What happens to the lungs when you have emphysema: Emphysema | American Lung Association
Emphysema – Lung Health A-Z
There is no treatment to repair the damage to your lungs that emphysema causes. The most important thing you can do is to quick smoking and avoid breathing in “bad air.” If you can do these two things, you may be able to prevent your emphysema from getting worse.
There are treatments, however, that can improve shortness of breath and reduce the risk of an exacerbation (worsening of breathing symptoms usually because of a respiratory infection).
Inhaled Bronchodilator Medications
These medications are the cornerstone of emphysema treatment. These medications open the breathing tubes in your lungs to make it easier to get all the air out and thus easier to breathe. There are 2 types of inhaled bronchodilators, and they work in different ways to open your breathing tubes.
- Long-acting inhalers. You typically use these inhalers once or twice a day.
- Short-acting inhalers. You typically use these inhalers every 4 to 6 hours and as needed.
These inhaler types are frequently used together for greatest effect.
If the amount of oxygen in your blood falls below 88%, your provider may prescribe oxygen. (Your provider can measure the amount of oxygen in your blood by putting a clip called an oximeter on your finger.)
Starting a pulmonary rehabilitation program is the one of the best ways to improve shortness of breath, quality of life, and your ability to exercise.
Depending on your situation, your provider may consider surgical treatments. For example, parts of your lung that are damaged or destroyed can interfere with more normal parts of your lung. A surgical procedure can remove these damaged parts.
Another surgical procedure used for people with advanced emphysema is to insert little one-way valves—called endobronchial valves—into the breathing tubes in your lungs. The lung specialist or surgeon uses a long, flexible tube, called a bronchoscope, with a camera and tools on the end to place the valves. The valves allow air to exit the healthy parts of your lungs and collapse the areas of your lungs that are damaged. Your lungs deflate, which helps your diaphragm muscle work better so that you can breathe better.
Living with Emphysema
If you have emphysema, it’s important to focus on what you can do, not on what’s difficult to do. Make sure that you know as much as possible about your condition so that you can function at the highest possible level. Know the names of the medicines you take for emphysema and how long they’re supposed to work. Also, create an action plan in case your breathing gets worse.
You can expect your emphysema to get worse if you continue to smoke or inhale second-hand smoke and other irritants in the air. Many people with emphysema find that they reduce their activities to avoid breathing difficulty. Over time, however, lack of exercise can make shortness of breath worse because less activity leads to being “out of shape” and possible weight gain.
You can expect that using inhaled medications will open your airways and make it easier to breathe. You can also expect to be able to be more active if you exercise regularly, either on your own or by participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program. If you follow recommended treatments, your breathing may remain stable for a long time.
Ideally, you should lead a healthy life style that includes not smoking, eating healthy foods, maintaining a normal body weight, exercising regularly, getting 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night, and avoiding too much stress. Get a yearly flu shot to reduce the chances of getting the flu. Also, you should get the two pneumonia shots to prevent the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia.
Be sure to use your inhaled medications correctly and as prescribed by your health care provider. Use your albuterol inhaler if you have difficulty breathing. This medicine opens the breathing tubes in your lungs quickly, but it lasts only 3 to 4 hours.
Finally, make sure that you get a written action plan from your health care provider. Keep it with you in case your breathing gets worse. Most action plans recommend using your rescue inhaler every 2 to 4 hours as needed and calling your health care provider if you have a chest cold or start to cough up yellow or green mucus. Call your provider if you experience any major change in your breathing, Regular appointments with your health care provider are important for monitoring your emphysema and discussing treatments.
Emphysema – Harvard Health
Emphysema is a respiratory disease that makes it hard to breathe.
Normally, when you take a breath, air travels from your nose and mouth through your windpipe and into the bronchi. These are small air passages that branch off into each lung. The bronchi branch further into thousands of smaller, thinner tubes that end in grape-like clusters of small, round air sacs called alveoli.
Tiny blood vessels absorb oxygen from the air through the walls of the alveoli and deliver it to cells throughout the body. Carbon dioxide moves in the opposite direction. It passes out of the bloodstream, back into the alveoli, and is then eliminated from the body when you breathe out.
Emphysema destroys the walls between the alveoli. This leaves the lungs less able to absorb oxygen into the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
Lung tissue also loses its resilience, which prevents it from stretching and contracting properly. When the lungs lack resilience, they cannot fully push out air. Instead, some air remains trapped in the air sacs.
Emphysema, along with chronic bronchitis, is one of the two most common forms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Smoking causes the vast majority of cases of emphysema.
Symptoms of emphysema
The main symptom of emphysema is breathlessness. At first, you have difficulty catching your breath during activity. Over time, you may feel breathless after taking just a few steps, or when sitting or lying down.
Other symptoms caused by emphysema include:
- shortness of breath
- weight loss
- loss of muscle
- a barrel chest, resulting from overinflation of the lungs
Your medical history and symptoms can alert your doctor to test you for emphysema.
Medical history and physical exam. Your doctor will ask whether you smoke. He or she will need to know how easily you become short of breath and when. Do you have trouble climbing stairs? How long can you walk before you have to stop and rest?
Your doctor then will examine you to look for typical signs of emphysema. This may include:
- watching for shortness of breath when you perform simple activities, such as walking into the exam room
- looking at the size and shape of your chest
- looking at how your chest moves when you breathe
- listening to your lungs for wheezing or loss of the normal breath sounds
- checking your skin, lips and fingernails for a bluish tint that indicates low blood oxygen levels
- checking your fingernails for an unusual curvature (“clubbing”) that sometimes occurs with chronic lung disease
Pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests show how well your lungs work. They are useful both to diagnose emphysema and to determine how far the disease has progressed. You will breathe in and out through a spirometer, a tube that is connected to various machines. These tests measure two things:
- forced vital capacity (FVC) shows the maximum amount of air you can breathe out in one breath.
- forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the maximum amount of air you can exhale in one second.
X-rays. If you have emphysema, your lungs may appear larger than normal on a chest x-ray and hold abnormally large amounts of air. Your diaphragm (the main muscle involved in breathing) may appear flattened.
Laboratory tests. Lab tests can show how much emphysema has affected your lungs’ ability to take up oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide.
Pulse oximetry. A probe on your finger measures how saturated your blood is with oxygen.
Arterial blood gas. This blood test measures how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood.
Don’t smoke. If you smoke, quitting is the most important thing you can do to stop emphysema from getting worse.
Participate in pulmonary rehabilitation. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a form of physical therapy. It includes a structured exercise program combined with special breathing techniques, psychological support and education. It helps people with emphysema:
- conserve energy
- improve stamina
- reduce breathlessness
Get vaccinated. If you have emphysema, ask your doctor about vaccinations against influenza (flu) and pneumococcal pneumonia. These vaccinations can help to prevent life-threatening respiratory infections in people with lung disease.
Medications and other treatments won’t cure emphysema. But they can help you breathe well enough to remain active.
Bronchodilators open up the airways. They are the cornerstone of treatment. They reduce shortness of breath and increase capacity for exercise. Bronchodilators are usually inhaled.
Corticosteroids are powerful drugs that curb inflammation and help open airways. They are available in inhalers and as pills.
Antibiotics are used to treat lung infections caused by bacteria. People with emphysema often need antibiotics for respiratory infections.
As emphysema becomes more severe, the oxygen level in your blood may become dangerously low. If this happens, breathing in extra oxygen can help you live longer. And it can help you avoid problems that can occur when your body isn’t getting enough oxygen on its own.
Lung volume reduction surgery. This procedure involves removing some damaged lung tissue to give healthier lung tissue more room to expand and contract. It also lets the diaphragm work more effectively.
Lung transplant. A lung transplant may be an option for people with severe emphysema who are not expected to live more than two or three years.
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Pulmonary Emphysema | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is pulmonary emphysema?
Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which the air sacs (alveoli) may be:
Overinflation of the air sacs is a result of a breakdown of the alveoli walls. It
causes a decrease in respiratory function and breathlessness. Damage to the air sacs
can’t be fixed. It causes permanent breakdown in the lower lung tissue.
Pulmonary emphysema is part of a group of lung diseases called COPD (chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD causes airflow blockage and breathing problems.
2 most common conditions of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
What causes pulmonary emphysema?
Pulmonary emphysema occurs very slowly over time. It may be caused by,
(the main cause)
to air pollution, such as chemical fumes, dust, vapors, fumes, gases, and other
chemicals or substances
- Exposure to indoor pollution. This includes irritating fumes, burning wood, smoke
from home cooking, heating fuels, chemical fumes, environmental dust, and secondhand
- A rare,
inherited form of the disease called alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency-related
pulmonary emphysema or early onset pulmonary emphysema. The World Health Organization
advises that all people with COPD be screened once for AATD.
What are the symptoms of pulmonary emphysema?
Symptoms may be slightly different for each person. These are the most common:
Early symptoms of pulmonary emphysema may include:
- Rapid breathing
- Shortness of breath, which gets worse with activity
- Sputum production
Other symptoms may include:
- Heart problems
- Overinflation of the lungs
- Sleep problems
- Weight loss
The symptoms of pulmonary emphysema may look like other lung conditions or health
problems. See a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is pulmonary emphysema diagnosed?
Along with a complete health history and physical exam, your healthcare provider may
pulmonary function tests. These tests help measure the lungs’ ability to exchange
and carbon dioxide. The tests are often done with special machines into which you
breathe. They may include:
A spirometer is a device used to check lung function. Spirometry is one of the simplest,
most common tests. It may be used to:
- Determine the severity of a lung disease
out if the lung disease is restrictive (decreased airflow) or obstructive
(disruption of airflow)
- Look for lung disease
- See how well treatment is working
Peak flow monitoring
This device measures how fast you can blow air out of your lungs. Cough, inflammation,
and mucus buildup can cause the large airways in the lungs to slowly narrow. This
slows the speed of air leaving the lungs. This measurement is very important in seeing
how well or how poorly the disease is being controlled.
These are done to check the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood. A
blood test may be done to check eosinophil counts and vitamin D levels, and to
monitor your hematocrit and hemoglobin levels for anemia.
This test takes pictures of internal tissues, bones, and organs. A chest X-ray is
not recommended to diagnosis COPD, but it can help identify other conditions.
This test uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to make images of the
body. A CT scan can show details such as the width of airways in the lungs and the
thickness of airway walls.
This test is done on the material that is coughed up from the lungs and into the
mouth. A sputum culture is often used to see if an infection is present. It may also
be done to check eosinophil levels. It generally takes 2 days to get the results.
This is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms
(arrhythmias), and can help find heart muscle damage.
How is pulmonary emphysema treated?
goal of treatment for people with pulmonary emphysema is to live more comfortably
the disease, control symptoms, and prevent the disease from getting worse, with minimal
side effects. There is no way to repair or regrow the damaged lung tissue.
Treatment may include:
pulmonary rehab program. Community-based and home-based programs work as well as
hospital-based programs as long as they are as often and of the same intensity.
Standard home-based pulmonary rehab programs help with trouble breathing in people
with COPD. Supervised, traditional pulmonary rehab remains the standard of care and
best option for people with COPD. These programs help manage your disease, breathing
methods, exercise, support, and counseling. To find one, ask your provider or call
your local hospital. Also talk with your healthcare provider about which rehab or
self-management program is best for you.
- Antibiotics for bacterial infections
away from the smoke of others and removing other air pollutants from your home and
- Medicines (bronchodilators) that widen the airways of the lungs and can be either
taken by mouth (oral) or inhaled
the flu and pneumococcal vaccines
- Nutritional support since you may develop malnutrition and lose weight. It’s
important to stay at your ideal weight. Being overweight or underweight can affect
types of oral and inhaled medicines that are used to treat symptoms such as coughing
therapy from portable containers. Talk with your healthcare provider about long-term
- Quitting smoking. Smoking is the main cause of COPD. Quitting will help you be able
to better manage your emphysema. Also don’t use e-cigarettes or vaping products. Ask
your healthcare provider about ways to help you quit smoking.
to remove the damaged area of the lung
- An endobronchial valve system to treat
breathing problems. This device is for people with severe emphysema. It is the first
minimally invasive device to treat emphysema available in the U. S.
- Lung transplant for severe emphysema
During each appointment, your provider will assess your ability to:
- Cope in your usual environment (focusing on supportive,
palliative, end-of-life care)
- Correctly use inhaler techniques for your medicine delivery
- Cope with other conditions you have and the medicines you
Key points about pulmonary emphysema
- Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic lung condition. It’s part of COPD, a group of lung
diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing problems.
develops very slowly over time. It’s most often caused by smoking.
causes shortness of breath that often gets worse with activity and many other
symptoms, such as wheezing, cough, anxiety, and heart problems.
- There is
no way to repair or regrow the damaged lung tissue. The goal of treatment for people
with pulmonary emphysema is to live more comfortably, control symptoms, and prevent
the disease from getting worse.
- A key
part of treatment is to quit smoking, including e-cigarettes.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your healthcare
provider tells you.
- At the
visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any new medicines, treatments, or
tests. Also write down any new instructions your healthcare provider gives you.
why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help you. Also know
what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
what to expect if you don’t take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your healthcare provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: Allen J Blaivas DO
Medical Reviewer: Ronald Karlin MD
Medical Reviewer: Daphne Pierce-Smith RN MSN
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
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How Does Emphysema Affect Lung Function?
Emphysema affects lung function in three main ways. First, emphysema causes holes to gradually form inside the lungs’ air sacs, thereby weakening their internal structure and inhibiting the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Second, emphysema damages the elasticity of the airways that lead to the air sacs, causing the air sacs to collapse and trap oxygen within the lungs. Third, routinely inhaling cigarette smoke destroys both the cilia (the hair-like structures tasked with clearing mucus from the lungs) and the body’s immune cells, thereby increasing the risk of lung infection.
Emphysema is an obstructive respiratory disease, meaning that the condition makes it difficult to fully exhale (as opposed to restrictive respiratory diseases, which make it difficult to fully inhale). In addition to difficulty breathing, emphysema is associated with the following symptoms:
- Feeling of tightness in the chest
If you’re living with emphysema, the cellular therapy procedures offered at the Lung Health Institute may be able to improve your quality of life. Traditional emphysema treatment methods (including bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids and supplemental oxygen therapy) only address the symptoms of the disease, but not the disease itself. Cellular therapy is different, however, as it may slow the progression of emphysema. Treatment can be completed on an outpatient basis over the course of two days, during which time we take a small sample of the patient’s own blood, separate the cells from the remaining cells in the sample and then intravenously return the concentrated cells to the patient’s bloodstream. The cells can be used for the treatment of emphysema because they have the unique ability to regenerate as other forms of bodily tissue, allowing them to help with healing. Because our procedures use autologous cells (ones derived from the patient’s own body), they are considered to be a safe method of emphysema treatment.
If you would like more information on how cellular therapy may help with emphysema treatment, please contact the Lung Health Institute at 888-745-6697.
COPD | NHLBI, NIH
COPD has no cure yet. However, lifestyle changes and treatments can help you feel better, stay more active, and slow the progress of the disease.
The goals of COPD treatment include:
- Relieving your symptoms
- Slowing the progress of the disease
- Improving your exercise tolerance or your ability to stay active
- Preventing and treating complications
- Improving your overall health
To assist with your treatment, your family doctor may advise you to see a pulmonologist. This is a doctor who specializes in treating lung disorders.
90,000 Pulmonary emphysema – symptoms, diagnosis, treatment – Axis medical center (Zelenograd)
Emphysema of the lungs is a persistent increase in the space of the lungs, which is accompanied by the destruction of the walls of the alveoli and other structural elements without the proliferation of connective tissue. The physiological feature of the bronchi is expansion on inspiration and slight narrowing on expiration. With emphysema, a person takes in a fairly effective breath, but cannot fully exhale. This leads to the accumulation of air in the lung tissues, while the alveoli swell and burst, and large air sacs (bullae) appear.Gas exchange deteriorates, the lungs become flabby and do not collapse. This is how emphysema of the lungs develops, the treatment of which is limited, since the changes that occur in the lungs are irreversible. Patients are generally advised to reduce physical activity, avoid smoking. In case of severe respiratory failure, the patient is connected to portable oxygen therapy devices.
Types of pulmonary emphysema
The classification of emphysema is as follows.
Forms of the disease along the course:
- Acute – develops under sharp loads, penetration of foreign bodies into the lungs, asthma.This condition is removable, but requires immediate medical attention.
- Chronic – progressively progresses, leads to disability without taking action.
- Primary – develops as a result of the individual characteristics of the organism, can be observed even in newborn children. Differs in rapid progression and complex therapy.
- Secondary – develops against the background of obstruction of the lung tissue.
- Diffuse – CT shows that the tissue is affected evenly, destruction of the alveoli occurs throughout the area, the patient is worried about shortness of breath.
- Focal – changes are localized near scars, foci of tuberculosis. This is clearly visible on x-rays.
By anatomical features:
- Panacinar – all acini are damaged, there are no proliferation of connective tissue and inflammation, but there are signs of impaired gas exchange in the lungs (the type of breathing resembles puffing).
- Centrilobular – the central region of the primary pulmonary lobule is affected, fibrous tissue grows in the area of the affected structures, the rest of the parenchyma is not damaged.
- Periacinar – the acini near the pleura are affected. This condition is dangerous by the development of pneumothorax – rupture of the damaged area.
- Okolorubtsovaya – from the name it is clear that violations occur around the scars.
- Bullous – damage to the alveoli and the formation of bubbles in their place.
- Interstitial – rupture of the alveoli leads to the appearance of subcutaneous vesicles.
- Compensatory – leads to excision of a part or a whole lung.
- Senile – caused by age-related changes.
- Lobarnaya – in newborns.
Also, emphysema can be obstructive and non-obstructive.
Signs of pulmonary emphysema
“If you have similar symptoms, we recommend making an appointment with your doctor.You can also sign up by phone: +7 (499) 214-00-00
The first signs of pulmonary emphysema are shortness of breath and difficulty breathing out. This may be accompanied by a scanty cough. Indicators of the severity of gas exchange disorders are the following clinical signs – swelling of the face, bluish color of the skin, swelling of the veins in the neck.
In adult patients, as a rule, there is a significant loss of weight. This is due to the need for high energy consumption to maintain breathing.
With bullous emphysema, pneumothorax may spontaneously occur. There may also be a pinkish face. In addition, an enlargement of the liver is possible, due to vascular congestion in the vessels and the omission of the diaphragm.
In a chronic form, the patient’s neck is shortened, the supraclavicular fossae bulge out, the chest becomes barrel-shaped, the abdomen sags.
Important! It is impossible to make a reliable diagnosis based on symptoms alone; an X-ray examination is necessary.
Reasons for the development of the disease
Reasons for development – loss of elasticity and strength of tissues, increased pulmonary pressure.The occurrence of a violation of the elasticity and strength of tissues can occur as a result of the following:
- Congenital abnormal structure of lung tissue.
- Hormonal imbalance – Disruption between estrogen and androgen levels.
- Atmospheric pollution – inhalation of smoke, fine coal particles, toxins. Dangerous oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emissions from thermal power plants, decomposition products and fuel processing. All this leads to respiratory failure.
- Congenital deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin – proteolytic enzymes cease to function and begin to destroy the alveolar walls.
- Age – as a result of impaired circulation, the susceptibility to toxins in the air increases.
- Infections – When lung disease occurs, lymphocytes and macrophages are activated. As a result, the protein membrane of the walls of the alveoli dissolves.
An increase in pulmonary pressure can develop in the following cases:
- professional activities, such as playing wind instruments;
- COPD, in which the patency of bronchioles worsens;
- hitting the bronchi with a foreign object is an acute form of pathology.
For what reason the bullous form develops, scientists do not know for certain. There are a number of theories that have not yet been proven – vascular, mechanical, infectious, genetic, enzymatic, obstructive.
Treatment of pulmonary emphysema
The initial stage of the disease responds best to therapy, so it is not worth delaying treatment. The principles of treatment for emphysema primarily relate to smoking cessation.
Drug therapy is used for the development of bronchial obstruction.In order to suppress the progression of the pathological process, bronchodilator drugs are used. When using them, some recommendations should be taken into account:
- use as inhalation;
- choose medicines depending on the individual body’s response to treatment;
- Combine funds of different groups, this increases the effectiveness of therapy and reduces the risk of side effects;
- use prolonged-release agents.
In case of hypoxemia (low oxygen content in the tissues), oxygen treatment is prescribed. If the upper lobes of the lungs are affected, surgical intervention is indicated – excision of the lobe of the lung. A radical method of therapy is organ transplantation. Operations are most often performed for bullous emphysema. The treatment regimen is determined by a pulmonologist after the patient undergoes diagnostics.
Drugs are prescribed for:
- restoration of bronchial conductivity;
- relief of respiratory failure,
- improve heart function,
- elimination of the associated infection.
90,011 sputum withdrawal;
Doses are determined exclusively by a specialist pulmonologist. The duration of treatment depends on the stage and form of the disease.
Prevention consists in giving up bad habits, active lifestyle, high-quality treatment of viral and bacterial infections, measures to clean the air from dust and toxins.
As for the prognosis, the pathological process that has begun is irreversible, survival with emphysema is a rather relative indicator and depends on a large number of factors.
Advantages of contacting the medical center “AXIS”
It is important to choose a clinic for treatment. The medical and diagnostic center “AKSIS” (Zelenograd) employs highly qualified specialists who will do everything possible for a patient with emphysema. You can get a consultation with a pulmonologist without leaving the walls of the clinic.
Emphysema of the lungs | FBUZ Treatment and Rehabilitation Center of the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia. Official site
We will start our conversation not with what is emphysema of the lungs, but with how the lungs are arranged and what happens to their tissue with age.
Why would I start with this topic? Everything is very simple. I have little doubt that you opened this article after receiving your description of your chest x-ray. In the conclusion of the radiologist, it is most likely written: “No focal and infiltrative shadows were detected. Signs of emphysema and diffuse pneumosclerosis.” To understand what the radiologist, who wrote such a conclusion, meant, it is necessary to recall the structure of the lung.
Structure of the lungs
The lungs are composed of the airways (bronchi and bronchioles) and air sacs (alveoli).It is easiest to imagine the structure of the lungs as a tree. The branches of which are bronchi of different diameters, which branch out into small branches (bronchioles). At the ends of the bronchioles are air sacs – alveoli that look like bunches of grapes. The alveoli have a very thin wall and are braided by a network of blood vessels. It is through the thin wall of the alveoli that oxygen enters the bloodstream, and carbon dioxide is removed from the body.
What happens to the lung tissue during the development of pulmonary emphysema
During life, under the influence of various harmful factors (primarily smoking) and with age, the walls of the alveoli thicken to a greater or lesser extent, cease to be as elastic as before.The partitions between some air bubbles collapse and form one large bubble or bulla. These phenomena of restructuring of lung tissue are called emphysema. Actually, the word emphysema comes from the Greek word emphysao- “to inflate.” Just the degree of “swelling” of the lungs is a manifestation of emphysema. Imagine an old rubber toy. It is impossible to squeeze out all the air from it, as before, and it no longer straightens out at such a speed when you stop compressing it. The same thing happens in the lung tissue with emphysema: part of the air that was previously easily exhaled remains in the lungs, which means that the amount of “fresh” air with a new portion of oxygen will be less during the next inhalation.The same situation occurs with lung tissue as in the Starostitak and with certain lung diseases.
“Age-related” emphysema of the lungs
With age, the elasticity of the lungs slowly decreases. According to scientists’ calculations, it should reach minimum values by 140-150 years.
When carrying out an X-ray of the chest organs in a patient 60-70 years old, the doctor-radiologist almost always sees slightly “swollen lungs” and thickened walls of the alveoli. Most often these are the so-called “age-related” changes in the lung tissue.This is where the radiologist’s conclusion comes from: Emphysema. Diffuse pneumosclerosis.
If you still have doubts about the need to treat the identified changes in the lung tissue, then in order to get an accurate answer to the question: does the lung condition correspond to your age, you just need to ask the doctor to conduct the function of external respiration, or even better bodyplethysmography and study the diffusion ability lungs. When carrying out bodyplethysmography, not only the volume of the lungs is determined, but also how much air remains in them after exhalation.Please note that when you do this test, your doctor will ask your age, weight and height. This is necessary because for people of a certain age, height, body weight and gender, the indicators of respiratory function have their own individual indicators of the norm, which, unfortunately, decrease with age.
Pulmonary emphysema as a disease
Pulmonary emphysema can be an independent disease. In this case, the same processes develop in the lungs that we talked about, only – much faster.In this case, the lungs can no longer effectively supply oxygen to the blood, therefore, respiratory failure develops. At first, a person feels shortness of breath when running, then a lack of air appears already at rest.
The cause of pulmonary emphysema can be smoking, lack of certain enzymes (for example, alpha1-antitrypsin), congenital malformations of the lungs, and some immune diseases of the lungs.
Only a doctor can determine the cause of emphysema and prescribe treatment. It is better if you see a pulmonologist.
Treatment of pulmonary emphysema
First of all, smoking cessation and breathing exercises
Of course, treatment of the underlying disease that led to the development of emphysema is necessary.
For bullous emphysema, surgical treatment is recommended in which swollen and non-functioning portions of the lungs are removed, which leads to a decrease in shortness of breath, allowing healthy portions of the lung tissue to be recruited.
90,000 What an x-ray of the lungs and bronchi shows
X-ray is a well-known diagnostic method used to assess the condition of internal organs and the skeletal system.In this article, we will look at what an x-ray of the lungs and bronchi shows, what can be seen on the images, how the procedure goes and when it is prescribed.
X-rays of the lungs in adults can show almost all serious pathologies at an early stage. Diagnostics reveals the following diseases: emphysema, pneumonia, pleurisy, cancerous tumors and other neoplasms, bronchitis, adhesions in the lungs, tuberculosis, pulmonary edema, sarcoidosis, lung abscess, pulmonary fibrosis. The X-ray shows a shadow and an enlightenment, since the image is a negative of the film.A shadow indicates hardened areas of the lungs, and white spots indicate an accumulation of air or fluid. To obtain a complete picture, the procedure is carried out in two or three projections (direct, oblique, lateral). Tuberculosis on the X-ray of the lungs is clearly visible at a very early stage. Diagnostics allows you to determine the localization of the focus and the area of distribution in the tissues.
Will an x-ray show pneumonia, bronchitis and how appropriate is it for pneumonia?
First of all, lung radiography is prescribed precisely when pneumonia, oncology or tuberculosis is suspected.Many equate pneumonia with bronchitis and believe that an x-ray is also shown for this disease. In fact, the scanning beams do not directly display the bronchi. It is impossible to diagnose bronchitis from a picture, but this diagnosis can be assumed by indirect signs. For example, by the presence of pulmonary edema, a change in its shape, tissue deformation, the location of the lumens.
X-rays showed a darkening in the lungs, what could this mean?
A shadow in the lung can indicate both dangerous pulmonary diseases and defective film.Do not panic, because X-ray is an additional diagnosis and a diagnosis is never made based on one picture. Film blackout appears as a white spot, which can be caused by a variety of reasons. For the correct description, radiologists use classifications of shadows by size, location, degree of compaction, and even geometric shape. For example, a triangular shape indicates enclosed pleurisy or atelectasis. The spot can be total, focal, segmental, subtotal.
It is also important to consider the location, which may be pulmonary or extrapulmonary. Any neoplasm, be it a tumor, cyst or abscess, also gives a shadow. The thickening of the tissue in the lungs means inflammation. Darkening outside the lungs can mean the presence of fluid, aortic aneurysm, enlarged lymph nodes, possibly tumors of the spine, esophagus and other pathologies of the chest organs.
For the correct description of the image, knowledge of various forms of diseases and a great deal of practical experience are required.To clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct other examinations and examination of the patient. Radiography acts as an additional data acquisition tool.
Pneumosclerosis on X-ray – what does it mean for those who have this diagnosis described in the conclusion. Unfortunately, this disease is irreversible and requires lifelong observation by a doctor. This pathology is expressed in the fact that the lung tissue is deformed and loses the ability to fill the alveoli with air, which means that gas exchange does not occur in them.The main cause of the disease is the long-term effect of the infection in the body. At an early stage, the disease proceeds without pronounced symptoms, but on fluorography, pneumosclerosis will be perfectly visible and detected. If you have suspicious symptoms, you should consult a doctor without waiting for the annual medical examination.
Indications for diagnosis: prolonged cough, shortness of breath, present regardless of physical activity, the presence of blood or pus in the sputum, pain when inhaling or exhaling, chest pain for no apparent reason.
If you are worried about a health problem, sign up for a diagnosis. The success of treatment depends on the correct diagnosis.
How is the procedure performed?
Everyone who has had a fluorography at least once knows how to make an x-ray of the lungs. The procedure is carried out in exactly the same way. The patient frees the upper half of the body from jewelry and clothing, presses tightly with his chest or back to the apparatus and holds his breath at the time of the picture.The procedure takes no more than five minutes and does not cause discomfort. The radiologist proceeds to the description immediately and gives the result to the patient’s hands. Then the picture can be shown to your doctor or any other specialist, if necessary.
How many times a year an X-ray can be taken depends on the objectives of the examination. It is usually recommended to undergo this diagnosis not more often than twice a year. Whether it is often possible to do and how harmful X-rays of the lungs are depends on several factors.It is necessary to take into account the age of the patient, the level of radiation from the X-ray machine and, most importantly, the indications for the examination. In life-threatening diseases, radiation harm will be the least harm to the patient, but the greatest chance of effective treatment. The danger of an X-ray of the lungs with moles on the skin is unfounded, since the dose of radiation is safe for health. If you have a large mole in the area of the examination, notify your doctor about it so that he considers the likelihood of a shadow from it in the picture.Diagnostics has no contraindications, but there are age restrictions. It is highly undesirable to carry out the procedure for children under 14 years of age.
Preparation for the study
No preparation is required, but the questions of whether it is possible to smoke before the X-ray and whether it is possible to eat before the X-ray remain relevant for many people. Smoking will not change the result of the examination in any way, but you should not eat too much, since with a full stomach the diaphragm shifts slightly upward, therefore, the result in the picture may be distorted.
What is the difference between CT and X-ray of the lungs?
In addition to X-ray, lung examination is done using a computed tomography scanner. When choosing a diagnostic method, questions arise: which is better than CT or X-ray of the lungs? The principle of the study remains the same, transillumination of organs with X-rays, but X-ray gives a picture in one plane, and CT allows you to get a three-dimensional image. What is more accurate x-ray or CT of the lungs? Computed tomography makes it possible to study the organs of the chest in more detail.The advantage of tomography is information content, the disadvantage is the high dose of radiation. The appropriateness in each case is determined by the doctor, taking into account the individual circumstances and indications. Taking an X-ray of the lungs for prophylactic purposes is recommended once a year. People at risk are recommended to be examined twice a year. This category includes employees of medical institutions, people with a history of chronic diseases such as hepatitis, HIV, asthma and those who are in contact with patients with tuberculosis.
This article is posted for educational purposes only, does not replace a doctor’s appointment and cannot be used for self-diagnosis.
11 February 2019
A wheel chest may also be a sign of lung disease
The name of this disease comes from the Greek word emphysema – “to blow”, “to inflate”
Smokers have 15 times more emphysema than non-smokers.Photo by Mikhail Ognev / PhotoXPress.ru
Emphysema of the lungs is a fairly common condition that often occurs in older people. It is noteworthy that women suffer from this ailment two times less often than men. Emphysema is understood as a pathological condition of the lungs, characterized by an increased content of air in them, which, in turn, is accompanied by impaired respiration and gas exchange. The disease is characterized by the fact that after exhalation, the patient has excess air in the lungs, which should not normally be present.As a result, their swelling and deterioration of elastic properties occur, which negatively affects the contractility of the lungs and makes it difficult to exhale. And this, in turn, negatively affects the flow of oxygen into the blood and the removal of carbon dioxide from it. Over time, this can lead to serious complications such as respiratory and heart failure.
Emphysema often develops against the background of chronic bronchitis, accompanied by obstruction – impaired airway patency.And the factors contributing to the onset of the disease include, in particular, air pollution with various dust particles, inhalation of aggressive aerosols, tobacco smoke.
The main symptom in the early stages of the disease is shortness of breath during exertion, but later it is noted at rest. At the same time, patients have a short “grasping” inhalation and an elongated exhalation, which is usually carried out with closed lips and with a noticeable puffing out of the cheeks (the so-called panting symptom).The chest in people with emphysema gradually acquires a barrel-shaped shape, its respiratory movements decrease, and additional muscles of the chest and neck take part in the breathing process itself. In advanced cases, cyanosis (bluish tint) of the lips and nails appears due to respiratory failure.
It should be emphasized that pulmonary emphysema requires long-term treatment. It should be started as early as possible. So, if you are worried about shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion, you should immediately consult a doctor – a therapist or pulmonologist.After examination, auscultation (listening) and percussion (tapping) of the chest, he will send the patient to the laboratory for blood tests, as well as X-ray examination, which will determine the swelling of the lung tissue, and spirometry – a measurement of the vital capacity of the lungs. Based on the results of these studies, the doctor will diagnose and prescribe treatment.
Treatment should be aimed at alleviating the patient’s condition and reducing the progression of respiratory failure.First of all, the patient, if he smokes, must definitely give up this habit. By the way, it was found that smokers have emphysema 15 times more often than nonsmokers. In addition, it is necessary to change the job if it is associated with the inhalation of harmful gaseous substances.
From medications, antibacterial, expectorant and bronchodilator drugs are used, as well as drugs that relieve bronchospasm. In addition to drug therapy, the treatment of pulmonary emphysema includes special exercises aimed at maximizing the inclusion of the diaphragm in the act of breathing.
The method of oxygen therapy is as follows: first, the patient inhales air with a reduced amount of oxygen for five minutes, and then (also for five minutes) breathes air with a normal oxygen content. The procedure includes six such cycles and is performed daily for 15–20 days.
Along with oxygen therapy, massage helps to alleviate the patient’s condition, which promotes the expansion of the bronchi and the discharge of sputum.For the treatment of pulmonary emphysema, such types of massage as classic, segmental and acupressure are used. The latter is considered the most effective, since the patient, as a result of the course of procedures, has a pronounced bronchodilator effect. It is also difficult to overestimate the importance of physiotherapy exercises, which help to strengthen the respiratory muscles and ensure full exhalation. As an aid, phytotherapeutic recommendations are widely used, for example, an infusion of spring adonis herb.
In conclusion, we note that in some cases, patients require surgical intervention, the purpose of which is to eliminate bullae – air bubbles with a diameter of 1 to 10 cm. They are localized, as a rule, in the marginal parts of the lungs. The operation is indicated because the activity of the site with bulls is sharply disrupted. In this case, the patient has an early development of respiratory failure.
“Clear contrast”. What Happens to the Lungs Due to Coronavirus
Keith Mortman – Head of Thoracic Surgery (Chest Surgery. – RS) and Assistant Professor of Surgery at George Washington University Hospital in the capital of the United States. He encounters patients with coronavirus every day and talks about what changes in the human body occur after infection, what happens to the lungs and what is the danger of the current virus.
– The first coronavirus patient was admitted to us on March 18. This is a man who will turn 60 in a few years. His only concomitant disease is high blood pressure.At first, he had a high fever and cough, as in other cases, they progressed to a state in which there is a lack of air. He was admitted to another hospital because he needed ventilation very quickly. The lung damage happened very quickly, so he needed a more intense level of ventilator support. It got to the point that this level of support was required as much as possible. And then the specialists of this hospital turned to our experts.The patient was transported to us, and we connected him to the EKMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation – RS) apparatus, which simultaneously enriches the blood with oxygen. In other words, mechanical ventilation was not enough.
– That is, this person very quickly passed from the stage of an ordinary cough to such a serious condition …
– Yes. Very fast.
– What happened to his lungs? What are you seeing?
– We transferred the images to a program that gives a 360-degree image in virtual reality, and it immediately became obvious to us that there was a sharp contrast between areas of the lung with abnormal viral infection and neighboring healthy tissues.This contrast is so dramatic that you don’t need to be a medical professional to understand its fullness. This is something that everyone, not just medical professionals, can look at to begin to understand how much damage is and how much damage it does to lung tissue. The lesions we see are not isolated in one part of the lung. This is severe diffuse damage to both lungs.
Human lungs examined by Keith Mortman.
– When you first saw this image, what did you think, what was your first reaction?
– My first reaction is completely consistent with what I did before.Before that, I spent a lot of time informing society and professionals about various diseases. I wanted this image to be as publicized as possible, so that people who have not heeded the warnings of public health professionals so far can, I hope, understand how bad the lung damage is and why the lungs of these patients need more than just artificial lungs. ventilation ( ventilators. – RS ). We hope that people will see these images and begin to understand why this is so serious, because this virus does not really know discrimination – it really works against people of different ages.
– Now that you have a picture, how would you describe what is happening in the lungs of patients COVID -19?
– We know that most patients who test positive for coronavirus develop very little or no symptoms at all. But about 20 percent of patients suffer from shortness of breath or even more severe symptoms. These are the latter we see in our intensive care units.Many of them require artificial ventilation to help them breathe easier.
– This is really scary. We’ve all heard about the scarring of the lungs that results from the disease. What are the health consequences of this?
– Essentially, a viral infection develops into severe pneumonia. And when this inflammation does not subside over time, it will scar, creating long-term damage to the lung tissue. And already this can really affect the patient’s ability to breathe for a long time.
– Dr. Mortman, you say the virus can be a threat to people of all ages. Why should young people worry too?
– Young people need to worry for two reasons. First, because young people are also getting infected, and we see more and more reports of younger patients every day. They also end up in hospitals, so the coronavirus can directly affect their lives. Another reason is that among young patients, there are those who do not show the disease.It is of great concern that they are asymptomatic carriers. Although they have no symptoms, they can infect other people with whom they are in close contact: mother, father, brother or sister, grandparents, neighbor or co-worker, even someone they don’t know.
– If we talk about those who can develop the disease with complications. These are elderly people with weakened immune systems or other medical conditions. Please tell us what diseases can worsen the course of the disease in case of infection COVID -19?
– This happens if there are chronic health problems that, for one reason or another, can suppress the immune system.This applies, for example, to patients regularly taking steroid medications for asthma and other chronic lung diseases, as well as arthritis. Further, we are talking about people with diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure. We can see that people with these diagnoses are indeed more susceptible to the virus.
– With regard to prevention, is it enough to wash your hands as often as possible, as we are constantly advised now? What can help you stay healthy without getting infected and not passing the virus on to others?
– Yes, there are many things that each of us can do, we are able to take the precautions that are available to us.So it’s worth starting with personal hygiene: wash your hands often. This protects against infection if suddenly you actually caught a virus on the handle of a trolley in a supermarket or by grasping the doorknob while opening a car door. This can happen anywhere, because we know that the coronavirus on some surfaces stays alive for up to three to five days – depending on what kind of surface it is, plastic, metal, wood or cardboard. Therefore, the most important thing is to wash your hands frequently. Further, if you do cough or sneeze, then do not use your palm, preferably your elbow or sleeve.It is necessary to maintain a social distance, maintain a distance of 1.8 meters from another person whenever possible. Of course, it is not so easy not to visit public places at all, but now it is becoming easier, as more and more sectors of the economy temporarily cease to function, advises the doctor Keith Mortman.
90,000 Chest X-ray at CDC 24 in Zelenograd
X-rays are an imaging technique that uses small amounts of radiation to create images of organs, tissues, and bones in the body.When focusing on the chest, it can help identify abnormalities or diseases of the airways, blood vessels, bones, heart, and lungs. A chest X-ray can also tell if you have fluid in your lungs or fluid / air surrounding your lungs.
Your doctor may order a chest x-ray for a variety of reasons, including to evaluate injuries from an accident or to monitor the progression of a disease such as cystic fibrosis.You may also need a chest x-ray if you go to the emergency room with chest pain or if you were involved in an accident that involved force in your chest area.
A chest X-ray is a simple, quick and effective test that has been useful for decades to help doctors see some of your most important organs.
Why do I need a chest X-ray?
Your doctor may order a chest x-ray if they suspect your symptoms are related to chest problems.Suspicious symptoms may include:
- chest pain
- persistent cough
- shortness of breath
These symptoms can be the result of the following conditions, which a chest x-ray can detect:
- broken ribs
- emphysema (a long-term, progressive lung condition that causes breathing difficulties)
- heart failure
- lung cancer
- pneumothorax (collection of air in the space between the lungs and chest wall)
Another use for a chest X-ray is to see the size and shape of your heart.Abnormalities in the size and shape of your heart can indicate problems with heart function.
Doctors sometimes use a chest x-ray to monitor your progress after chest surgery. Doctors can check that any implanted materials are in the right place and they can make sure that you are not experiencing air leaks or fluid leaks.
How to Prepare for a Chest X-ray?
A chest X-ray requires very little preparation on the part of the person receiving it.
You will need to remove any jewelry, glasses, body piercings, or other metal on your face. Tell your doctor if you have a surgically implanted device, such as a heart valve or pacemaker. Your doctor may choose a chest x-ray if you have metal implants. Other scans, such as an MRI, can be risky for people who have metal in their bodies.
Before the X-ray, you will strip to the waist and change into hospital underwear.
How is a chest x-ray done?
The x-ray originates in a special room with a movable x-ray camera attached to a large metal shoulder. You are standing next to the “plate”. This plate may contain x-ray film or a special sensor that records images on a computer. You will be wearing a lead apron to cover your genitals. This is because your sperm (men) and eggs (women) can be damaged by radiation.
The X-ray technician will tell you how to stand and record both anterior and lateral views of the sternum. Until the images are taken, you need to hold your breath to keep your chest completely still. If you disrupt the process, images may appear blurry. As the radiation travels through your body and onto the plate, denser materials such as the bones and muscles of your heart will appear white.
After the images have been captured – which will take about 20 minutes – your part will be complete.You can change into your clothes and go about your day.
What are the complications associated with a chest X-ray?
Doctors agree that exposure to the small amount of radiation produced by an x-ray is worth the diagnostic parameters that can be obtained.
However, doctors do not recommend X-rays if you are pregnant. This is because radiation can harm your newborn baby.If you are pregnant, be sure to inform your doctor at CDC 24.
You can sign up for a consultation and find out more at the administrator by phone +7 (495) 356-30-03.
Respiratory system treatment | Sanatorium-resort complex “Rus”
Diseases of the respiratory system are quite diverse and quite common.
Consider the main reasons that result in diseases of the respiratory system.The main reason is microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, less often parasites). The leading role belongs to such bacterial pathogens as: pneumococci, haemophilus influenzae, mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella (these pathogens mainly cause pneumonia), mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory viral infections. Most often, the disease is caused by one type of pathogen (monoinfection), but sometimes (old age, AIDS and other immunodeficiency diseases) there can be several of them (mixed infections).
Also, quite often the cause of damage to the respiratory system is external allergens. These include:
- Household Allergens – Household dust that contains allergens from fungi, insects, pets, human skin particles and others. Household mites (the main cause of bronchial asthma) have the greatest allergenic properties.
- Animal allergens, they are found in saliva, dandruff and animal urine.
- Allergens of molds and yeasts, namely their spores.
- Plant pollen (herbs: nettle, plantain, wormwood flowers: buttercup, dandelion, poppy, shrubs: rose hips, lilacs, trees: birch, poplar and others), fungal spores, insect allergens.
- Professional factors (electric welding – nickel salts, steel evaporation).
- Food allergens (cow’s milk).
- Medicines (antibiotics, enzymes).
Air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, benzpyrene and many others), household pollution contained in modern living quarters (household chemicals, synthetic materials, varnishes, paints, glue), smoking (active, passive ) due to the negative effect of tobacco smoke, unfavorable climatic conditions (low temperature, high humidity, strong fluctuations in atmospheric pressure).
Also, provoking factors include alcohol abuse, hypothermia, the presence of diseases of other organs and systems (diabetes mellitus, heart disease), the presence of foci of chronic infection, hereditary and genetic abnormalities, and many others.
Symptoms in diseases of the respiratory system.
Shortness of breath, it can be subjective (the patient’s feeling of difficulty in breathing with neuroses, hysteria), objective (determined by research methods and characterized by changes in the rhythm of breathing and the duration of inhalation and exhalation with emphysema) and combined (a subjective component with an increase in the respiratory rate joins the objective shortness of breath) with pneumonia, bronchogenic lung cancer, tuberculosis).Shortness of breath is physiological (with increased physical activity), pathological (with diseases). It can also be inspiratory with difficulty in breathing (diseases of the larynx, trachea), expiratory with difficulty in exhalation (with damage to the bronchi) and mixed (thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery).
The most severe form of shortness of breath is dyspnea (in acute pulmonary edema). If suffocation occurs in the form of a sudden attack, then this is asthma (bronchial – spasm of small bronchi, cardiac – due to weakening of the heart).
The next symptom of respiratory diseases is cough (a reflex defensive reaction to the accumulation of mucus in the larynx, trachea or bronchi, as well as to a foreign body that has entered the respiratory system). By its nature, the cough can be dry, without sputum (laryngitis, dry pleurisy) and moist, with sputum of various quantities and quality (morning cough with chronic bronchitis, evening cough with pneumonia, night cough with tuberculosis, cancer).It can also be permanent (with inflammation of the larynx, bronchi) and periodic (with flu, acute respiratory infections, pneumonia).
Another symptom is hemoptysis (discharge of blood with phlegm when coughing). It can manifest itself both in diseases of the respiratory system (lung cancer, tuberculosis, lung abscess), and in diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart defects). The blood released from coughing up sputum may be fresh (scarlet) or altered. Scarlet is found in tuberculosis, ascariasis.With croupous pneumonia in stage 2 of the disease, it is rusty (rusty sputum).
Another thing that patients can complain about is pain. It can be different in origin and localization, in nature, intensity, duration, in connection with the act of breathing, coughing and body position.
Correctly collected complaints, examination and competently conducted examination (palpation, auscultation, percussion) are the key to a correct diagnosis.With all this, additional signs of diseases can be identified.
Examination – pathological forms of the chest are revealed (barrel-shaped with emphysema, an increase in the volume of one half of the chest with pleurisy, a decrease in half of the chest with pneumosclerosis, pneumonia), type of breathing, frequency, depth, breathing rhythm.
On palpation, voice tremor is assessed, it can be increased (pneumonia), weakened (pleurisy).
Percussion can reveal a decrease in the amount of air in the lungs (fibrosis, pulmonary edema), a complete absence of air in the whole lobe or part of it (abscess), an increase in air content (emphysema), and also determine the boundaries of the lungs.
Auscultation allows you to assess breathing (normally it is vesicular, with bronchitis, hard), listen to wheezing (dry with bronchial asthma, moist with pneumonia, lung abscess).
Instrumental and laboratory research methods.
X-ray research methods (fluoroscopy, radiography, tomography, bronchography, fluorography) are the most important in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases.
Endoscopic research methods (bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy).Bronchoscopy is important for the diagnosis of purulent and neoplastic diseases. But it is used not only as a diagnostic, but also as a therapeutic one (for example, to remove foreign bodies).
Methods of functional diagnostics.
These methods do not allow diagnosing the disease that led to respiratory failure, however, they make it possible to identify its presence, often long before the first symptoms appear.
Measurement of lung volumes.
Respiratory volume – the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing, normally 300 – 900 ml; expiratory reserve volume – the volume of air that a person can exhale if, after a normal exhalation, he makes a maximum exhalation, equal to 1500 – 2000 ml; Inspiratory reserve volume – the volume of air that a person can inhale if, after a normal inhalation, he takes a maximum breath, equal to 1500-2000 ml; vital capacity of the lungs – equal to the sum of reserve inhalation and exhalation, approximately 3700 ml; residual volume – the volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration is 1000 – 1500 ml; the total lung capacity is the sum of the tidal, reserve and residual volumes of 5000-6000 ml.All these volumes are checked using spirography. Studies of the intensity of pulmonary ventilation are also carried out. The following values are determined: minute breathing volume (approximately 5000 ml), maximum ventilation of the lungs (breathing limit), breathing reserve (normally it is 15 to 20 times greater than the minute breathing volume). All these tests make it possible to study the state of pulmonary ventilation and its reserves, the need for which may arise when performing heavy physical work or in case of respiratory disease.
Tests for the detection of obvious or latent respiratory failure (determination of oxygen deficiency and oxygen consumption).
Ergospirography is a method that allows you to determine the amount of work that a subject can do without the appearance of signs of respiratory failure. The study of blood gases, determine the oxygen content in a given volume, the amount of oxygen that a unit of a given blood can bind, the percentage of blood oxygen saturation, the content of carbon monoxide (CO2).Another important method – it is designed to determine the composition of the pleural fluid, this is necessary in order to clarify the diagnosis (microscopic examination of the fluid), and it is also used as a therapeutic procedure: fluid is removed from the pleural cavity and (if necessary) is injected into cavity medicinal substances (usually antibiotics, enzymes)
Laboratory research methods.
Microscopic examination of sputum, to determine its composition, it can be mucus, serous fluid, blood cells and airways, protozoa, helminths and their eggs.
Mucous sputum (viscous, colorless) occurs in acute bronchitis.
Serous sputum (colorless, liquid, frothy) occurs with pulmonary edema.
Mucopurulent (yellow or greenish, viscous) can be in chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis.
Pure purulent sputum (homogeneous, semi-liquid, greenish) is characteristic of a lung abscess when it breaks out.
Bloody sputum can consist only of blood, usually with pulmonary bleeding, or it can be mixed, for example, mucopurulent with streaks of blood (with bronchiectasis), serous-bloody foamy (with pulmonary edema), muco-bloody (with pulmonary infarction), purulent bloody (with gangrene of the lung).
Then a microscopic examination of the sputum is carried out to determine the cellular composition. Other laboratory methods include a general and biochemical blood test, a general urine test.
Prevention of respiratory diseases
The main thing is to maintain a healthy lifestyle: giving up bad habits (smoking, alcohol and others), regular physical education, adherence to work and rest regimes, good sleep, and more.Preventive measures include annual medical examinations, even if nothing bothers you, it is necessary to take general tests and be sure to undergo a fluorographic examination every year.
If symptoms appear, you should see a doctor rather than self-medicate.
With existing chronic diseases (chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma), try to eliminate allergens from the air, thoroughly sanitize foci of chronic infection and follow the doctor’s prescription.
Compliance with these measures will help to avoid or in time to identify and timely begin treatment of diseases or achieve a stable remission of chronic pathology.
- Acute upper respiratory tract infections
- Influenza and pneumonia
- Other acute lower respiratory tract infections
- Other diseases of the upper respiratory tract
- Chronic diseases of the lower respiratory tract
- Lung diseases caused by external agents
- Other respiratory diseases mainly affecting interstitial tissue
- Purulent and necrotic conditions of the lower respiratory tract
- Other pleural diseases
- Other respiratory diseases