of a muscle imbalance? Your physical therapist may prescribe strengthening exercises to correct this dysfunction and weakness.

In terms of exercises, the following movements may be prescribed as part of your back pain rehabilitation program.

How to:

  • Lie on your back and place a towel over the toes of one of your feet.
  • Stretch the leg until it is fully extended.
  • Grabbing the towel on either end, use your arms to pull the towel towards you, so that your foot is pulled towards the opposite shoulder.
  • Hold the stretch for 30 seconds and perform 3 repetitions with each leg.

How to:

  • Lie on your hands and knees.
  • Curb your back then slowly sway it the other way.
  • Move slowly so that the full movement takes between 2 and 4 seconds.
  • The entire series represents one repetition.
  • Perform 10 repetitions without pausing.

How to:

  • Lie on your stomach.
  • Lift your upper body up with your arms so your back sways backward.
  • Relax the abdominal and back muscles.
  • Hold the position for 10 seconds and then return to the starting position.
  • Perform 5 repetitions.

How to:

  • Lie on your back with bent knees and your feet placed flat on the floor.
  • Place your hands on your lower back and press it down towards the floor by sucking in your belly and flexing your abdominal muscles.
  • Lift your feet slightly up from the floor and hold the position for 2-4 seconds and then lower them again.
  • Make sure that your hands do not lose contact with your lower back.
  • Perform 5 repetitions.

Other examples of exercises include further strengthening the core or other noted muscle weaknesses. A weak core, in particular, can become problematic by forcing other muscles to compensate. This may result in a strain in the low back.

You may also encounter exercises, such as:

With any exercise, go slow. Don’t rush it. If pain occurs, stop and adjust. If it continues, stop the exercise altogether. Don’t push through the pain. You could be doing more harm than good. It’s also important to stay properly hydrated throughout any exercise session and to wear comfortable clothing that doesn’t restrict your movement.

What Else Should You Do?

  1. Watch your posture! Bad posture is a sure-fire way to back pain. It causes numerous dysfunctions and imbalances throughout the body. Inevitably, it often results in pain. If you work at a desk all day, consider proper ergonomics. How can you set up your workspace to limit injury or pain and increase efficiency?

  2. Limit sedentary behavior, especially sitting in a single position for long durations. And working a desk job is no excuse. Find time every couple of hours to stretch, stand up, and walk around. Trust us – your body needs it.

  3. Be cautious with movements at first. Perform any movement involving twisting or bending your torso and spine slowly. Don’t rush it. Trying to do it quickly may cause injury and further back pain problems.

  4. Learn to lift heavy objects properly. Position your feet shoulder-width apart. Squat down. Lift using your lower body and not your back. This means as you come into standing keep your back straight and push up through your heels.

  5. When exercising, gradually increase your intensity, frequency, duration, or resistance. Too much too soon is a common cause of injuries, including back issues.

  6. Maintaining a healthy weight may further prevent back pain. Excess weight places additional stress on the joints, bones, and muscles of the body. It’s also associated with numerous diseases. Exercise regularly and consume a healthy and balanced diet.

  7. Build core strength, including the often neglected transverse abdominis muscle. While many people strive for those 6-pack abs, it’s also beneficial to focus on the deep and lower abdominal muscles. The transverse abdominis muscle, in particular, acts as a corset around the low back and pelvis. Strengthening this tiny but frequently ignored muscle can go a long way when it comes to preventing back pain.

  8. Quit smoking. Smoking restricts the blood vessels in the body. Consequently, the discs in the spine may not get enough nutrients or blood flow. This may result in problems, such as a herniated or ruptured disc, that lead to back pain.

  9. Wear comfortable shoes appropriate to your activity. High heels are not recommended if you’ve suffered injuries or back pain in the past. Find comfortable shoes that support your feet and body.

  10. Avoid carrying bags on one side of your body. For example, a heavy purse or backpack may pull on certain muscles and joints. Again, this may have a chain-like effect and may end up impacting your back, producing pain.

Start Your Road Toward Recovery Today!

If your pain is severe, don’t hesitate to seek out a consultation with your healthcare provider. The sooner you get help, the sooner you’ll be on your way toward fixing your back pain once and for all.

And if you’re on the hunt for exercises specific to your condition, Injurymap can help you along the way. The app provides personalized training programs so you can get better, faster. Treat your aches and pains before they get worse. Lead the life you want. Get back to those activities you know and love, such as your favorite sport or spending quality time with your loved ones. That way, you can do what you want when you want, without pain holding you back.

About the author

Krista Bugden has worked as a Rehab Exercise Expert at a physiotherapist clinic in Ottawa, Canada for the past 4 years. She has an Honours Bachelor Degree in Human Kinetics from the University of Ottawa. She uses her extensive knowledge in this area to educate others through well-researched and informative articles. Her passions include helping others and inspiring each person she meets to get the most out of their life.

What To Do When You Throw Out Your Back

If you’ve ever thrown out your back you know… it’s extremely painful and makes you feel 1000 years old. I do it far too often, although less in recent years after learning a thing or two. It started for me after I ran a half marathon and injured my hip and has been a problem, occurring every 6 months or so ever since.

It can lay you out for two weeks or more, but now that I know what I know, I’m usually back to normal within a week. I’m no back expert, but I’m here to share what has worked for me!

Why it happens: The answer to this depends on who you ask…

Admittedly I haven’t been to a chiropractor since we moved (but I’m looking for one now), every chiropractor I’ve ever seen says that my back issues are structural. I have scoliosis and a hyper lumbar, plus my hips are crooked. When I lay on my back with my feet relaxed out to the side, my left foot falls way left and my right foot is almost straight up. Crooked hips. It’s a thing. The chiro solution? Regular adjustments.

Anel, on the other hand, says it’s because of tight hamstrings and calves (they’re the tightest, it’s true) and that when I do everyday activities, I could be doing them with better form. He used to have a bad back as well and then taught himself how to move differently and hasn’t had a problem or any pain in years. His solution? Re-learn how to bend over, lift things, sit at my computer, etc. And strengthen the muscles around my back with exercise.

According to Dr. Sarno (if you know you know), back pain like mine is caused by stress and other psychological factors. Dr. Sarno’s solution? Daily meditations.

What I think is that it’s all three of those things. I have structural issues, I need to work to strengthen muscles and loosen my hamstrings, and stress plays a giant role in it too.

When it happens: In my experience, my back generally goes out when I’m bending down quickly to do something. I’ve done it multiple times picking up laundry, cleaning something on the floor, lifting Amalia, or, on one very sad occasion, picking up dog poop.

It happens at different levels. Sometimes, I can catch it halfway down into a bend and stop it in its tracks. But most of the time, I full-on throw it out and get stuck on the floor. The worst was when I was pregnant and got stuck for hours on my kitchen floor and couldn’t even climb to my phone.

Last week, Amalia was with me and totally freaked out seeing me in so much pain and not able to move. I wanted to comfort her so badly but couldn’t even hug her. It was not great. But she was able to go get my phone so I could call Anel… although before handing it to me she took a giant burst of photos of me stuck on the ground in undies. It was one of those laugh and cry at the same time situations.

So when it happens, the key is to move your back in small movements as much as you can instead of sitting completely still. Do micro cat-cows in whatever position you’re in. Anel taught me this trick and it’s made a huge difference. This time, I was on my hands and knees which is kind of the ideal position for cat cows. I do them in tiny movements until I can move more and more. Eventually, I stand up really slowly (it usually takes 20-40 minutes to be able to stand) and then lean on a counter or table for more cat cows.

The most important thing I’ve figured out is to NOT sit in a soft chair. Whenever I do, I get stuck every time. And sitting makes it so much worse. Leaning forward is what works for me.

Then I take some Advil and immediately put heat on it to loosen it up as much as possible.

Stretching: On the first day, it’s hard to stretch at all, but I do as much as I can. It’s easier if someone can help you. I lay on my back and Anel will lift one leg straight up and gently push it towards my torso. Then he bends my knee and does the same thing. We repeat on both sides. Before bed, I do a flat back with my hands on the bed to stretch my hamstrings and lower back. I also do this throughout the day on kitchen counters, etc.

Heat vs Ice: A heating pad is great to loosen up the stiffness but ice helps with inflammation. I was told to use ice only in the first 24 hours on and off with the heat. So I try to do that.

Sleep: The first night is always the worst. I never sleep much on those nights but have learned how to make it a whole lot less painful. In my personal experience, how you sleep can determine for how many days the pain lasts. Sleep posture is one of the most important ways to heal!

Anel sets me up with my back flat on the mattress with no pillow under my head or neck. He puts a large pillow under my knees to take the pressure off of my lower back. Before I fall asleep, I’ll do 20 minutes of my heating pad.

When I inevitably wake up in pain, I put the heat back on and do mini cat-cows white laying down, arching and hunching my back over and over again until the stiffness goes away a bit.

If I have to pee in the night, I do the cat-cows before rolling to my side and then sliding off the side of the bed on my stomach. Getting up actually helps because you move it around so I try to do ti if I can.

Topical creams: Before bed and a few times throughout the day, I apply Equilibria CBD Relief Cream followed by doTERRA Deep Blue Rub. The CBD helps with inflammation and pain and the Deep Blue is like Icy Hot. I’ve tried dozens of products and these are the two that work the best, by far. They are on the pricey side but last forever and make a huge difference. When things get really bad, I’ll also use a Lidocaine patch.

Pain Killers: I stick with Advil every 6 hours from the beginning, but I’ve also been prescribed muscle relaxers in the past. I don’t like taking them because they make me feel totally whacky, tired, and out of it. But if the pain is really bad, it’s an option that really works.

Movement: Everything online says to rest but I find that if I sit still all day, it makes things so much worse. Gently walking (slowly) throughout the day feels the best for me personally.

Massagers: Massage can actually make things worse, but I’m lucky to live with a guy who works with the human body for a living so he knows exactly what to do. He has a Hypervolt for work and uses it on the muscles that support my lower back where the pain is. So he’ll massage my shoulder, hamstrings, and glutes and after 10 minutes of that, I can usually walk 10x better. We also have a Hypersphere (on sale) so that I can do it myself on the spot where the pain is. If I have to sit at my desk, I’ll use the Hypersphere at the same time.

Prevention: A Rolfer that Anel works with once told me that I need to stretch my calves and hammies every night. I did it for a few months when he first told me and my back was better than ever. Then I kind of forgot and just do it randomly when I think of it. But after this one, I’m getting back to every day stretching because it takes 10 minutes and the results are worth it. I should also be going to regular chiropractic adjustments and am on the hunt for a new chiropractor near me now!

The 5 Steps You Should Take After Throwing Out Your Back


If you’re reading this right now, chances are you either a) just threw out your back and don’t know what to do or b) are trying to help a loved one after they just threw out theirs.

Total. Bummer.

Lucky for you though, there ARE some steps you can take to relieve the pain and prevent any further damage!

But, first things first–we need to define exactly what it means to “throw out one’s back.” According to the Physician Partners of America, a “thrown out back” is just jargon for “acute back pain.” This can constitute a number of different maladies, such as a muscle strain from overexertion, a ligament sprain in the lower back from overstretching, an intense muscle spasm, or a sudden disc rupture from prolonged overexertion.

As you can see, that searing pain can be due to a number of different injuries, any of which must be diagnosed and treated by a doctor. Having said that, it’s not always easy to get into the doc’s office at the drop of a hat. This means that you will need to take the right steps to protect your back the best you can while you wait it out.

In an interview with Good Housekeeping, Liz Owen, a yoga teacher, and Keith Puri, a chiropractor gave some great tips for babying that back when it needs it the most.

Owen explains that most of the time, people experience the worst pain in their lumbar areas, aka the L1 through L5 vertebrae. If this sounds like your issue, then you will want to do these 5 things while you’re waiting to see your doc…

  1. Get vertical

    The idea of standing up might not feel like the best thing to do, but you could be doing further damage to your back if you’re curled up in an awkward position. As an alternative, Owen suggests putting your hands on your thighs and slowly lifting yourself up to a vertical position, making sure that your core is fully engaged. When your tummy is tight, your spine will neutralize and, hopefully, some of the pressure will go away.

  2. Stay straight

    This means no bending, twisting, and definitely no attempts at trying to “pop” your back into place. Puri suggests turning your full body instead of rotating your spine. The less movement in the area, the better!

  3. Reach into your medicine cabinet

    To treat the pain, you can use a topical treatment, like Arnica gel. For pain relief, try an NSAID like ibuprofen. Just remember to take as directed. And, don’t go overboard on the pain pills–sometimes these make patients feel so good that they’ll end up resuming their normal activities. Of course, when this happens, the injury to the back could end up getting worse over time, not better!

  4. And, unfurl that yoga mat

    Another great way to bring some much-needed relief to your lumbar area is to lie down on a yoga mat, with a folded towel underneath your lower back, as shown in the photo above. Once you’re in this position, hug your knees gently to your chest, one at a time. While doing this, only move as far as is comfortable for you. If you feel any heightened pain or pulling sensation, stop immediately.

  5. Listen to what your body is trying to tell you

    Some might feel a good amount of relief from completing the above steps, but if you don’t, it’s definitely time you seek professional help. That said, don’t worry about your predicament too much. After all, obsessing will only make you tense your back even more!

Of course, if the pain is unbearable, you are experiencing numbness, and/or you have a history of heart problems, don’t wait it out. Instead, seek medical help right away at your local ER or by calling 9-1-1. Don’t take any chances with your bod–remember, it’s the only one you have, so you better take care of it!

We’d love to hear your thoughts on these back pain tips. Have you ever thrown out your back before? If so, what did you do? Do you have any favorite back stretches that you would like to share?


What To Do Right After You Throw Out Your Back

It almost never happens at a convenient time or place. Before you can get to a doctor—and before you pop those pain killers—try these natural methods for alleviating the pain.

by Holly Lebowitz Rossi, for Rodale’s Organic Life

One wrong move followed by that dreaded pop and you know: You’ve thrown out your back. “Most of the time the culprit is the lumbar spine,” says Liz Owen, a Boston-based yoga teacher and coauthor of Yoga For A Healthy Lower Back. “That’s the five vertebrae that people usually point to when they complain about lower back pain.” This area of the spine bears the bulk of your body weight and is responsible for most of the movements your back is capable of. That’s a big job for a small area. All that pressure makes the surrounding muscles, ligaments, and spinal discs vulnerable to injuries. According to Owen, the sacroiliac joints just beneath your spine that connect to the sacrum are similarly vulnerable, along with your wing-like hipbones (make sure you Keep Your Hips Healthy With These 3 Essential Poses).

Hopefully, if you find yourself incapacitated, you have a chiropractor or massage therapist on speed dial, which is smart because a good therapist Knows A Lot About You After One Hour and can often fix issues you weren’t even aware of. But if you hurt yourself while going about your day, you probably can’t make it to the massage table right away.

Click through the slideshow and follow these simple steps immediately following an injury to protect you from exacerbating the problem and give your body a chance to start healing.

Step 1: Straighten Yourself Out


If you’ve just hurt yourself, the first thing you should do is to get upright and into a posture that will keep you from doing further damage. You want your spine to be in a neutral position, advises Owen. If you’ve hurt yourself while bending over , “gently bend your knees, and place your hands on your thighs. Keeping your knees bent, exhale and drop your tailbone slightly toward the floor. Now slowly lift your trunk and gently straighten your legs, keeping your tailbone long. You’ll know you have a neutral spine when your shoulders are over your hips, as if you’re standing against a wall, and your lower back feels long, rather than overarched.”

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Related: 10 Things A Yoga Teacher Learns About You Within The First 5 Minutes Of Class

Once you’re standing up, gently engage your core muscles. If tightening a muscle seems like a dangerous idea when you’re already in pain, consider this: One of your abdominal core’s main functions is to stabilize your lower back, so engaging your core will create a steadying effect. Owen advises bending your knees, resting your hands on your thighs, and imagining a string drawing your navel back toward your spine. Slowly straighten your legs, maintaining your core muscle engagement. “You should feel your core muscles hugging back toward your lower back so it doesn’t overarch,” she says.

Step 2: Don’t Bend, Lift, Or Twist

“Once you are upright and stabilized, do whatever you can to stay that way so your injury doesn’t worsen,” says Keith Puri, a chiropractor based in Arlington, Massachusetts. That means avoiding what’s known as BLT—bending, lifting, and twisting—while you’re hurt. If you need to pick something up off the floor, keep your spine straight and your core engaged, and drop your tailbone toward the floor in a squat. “Looking up to the ceiling can help keep your spine straight,” says Puri, which will help prevent you from leaning forward and putting stress on your back. When you need to lean forward to brush your teeth or wash dishes, try a hip hinge: Maintain a straight, neutral spine while bending forward from your hips.

To avoid twisting your spinal muscles, think about turning rather than rotating, Puri says. That means turning your whole body to face whatever you need to be reaching for, rather than leaning to the side or reaching around yourself. Puri explains that stability should be a higher priority than convenience, even if that means a multistep process for things like getting into and out of your car. “It is definitely less efficient, but the benefits significantly outweigh the time lost,” he says.

Step 3: Put These On—Or In—Your Body


Puri also recommends keeping a tube of homeopathic pain relief gel like arnica in your purse, gym bag, or briefcase. When injury strikes, it can give the the injured area a mild cooling sensation and bring down inflammation and swelling to help blood flow to the area.

Related: 14 Homeopathic Remedies Found In Nature

Over-the-counter ibuprofen tablets can also be taken immediately for their anti-inflammatory properties. But remember that medication may mask your symptoms, so continue to treat yourself as if you have an injury. And don’t skimp on water. If you hurt yourself while exercising, you may already be dehydrated from the sweating process. But Puri warns that chronic dehydration can also affect the strength and quality of your spinal muscles, making injuries more common and long-lasting. Aim for 8 glasses per day, especially when you’re nursing an injury.

Step 4: Do These Safe Self-Care Treatments


Once you get to a place where you can rest, Puri advises trying some basic self-care practices to maintain the stability. Try lying on your back on a firm sofa or bed with pillows under your knees. Your goal here is to encourage the entire lower back to rest against a solid surface, allowing the muscles to release.

Owen adds that lying on the floor on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor—or even standing against a wall if you can’t lie down—can help back muscles come out of a spasm. When you’re ready, try hugging one knee into your chest while gently stretching your other leg straight onto the floor. As you inhale and exhale, move the bent leg slightly away from and then closer to your chest. Repeat this with the other leg.

Related: 6 Stretches That Can Fend Off Lower Back Pain

Above All, Be Patient

If your situation doesn’t significantly improve or even resolve in a day or two, it is probably time to consult a physician, chiropractor, certified massage therapist, or other healing professional. But worrying that you’ve done permanent damage to your back is not only emotionally draining; it could actually cause you to further tighten your already-hurting body.

Related: 3 Easy Poses To Save Your Back

“When a lower back episode occurs, it’s natural to feel scared that your back will never get better,” says Owen. “As much as your back may be challenged at the moment, remember that your muscles are simply overworking, doing a temporary job of trying to support your spine. Listen to your pain, take care of your back, and as the injury subsides, your muscles will relax, and they will most likely return to normal in a short period of time.”


Holly Lebowitz Rossi is the coauthor of Yoga for a Healthy Lower Back: A Practical Guide to Developing Strength and Relieving Pain and a freelance writer.

This article originally published on Rodale’s Organic Life.

Injured Your Back? Dos and Don’ts for a Quick Recovery

Angela Santini, MD is board certified in orthopedic surgery and fellowship trained in spinal surgery. She is a member of the Inova Spine Program with privileges at Inova Loudoun Hospital, which has earned the Gold Seal of Approval® from The Joint Commission for spine surgery. Dr. Santini serves as Chief Medical Director of Virginia Spine and Sports Orthopaedics in Loudoun County.

Back strains can occur anytime, anywhere, during almost any kind of activity. Luckily, “throwing your back out” is usually a temporary situation. The sudden onset of pain caused by twisting, lifting or bending is most often due to a muscle strain. As we age, we become more prone to muscle strains because our muscles lose elasticity.

Most people can identify the injury or activity that caused their pain. One minute you are bending over to tie your shoe, reaching for something in a cabinet or teeing off on the back nine. Then, out of nowhere, “OUCH!” – sudden tension and pain in the mid to lower back.

Throwing your back out can cause intense low-back pain and stiffness. It can even be an on–the-floor-can’t-move debilitating experience. Typical symptoms include muscle spasms with bouts of muscle tightening and difficulty standing up straight. You want pain relief and you want it now!

The good news is, in most cases, your back pain will go away on its own. Here are some at-home tips to help you feel better in the meantime.


  • Stop what you are doing and apply ice to ease the pain and inflammation. Cold therapy can be continued for about 20 minutes every 6-8 hours for the next 2-3 days. But remember – don’t put ice directly on your skin. It can damage the tissues and nerve endings.
  • You may find it helpful to lie flat on your back on a hard surface for support, rather than a cushy bed. This can help relax the injured muscles in the immediate aftermath.
  • Pain relievers such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen (Aleve) can help. However, they may not be advisable for anyone with kidney problems or a stomach ulcer. It’s a good idea to check with your doctor about which medications you should or should not take.
  • Once you are upright and stabilized, do whatever you can to stay that way so your injury does not worsen. That means avoiding bending, lifting or twisting through the spine. If you need to pick up something from the floor, keep your spine straight. When you brush your teeth or wash the dishes, maintain a straight, neutral spine, bending forward from your hips.
  • Sleep in a position that’s comfortable for your spine. Put pillows under your knees when you are on your back or a pillow between your legs if you sleep on your side. This helps the muscles to release.
  • If your pain persists after the third day, try a little moist heat. This can help reduce stiffness and improve blood flow to the injured area.
  • Massaging the affected muscle with firm pressure may help reduce tension. Press on the area for 30-60 seconds, then rub the surrounding area in a circular motion.
  • Drink water to stay hydrated when you are recovering from injury. Chronic dehydration can affect the strength and quality of your spinal muscles.
  • If tolerated, try to stay mobile in the first few days after your injury. Move gently. Mild movement is better than bed rest. Any lengthy bed rest can prolong your back pain.
  • When you are ready, engage in slow, easy stretching such as pulling your knees toward the chest. If it hurts doing any exercise, stop, slow down and try again later. Walking for short intervals can also help.
  • Get back to your regular activities, such as work, as soon as you can. Modify activities as needed. But remember, staying active will stimulate blood flow, increase flexibility and prevent spasms.


  • Do not try to “play through the pain.” It is essential to let your body recover before resuming strenuous activity.
  • Do not sleep on your stomach. This can worsen back pain.
  • Do not perform heavy lifting or repetitive twisting of your back for up to six weeks. This can disrupt the healing process.
  • Do not ignore how you injured yourself. Make changes to the way you lift. Practice good posture and use judgement when lifting heavy items (ask another person to help you). Strengthen your core with abdominal exercises, which can protect your back. Do not sit in one position for long periods of time. Move around and stretch every 20 minutes to help prevent injury. Consider lifestyle changes such as losing weight to reduce your chances of recurring back issues.

After throwing your back out, it is natural to worry that your back will never get better. Listen to your pain and take care of yourself. You will most likely be on the road to recovery with these simple at-home solutions.

Symptoms that require prompt medical attention, but are not an emergency include:

  • Pain that has not reduced with at-home treatments
  • Pain that continues to interfere with your daily activities

Seek emergency medical attention if you have the following symptoms related to your back pain:

  • Bladder or bowel dysfunction
  • Numbness down one or both legs
  • Weakness or pain in your legs
  • Fever greater than 101.5 F, or other symptoms of illness

90,000 Lost his father early, sang along with the curve on the bench, and now he has fulfilled his dream. The story of Danil Krugovoy

A matchtv.ru correspondent talks about the path of Zenit’s young defender.

A matchtv.ru correspondent talks about the path of Zenit’s young defender.

  • 22-year-old pupil of Zenit Danila Krugovoy in the current championship took to the field in all matches, and for the first time played in the base last Saturday against Tambov (4: 1)
  • In the first game at the start, he chalked up a pre-goal pass.As a result, Krugovoy played all 90 minutes as a left-back
  • At Zenit he has two serious competitors – station wagon Douglas Santos and star veteran Yuri Zhirkov

Circular is a guy with a difficult fate, strong character and original thinking both on and off the pitch. We will tell you how he went to his dream and what happened to him at the Gazprom Arena last Saturday.

– Before my debut for Zenit, I had a long way from the academy through the youth team, Zenit-2, Ufa.Finally, what I dreamed of happened – to appear in a Zenit shirt. These are unforgettable emotions. And he looked pretty good! – shared his impressions of Krugova two weeks ago in Volgograd. He played against Rotor in the 82nd minute, having played for his home club for the first time in an official match.

Photo: © FC Zenit

– It’s even more fun to play a full match! Kayfanul from football for real, – the words of Krugovoy after Saturday’s meeting with “Tambov” – the first in his career in the starting lineup of “Zenith”.


Danil’s path was really not the easiest one.Krugovaya comes from Gatchina, a small town in the Leningrad Region, 40 kilometers from St. Petersburg. At the age of 6, he began to study at the football school “Smena”, which would later turn into the “Zenith” academy. In the 9th grade, Danil lost his father, a former special forces soldier who had previously served in hot spots. Unknown persons took him to the village of Gorelovo, not far from Gatchina, and killed him. Who is still a mystery. It was the father who took his son to the Zenit academy at one time.

– Then I was completely lost, I don’t know how I got back on my feet.I was still in ninth grade, I passed the OGE. And all this right before the exams. I don’t understand how I pulled myself together, because I was simply lost for a month. Gone, – said Krugovoy in an interview with Sports.ru a year ago.

The family and the desire to fulfill his father’s dream helped to get out of the state of shock, he said. “I just needed to prove to him that I can do what he wants. And he wanted me to play for Zenit and at the World Championships in Qatar. This is an incentive for me, ”admitted Danil.

He went through the Zenit academy system from start to finish, including the youth team and Zenit-2.

– Then it was clear – a good, decent guy. Gifted! Very good left leg, – says the head coach of Zenit-2 Vladislav Radimov. – True, at that time I hovered a little in the clouds, somewhere the wind was walking in my head. But now he has obviously matured, he has become more responsible in terms of football. I played a good match for the debut and showed that I deserve a place in the squad – it’s great.

Vladislav Radimov / Photo: © FC Zenit

– Now I want to look at Danil in meetings with a stronger opponent.A place in the squad, for example, in a game against Loko or Spartak, also has to be earned. Moreover, in competition with such players as Zhirkov and Douglas Santos. Danil showed that this is also a good option: if you don’t immediately get into Zenit’s base, you go to another club, get practice, and then return home stronger.


In the 2017/18 season, Circular played 23 matches in the FNL for Zenit-2, and in the summer decided to move to Ufa. It was not a rental, but a full-fledged transfer, for which Zenit received a modest 160 thousand euros.With Semak in “Ufa” he did not have time to cross: the head coach that summer went on the return route to St. Petersburg. In the RPL, Krugovoy made his debut two years ago, in August 2018, entering the field at the last minute in the game against Anji. That season, he ended up playing nine games with the ‘Circle’ logo on his jersey. As Danil said, the famous singer has nothing to do with it – that was his name in childhood.

Danil Krugovoy and Shamil Gazizov / Photo: © FC Ufa

Last summer, a struggle for Krugovoy broke out between his native Zenit and CSKA, which was looking for reinforcement on the left flank.Danil made the final choice when Semak’s team came to Ufa.

– I thought for a long time. In the end, I decided that I would fulfill my father’s dream, I would return home and put on a Zenit shirt, ”Krugovoy explained to me then. – Perhaps it was the father from above who prompted me the right decision.

Krugovoy emphasized that the talk that Zenit interrupted CSKA’s offer with a much more serious amount was “complete nonsense”! The buyout of their own pupil, according to the transfermarkt version, cost the residents of St. Petersburg 2 million euros.

– I promised myself not to go to the new Zenit stadium until I play there. It was an incentive! Then I came with Ufa, and this was the first time I was at the Gazprom Arena. Crazy atmosphere! When the fans supported Zenit, I sat on the bench and even sang along to some of their songs. I really want to play at this stadium wearing a Zenit jersey, – said Krugovoy a year ago.


After signing a contract with Zenit, Krugovoy did not return to St. Petersburg, but remained in Ufa for another year on loan.

– We talked with Sergei Bogdanovich. He said: “Everything will be fine, work at Ufa for now! In six months or a year you will return to Zenit and you will be dusting here. ” True, the partners teased for a long time afterwards in training – you are a Zenit player, what are you doing here? – Krugovoy shared with me.

Sergey Semak / Photo: © FC Zenit

Under the terms of the lease, he could return to Zenit in the winter. This is partly what happened – the defender traveled with Semak’s team to the training camp to recover from the injury.But then he finished the season at Ufa, and during the current short offseason he joined Zenit. He took his favorite number 4, which Krishito had before him.


Under him, in the 4th round, for the first time in Krugovoy’s career, he entered the starting lineup of Zenit in the game against Tambov.

– There are two reasons, – Sergei Semak told Match TV, – We wanted to give Danil the opportunity to play a full-fledged match, because he looked good in training and in those games that came on as a substitute.We must understand the capabilities of all our players, especially those who have just joined us. In addition, the planned rotation played a role – they gave Ozdoev a rest, Douglas Santos was moved to the support zone, and Danil was put in his position – the left flank of the defense.

The guy didn’t need much time to get used to it. In the 30th minute, he performed the original number. Throwing out, threw the ball into the back of Douglas Santos.

– I’ve done this before – only in the Premier League I demonstrated it for the first time.You throw the ball into your friend’s back, it flies back to you, and you continue to possess the ball. To be honest, we did not agree with Douglas about this. He, in my opinion, did not understand anything at all. From the outside – a usual game moment, but the fans also wanted to have a little fun, – Krugova told about this episode with a smile.

In the second half, he was more daring to join the attacks. At the 47th minute, this led to the second goal against Tambov. True, Krugovoy had mixed feelings about this:

– I shifted to the center and saw two openings at once – Azmun and Malcolm.I made a pass forward, and there they corrected the ball to each other ( smiles ). It is a pity that the assistant was not assigned to me in the protocol. It would be very important for me to make an assist in the first match for Zenit at the base.

Photo: © FC Zenit

– Many people think that the transmission is yours. And Sergei Semak said that your action led to the goal.

– I looked into the protocol, they wrote there – Azmun. Let’s see what they write next. On the website “Transfermarkt”, for example, the defender smiled about this.

As a result, this portal also gave an assist not to Circular, but to Azmun.

At the end of the match, Krugovoy could have scored himself – with a good long-range shot. After the final whistle, the starting lineup debutant walked happily in the midst of the team to a turn, and then clapped all the stands.

– Danil did an excellent job, – Semak’s post-match score for Match TV for Krugovoy. – In the second half, he began to boldly join the attacks, sharpen more, thanks to his efforts, the ball took place, after which the score was 2: 0.Congratulations on the long-awaited debut at the start! Some nuances and interactions still need to be played. But overall a very good match.

– You played a full match for Zenit for the first time. How did you feel on the pitch? – a question for Krugovoy himself.

– Confidently – after all, not the first match in the RPL. True, I got a little tired at the end, because I haven’t played for 90 minutes. The main thing is that he survived and, by and large, there were no problems with this. But more importantly, I enjoyed football.Maximum! Kayfanul today from him!

– How was the support of the stands in Zenit’s jersey perceived?

– This is the most unforgettable thing for me – I played in my hometown with my fans in a Zenit shirt! It’s really very cool and cool!

– You periodically went forward. Trainer installation or improvisation?

– The installation included improvisation.

– At one time you made a promise that you would not go to the Gazprom Arena until you played for Zenit.

– Now it’s done! But there is still a lot of work ahead. I really want to become a champion together with Zenit, in general to win everything that is possible with him. And only a team player can come to the stadium.

Danil shared that he wants to return to the “Circle” inscription on the shirt. True, this still requires permission. There shouldn’t be any problems, because George Despotovich, who made the same request, was allowed to cut off his surname on his jersey.

Senya Miro (Ergonomic backpack.Position on the side, on the back – Senya Miro) – Programs and Shows

It is hard not to notice the enthusiasm for what you love. For Senya Miro, channeling on a video platform is not just a hobby that brings a steady income. The blogger admits that he gets great pleasure from this work: it encourages the author to do something all the time, to master new things and improve himself. For Senya, even bad comments are a reason to be better. The channel does not have a specific theme: the videos are dedicated to the weekdays and holidays of an ordinary family.

Channel Senya Miro was registered in October 2011. At first, the girl focused on the beauty theme. Senya posted a video with reviews of cosmetics, makeup lessons, buying clothes. After the birth of the first daughter, the format of the videos changed, and with this the popularity of the project began to grow.

Senya shared the secrets of caring for a baby, useful recipes for little family members. When the second daughter was born, the number of vlogs noticeably increased and the range of topics on the channel expanded.Light, positive videos, pleasant voice, unobtrusive music and absolute naturalness are very popular with subscribers who leave hundreds of comments. The blogger always tries to answer them.

Senya Miro is a versatile and interesting girl. In St. Petersburg she is well known as a photographer. Recently, the account began to replenish with videos where Senya talks about the rules for processing photos. Now over one hundred and sixty people have subscribed to Senya Miro, and during the existence of the channel, the total number of views of videos has already exceeded fifty million.

Videos that Senya uploads every one to four days are featured in more than thirty playlists. One of the popular videos with a million-plus population – Kitchen in Khrushchev, 4 sq. m.

It is hard not to notice the enthusiasm for what you love. For Senya Miro, channeling on a video platform is not just a hobby that brings a steady income. The blogger admits that he gets great pleasure from this work: it encourages the author to do something all the time, to master new things and improve himself. For Senya, even bad comments are a reason to be better.The channel does not have a specific theme: roles

To get rid of back pain, you may have to sit differently / Habr

When I sit, my back hurts.

This has been happening for the last 10 years. It doesn’t matter where I am – at work, in a restaurant, even on the couch at home. My lower back screams, “Stop sitting!”

To relieve back pain, I bought myself a knee chair for work. Then a table for standing work. Then I returned to my usual chair, because it hurt me to stand.

I went to doctors, orthopedic surgeons and pain specialists. I mastered Pilates, increased my flexibility and muscle strength. At some point, my abs became so strong that my husband began to call him “plank”.

These funds helped a little – at first. But the pain never went away. So a few years ago, I decided to take it for granted: the sitting position hurts me, and it always will.

And then in November I walked into Jen Scherer’s studio in Palo Alto, California.She is involved in a growing movement on the West Coast of the United States that teaches people to move, sit, and stand the way they have done in the past – and how people do in some other parts of the world. In the past 8 years, Scherer has been helping people reduce back pain.

I interviewed Scherer about flexion. But she saw that I was in pain. And I shared my story with her.

Her answer left me speechless: “When you sit, you find yourself in a state that helps you achieve heavenly pleasure in your joints and back,” she said.- It is not the sitting process itself that causes you pain, but the way you sit. Do you want me to show you how to sit properly? ”

Are hunters and gatherers sitting any smaller than us?

Recently, there has been more and more talk about how much Americans sit. There is a feeling that we are sitting more than any other culture in the world – or even any culture that has ever existed. For the first time in the history of mankind, we sit for quite long periods of time, and every day.

Anthropologist David Reichlen of the University of Arizona thinks otherwise.“No, according to our data, this is not the case,” says Reichlen.

Reichlen studies modern hunter-gatherers, the Hadza people of Tanzania. They feed mainly on food from the wild – tubers, honey and fried porcupines. And, without a doubt, they are very active in obtaining food.

They climb trees and cut them down to get honey. They dig for tubers and chop nuts. “They have an active upper body,” says Rachel. “And they spend a lot of time on their feet – and they walk pretty fast.”

On average, Hadza adults spend 75 minutes a day exercising, Rachel says. This is much more than most Americans. Many of us don’t recruit the measly 2.5 hours a week as recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. transl.]. Therefore, there is no doubt that the Hadza’s cardiovascular health is better than that of most Americans.

But do the Hadza really sit less than we do? Several years ago, Reichlen and his colleagues decided to find out.They equipped about 50 Hadza adults with heart rate sensors for eight weeks and measured how often they sat during the day. The results shocked Reichlen.

“The Hadza get about the same rest as we Americans do,” he says. “About 10 hours a day.” By comparison, Americans sit on average 13 hours a day, according to a 2016 study. But here’s what’s interesting: Hadza doesn’t have the same back problems as Americans, even with age.

“We didn’t find that,” says Reichlen. – Not to say that we have many studies of pain syndromes in the muscles and joints of the Hadza people, but these people demonstrate high activity throughout their lives. With age, there is a certain decrease in activity, but it cannot be compared with what is seen in the United States. ”

The question is not how long we sit, but how exactly

Perhaps Scherer is right. Perhaps the problem with back pain is not related to how long Americans sit, but how they sit.“Yes, I think that’s a big part of the whole question,” says Reichlen.

Orthopedic surgeon Nomi Khan agrees with him. “Most of us are not sitting properly, and we are definitely overloading our spine,” says Khan, who performs spinal surgery at the Sutters Health Foundation in Palo Alto. Han says that if we change the way we sit, it will help us reduce back problems. “We have to sit less and we have to sit better,” he says.

Over the past hundred years, many Americans have lost the art of sitting, he says.Most people in the United States, even children, sit in one way that puts a lot of stress on their back. You may not be aware that you are doing this too. But in other people it is very easy to notice. It is done like this: look at a seated person from the side, in profile, so that you can see the shape of his spine.

Chances are good that his back is curving in the form of the letter C, or some kind of it. Or imagine sitting in a chair with a cashew nut. There are two characteristic signs of this – the shoulders of a person hang over the chest, and the priest sticks out forward.This position hurts the back, Khan says.

“Most people tend to round their backs while sitting,” says Khan. “Their spine is in the wrong position and they usually have more back problems.” Back problems pile up because when you sit in the C shape, or cashew nut, you can damage the small shock absorbers in your spine, the intervertebral discs.

“Think of a disc like this as a jam donut,” says Khan.”When you sit in a C shape, the front of the donut is squeezed harder than the back.” What happens if you press down on one half of the donut? The jam will be squeezed out.

Your intervertebral discs are similarly arranged. Sitting in the C shape over time leads to disc degeneration. Or, one side of the disc may begin to bulge. “The disc can then begin to press on the nerves, or burst,” says biomechanicist William Marras, director of the Spine Research Institute at Ohio University.

“If your drives are damaged, you’re in big trouble,” says Marras. “Therefore, in biomechanics, we do everything to protect the discs.”

Straighten “C”

In his studio, Scherer takes out a photograph of a gray-haired man sitting at a loom. He is at least 60 years old. “The photo was taken in the Indian state of Rajasthan,” says Scherer. – A person sits at a loom for many hours every day, just like we sit at a computer. And yet his spine is straightened. “

Straightened – that’s putting it mildly. His spine resembles an exclamation mark. His shoulders are pulled back. His muscles appear relaxed and flexible.

I have observed similar sitting postures in many other rural locations around the world — for example, in eastern Libya during the Ebola outbreak, and in the Yucatan countryside.

You don’t have to look deep into history to find a similar posture in the United States. Photographs and drawings from the early 20th century show many Americans sitting with their backs straight and shoulders laid back, in a similar manner to a person at a loom.Today this pose can be seen in infants and young children.

What happened?

Scherer says one problem is that our culture focuses on trying to fix the upper torso. “Sit up straight,” teachers and parents say, “and most people immediately begin to puff out their breasts.

But that’s not the right thing to do, says Scherer. “When they hear the word ‘spine,’ most people lift their breasts because they want to take the ‘right posture,’ she adds.“But when I see it, I want to say, ‘No! This leads to back pain. Lifting your chest will only make your back pain worse. ”

Instead of concentrating on the chest or shoulders, says Scherer, focus on the lower torso, below the waist, the pelvis. Simply put, on the ass.

“The most important thing to change to reduce back pain is the position of the pelvis,” she says. – Imagine a pyramid of children’s blocks. If the base of the pyramid is unreliable, its top has no chance. “

Pull the tail out to wag it

Sitting in Scherer’s studio, I look at my profile in the mirror. And immediately I see the shape of a cashew nut. It looks ugly. My shoulders hang over my chest and my pelvis is tucked under my spine.

To imagine how to move the pelvis correctly, Scherer suggests that you imagine that you have a tail. If we were built like dogs, the tail would be located at the base of the spine. “Sitting in the C position, you are sitting on the tail,” says Scherer. “It looks like a frightened dog with its tail between its legs.”To straighten the C pose, Scherer says, you need to “position your pelvis so you can wag your tail.” In other words, you need to pull the tail out from under you. To do this, Scherer says, it is necessary to bend correctly when we sit down.

“Bend? I ask. “Do I bend when I sit down?”

“Yes! – exclaims Scherer. “Every time we sit down, we bend somewhere.” And how you bend determines how you sit. If you bend at the lower back, like many Americans, then you will most likely sit in the C, or cashew.If you bend at the hips [at the hip joint], then you are more likely to sit correctly, not on the tail. “Many people find it difficult to figure out how to bend at the hips,” says Scherer. “It’s not intuitive.” But she has her own focus, helping people learn how to do it.

“Stand up and put your feet 30 cm apart,” she says. Now place your palms on your pubic bone – imagine a fig leaf covering Adam from the Bible. “When you bend over, that fig leaf – your pubic bone – has to pass between your legs,” she says.”It creates an angle between the pelvis and the legs.” This action, in fact, pushes the ass backwards, behind the spine. “Now come on, sit down,” says Scherer. Now my butt – or imaginary tail – is behind my spine.

The next step is to relax your back and chest muscles. “Stop pushing your chest out,” says Scherer. Then the rest of the vertebrae can line up in a straight line — I instead of C.

Most surprisingly, Scherer says, when the tail sticks out, some of the tense leg muscles begin to relax or stretch.“If you take out your pelvis while sitting, your quadriceps (quadriceps) muscles can relax and your hamstrings can stretch,” says Scherer.

I could definitely feel my quads relaxing. The muscles were like butter in a warm frying pan – they softened and melted, as it were. Oh yes, it was a wonderful feeling. “Wow!” I exclaimed, feeling a chill running through my body.

If you can’t feel the hamstrings stretch and your quads aren’t relaxing, you’re probably doing it wrong, Sherer says.“Then you’re probably using your lower back muscles to push your butt out,” she says. – This can lead to increased pain. Don’t do that. ”

How am I sitting now?

After leaving the Scherer studio, I realized that I had been sitting with my tail between my legs – my pelvis – for decades. And it wasn’t easy to get rid of it. I had to return to the Scherer studio several times and work actively every day to learn how to pull the basin out from under me while sitting at the table.

But little by little the muscles around the thighs began to relax, and the pain gradually disappeared.Having mastered a new sitting position, I decided to visit Khan and get his opinion. “Could you take a look at my pelvis and tell me what you think about the way I sit?” I asked the spine surgeon.

Khan stretched out his hand and placed it on the base of my spine, right on top of my pelvis. “You are sitting perfectly,” he said calmly. – You stick your butt back and create a curve at the bottom of your spine. If you sit this way, there will be less pressure on your spine and you will have fewer back problems. ”

As a nice addition to this, I feel like I am repeating the shape of Jennifer Lopez’s back: curved at the bottom and straight at the top.

Oleg Leushin: It’s incredibly interesting to take the audience by surprise

On November evening, the three of us – the actor of the Theater in the South-West Oleg Leushin, photographer Veronika Ignatova and journalist Marina Polyakova – met at a round table in a cozy theater cafe. What was conceived as an interview turned out to be a long conversation about everything: about the theater and the audience, about cinema, about the acting profession, about the complexities of human relationships …

V.I. Oleg, I cannot but admire your ability to instantly transform from one opposite to another, as they say, “from an angel to a demon and vice versa.” For example, your Van Helsing in Dracula is a very difficult creature. When he first appears in front of the audience, it seems – a real vampire! You look into those icy, inhuman eyes, growing cold with horror … And you understand that you are dragging you into the funnel of death, and you cannot not look – something transcendent, inexplicable beckons. In these eyes is the knowledge of another, other world.And ra-a-az! Second! He shrinks, takes out glasses from somewhere, transforms instantly, and before us is a sweet, charming, funny, eccentric professor. No less amazing reincarnations take place in Dostoevsky-trip, in Hamlet, in the same Caligula, in Suicide – from a sultry handsome gypsy, a thunderstorm of women’s hearts into a touching deaf-mute boy from the provinces. You do not have time to understand where this line is. A second – and in front of you is a completely different character. I look with all my eyes and cannot catch at what moment you rebuilt.
Oleg Leushin. Why “rebuilt”? These are all links in the same chain. There is charm in them, in these unexpected transitions, when the viewer is counting on one thing, and suddenly – wow, you! The theater should surprise, otherwise it will be boring.

V.I. And how is it possible to always play it differently, in a different way, within the framework of one image, to find in it a new depth, a new reading? Do you know in advance how your character will change?
Oleg Leushin . Well, how can you predict this? I don’t know what it will be like today.Each time it turns out not that spontaneously, but still depends on very, very many components. It always turns out differently, and cannot be fixed and repeated. I don’t like to play the same way, and I don’t like to go back to the past – forward, forward! As Woland says: “Why follow in the footsteps of what has already been experienced”? The same play, the same words, the same role, the same mise-en-scenes – but the performance is different! Different intonations, different views, different partners, your mood is different …

M.P. And another hall, another reaction …
Oleg Leushin.Yes, that’s always the case. We rehearse, we laugh, but still the actor’s laugh is not the audience’s. Our fun should be left for the skit. We are not in a flask, we do not have a fourth wall – everything happens there.

VI. There is no wall … But tell me, when you see that there are rustling in the hall, talking out loud, cracking a chocolate bar, playing with a mobile phone – does it unsettle you?
Oleg Leushin. Not anymore. And even, maybe, it gives some incentive. These are the costs of the profession.

VI.And yet, many theater actors take offense at this behavior of the audience.
Oleg Leushin. Well, this is already the first step to megalomania – I create, what are you doing? It means that you are not working well, since they are distracted by something else. Blame yourself.

VI. One of my favorite theater artists – one of those who know how to inspire others – once said with sadness: “I know very well what I can give people, but I understand that this is not in demand in our cinema now. And in this situation, I prefer to be peat for the next generations. “Personally, as a spectator, I would very much like such actors to be in full demand – actors capable of inspiring others.
Oleg Leushin. That’s what the theater is for, and that’s great.

MP. Why then do you go to the cinema?
Oleg Leushin. And I do not go to the cinema, I very rarely act in films. When you come there, you try to invest a part of yourself, to penetrate into something. Not just – ah! learned the text, go ahead! Camera! motor! filmed! Maybe one more time? Enough, filmed! A continuous stream of serial.People climb from one series to another – how do you manage to accumulate something in yourself?

MP. That is, there, in this modern “seriality” – another form of existence?
Oleg Leushin. Another. As one person said to me: “If you have to play loud and fast in the theater, then in the cinema – just fast” … No, and still I’m lucky – I also had a job in a two-part film, namely the movie “Farewell, Doctor Freud! ” directed by Marina Migunova, and also had a chance to act in the historical film-saga directed and producer Alexei Pimanov “Behind the Kremlin Wall”.Pimanov gathered us actors, said what he wanted to see, rehearsed with us. Producer – rehearsed! But this is still that producer – which are few. To understand what you are doing and why, while still understanding the profession of both the actor and the director – such a rarity now in the cinema! I think I was very lucky to work with such masters, albeit not for long. For me, cinema is a kind of cover. You can, you can already “thin out” your repertoire in the theater, because they call me, and where – he is busy all the time! There are roles in which it is no longer interesting to look for anything, new ones have appeared, but you have to return to the old ones … But it is necessary, this is a repertory theater.

MP. Can you tell us about the film “Private Detective”?
Oleg Leushin. Well, this is a pure show. True, now a new fashion is to say “serial cinema”. Each episode is a separate story, but there are also cross-cutting characters, so I am one of such “pass-throughs” – I play the role of the main character’s boyfriend. I don’t know what happened. I tried, to be honest. But no matter how hard you try, it feels like this is a different kind of art. They want something wrong from you.

MP. Do you feel the frivolity of the mission?
Oleg Leushin.So far, yes. Although there is experience, you understand – do not bother with your face, do not shout too much, then they will stick together the whole super task for you. But to be honest – I want to act, I want to! Sitting and closing in one form of art – why? So I went to the same Theater on the Fontanka – in general I go to the theater very rarely, so often I am on one side of the ramp that there is simply no desire to get on the other – but I went, it turned out to be a day off in St. Petersburg. A wonderful performance! One of Ostrovsky’s rarely seen plays “The Marriage of Belugin”, directed by Spivak.It turns out that it is possible to exist in a different way, there are other directions, themes, schools in the theater. It is so impressive and mesmerizing! I sat for three hours, forgot that Ostrovsky is considered “boring” – no, he is very interesting, such pitfalls, such a psychology, almost our Russian native Shakespeare. Study of the Russian soul. I even saw some professional things for myself. Of course, I like to watch performances just as a spectator, but the eye is not the same, sometimes the “counter” turns on, you involuntarily calculate some things.Well – the costs of the profession. But on Ostrovsky there were moments when I became just a spectator, rejoiced at everything, clapped, shouted “bravo”, even regretted that I had not bought flowers. Although I understand – flower artists do not eat! And don’t drink! (laughs)

MP. What should I give you?
Oleg Leushin. No, it’s still beautiful – you come home, and they are standing, I-yat, the whole table is busy – such, such, all kinds!

VI. Is it more pleasant to receive flowers from strangers, or from your own?
Oleg Leushin.From all of us. And from strangers – even more so! Well, what does “strangers” mean? They have come, which means they are already mine, practically dear ones. If they withstood all this for three hours, and did not leave, and did not throw a tomato at you, and even give flowers! What kind of strangers are they? Not their own get up and leave in the middle of the act.

MP. Leave !?
Oleg Leushin. Anything can happen. Wrong door, well, so what? A person has a different perception of the world, art, and let him go to the Maly Theater, it’s also great there. And it’s impossible to please everyone, who should you be? This only happens in some ideal world, and it is very boring.

MP. An ideal viewer lives in an ideal world … Do you have an ideal viewer? Should he perceive the theater on a sensual level, or, on the contrary, analyze it?
Oleg Leushin. (long pause) I don’t know. Cannot be classified. Why do I need this ideal spectator? Boring. He’s always so different. Here, now there will be “The Inspector General” – such a spectator will come! From grandmothers to those who are too lazy to read – but it is necessary! From, spectr, from, spectator! It’s like one organism, all together, and it cannot be divided – which kidney do you like best? The spectator is a living organism, and what is on the stage is also a living organism.And when the fusion occurs – just the head of Professor Dowell! – they put it on, and took root, and survived for three hours, and then excites both the actors and the audience for a long time! We come to play, and they come and play too – watching! The whole world is acting. We are born and we begin to play …

MP. You said you looked the audience in the eye, right?
Oleg Leushin. Often. Especially when the lights in the hall are turned on …

MP. Yes, like in Caligula. Suddenly – light into the hall, and you sit – as if naked! Blinded!
Oleg Leushin.How do you want? The audience came, paid money for this kind of masochism. For this very thing! And it’s incredibly interesting to take them by surprise. Someone completely surrenders to you, begins to interact with you … Beauty!

VI. And the hall is designed so that you can’t hide behind a neighbor’s back.
Oleg Leushin. No, you can’t really reach those who are on the side, but the central sector is yes!

MP. And besides, when the light turns on, you see yourself in the mirror at the back of the stage …
Oleg Leushin.And this is one of the jokes of our theater and Valery Romanovich Belyakovich. All here? Oops, yeah! And in “Caligula” and in “The Master …” the same thing. Even when it’s dark, you look for a specific viewer in the hall – here in The Inspector General I do this, I appeal to the viewers of the first or second row.

MP. And if there is a peasant with a “glass” look, he is not interested in anything. Will it knock you off the “wave”?
Oleg Leushin. No! I’ll try to scrape it out of there. Do not want? Okay, free! Next! As Romeo and Juliet says: “Why look for someone who does not want to be found?” I still have a hundred and twenty people.There is a famous story about Nemirovich-Danchenko and about the actors of the Moscow Art Theater. They were playing some kind of play, and Nemirovich was sitting in the hall, and from time to time he would do: “Khm-khm-khm,” with a stone face. After the performance, the actors approach him: “Vladimir Ivanovich, didn’t you like it?” She replies with surprise: “Why didn’t you like it? I liked it very much, I even laughed! ” So who knows what’s going on inside the viewer? We had an amazing experience in Toulouse on tour. There we played “Marriage” (five performances) for the French-speaking audience, in Russian with French words interspersed, there were subtitles.All five performances were attended by a little man in glasses, curly, dark, with a prickly, evil look. He didn’t laugh, didn’t react in any way, just sat and watched. If he didn’t like it, why did he come to all five performances?

MP. Now I think – how much I have lost! They told me a lot about your theater, but for ten years I never got here.
Oleg Leushin. Yes, this happened here in its time … Many of those who started with Valery Romanovich are no longer there. Irreplaceable losses – Viktor Avilov, for example … Some spectators even stopped walking.Because the theater is the people who live in it at the moment. There are, of course, some established traditions and style.

MP. It seems to me that this style is a collision of history and modernity. Your theater has very modern images and characters.
Oleg Leushin. Well, how? And at that time the same people lived.

MP. But if we return to the question of what is done with the audience at the Theater in the South-West. Are there some things that you shouldn’t do with the audience, feelings that shouldn’t be awakened?
Oleg Leushin.I think there is no limit. If it does not border on vulgarity and tastelessness. Well, there are, for example, nude theaters. I myself have not seen it, only reports on TV. But how is it done? It didn’t go well, it’s delicious. I do not like vulgarity in the theater, and I consider it unlawful to instill it in the audience. What feelings cannot be awakened? Aggression. In no way. And if I play characters like Caligula, I first of all try to show that he is suffering, tormented … let’s call him “human.” The conversation is not about a walking body, but about a soul.I read here on the forum – to the question of good and evil – they say, Van Helsing and his entire team are killing Dracula and Mina at the very moment when they feel good, when they are connected. This means that people simply did not understand the performance. They only felt good after they were killed! And the whole performance I repeat about the repose of the soul, and not about this mortal shell. This is a very important point.

MP. Why am I asking all this …
Oleg Leushin. By the way, yes?

MP. How and what should be shown to the viewer? That’s why there is “striptease” in Caligula?
Oleg Leushin.And there is no striptease … Is the scene when Caligula, lowering his trousers on the go, goes to rape his senator’s wife – is it a striptease? I do not think so. This is a director’s move that enhances the effect produced on the viewer. So the question can be addressed to the director. We must not forget that we have too few ways to show that we, the artists, are free – just me, partners, light, music and a minimum of scenery. No, it never jarred me. When everything is justified by the situation … Moreover, everything happens so lightning fast …

MP.That is, it should not be perceived as indulging in instincts, as flirting with the audience?
Oleg Leushin. Far from it! Then I would have done it differently, I would have relished for about ten minutes, that would have been a striptease! And I think it would not be completely disgusting. And so – everything happens already on the stairs, at the end – if someone did not understand, so he went to do this. Yesterday I watched a program about Natalia Gundareva, talked about her, about life, about creativity and showed a small excerpt from the film “Wounded” – the boy eats soup, eats it up, licks a plate, puts the remaining piece of bread and says: “I have had enough, I just have a drop “.What is the actress doing? She mixes the soup in a saucepan, slowly picks it up into a ladle, pours it back into the pan, concentrates our attention on this for a long time and, finally, with the bottom of the ladle “pyk!” on a plate – a drop fell … Here is about the same. Caligula prepares everyone for a long time: “Caesonia? No-no … Muzio? Muzio … I’m going … to your wife … ”And only a moment to explain why he goes to Muzia’s wife. Here! Not convinced?

MP. Why not?

VI. Remember when we talked about the role of the Cherubim in Dolls? As Oleg plays a platonic lover – there is not an ounce of sexuality in him, the actor does not cross this line – only what is justified by the role.
Oleg Leushin. So that’s the whole point! And the Cherubim says: “O torment – the desire for the impossible!” This was not originally included in it. Only external imitation and that’s it. And this is a tragedy not only of the Cherubim, but of every doll, there is a desire – there is no possibility. Of course, you can play such a Cherubim! But I’m still a fan of separating images. Each has its own core and its own starting point. Otherwise, you will be the same everywhere, then what is the beauty of the theater? And each time, the more characters there are, the harder and harder it is to find this starting point … I don’t want to repeat myself, right? Naturally, the arms and legs are the same, the voice is the same, plastic.But here’s the beauty – to keep yourself within these rigid limits in every role! And I notice that each next role imperceptibly imprints on the previous ones. And this is the scariest moment. You are looking for something new for yourself, suddenly – something from the already played comes out. No, stop-stop-stop, this is from another show, take it back to the shelf. Today you have Hamlet, here he is, look in him. Expand the corridor, but don’t go outside the walls.

MP. You play Hamlet or Caligula once a month.What happens to the role this month?
Oleg Leushin. What’s happening? She lives. Together with me. No, I don’t sit and don’t think: “Here I have Hamlet in a month, what would be there …” But she already lives on her own, sits there (points to the back of her head), wanders, rattles. I have such a manner – before each performance, read the text of the role, not in a tongue twister – but, I haven’t forgotten the words, let’s go! No, to see the letters – one day, preferably before the performance. So I open my role – everything is marked, underlined, some transitions are written down – and there is all the energy.First, they gave me the text of a certain scene, then they changed everything at the rehearsal, I crossed out everything, corrected, noted, and then a specially trained girl retypes everything clean and brings it to me – I throw it out right away! Here it is, my role – everything is written in my hand, so much has been invested in it, here I understand everything. I cannot refuse it. You just take it in your hands – and you already vibrate in the mood in which you will go on stage, with the baggage accumulated for previous performances.

MP.You read a lot of literature “around” the role. What are you looking for in it – a reconstruction of historical events, something else? And do not other people’s interpretations of the image of your hero interfere with you?
Oleg Leushin. No, I don’t take everything for myself. Analysis is in progress, a lot of serious work. Then, there is also the motivation of actions, character traits, some historical facts (as for Caligula, for example). You need to know everything in order for this person to learn more or less alive, and not as a puppet that utters words with due fervor.I need to understand what could have been the impetus, the reason for his actions, what opinions exist about the character. The more you learn of this for yourself, the easier it will be for yourself to choose what to weed out, what to leave. What if then something “shoots”?

MP. But Caligula Tranquilla and Caligula Camus are different things. Do I need to read existential philosophers to play a play by Camus?
Oleg Leushin. First of all, you need to play a living person, with living deeds, and you can put any philosophy you want.This is the business of the critics, and you play live! And the more it will be understandable to the viewer. Another thing is that the energy vector can then be turned in any direction, to make different accents. There would be basic points that you can rely on.

MP. And those you have already played, do they somehow stay with you?
Oleg Leushin. For some reason, they are always approaching this problem from the wrong side. I play a role, I get out of myself what is in me, I leave an imprint on the role, and not she on me.If on the contrary – this is already a clinic!

VI. And everything you play is in you?
Oleg Leushin. Of course! I get it out of myself, not out of anyone. I’m not making it up. If I thought about it, began to puff up and play, but there is nothing like that in me, then – poofrrr! – everything will burst like a balloon.

VI. And how much is all mixed up in you?
Oleg Leushin. As much as in you and in anyone. It’s just that not every part of his soul is used by a person. Therefore, it is not the role that affects me, but I, if it is different – to be treated, treated and treated! (laughs) Caligula put an imprint on you – that’s it, goodbye.What distinguishes a madman from a normal one is that he has a narrow range of perception, straightforward. Why should I impoverish myself and remain in one image?

VI. Where do you get that charge of energy that you give to the audience every evening?
Oleg Leushin. Who knows where it comes from? From life itself, from the audience. They also throw beams of energy at me! It’s such a ricochet – it flew off, mixed up, covered you! There is a lot of energy around us – how many generations have thrown it away!

VI.When a person is so open on stage, he is defenseless in front of any energy, and from the audience there is not always a positive one.
Oleg Leushin. It bounces off immediately. Too much protection. My own positive charge.

VI. Can I teach you how you play?
Oleg Leushin. Yes, you can learn anything. But there is the concept of “profession” – this is the base. And there is also some kind of “superstructure”, everyone sculpts it himself. It seems to me that this cannot be taught. After all, there are a lot of actors who play, create, and you look – something is imperceptibly missing.Doesn’t catch on. But a professional! So it would be better to learn, as he knows how, what moves are interesting, but somehow everything here (holds his hand in front of him), does not go deeper. The top of the profession is so individual!

MP. Charisma is not brought up …
Oleg Leushin. Charisma … I do not like this word. Kharizma (laughs), oh, he has such a charisma!

MP. A convenient term, it is difficult to replace it with something. Charm is a less capacious word.

VI.Yes, many have stage charm, but here is something else. Maybe the ability not only to fly, but also to inspire others.

MP. Speaking of flying, this is not just a metaphor, you really seem to be flying around the stage (in The Inspector General, for example). How do you keep fit?
Oleg Leushin. I try to hold on. I have an exercise bike at home, and I also have a jump rope and a hoop. This summer, while on vacation, I worked out – went to the gym and the pool.

MP.And in the theater there is an opportunity for everyone to train together – after all, there is so much movement, dancing in the performances?
Oleg Leushin. There is no opportunity, there is no room. When we have a new theater, then all the conditions will be there … Probably.

MP. Something I remembered such a joke test – how many seconds on one leg you will stand with your eyes closed, such is your inner, not biological age. And what is it like with you? How old do you feel? (Oleg Leushin checks – he stands on one leg for a long time, eyes closed).
Oleg Leushin. Probably twenty-five years. At least with regard to the attitude. You know a lot, but not all. And, nevertheless, although you have learned a lot, you look at the world with wide open eyes. However, a little bit and in a snake-like way, wisely – and, well, well, we know this, we know … He grew up, graduated from school, served in the army, unlearned at the institute, already passed something, but still want a lot.

VI. And what do you want most of all?
Oleg Leushin. Remain needed. As long as you need it, you live.When you stop being needed, it’s a disaster. And, unfortunately, the theater is such a cruel thing … Not needed – tu-oo-oo!

VI. Can you imagine yourself in a quiet, calm old age?
Oleg Leushin. No. Why think about it?

VI. That is, you live for one moment and do not plan anything?
OL. Such a thankless task! Life always makes its own adjustments. And it’s stupid to regret the past.

VI. Are you afraid of anything?
Oleg Leushin. Well, how not to be afraid, every person is afraid of something.But fear must be overcome. This is even a physiological process – when your pulse quickens, the temperature rises and something sweet, sweetly shakes under the spoon. And it’s very important to deal with this.

VI. But look, as soon as all emotions: fear, envy, jealousy enter you, then it is very difficult to fight them. And it’s easier to keep out.
Oleg Leushin. Words, words, words … let me in – did not let me in …. It lives in everyone, it is given. Another thing is how much you cope with it.Don’t let it loose – that’s another question. All the time, on the other hand, we go, comrades, let’s take a look at the root (I am not affirming the ultimate truth, this is my opinion). You need to understand – what is the cause and what is the effect.

MP. You had to make a scientific career, you have an analytical mind!

VI. Logic, logic. Maybe it’s not too late? You will meet old age by famous scientists. Think! From artists to scientists.
Oleg Leushin. I think so all the time.And you can’t combine in any way? (laughs)

VI. Oleg, you are extremely open on stage, the energy just hits the audience … Are you also open in life?
Oleg Leushin. What is openness? Here you are, my energy column – absorb! And everything that is in me is my personal business, the mystery of my existence, my soul, and I don’t want to admit anyone there. Words are just words, shaking of air. Is this openness? It is in actions, only in actions.

MP.Probably, the point is in this postulate: “I hate the crowd and love people.” When you come close to a person, when you distinguish him from the crowd, then only openness appears. But it is very important and scary to make this move …
Oleg Leushin. Very correct. And it is also important to understand in time, if you have already taken this step, how important political correctness is (a stupid word, but I recently fell in love with it). Approached a person – you don’t need to get into him! A person wants to – he will open himself and give everything away.You cannot torment him with questions. Silence – let him be silent. He will speak himself, if he wants, he will never miss it. You, me, he have something personal … We will not push them together and break them. Let’s go softly, warmly! The beautiful word “political correctness” …

MP: And most importantly, fashionable.
Oleg Leushin. I was so jarred to say it on stage on behalf of Van Helsing, and now I like it.

MP. No-no, there, Van Helsing is very good at everything: “Politically correct attitude to nightmares” … It is the gluing of the rational term “political correctness” and the completely irrational, terrible, deep word “nightmares” that is very beautiful.

VI. But for me it is still a mystery – how do you manage to pronounce such a difficult text so that the people listen with bated breath. Everything is based on feeling. And the words actually go like a background – the viewer clearly perceives not words, but energy.
Oleg Leushin. Well, the text is not fiction, written by a film critic – what do you want? Pulled out of the Internet and put into the mouth of the hero. All of Van Helsing’s great monologues are from the Internet text. This is even indicated in the program.The critic wrote an anthology of the image of Dracula in film art. But theater is, first of all, emotions and energy, and words – then. They are a way of presentation, something from the “how?” When words only help you – like music, like a mise-en-scene, and behind them there is something more important, and you can feel it. This is the miracle of the theater.

Marina Polyakova • newspaper MOSCOW-CENTER, December 14, 2005, No. 49 • December 14, 2005

History of emotions – analytical portal POLIT.RU

We are publishing the transcript of Andrey Zorin’s public lecture “The Story of Emotions”, which took place on June 10 at the Bilingua club.In our opinion, Zorin’s lecture fits well with the concept of public lectures, since the author presented the concept of a work that had not yet been implemented, that is, he was at the point of reflection, and did not present the already formalized result. The very fact that the lecturer decided to implement feedback in a “profane” (mostly) audience indicates that the academic environment has an interest (and, perhaps, a need) to present his own work to the non-professional community, which , in our opinion, provides more opportunities for both sides.Including this, by the way, was the previous lecture from our series.

As for the reaction of the “profane” audience, Zorin’s lecture was sold out. And regardless of whether it was associated with an attempt to pragmatize and use the lecturer’s knowledge in his own activities, or scientific knowledge is interesting to the audience in itself (questions to the lecturer demonstrate both attitudes), a full house speaks of interest in “other” knowledge and other ideas.Therefore, despite the fact that the lecturer pointed out the connection between his own lecture and his own works about ideology, we would not like in our commentary to drag out the material of this lecture on the “ideological field”, suggesting that this scientific discourse may be interesting in itself. outside the attempt to appropriate it by political discourse.

Previous lectures:

Alexey Levinson “Biography and Sociography”

Yuri Schmidt “Judicial reform: successes and failures”

Alexander Auzan “Economic foundations of civil institutions”

Simon Kordonsky “Social reality of modern Russia”

Sergey Selyanov “Fairy tales, plots and scenarios of modern Russia”

Vitaliy Naishul “The history of the reforms of the 90s and its lessons”

Yuri Levada “Soviet Man”

Oleg Genisaretsky “Project and Tradition in Russia”

Makhmut Gareev “Russia in the wars of the twentieth century”

Emotion Story

Lecture text and discussion

Zorin. The topic of the lecture, which sounds quite eccentric, partly belongs to Dmitry Solomonovich Itskovich, to whom I explained what I want to tell you about, and he decided that we would call it like this. Well, well, well, well, well, well.

I don’t see any colleagues here, or almost don’t see who were present at my lecture at the Russian anthropological school. I apologize in advance, I will try to repeat as little as I can, but since the general concept is the same, it will not do without repetition at all.

I have to start with a whole series of prefaces, and in a sense, my entire message today will be a preface. One big preface, made up of many smaller prefaces. I would like to take this opportunity to share with you a project that is not only in unfinished but still far from being halfway through – about 15% has been done, maybe more, maybe less. In any case, this is exactly the stage of work at which feedback is especially needed in order to clearly understand where you are going and what you are doing.

Today my message has an epigraph from Joseph Brodsky’s poem “Dedicated to Yalta”. There, the lady who is being testified on the case of the murder says: “As long as we think that we are unique, we do not know anything. Horror, horror ”. This is the first preface.

The second preface is partly autobiographical or scientifically autobiographical in nature, it is related to where the intellectual problematic, which I am going to occupy you with for the next 40-45 minutes, came from.The previous book, which I worked on and completed several years ago, was devoted to the history of state ideology. While studying these subjects, both in the course of work and at the end of it – evaluating what was done by me and what was not done by me, I came across a number of very specific difficulties. The first of them consisted in the fact that when I began to approach the problems of the history of ideologies, I worked with a conceptual and conceptual apparatus, mainly borrowed from the field of intellectual history: where did it come from, what predecessors, what new ideas, what combinations of old ideas, what combinations, which contexts, which intellectual means, which conclusions, etc.d.

Very soon, in fact, having completed only one plot of that work, I felt that I was at a dead end. Since it is quite clear that, unlike philosophy, the history of ideas, and everything else, no original intellectual product is created in the history of ideologies. The original intellectual product created in the history of ideologies is essentially secondary in nature, and it is clear that if even the most successful ideological models are judged by the criteria by which some original ideas are judged, something is wrong.I began to look for a way out of this impasse. It seemed to me that I found it (those who have seen my book know this) – in the ideas of the American anthropologist Clifford Geertz, who saw ideology as a metaphor, as a system of metaphors. And then I tried to analyze, something worked out for me, something didn’t work out.

So I’ve been doing this for nine years. When I finished my work and the book was published, I saw that maybe there was a product, but I never got to the heart of the problem.Because it is obvious that the most important thing in the ideological matrix, in the ideological model, in the ideological metaphor is not how it is produced (I wrote exclusively about this), but is how it is consumed. How she is perceived, how she lives, what she does with a person, why people are willing to sacrifice something for this, etc. Towards the end of my work on a very lengthy book, I realized that I knew nothing about it. I tried to continue this work in the next stage and, since I thought of ideological systems as literary texts, as metaphors, I stumbled into the problem of emotional reaction.How groups of people react to ideology. This is not only an individual emotion, it is a group emotion, which, at the same time, is experienced by each member of this group and this society in a deeply individual and personal way, forcing him to perform personal actions.

Having done this, I unexpectedly came to the conclusion that, in fact, there is nothing specific in the reaction to ideology, and first I would have to think about how this field of emotional reaction is arranged in general, as a whole.Not from the point of view of psychology – mountains and tons of works have been written about this, which, by necessity, have to be read, and I do not at all claim any competence in this area, but from the point of view of the history of culture and partly the semiotics of culture. What does semiotics have to do with it, I will explain a little later.

The most fundamental paradox of a person’s emotional reaction to a particular incident (I would not even call it a paradox, maybe I would speak of it as a property, characteristic) is that, on the one hand, every emotional reaction is experienced as deeply spontaneous, it arises instantly, it is an emotional outburst, it is an acute reaction to an immediate event, and, secondly, as something deeply personal.People have different emotions, but each person, more or less, knows about his emotion, that, firstly, it is sudden, immediately occurs and, secondly, it is HIS emotion, and not someone else’s, not someone’s someone else’s.

This very strong, very deeply rooted in a person self-awareness, with which a person lives, is in contradiction with also obvious facts. First, emotion is highly predictable. A person knows how he will react and what his emotions will be in a given situation.There are surprises, it cannot be said that a person cannot surprise himself. You can say that I thought I would be upset, but I, on the contrary, feel relief. It could be. But this means that the stereotype that we had did not work. Something else worked. But we still had him. We knew in advance how we would react to something. It was known. Although in reality this knowledge of ours, as often happens with any knowledge, turned out to be incorrect. But still, the idea of ​​predictability, the idea that you know how to react, is in the person.A person somehow knows how he will react to certain events and how, generally speaking , with certain reservations that can then be introduced, they are supposed to react to them. Although we are talking about a deeply emotional, intimate experience.

The second point, in addition to predictability, is the extreme repetition of emotional reactions. Of course, there is individual variation within one society and one social group. It may be great, but we roughly understand how people of the same type, of the same circle, of the same social impressions will react to something.Not to mention the well-observed examples of spontaneous collective emotion. A goal was scored during a football match – and we see the same emotion immediately engulfing tens of thousands of people. Depending on which team of the two players they are rooting for, they experience an absolutely understandable emotion. Each one is absolutely spontaneous – a goal was scored right now, in front of his eyes, and each one is deeply individual. Nevertheless, we see its clear collective expression, we can easily describe it, we know what it is, etc.d.

There is, relatively speaking, a psychological approach to the emotional life of a person, which I am not going to deny. I’m not going to oppose my approach to him and say that it is wrong. It’s just that each scientific discipline has its own conceptual apparatus. I will also refer to some of the works of psychologists. But this is the idea that there is a person as an anthropological being with a set of pre-prepared emotions, and their difference is explained mainly by individual variability, to a large extent also hereditarily encoded.There, the doctrine of temperaments also arises: people of different temperaments, so they react in different ways. I absolutely do not want to refute such a construction. First of all, I am not qualified to refute it.

But it can be done differently. You need to imagine a set of emotions that a person has, as a kind of repertoire that is in front of him, from which he chooses what he knows and what he identifies as love, jealousy, fear, joy, grief, etc.e. He knows what kind of emotional repertoire he owns. He knows what a given emotional repertoire means, he knows in what cases and what parts of this emotional inventory he should use, and this knowledge is predominantly cultural in nature. A person learns this thanks to the existing forms of cultural education.

One more preface – the same range of questions, but somewhat from the other side. I think that many of you here – probably the majority – are familiar with Lotman’s classic writings on the theory of literary behavior.I will not name their titles now, they are known to everyone. They were first published in the 70s, about 25-30 years ago. Lotman traced how people behave on the basis of literary patterns, how they perform actions dictated by literary patterns, and took the next step – he suggested building a typology of cultures on the basis of in which cultures literary behavior is effective, and in which cultures it fades into the background giving way to other types of behavior. The very analysis of literary behavior in Lotman’s works: analysis of the behavior of the Decembrists, Potemkin, Radishchev, etc.- they are brilliant, like everything or almost everything that this author did. This is a classic that has gone into circulation, which is repeatedly referred to and about which they write and talk. This is something that has already become so much the flesh of scientific knowledge that one can write about it without referring to Lotman.

But, nevertheless, this approach generally leaves out a number of important questions. Which ones? Again, I must make a reservation that this is not a reproach to Lotman that he did not see something. Some questions can be asked, some questions can be answered within the framework of scientific analysis, only when you leave a large number of questions overboard.It is impossible to try to answer all the questions at once. Nevertheless, the moment comes when it is necessary to begin, if not to answer them, then at least to ponder them. What are these questions? Lotman brilliantly showed how people behave according to literary models, but the question arises: why do they behave this way? Why do adults, rational, sane people so defiantly fail to see the difference between literature and life and are ready to carry out some schemes and prescriptions in life, to implement the patterns they read in books? What does this even mean? What is the reason for this strange behavior?

This is a significant question that raises the question of what is the mechanics of this literary behavior.What is actually happening, what is it based on, how is it being implemented. Lotman did not answer these questions, did not pose them, did not think about them, at least in his published works, quite consciously. In this sense, he inherited the formalist tradition, formalists in the 1920s, as a protest against psychological literary criticism, said that one should not talk about the psychology of Anna Karenina, because Anna Karenina is words on paper, it is a certain set of names attached to a person, and she has no psychology, it is part of a literary work.I am not discussing how correct this thesis is, but it was, of course, deeply comprehended. However, that trick, that move, which Lotman carried out with tremendous force, namely the transfer of formalist analysis from literary texts to historical characters, when he began to analyze Radishchev, the Decembrists, adventurers of the XIX century and many others, as was customary in the past to analyze heroes literary works, on the one hand, he did great and strong, but, on the other hand, it removes this argument.Still, Potemkin or Medox – if you name the heroes Lotman wrote about – are not signs on paper. These are some people who somehow behaved themselves, thought something at the same time, wanted something, set some goals for themselves.

Significantly narrowing the scope stated at the beginning, I would say that, in my opinion, it seems possible not to say to replace (and it would be foolish to say to replace), but to supplement Lotman’s concept of literary behavior with the concept of literary experience, an emotional reaction arranged in compliance with some codified standards and some kind of behavior matrices.

One example, very particular, almost anecdotal, so that it would be clearer what I am talking about. It is not mine and is taken from the works of the wonderful American psychologist Theodore Sorbin, one of the very few psychologists who, from the other side, work in the same cultural and semantic direction in which I try to work from the side of history. Sorbin – if there is time, then it will still be necessary to refer to him and his examples – in this case he describes a police chronicle.An American worker was taken to a police station after he knocked another worker on the assembly line with him on the head with a wrench. They began to ask him what actually happened and why he did it. He said that he made an indecent gesture to him, and he completely lost his head, was beside himself with rage, lost control, feeling splashed out of him, and he had to hit him on the head with a wrench, because he was beside himself.

Assuming that this is true, there is nothing absolutely implausible about it.This is so plausible that it is easy to assume that it is true. This outburst of emotional reaction, in Russian, is most accurately defined as rage, instantaneous, completely spontaneous – and half a second did not pass between the provocation and the action already passed through the emotional network, and this person who committed the crime was personally insulted. At the same time, what a powerful layer of cultural ideas completely determines this emotional series. On the one hand, the gesture made by the victim had to be identified as indecent.One should know that this is an indecent gesture, one should be able to read it as a personal insult . That this is an insult addressed to you personally. After that, you should have known that this insult inflicted on you personally is washed off with blood. The next knowledge – just as fundamental – is how it is washed away with blood. In Russian noble culture, gestures would be different: throwing a glove, challenging to a duel, and so on. It has its own gestural strategy of flushing with blood – grabbing a wrench and hitting it in the head – more brutal and shocking, perhaps, than a challenge to a duel, but no less culturally complex and reflective.

In this case, we see in the grain an incredible conflict between the extreme primitiveness of the emotion itself and the enormous cultural complexity that stands behind it and is realized in one second. To some extent, if we quote yet another great Russian poet, we can say that Pasternak’s formula “the more accidentally, the more true” is at work here. He said this about poetry. That is, the more spontaneous, uncontrollable, absurd, and spilling out one or another emotional reaction, the deeper the thickness of cultural representations from which it grew and which are realized in it.

So, one more introduction. It is a question of the emotion experienced by a person and its linguistic design. It is quite clear that we judge emotions partly by gestures, but mainly by words: a person talks about what he feels, he calls it somehow. He says: I was beside myself, I was furious, I was frightened. Calls his feelings: jealousy, love, fear, despair, hope. There are some words with the help of which all this is determined. Being quite far away, I read a lecture on the Internet given here by Vitaly Nayshul, who, with his characteristic brilliance, argued that everything is determined by words.The social structure is determined by the verbal fabric, if we choose the right words, then society will immediately get on its feet, and everything will settle down, and the whole problem is that we do not know what to call certain social phenomena, and because of this we wander in the dark. Generally speaking, this is a widespread theory that goes back to the well-known linguistic hypothesis of Sapir-Whorf. I will not retell what it consists of – who knows, he knows, who does not know, he will find out. In modern linguistics, it is very active, including with great reliance on the language of emotional reflection, writes the Polish-Australian linguist Anna Vezhbitska, whose works have also been recently translated into Russian.She very convincingly, within the framework of her argumentation, builds a structure where she shares the concept of the cultural nature of emotional reactions. Reading Vezhbitska, it is clear: she thinks that this is 100% true, but does not dare to say, therefore she makes minor reservations, admits the existence of other factors that she does not stipulate, but basically defines the emotion in the native language of the person. A set of emotions is recorded in the language matrix. The word “melancholy” cannot be translated into English, the word envy does not have an exact translation in Russian, like the word Angst, etc.Emotional matrices are imposed on a person by the language, and he experiences them from the point of view of the language. Very nice. The works of Vezhbitskaya, dedicated to the proof of this thesis, are exquisite to the point of singularity and very effective.

Immediately and with all certainty I must say that nothing in my research confirms this point of view. I see no evidence of this position. Of course, language cannot be discounted, this is an important factor, but, in my opinion, is far from decisive.First of all, we must pay tribute to the place where we are, and firmly say that there are cases of bilingualism. There are bilinguals, no matter what they say. We are sitting here and we know it for sure. Accordingly, the question arises how they feel. From the point of view of the theory of Wierzbicka or Whorf-Wierzbicka, there is no answer at all to this question. Vezhbitska is not so naive as not to understand that such a question can be asked, she always answers that a person’s language is still native. So he kind of cleverly speaks two, three, as many languages ​​as you want, but some of them are native to him.This is not so, bilingual people think in different languages ​​at different times in life, as is well known. But bilinguals are still a limited number in our reality.

Second, and even more important, is the speed of language change. Vezhbitska allows changes, she says that new words appear, etc., they arise and define new feelings that arise. But the rate of change of language is, of course, negligible. The language changes slowly, everyone knows this too, much slower in comparison with the rate of change of emotional matrices, which are changing incomparably faster.Not to mention – and every person knows this for sure, he just knows it about himself – that although his native language, which he speaks throughout his life, remains more or less the same, his ability, the way to feel, assortment of feelings, etc. change.

Not to mention the fact that in one linguistic community there are different social groups. If we take the 18th century, which is close to me for professional reasons, we will see that all the European nobility speaks French, but their native languages ​​are, nevertheless, different.Their ways of emotionally experiencing those or other phenomena are incomparably closer to each other than they and representatives of other social groups of the same society. Pushkin showed this remarkably. Generally speaking, it would be worthwhile to read sometime a lecture on the topic “Pushkin as a Cultural Anthropologist”, he remarkably, felt all these things well. And, quoting “Eugene Onegin”, we can all say much better than I am trying to do it today.

What else would I like to say? For my own purposes, completely heuristic, I sometimes refer to the works of Dutch psychologists Nicholas Fried and Bachimos Kvit (I transliterate from Dutch as best I can, because I do not know this language; if anyone knows, then I ask for advice, did not errors in transliteration) and use their schema of emotion structure.I use it not because there is no other – there are dozens of them, and not because I know that it is better than others – for this judgment, as I said, I lack the qualifications, but simply because it suits me better. I would love to draw or show it to you, but since there is neither a screen nor a board, I will have to wave my hands. But the scheme is simple, so it will not be difficult for the audience to imagine it. How do they describe the structure of emotions?

An event happened. The first thing a person has to do in response to this event is what they call emotional encoding.That is, you understand what it is: it is danger, insult, joy, etc. You must emotionally encode this phenomenon. The next step is evaluation. After you understand that it is (“understood” is the wrong word, better is felt), you emotionally evaluate it, whether it is good for you or bad, how it relates to you, etc. Further, the fork from the assessment branches into two sides, and what is called a physiological reaction arises – a person turns red, turns pale, takes flight, sweats, his hair stands on end, his eyes roll, he faints.And also what is called a readiness for action. You run, attack, throw your arms up, scream, whistle, rush to kiss – whatever. This is a vertical column.

But there are two horizontal ones. All these phenomena – and emotional coding, and assessment, and readiness for action with a physiological reaction – are determined by two factors, as it were, located on the side. One of these factors is called the English word concern – this is (pass towards Vezhbitskaya) a word that cannot be translated into Russian.I translated it by the phrase “personal involvement”. Who knows a better option, can offer me, again I will be grateful. That is, how much this event relates to you. Either it is something abstract, or you are directly emotionally connected with what is happening. This naturally determines all stages of the reaction. This is on the one hand.

On the other hand, there is what they call “regulatory mechanisms” – those structures and mechanisms that determine exactly how you should emotionally encode this, evaluate and what actions you should then carry out.These regulatory mechanisms in culture, in my opinion , are texts. Why the history of emotions can become a humanitarian discipline studied by the entire cycle of historical disciplines and, above all, the history and semiotics of culture? Because these regulatory mechanisms are contained in the texts. This raises the following series of questions, which I will focus on before moving on to the final part.

These are the kinds of questions. Generally speaking, emotional history, or the history of emotions, has become a discipline of historical science for the past 20 years.Let’s say there is a book called New Approaches in History. It was published in 1991, there is not a single word about the history of emotions. To the second edition of the book, published in 2001, Peter Burke made a new preface, where he had to say that over these 10 years this has been developing, strengthening and …

The light suddenly goes out in the hall.

So. How do we emotionally code what happened? Will we ignore it? This is already a readiness for action.And before that? Like a lapse, huh? We will code it as a common accident, a technical overlap, therefore, we will evaluate it as indifferent, our concern is small, and we will ignore this event. Let’s go further. We will not react emotionally.

So, a fundamental role in approaches to the history of emotions was played by the work by Peter Stearns, who proposed the concept of emotionology – a normative system of emotional representations that exist in a culture with which individual emotional behavior is somehow correlated.A person lives within the framework of this emotional system – norms, principles, etc. This extremely productive and interesting idea – the emotional code is very interesting to study – it is nevertheless necessary to raise a number of questions, because the transmission mechanisms are unclear, it is not clear how these codes contain what people felt, it is not clear this relationship between a prescription and an emotion, etc. .d. Although the productivity of this approach, in my opinion, is extremely high.

It seems interesting to me to think about the possibility of studying from this point of view an individual emotion, an incident, a case for the designation of these cultural norms.In this sense, everything that I have said so far is extremely abstract and general in nature, but, in essence, the project that I spoke about at the beginning of the lecture is at the same time sharpened for solving completely particular problems. To the maximum extent, this is a study of the matrices of the experience of the Russian educated society of the late 18th – early 19th centuries, and in a narrower angle – one or two specific cases when, armed with my whole theory, I just want to stand behind the shoulders of people who lived 2 00 years ago and look at how they felt.

Spotlights suddenly turn on in the hall.

Yes, yes, the lights are on.

I will close with two examples. One from my research practice, and the other from the clinical practice of the very same Theodor Sorbin, about whom I spoke. I will give this example, because Sorbin, who admires me – I value his work very highly – in my opinion, completely misinterpreted his own example.

First example. In 1938, in Paris, in the collection “Annals of the Society of Friends of the Russian Book”, an article by the emigrant writer Mikhail Andreevich O sorgin was published. It was an article about a manuscript, a manuscript he bought at a Parisian flea market in an emigrant family and contained letters to his wife from the coronation of Paul I (respectively, the letters are easily dated 1797 – we know when Paul I was crowned) of a certain high-ranking Russian nobleman and high-ranking official.Osorgin did not publish the letters, but he gave the first and last dates in which the letters fit. He said how many there were. He cited a large number of quotes from them – I don’t remember exactly now, whether six or seven. Most importantly, he gave two facsimile photographic images of the pages from the letter. The totality of these circumstances allows us to say with confidence that he himself made the attribution of this document. Osorgin’s attribution is correct. He attributed this document to Mikhail Nikitich Muravyov, a poet, a rather famous writer, teacher of the Russian language and literature of the great princes Alexander and Constantine, one, as is commonly believed in literary science, of the early Russian sentimentalists, etc., the father of the Decembrists Nikita and Alexander Muravyov.

I worked a lot with Muravyov’s manuscripts. Osorgin’s attribution raises no doubts – this is Muravyov’s handwriting. What can be seen in the photographs is undoubtedly Muravyov’s handwriting. The manuscript disappeared when Osorgin was arrested by the Gestapo after the German occupation of Paris; there is no information about her further fate. I asked the late Tatyana Aleksandrovna Bakunina-Osorgin, Osorgin’s widow, if she knew anything about the fate of the manuscript.She didn’t know anything. It seems that she faintly remembered its existence, although she herself was an outstanding researcher of Russian culture of that period.

A number of years ago, when I was working in the Muravyov archive in Moscow, in the then TsGAOR, now the State Archive of the Russian Federation, I was given a notebook in which I found Muravyov’s letters to his wife. I decided that this was the same manuscript published by Osorgin, which accidentally ended up in the Moscow archive. Generally speaking, it is not difficult to reconstruct the path of how this could have happened.I began to look at the letters with great interest, and after ten minutes I discovered that this was definitely not the case. First, Muravyov’s letters , which lay in front of me, were written in French, while the Osorginsky letters, which were obviously facsimile, were written in Russian. Secondly, the dates are the same, the addressees are the same, it is impossible to assume that these are different parts of the same letter, because mail was sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow twice a week, and Muravyov did not miss a single day, he was an exceptionally serviceable correspondent.Every postal day, twice a week, he wrote. Moreover, the Osorgian text contains an indication of the same. There is an indication that letters are sent on every postal day at the same time.

That is, we are faced with some absolutely phenomenal and absurd situation. The same person writes two sets of letters to the same addressee, on the same days. Some in French, others in Russian. This highly non-trivial situation had to be interpreted somehow.What I am proposing is reconstruction, this is what I think. I have no undeniable historical, factual arguments in its favor, but I am more or less confident in it. My assumption is that what lies in the GARF and what I read are real letters from Muravyov, sent to his wife by mail and which she regularly received by mail. What was published and ended up in the hands of Osorgin is an epistolary novel written by Muravyov in the wake of his journey back to Moscow to raise his own children.This fantasy of mine is not at all based on air, there are precedents, Muravyov wrote such epistolary novels in genuine letters to educate the great princes. He wrote them and published them in limited editions for distribution in a narrow circle of his students. What is the essence of this novel? As Zoshchenko said, “what did the author want to say with this work of art?”

The story is the following, a real story. Why did Muravyov go from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1797 to attend the coronation of Paul? Russian emperors were crowned in Moscow, it is well known.The whole yard, everyone, everyone, everyone comes. This is a very big event, you cannot miss it. Retired Muravyov. The upbringing of the great princes is over. That is, he is retired as an educator, and so he is in the service, he has a rank and rank. But you cannot miss the coronation, primarily because the coronation is the moment when an incredible amount of privileges is handed out. Serfs are distributed, ranks are distributed, gifts of money, diamonds, villages, God knows what. A phenomenal distribution of elephants on an incredible scale that will never be repeated until the next emperor takes over.You have to be. Because there is no person – there is no problem, which means that you will not get anything. But it is not enough. We must somehow get into the decree. And you have to fuss somehow. It is known which people have influence, it is known more or less who should draw up this decree, plus or minus it is known who can get to this person – the whole mechanics is clear. Accordingly, you need to go somewhere, ask someone.

And now Muravyov describes his everyday life in St. Petersburg to his wife: where he was, with whom he spoke, whom he asked, etc.e. He must be accountable. His wife sent for him to bring something. He must somehow show her that he is not wasting time in vain, that he is serious about his task of strengthening the material level of the family and its prosperity. And he reports quite neatly. But there is also a second plan, which is constantly in conflict in these letters. He is also a sentimental Russoist writer who left his family, his pregnant wife and young children in order to pursue some vain ranks, wealth, etc. This is terrible.Therefore, in parallel with the fact that he is terribly afraid that his wife will suspect that he is neglecting walking around big people, he constantly writes to her that all this is nonsense, which he does not attach the slightest importance, since it is only important for him that at home he left his family, and in general he does not understand what he, in essence, is doing here, when all the main things in his life are home, family, family values, etc. Each letter contains this conflicting message literally through a phrase.

Then the culminating day comes, Paul is crowned, the decree is announced, Muravyov gets absolute shish – nothing, zero.It is completely bypassed in the terminology of the time. Knowing the history, in retrospect, we can say that this is absolutely not surprising. Paul was terribly disliked by everyone connected with his mother. Moreover, Catherine took his children away from him in order to educate them herself, and he did not want to reward their educator at all. Everything is pretty predictable. But the fact remains. Everything was absolutely in vain and is described by the well-known Russian proverb “to slurp kissel for seven versts”. We need to go home, we need to pack ourselves up, finish things and go home with this zero.The conflict is over, it is resolved. The last letters are full of assurances that all this is sheer nonsense, that he does not regret that he cannot even imagine and imagine that his loving wife will regret it. Family values, Rousseau sentimental culture completely and finally triumphs over corporate ethics, thirst for ranks, etc.

Judging by the Osorginsky quotes, this was approximately the meaning of that novel, how loving parents behave in separation, what they feel.Norms, norms of how they should feel.

Everything would be fine, however, unfortunately, for this rather transparent picture in the archives of Muravyov there are also his letters to the authorities. Letters written immediately upon returning from Moscow to St. Petersburg. These letters cannot be read without tears. Mikhail Nikitich writes that, having served for so many years in the service of the empress and in the service of his Fatherland, blamelessly, without a single violation, he cannot survive the fatal insult inflicted on him.That it deprives his whole life of meaning. That the matter, so to speak, is not in any awards, but his lower ones were made, granted, etc., and he served, and no meaning, no life, no prospect in this terrible situation for he no longer exists. A natural question arises: what are the real feelings of the author?

My answer is this: I am absolutely sure that both. He is absolutely sincere both there and there. He is simply a person still living in two different and inconsistent emotional worlds, in which regulatory mechanisms conflict with each other.Yes, on the one hand, the emotional code of an employee nobleman who was bypassed. His whole life is service. If it is bypassed, there is no meaning in life. On the other hand, the emerging emotional code of new family values ​​dictates a completely different interpretation, and this pursuit of ranks turns out to be a despicable vain activity that only distracts from the present. Both of these emotional complexes are experienced with incredible sincerity and strength.

Example two and last. As I said, this is a case from clinical practice by Theodor Sorbin, which he cites in his works.He had a patient – a graduate student in the Department of English Literature at an American university. It takes place in the early 50s. The young man is writing a dissertation on Hemingway, and he is madly obsessed with Hemingway. He is “Hemingwayman” and Hemingway is alive and writing at this time. And the young man is terribly worried, to such an extent that he is forced to go and ask for psychological help from the professor, that he does not lead the life that Hemingway’s heroes lead. He’s writing some smelly dissertation, sitting on campus and studying literature, and real people are somewhere in Africa, there are wars, shooting, tough men, and he is completely frustrated by this.On the one hand, there is no chance of reconciling his own life with what is described in the books that he loves and which he clearly tries on to himself. On the other hand, he cannot refuse that ideal embodied in Hemingway’s prose.

Finally, Hemingway’s story “The Short Happiness of Francis Macomber” is published – that is how it was called in the Russian translation, maybe someone read it. It describes the story of how such a fool, a New York businessman, insignificant, miserable, urban, devoid of any real masculine nature, gets on a safari.He cannot do anything, he is afraid, he shakes, his hands are trembling, some kind of nightmare happens. And, ultimately, he sees his wife cheating on him with a hunter-guide who is a “real man.” And the next day, a real transformation takes place with him. He kills a bunch of animals, he risks his life, he feels incredible euphoria, he is delighted, on horseback, he is happy. And, in the end, this happiness of Francis Macomber turns out to be short-lived, since he is killed by his own wife – apparently, Sorbin writes, aiming at the bison, which is supposed to kill him.Bison is about to kill this Francis, she shoots and …

We must assume that Sorbin knows the Hemingway story as told by his patient. What follows is the following highly dramatic events. The young man understands that not all is lost even for such losers in the humanities as he is. He volunteers for the army, goes to the Korean War, manages to write three or four letters from there about how good he is and that he has finally found himself, and a little over a month later dies on duty.End of story.

What would you like to note about this? Generally speaking, I am an opponent of the theory that there are correct interpretations of works of art, and there are incorrect ones. Everyone interprets as he wants and can. And yet, overcoming shame and disgust, I will say that this interpretation is wrong. Francis Macomber’s wife did not aim at any buffalo, she was aiming at her own husband. This is quite clear from Hemingway’s text. Firstly, because at that moment he became even more unbearable and disgusting to her than he was as a smear.Secondly, partly because she is afraid that, having passed into this quality (he is rich, but she is not), he will leave her. And her story ends with a conversation with this hunter, with whom she cheated on him the day before. She throws a tantrum, lets her know that she understands what happened, but she won’t tell anyone about it.

The interesting thing about this story is that the unfortunate young man clearly went to the wrong address. If, instead of a psychoanalyst, he found a good scientific advisor, he would have a chance to be alive to this day and be a professor at a good American university.Thanks! Everything.

Leibing. By tradition, now part of the questions for understanding.

Zorin. Do you have any questions about the backfill?

Leibing. For filling in the second part. In the first part for understanding.

Zorin. If you will be backfilled, then it is also possible.

Leibing. If someone wants to ask what the author wanted to say with his artwork, then….

Boris Dolgin. The question is very simple. All this, of course, is remarkable, but why did this exposition need to postulate the as if existing individuality of emotions and their immediacy? Actually, this is not necessary for everything further – A, and this, to put it mildly, is debatable – B.

Zorin. The answer to this question. Not only did I not postulate the individuality and immediacy of emotions, I said that this is a subjective illusion. But a person has it. A person usually experiences his emotion as individual and subjective.He knows that it feels he is , that is scary for him.

Dolgin. There are just a lot of collective effects, which are quite realized, in the same football game.

Zorin. Of course, when you see around you that others rejoice in the same way, you see that they rejoice in the same way, but at the same time you see that you are rejoicing.

Leibing. I somehow lost the thread of reasoning at the moment when I was trying to understand what the texts in these two stories are behind the reactions, and how can you characterize these texts?

Zorin. Okay. First story. On the one hand, the main text is the whole range of texts arising from it for Muravyov, on the other hand, a whole series of corporate codes of honor of the Russian nobility, written down on paper, as well as existing orally, but in a completely clear immutable form. These are the two texts that trigger this emotional schizophrenia.

In the second text, in the second case, there is the Hemingway case, which serves as an emotional matrix to which one must adjust one’s own emotional reactions.Curious, from my point of view, the circumstance is that we are talking about a misunderstood Hemingway, who dictates absolutely wrong emotional reactions that result in other actions. Wrong not from the point of view of this person, but from the point of view of understanding Hemingway. The text is misunderstood.

Tanya Grigorieva. In this case, can we say that the illusion of individuality that a person experiences comes from a physiological or psychological component, which you abandoned at the very beginning, but which, apparently, is still in emotion?

Zorin. You know, no. I think that the illusion of individuality is also a very cultural thing. Within the framework of some cultures, people are aware of themselves as individuals. And culture insists on this terribly. Modern Western culture elevates individuality to an absolute, it insistently requires this from a person. If a person does not feel like an individual, he experiences terrible frustration. There are a huge number of cultures that not only do not prescribe a person to be an individual, but do not even assume such a possibility.There are also intermediate cultures in which you can be an individual, you can make such a choice, but this is a dangerous marginal choice that leads you to outcast. And there is nothing good about it.

Therefore, I think that the whole complex of emotions associated with self-individualization and individual identity is also textually and culturally matrixed in a sense. Therefore, it is not physiological, I do not see anything physiological here. There are physiological things, of course. If we take a person of any culture and throw him out of the 11th floor, anyone will be scared.There is no cultural component to his fear. He can feel it in different ways and think about it, but his fear will be of a pre-cultural, proto-, pre-cultural, extra-cultural nature. There are quite a few such examples, this is not the only one. However, animals also have an elementary set of emotions that are not the emotions of homo sapiens, which, of course, are also not of a cultural nature in this case. Therefore, there is a physiological component, as well as certain biochemical reactions occurring in the brain.This is undeniable. But it seems to me that there is an opportunity to talk about it in a different way, in completely different categories.

Alexey Levinson. Thank you for a very interesting story. A question to that, in my opinion, a very important statement for you, where you outlined the scheme of the two authors and gave the following explanation: what they call regulatory mechanisms, you said: these are, of course, texts. Right, huh?

Zorin. As a rule. Widely understood texts.

Levinson. Yes, exactly. It’s about breadth of understanding. Or, rather, about the pathos of your statement. Clearly, by speaking of “texts,” you are creating, as you said shortly thereafter, the possibility of including this in the humanities as a subject of study. The statement that these are texts probably implies that the texts, and not … That’s not what? What could it be, if not the lyrics?

Zorin. This could be the mechanisms of biochemical reactions, physiological processes in the brain …

Levinson. It is clear, you simply state what methodology you adhere to, that these are not texts, but something else … I see.

Zorin. What are these cultural artifacts …

Levinson. Got it. Then if the mechanisms of regulation are texts, and the emotions themselves are what is regulated – are they texts or not? In particular, in the examples you gave.

Zorin. Yes, thanks for the question. No, these are not texts, but we learn about them with the help of texts and reconstruct their extra-textual nature on the basis of textual analysis, because we have no other way to grasp them.

Levinson. They are not texts, but what?

Zorin. Well, how … Emotions. Emotions are experiences of a pre-textual nature. A person can talk about them, and it becomes a text. He can formulate them for himself without telling another, but put it into words – and it will become a text. He can visualize them – this will be text. But I will find it difficult to call it any word, because I do not see the need for another word other than the word “emotion”.

Levinson. It seemed to me that in both stories the subject of regulation was behavior, which in turn was described as text. Where there are emotions – God knows. The man took, signed up and went to Korea as a soldier. We do not know anything about his experiences. Maybe he left calm, I don’t know who.

Zorin. We know a lot about his experiences. There is a psychoanalytic diary that Sorbin publishes. Of course, he puts it into words, just as there are some modern psychological techniques that work with direct measurements, photographs on the face, measure changes in body temperature, that is, they try to grope a person’s emotional experience through extra-textual symptomatology.There are quite a few such works and studies now. Again, I am not trying to criticize them, I have no qualifications to criticize them or, conversely, approve. It’s just that this technique of reconstruction of emotions, which I carry out, is based on the fact that I watch how it is cast into the text, and on the basis of the text I try to reconstruct again in the text that I myself produce.

Dmitry. You spoke about emotions that are of a cultural nature and emotions that are defined by texts.And at the same time, you both called emotions, and in principle, as I understand it, you believe that they have a similar mechanism. And how to distinguish them from each other? How to separate emotions that cannot be reconstructed with the help of texts from those that can?

Zorin. Generally speaking, the controversy over words always seems to me uninteresting. I’ve come across this: what you call emotions are actually feelings, or what you call feelings are actually emotions. For heaven’s sake there is no problem.You can call it that, you can call it please. But you understand what the matter is: if emotions are not expressed in the text, then with the help of the approaches that I am trying to get them with, you simply cannot get them. And emotions that are not expressed in the texts are their sea. They are erased, they disappear, and since they have not been expressed anywhere, I have no opportunity to reconstruct them. “No and no trial,” as they say. But, nevertheless, what we have is enough for the historical work of hundreds of people for tens of years.

Michael. You mentioned a project that has been completed by 15%. What is this project and what will it be when it will be 100%?

Zorin. Minimum work. In a broader outline, as I said, this is some sketch of the emotional culture of the Russian educated public at the end of the 18th of the beginning of the 19th century, but this can be realized now by 3 percent, maybe 1. And 15% is realized the emotional biography of one young man , which has been reconstructed from his diary for four years.Late 18th – early 19th century. My task really is to stand behind him and watch every shade of his experience.

Leibing. It seems to me that in the last question there was such an intonation: why do we need to take the categories of psychology and talk about emotions? What does this give us more than if we perceive these governing, ideological texts without any psychological stuff?

Zorin. You have to cut off a huge amount of everything in order to analyze what you are analyzing.A huge sea of ​​other facts you should not notice. This has been done, and has been done very successfully. Now it is interesting for me to notice some facts that were not noticed, namely, that people, before doing something, felt something else. Sometimes they did something on the basis of their feelings, and sometimes they didn’t. But these feelings could be deposited in certain texts, regardless of whether they were realized or not realized in actions.

Leibing. With regard to texts, can we learn something new with the help of this approach, about the texts themselves that govern?

Zorin. Well, of course we can find out. It’s just a question of where your research attention is focused, what you want to know. Literary criticism wants to know something specifically about texts. Historical approach: you read the same texts, but you want to learn something about something else. Pretty clear, in my opinion, it is. You can learn something about the lyrics, of course.

Kirill Ustinov. I have seven questions. I can ask some of them, please advise.

Zorin. Specify at least two, three.One is not enough.

Ustinov. One question was slightly touched upon. You spoke about the code of emotions, and the code is, in principle, not a fixation, but a project. From this point of view, do you see any outputs for the design of what you call emotional matrices, or do you not?

Zorin. No, I have no task to design emotional matrices, God forbid. I spoke about the emotional code, this is Stearns’ idea in general, but I said that he believes that these codes in cultures lend themselves to reconstruction.And he contrasts the emotionology, realized in these codes, with the individual emotions. And exactly what you have just said about the design of the code is the main objection that is constantly being raised to it. If we have reconstructed the code of an era, this does not mean that the emotions of the people who lived at that time were carried out on the real basis of this code. I do not have my own projective tasks in the field of constructing anyone’s emotions, although I must tell you, to be completely honest, from time to time in certain cases I would like to construct this or that emotion of a particular person.For example, I would like you to listen to this report interesting and pleasant, and not disgusting and disgusting. This emotion would be positive. There are other similar cases.

Ustinov. Another question. You talked about how people reproduce what they read, and in this connection you mentioned Lotman. For example, there was also Huizinga, who wrote about the Middle Ages, when people did not read in principle, and, nevertheless, very successfully reproduced cultural samples. And Lotman did not go further, perhaps because he was a literary critic, but perhaps it is not worth saying that it makes no sense for us to consider it somehow systematically.

Zorin. No, and Lotman made no such claim that literature is the only mechanism. Lotman did not talk about emotions, he talked about behavior, but he did not make the claim that literature is the only mechanism that regulates behavior. He noted that in certain cultures, behavior is built on the basis of literature, while in other cultures it is built on the basis of completely different cultural mechanisms. The same can be said for experiences. There are many sources of reconstruction of experiences.For some cultures, literary works will be of great importance, for others they will be of little importance, and for still others, none at all.

Ustinov. Well, what if we say that for some there is a lot, for others is not enough, for still others – nothing, then where will we go next?

Zorin. It is necessary, while studying the second or third cultures, to look for the factors that worked here. Instead of literature, together with literature, etc. If you study a specific culture, you have a historical task, then you, first of all, find these regulatory mechanisms.Generally speaking, one does not need to be seven spans in the forehead and possess excessive historical knowledge to suppose that for centuries of European culture it is somehow necessary to read the Bible strongly, and you will find a lot of regulatory mechanisms there. This is absolutely clear, and Huizinga wrote about this, if we talk about him, that in a society where there is no literacy, frescoes and paintings on church walls will play a role. These regulatory mechanisms are highly variable from culture to culture. In a sense, they are changing before our eyes.

Ustinov. Do you see something invariant?

Zorin. I am skeptical about invariant ideas in culture.

Ustinov. May I have one last question? You mentioned the proto-cultural, extra-cultural components of emotion. Why then cling to emotion as a whole? Isn’t it wiser to break it down at once into two components that are always present – extra-cultural and cultural?

Zorin. This mechanism is possible.But for me, since I am only studying the cultural mechanism, this is not a very urgent task. But if you do this, you need to understand one thing: that in the process of experiencing we will never separate, with the exception of some laboratory cases, one from the other. It would be wild to deny that love emotion is related to proto-cultural character and biological sex drive. But it is difficult to imagine a more cultural emotion than love, thoroughly saturated with cultural meanings. This is one of the most cultural emotions imaginable.Therefore, if you immediately strictly saw it into two pieces, you can lose some important meanings.

Arkady Lipkin. Two questions, if possible. Question one: You spoke about a certain emotional repertoire, and at first there was a listing of very simple things: fear, love, hate, etc. On the other hand, there are cultural matrices. These are, apparently, different things, is there a more or less dedicated registry, the registry of the first and second? This is the first thing. And second: is this the goal of the project? The next question is related to schizophrenia.Your character lives in two layers. Two roles, two lives – this is normal, say, for ancient Sumer. This, it seems to me, is not normal for modern culture. And now the end of the 18th century: you think that this is quite normal there, right?

Zorin. As for schizophrenia …

Lipkin. This is conditional, of course.

Zorin. Yes, I just used this word to make it a little livelier. I don’t diagnose my hero. I think that emotionally, since there are many regulatory mechanisms and they are difficult to correlate, in every culture a person lives a large number of lives.Another question is how much ritual separates one life from another, how much is the requirement of individual unity formulated in these regulatory mechanisms (indeed, “to be yourself” is a very imperative formula for our culture) and, besides, are these regulatory mechanisms, which make a person live different lives, are complementary, or are in irreconcilable conflict. The problem with Muravyov is not that these two mechanisms turned out to be different for him, but that they collided head-on and make him emotionally evaluate one event in an absolutely opposite way.This is the difficulty.

Lipkin. No, that’s understandable. The question is that there are two completely unrelated plans. Let’s say this is normal for an ancient culture. And for Russia in the 18th century, I don’t know, you are a specialist.

Zorin. I can’t tell you anything about ancient culture. It seems to me that the whole essence of a highly ritualized culture (you are talking about Sumerian, I have very vague ideas about it) is that your life is divided into different areas, and in different areas you feel differently and play different roles.This is where the whole difficulty lies: an era begins in which the demand for individual unity has already been presented (in fact, after Rousseau it was presented), and he still lives by the old corporate code, the code of honor of the nobleman. This is a code of honor, this is not some kind of garbage. The deeply internalized code of honor of the nobleman contradicts another, equally deeply internalized moral code.

Lipkin. But is he experiencing it or not? It is not clear from your text, from your reconstruction.

Zorin. I do not know, I have no texts where this experience would be expressed. I have no data for this reconstruction. Judging by the letters to his wife, he sees this problem. He seeks to bypass it, because the letters clearly show that there are directly contradictory statements. One statement: I do everything that depends on me, I walk, I try. Another: I absolutely did not care about all this. And then, and another all the time arises. Hard work and absolute disregard – it seems to me that he sees these contradictions.There is no heavy frustration in the texts.

Lipkin. What about the first question?

Zorin. Regarding the first question. My project does not include the idea of ​​a total reconstruction of emotional registers, and this is just the specifics of my historical eye, the view as a historian – I am generally interested in individual cases. I may be interested in complex theoretical constructions, but I am really always interested in an incident, a case. The question is how to explain this incident.Therefore, everything that I do in the field of theory and tell here, all this is done in order to explain the incident.

Question. Please tell me, do you somehow show a connection between the category of emotion with the category of estimated value or assessment? How can the emotion transmitted in the text be conveyed, except through some kind of evaluative markers indicated in the text? This is the first thing. And second: are these emotional matrices nothing more than such structures, consisting of these evaluative markers?

Zorin. The matrix, in the sense in which I use this word as a system that sets behavioral models , of course, has a high evaluative component. If some model or some text prescribes something, it means that there are many evaluations, because at least he evaluates the prescribed higher than the forbidden. It is obvious that the evaluative role is very great here. And it is always there. Another thing is that in the texts that record emotional experiences, along with evaluative moments, there are many other different moments.

Question. Sorry, but you do not put any closer correlation between what we call the assessment presented in the text and the emotion that is somehow formalized in the text. The text formalizes our experience. Are the assessments presented in the text nothing more than the formalization of emotions? Is there a determination here, in your opinion?

Zorin. You see, in the scheme that I have drawn here in the air, like Gorbachev’s outline of a European house, evaluation is a component of emotion.This is one of the stages of emotion. And it has a fairly specific attachment to certain types of reactions. If we talk about the assessment simply from the point of view of good – bad, right – wrong, etc., yes, of course, this is very important. Generally speaking, a person not only feels, leads some kind of emotional life, but all the time asks the question, at least in the cultures that I have researched: do I feel right? is it a feeling? Well, the famous question: is this love? This is an interesting question, in fact.

Replica. But this is not an evaluation question.

Zorin. This is a very evaluative question. If it’s love, this is one thing, and if it’s not love, it’s completely different. And the answer to this question has completely different consequences for your life.

Nikolay Gladkikh. Andrey Leonidovich, don’t you think that those regulatory mechanisms that we can deduct from the text are a kind of reverse scan of the emotional convolution that the work is? As Vygotsky says, in each genre a certain type of experience is curtailed, which the reader reflects back.That is, when you talk about Muravyov’s sentimental experience, because in fact he reproduces a certain literary model.

Zorin. Yes, yes, of course, that’s what I’m talking about. I haven’t figured out what the problem is yet. He reproduces the literary model, he experiences it, he internalized it. Of course, but there are many different things. Young man …

Smooth. You are faced with what Eisenstein called the Grundproblem – the main problem of art.Every author in a certain way …

Zorin. I am also a philologist, literary critic in basic education. But everything I said was not about art. I do not deal with emotions in literature. I’m trying to understand about people.

Smooth. Where is this line?

Zorin. Well, where I see the line. Either I’m telling you about the text, trying to read its meanings, or telling you what this text means to me, as I understand it. I give, to make it clearer for you, one more example.The young man, about whom I am writing a biography at the moment, is a nobleman from a good family, the son of a self-respecting Russian Mason with strong moralistic opinions. He falls ill with gonorrhea at a completely inappropriate moment in his life. This happens. He needs to somehow work with this, he needs to put this terrible fact somewhere. Either he is a criminal, or he is not a criminal, or who is he, or he is nobody, etc. He must feel something. The story is, in fact, terrible in his particular situation. The exit is located. It is found in Schiller’s play The Robbers.Through identification with Karl Moor, he can elevate his gonorrhea to the pearl of creation. It sounds anecdotal, and Schiller did not write about it exactly. I’m not talking about Schiller, who, unfortunately, also had his own problems. I’m talking about a person reading Schiller.

Anton Nikolaev. You described the conceptual apparatus with which you explore phenomena, and this is ideal for describing the 18th century, since we know how we understood emotions in the 18th century and understand its cultural codes. The question is this: there are things that have not yet been passed into the culture and which are connected with something that lies outside the humanities … How not to lose this line?

Zorin. To the question of how not to miss out on what is related to psychology and physiology, I can only answer in one way: to attract and take into account the opinion of physiologists and psychologists. I do not have the qualifications of a physiologist and a psychologist, and I will be forced to omit and omit something in the expectation that colleagues working in related disciplines will complete something for me. However, my friend and colleague, Viktor Markovich Zhivov, owns a historical aphorism that has been quoted many times: “You will not miss everything.” So something will remain in the end.

As for modern culture … Yes, of course, literature as a regulatory mechanism plays a much smaller role in it. Immeasurably smaller than of the 18th century. There is nothing to talk about. But on the other hand, this does not mean that we cannot recreate these regulatory mechanisms. The emotions of people of modern culture are highly structured by cultural regulatory mechanisms. Not less, but more than the emotions of previous people, this is due to the existence of global media.Generally speaking, this is also a legitimate method of analysis, but only literary scholars can do less here than film critics and media specialists. This does not mean that the former cannot do anything, but, in essence, there are other types of formation of regulatory mechanisms.

Concerning the fundamental archetypes of the Jungian type. This is a question, I apologize for the harsh word, of a scientific paradigm. Jung leaves me deeply indifferent. I am not fascinated by his approaches, and I have no interest in continuing to implement them.This is not a criticism of Jung, but rather a criticism of me.

Replica. Andrei Leonidovich, the question is, rather, not to Lotman and Bakhtin, it may even be from the field of philosophy. As I understand it, some reactive states that give rise to the entire process of emotional arousal, so to speak, in an evaluative or analytical sense, it is actually subject to some extra-cultural components. You can talk about his codification, and maybe he is outside of culture. Of course, Bakhtin noted this as some paradoxes of the same culturologist.But the question is rather different: is this complex of reactive states the sphere of activity of clinical psychiatry? Of course, yes. But, rather, we are talking about some kind of manic conditions that have always been registered. But again, returning to Bakhtin, the study of the texts does not provide the nutrient mass on the basis of which this exciting area of ​​cultural emotions arises. That is, the very poetics and culture of the image are, as it were, mixed … The question is of what kind: reactive states as the nature of cultural creativity – from what area in general? Is this the area of ​​design or the area of ​​some personal metaphysics of certain emanations? That is, what is the philosophical component of the given?

Zorin. The answer to the question should probably start with the word understandable … I cannot, in all honesty, say this in this case. I’ll try as I understand it, although I may have misunderstood. I don’t think that the object zone, what we study, be it a reactive state, psychology, human emotions, fiction whatever, I don’t think that the object zone dictates a disciplinary approach. At one time there was an idea that different sciences study different objects, but for a long time, it seems, no one thinks so.We study the object zone from the point of view that is interesting to us from the point of view of our approach. In this sense, reactive states can be studied from the point of view of clinical psychiatry, it can be studied from the point of view of religious metaphysics, it can be studied from the point of view of the theory of artistic creation, and it can be studied from the point of view of cultural anthropology. I do the latter. But this does not at all exclude any other possibilities of approaching this phenomenon. In my opinion.

Leibing. You said at the very beginning of the lecture that you have come to the stage when you would like some kind of feedback. What is your question for this feedback? What exactly would you like to know?

Zorin. I think that the set of questions for feedback is always the same. Do my colleagues understand what I am doing with a broad understanding of the word “colleagues”? Are they interested in it, does it cause some kind of echo, does it seem productive, does it seem right? The most primitive questions, nothing fancy.

Yulia Vishnevetskaya. I will now give feedback. I got some bewilderment. It seems to me that I did not miss very much and, in general, understood during the lecture the following: sometimes some things happen, and people react to them somehow.

Zorin. Right.

Vishnevetskaya. Depending on where they live and when they live.

Zorin. Right.

Vishnevetskaya. And it would be nice to do this. And it is not psychology that is doing this, but you are doing it. It is not clear to me what you would like to do, what is your question in this sphere of emotions. What do you want to find out?

Zorin. What do I want to find out? You won’t be able to start over, so it’s short. I will try again. I want to find out how one young man felt during the four years of his life. What he felt and why he felt about these events in this way, and not in any other way.What were the possible alternatives and why he felt that way and what circumstances of his culture made him feel that way. More broadly, I can raise a question about a certain circle of people of a certain type and, perhaps, about what approaches can be to answering a similar question in relation to other people, other eras and other times. I don’t know, does this satisfy you? If psychologists gave me a qualified answer to this question, I would be completely satisfied with them. But it seems to me that psychology is not enough to answer this question, because it has completely different tasks.Or, in any case, the psychology that I mainly deal with. There are exceptions, but they are few and far between. I think that the humanitarian, cultural-anthropological approach is productive in this sense. Perhaps I am deeply mistaken. Of course, this perspective should always be taken into account.

Ustinov. Can you ask another question? Now you have outlined the history of emotions and suppose you have completely produced this product, which is called “The history of emotions”. Is there any activity in which this product will or can be used? Or if there is no such activity, can you design it?

Zorin. This is an extremely interesting question. Generally speaking, related to the field of ideology. I spoke once with … I don’t even know what epithet to use, I would say, with the greatest modern historian Hayden White, who told me (I don’t know, maybe it was published somewhere, but I can only refer to personal conversation) that history has failed. As a discipline, it completely failed. Because the task of history is to alleviate human suffering. She did not succeed. I asked him if he thinks that history has some other tasks related to knowledge about people and some other things.He grimaced in disgust and said: “This is humanitarian, and I have always considered history to be a social science. If I considered it humanitarian, I would never do it ”. I think history is a humanitarian science, not a social one. Moreover, I would perhaps say that if I considered it a social science, I would not do it. Therefore, I have no projective problems.

Ustinov. Excuse me, but don’t you think that if you do not have any projective tasks both in terms of the matrix and in terms of use, then you will initially produce an archaeological object?

Zorin. Yes, I don’t mind. If it is a good object, then I will gladly produce it.

Boris Dolgin. Little feedback. If possible, a little bit in continuation of what Alexei Levinson said. At first, you really succeeded convincingly enough to build on the classical semiotics of behavior. Everything is very good, interesting, wonderful. On the other hand, an attempt to show what was obtained as a fundamentally, qualitatively new level, how to work with emotions precisely as with a completely different essence, I am afraid that it was not completely successful.In the sense that every time you approach it, the question arises: is it something dubious called emotion, or is it the next level of deeper behavior? In what just might well be regarded as text. I would never pose the question of whether this is a text – it is, rather, a pointless question. But, of course, it is possible to consider it as a text. For me, here is a question not so much in the research itself, which is very interesting, useful, etc., but in whether this research is really something completely different or is it just a gradual approximation of behavior even further, even closer to a person?

Zorin. First, the answer to this question to some extent includes an assessment of what I do myself, but I would still refrain from assessing my own work. But as a general point, I’ll say that the line between behavior and emotion is generally a shaky thing. In the diagram I have reproduced, the willingness to act is seen as part of the emotion. This is followed by physical gestures or something else. In this sense, since this barrier is unclear, as I understand it, even to psychologists, and even more so from outside of science , then maybe I am going in this direction, somehow deepening my understanding of behavior.Or maybe this is somewhat less deadly relevant problem. If I manage to slightly, slightly improve the concept of human behavior by including some kind of emotional texture in it, then that’s not bad either …

Dolgin. That’s what I want to say. That it is very valuable precisely in this capacity, even if not …

Zorin . I would like to think – I may be wrong – that I am still trying to reach this elusive one, but, of course, since I only see it solidified in the text and speak about it through the text, I must understand that there is a problem here.And the fact that to say that I did not completely succeed, I more than agree with that.

Dolgin. This is, rather, not to the question of what has not been completely succeeded, but to the question of whether in general it is in this formulation it can, in principle, succeed completely.

Zorin. Let’s see.

90,000 When you arch your back
Naked on the edge of the bed
I feel so strong
Such passion and thrill in the body!

When you lift your legs

With the shameless courage of mistresses,

Gods Bless Me

To perform the most beautiful rite.

When you are above me like a bird,

You fly, dropping drops of passion,

So sweet – suddenly stop _

Inside your hot power.

Enter the open tenderness,

Merging with breasts and lips

And plunge into inevitability,

What is happening to us!



Many suicides who survived the jump from the bridge say the same thing: “When you fly, you suddenly realize that all your problems can be solved Except one – you are already flying from the bridge.»

Suicides (8)

The ship does not sink when in the water. He drowns when the water is in him. It is not so important what is happening around us. What is important is what happens inside us.

Unknown author (1000+)

When someone loves you, and when you make someone happy, you suddenly begin to feel like the most beautiful person in the world.

Angelina Jolie (50+)

The two most important days in your life: the day when you were born, and the day when you understood why!

Mark Twain (100+)

Trouble is not the worst thing that can happen to us. The worst thing is when nothing happens to us.

The One (Richard Bach) (20+)

Life is not what happens to us, but how we act when something happens to us.

Another Day (Fabio Volo) (4)

You have no power over me until I love you.

Dmitry Grinberg (5)

Do you know what’s the worst thing in life? When you don’t know what you live for. You wake up in the morning and take a long time to come up with a reason to get out of bed.

Gantz (5)

What happens to you happens only to you.No one will ever be able to look at the world through your eyes, see what you see, and understand it the way you understand it.

Unknown author (1000+)

When your face is cold and bored,

When you live in irritation and dispute,

You don’t even know what kind of torment you are,

And you don’t even know what kind of grief you are.

When are you kinder than blue in the skies,

And in the heart there is light, and love, and participation,

You don’t even know what song you are

And you don’t even know what happiness you are!

Eduard Arkadievich Asadov (100+)

#LVLUP GRIME CLASH – 10/17/2015: REDO vs.Obladaet Lyrics

[Round 1: Redo]
I say Redo – you say “like”
Metaphor and punch – you say “like”
Chick flows over you and says “like”
She asks her to fuck – you say “how”
Wise sense of that
Your fucking cheekbones scratching the floor
Your fucking flow jars grime, sucker
And you are waiting for the hype, like Hachiko, Votyakov!
Your lyrics are bottom, you don’t know the rhythm
The kents will tear them for you, but you don’t know them
I run into the club where the bass is alone
Loading bars into a vinyl t-shirt
Machine gun flow, I won’t surrender to them
Your fucking sound like on the radio
Say anything about me, son
After all, you screwed up my skill and called him
Say whatever you want – you sold yourself to them
It is clear who won, even in the GIF animation
Vasya, a fucking way awaits you
From Constance – to castration
I put an album on my alarm clock Possesses
To wake up with the first cocks
Give me a chance to believe in you
Even a heifer doesn’t fumble about what you have
[Round 1: Obladaet]
OBLADAET – I’m not in trends
B you don’t have grime, you don’t have rap
You have zero music, don’t press the record
Does your sound rock? Fuck, yes from the Torrent
Come on, tell me that I “came in large numbers”
Not a local, but I look at you from above
Sleysya, you fucking dandruff
Didn’t overtake anyone, but I, his mother, was the first
You are a dead man
And you behave as if from the grime of estates
I don’t like you, to be honest
And fuck you, to be literal
Let’s get a booty
I see your gang – fuck, trash
Tusa 20 people are a lot
Not Grime Revolt is a grime binge
This is a grime – home
All problems how to roll
Russian Grime didn’t accept, didn’t give a ride
And he won’t let me lie here Lokotilov
After all, you cannot do
You are always whining that it wasn’t lucky
They will find out on the block, point the finger?
It’s just a fuck in the back
What did Versus give you?
Only experience in battles, and that flawed
My lyrics are simple, yours have so much sense
You wrote your party, but wrote a textbook
I raise an eyebrow
I’m surprised – I raise an eyebrow
Are you fresh blood? You’re fucking trash!
Here I am the rookie of the year – young blood
[Round 2: Redo]
This is pathos – this is excitement
This is half-time – this is a full salary
This is what I would not say aloud
This is a graimer – this is Nazar
Okay, you are not a fag – you are trendy
All the tracks are hits, not shit
I say: “Siri, show me Votyakov’s tracks”
And now my iPhone doesn’t work, damn it
I throw you out like garbage
I make a turn and here it is
Went fuck free
I make a turn, Dobby, sock
And even in a half-weight over an abyss
I fight half-weight on planes
With a madman and everywhere the law of meanness
Wheel like a proverb
Yes, asshole, all my grime, like insomnia
I soaked it from top to bottom
Tell everyone as much as you want about grime-time
Next to me, your watch will stop
You will not end up with problems and waste
Everything that is graime in you – Ivan and Wag-van
Wanted to parody me, Nazar
Got drunk in shit and pumped Hall?
[Round 2: Obladaet]
Redo, are you chipped?
I was looking for information about me, like Columbo
Snapback, your beard, it’s so pathetic
And it’s always a coat, you fucking Colombo
Jack, get into the deck
Your hasl on subway cars, with a cardboard box
You look like you live in a box
And they tell me – don’t touch the child
Finished the sharaga
Didn’t take off my coat, hike, from Shotgan
Your friend is a slut
In the next track I’ll give her shout out
Heard different opinions
I see your bile, I see you’re not happy with me
know in battles, do not listen in players
And I see only a poor rapper
Do not spoil the genre
You were not supported even on the internet
And you are destined to stupidly stupid
After all, the loot does not flow under the lying
Stone! After all, you don’t dance
Guy, and you have a complex
Ask the bar to pour beer
After all, here the outcome will be clear without judges
You are a courtyard MC
You are in sports, but when you run for vodka
Fuck-tibidokh MC with a beard
You are on a shotgun fought with MC Folomkin
You wanted a battle, Redo
But you got out with basic battle rap
Hold a penny, I won’t touch the cripple
So what did you want to crow there?

[Round 3: Redo]
Look, son in both, what the fuck is style?
What the fuck are you treating me now?
If your style is double time, fast flow
Then my speechlessness will take away my half-words
Flow – clothes, I’m dressed lightly
But you’re dressed, damn it, as light as possible
I bought your flow at a discount a year ago
I tried it on and threw it away the same evening
All your photos in the subway
This is all your hasol and all your skill
Fuck me a grime battle in front of everyone
This is all your grime, this is all your style
Tennis, squash, Messi, football
This is all your hasl
And today fuck Nazar is coming
This is all the lifestyle that you deserve
Hey, rooster, hold on
It’s not your wedding night, but marriage life
The barrel was blowing to your temple – this is part two
You really thought that I trying?
Who inflated your ego, kid?
This is my way from home to Vegas
Your chick is fucking giving out like Wi-Fi
Roskomnadzor asks to get registered
Do you think that returning to grime
Is it all the same what to fuck with your ex?
But from time to time you still come back there
Where everyone’s fucking, and you’re extra
Hey, kid
Throw out the outfit
I’ll burn you, bitch
For the fact that, bitch
You are a top-shop, bitch
And from here to here
Liters of blood and labor were spilled
So fuck off the ship
And think about it in the morning
It’s hard and difficult for you in training
But in battle I’ll finish you, bitch
I was asked in the morning:
“Is it fucking to fight with a corpse ? ”
I said, “If I wanna hear some fucking grime
I’ll say round, bitch!”

[Round 3: Obladaet]
You’re sick with rap
No, you’re just sick, Redo
Who are you battling? Myself, probably
I look at you and it hurts, Redo
Am I too rude? Cool?
Forgive me friend, but this is extra work
But you want to be too hard
But to lay like this, too corpse
You are a woodpecker, Redo
You have no other occupation, Redo?
Your fingers are just komenty to the track
You’re just a drunk, it’s a damn tremor
Don’t hit me in the back, gag
I will brush you off just by scratching the back of your head
Don’t remember where you spent the night on the list
And your business – read a shirt, yes drink
Okay, let’s get on the numbers
One.And you shit on Peter.
Two glasses you need to get drunk
Three. I didn’t call trouble – I tweeted
Round four, and the fifth is not needed
Six is ​​Seven and I was not mistaken
Remember, six, it’s not about numbers
And if I’m not grime, then because in pure
They didn’t know without you
I did remixes, I did freestyle
I would never change places with you
Destiny battles you and even without cameras
On TV that they imposed on us
Everything you see – we made ourselves
You are so sad, I wash my face with tears
I don’t see talent, all I see is envy

[Round 4: Redo]
How, how, how is all you did
Trading fucking is all you did
Trading rags is all you did
After the battle, the hype? Who made it?
While I was plowing – you yelled “Where is my HYIP?
Where is my HYIP?”
Say again:
“Where is the rhyme?”
I made you fucking on Training Day
You didn’t do a single Bad trip, fucking
The chills are coming, my cough is up to vomiting
This is not bad manners
And everybody gets tired like that
Where have you seen this, sucker? You go to the station
And not an employer, but you worked every
Like a flow gadget, you can not believe me
One new punch of mine – and you are out of time
My brothers are behind me and a flave, scum
My fan is behind you, he has nowhere to stand
Hey, asshole
Thought once from Peter
Will the power of Peter the Great give you an edge?
Right, man?
But this is Moscow, and you will fall out here sooner from the pen of the first
He is crazy, give him a chair, because
She has a Blazer and teeth in a saber
I’m still Redo, but today I’m again
Returning the seventh with your friend
Yes, I Gothic graimer
You are a fancy waffle
Bye, bye, kid
They fuck you in the ass, I thought it was a struggle, kid
What you do is not Mein Kampf, kid
You will not become like Young
You are not Obla, Vasya – you are Obolon
You are not an astronaut, an astronaut here Ivan
And a star you are the most out of SpongeBob
The last of you, I’m alone in the yard
My level for you Alps, deer
Arkham, and give me a chance to escape – you are fucked up
Kill me – need anti-nuclear
I wrote just the truth
I won’t get tired of writing this grime
And now your career is like an island
Bitch, how’s it going with you, round

[Round 4: Obladaet]
Hey, undersized
Are you blowing up? But with cola Mentos
Your complexes betrayed you first
There is no art, there is spiritual poverty
Where is your faithful listener?
This is your best friend, you call him honey-brother
I have been in the game for a long time – I took a new gamepad
And here is the most stylish one, like a guitarist in Mad Max
He will not make you swing
Do not control the game – a broken touchpad?
On Versus Papa Goose called you Renault
You are so no-name – they confuse you with a wheelbarrow
But everything is true about Lodos
They joked everyone like spam
Rap game won’t roll around the globe
After all, you are in this slut, but by pass
You are here the cutest
Simpler face! Have you been pissed into beer?
Give a beat, they are so tired of ditties
And then a battle with a beat, as if 8 miles
As if 8 miles
You have a bottle with booze and you are the strongest
But you are waving your fists on a stretcher
And I am out of reach, like another sim card
You have no style
They found out about me in a year, you never dreamed of
They put my picture in a headscarf on my avatar
As if they were not schoolchildren, but Palestinians
Wanted to become famous?
You are green like the Hulk, but not from Zenith
I have a reputation, I make a name
You have nothing, so don’t be jealous