What is fungal infection of the skin: Fungal Infection, Fungal Rash, Skin Fungus Treatment
Fungal Infection, Fungal Rash, Skin Fungus Treatment
What is skin fungus?
A fungus is a tiny organism, such as mold or mildew. Fungi are everywhere — in the air and water and on the human body. About half of fungi are harmful. If one of the harmful fungi lands on your skin, it can cause a fungal infection. You may develop a rash or feel itchy.
Who is at risk for developing a fungal rash?
Anyone can develop a fungal rash. Superficial infections of the skin and nails are cited as the most common form of infection, affecting up to 20-25% of the world’s population at any given time. For example, athlete’s foot often affects otherwise healthy people. You may have a higher risk for developing a skin rash if you:
- Have a weakened immune system (for example, if you take immunosuppressant medications, have a disease that weakens the immune system or are undergoing chemotherapy).
- Take long-term or high-dose antibiotics.
- Have excess weight.
- Have diabetes.
- Try a new skin care product.
- Experience incontinence (for example, babies getting diaper rashes).
- Sweat heavily.
- Are pregnant.
What does a fungal rash look like?
A fungal skin infection often looks bright red and can spread across a large area. A fungal skin rash may also have characteristics including:
- Color more intense at the border.
- Scale more intense at the border
- Smaller, more defined lesions (pustules) at the edges of the rash area.
Where does a fungal rash appear?
The rash can appear anywhere on the body, including the nails. It’s more common in areas with skin folds, such as the groin, buttocks or thighs.
What are different types of skin rashes?
The medical name for a fungal skin infection is tinea. Types of fungal infections include:
- Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis): The most common type of fungal infection, this condition often spreads when people walk barefoot in public bathrooms or locker rooms. The skin between your toes turns white and starts to peel. Athlete’s foot can also affect the soles (bottoms) of the feet.
- Nail fungus (onychomycosis): This infection is a common foot problem. It usually affects the toenails, which become yellow and thick and break easily.
- Jock itch (tinea cruris): A rash of the groin area, jock itch affects more men than women.
- Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis): This rash occurs mostly in children. It causes hair loss, but with the right treatment, the hair usually grows back.
- Ringworm (tinea corporis): This “catch-all” term is what healthcare providers call a rash that doesn’t fit into any other category. The rash often forms a ring shape.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes a fungal rash?
When your skin comes into contact with a harmful fungus, the infection can cause the rash to appear. For example, if you borrowed a pair of shoes from someone who had athlete’s foot, the fungus could come in contact with your foot and infect you. Rashes often pass from person to person or from animal to person by direct contact.
What are symptoms of a fungal rash?
A fungal rash is often red and itches or burns. You may have red, swollen bumps like pimples or scaly, flaky patches.
Diagnosis and Tests
How is a fungal rash diagnosed?
A healthcare provider may be able to diagnose a fungal rash by looking at it and asking about your symptoms. Many times, the diagnosis can be confirmed by examining scrapings of the scale under the microscope (KOH preparation). In some cases, you may need a fungal culture test to identify a specific fungus and help determine the best treatment for you.
During a fungal culture test, your provider may take a small sample of skin (biopsy) or fluid (aspiration). For severe infections, you may need a blood test.
Management and Treatment
How is skin fungus treated?
Treatment for skin fungus includes:
- Antifungal creams, many of which are available over-the-counter.
- Stronger prescription medications, which may work faster.
- Oral medicines, if the fungal infection is severe.
Can I treat a fungal rash at home?
It’s important for your healthcare provider to see the rash, especially if this is the first time the rash has appeared. Your provider can diagnose it and discuss the best course of action to treat it. Treating a fungal rash with an anti-itch cream that contains a steroid may make the infection worse and more difficult to treat.
How can I prevent a fungal rash?
In some people, fungal rashes tend to come back (recur) even after treatment. Recurring infections may be due to genetics — you may be more prone to developing these infections. These steps can help prevent a rash from recurring or developing in the first place:
Good foot hygiene
- Change your socks and wash your feet regularly. Avoid shoes made of plastic, which doesn’t breathe.
- Don’t walk barefoot, especially in places that may be wet, such as gym showers and locker rooms.
- When cutting your toenails, cut straight across the nail. If you have an ingrown toenail, you may need to see a podiatrist to care for it. And if you have a fungal nail infection, don’t use the same nail clippers on healthy nails and infected nails.
Proper medicine use
- If your healthcare provider prescribed a cream (or advised you to use an over-the-counter cream), use the medicine as long as directed. Even after you can no longer see the rash, the fungal infection may still be there, so keep applying the cream as long as your provider recommends.
- Your healthcare provider may recommend the same course of treatment for all the members of your family. Often, people living together can pass an infection back and forth. Treating everyone will help make sure the infection is truly gone.
- Talk to your healthcare provider about whether you should use an antifungal cream regularly on your feet and nails to help prevent infections.
- Using antifungal powder in your shoes every day may help prevent athlete’s foot.
Outlook / Prognosis
How long will I have the skin rash?
How long the treatment takes to work can differ from person to person. It usually takes a few days to a few weeks to clear up. The fungal infection may come back, however. Talk to your healthcare provider about steps you can take to prevent the infection from returning.
When should I see my doctor about a rash?
Most rashes are not serious. But it’s always a good idea to see your healthcare provider if you have skin changes. Your provider can recommend a course of treatment to help you feel better and diagnose any underlying conditions.
Call your healthcare provider or go to the emergency room if the rash:
- Is all over your body.
- Starts suddenly and spreads quickly.
- Is painful, blistered or infected.
- Happens along with a fever.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Fungal skin rashes can be uncomfortable and itchy, but they are treatable. See your healthcare provider if you notice any rashes or changes in your skin. Typically, a course of antifungal creams (either prescription or over-the-counter) will clear up the rash and relieve the itchiness. Your healthcare provider can also discuss preventive steps to keep the rash from coming back.
Fungal skin infections | DermNet NZ
Fungal skin infections — codes and concepts
Ringworm of skin,
Tinea of skin,
Fungal infection of skin,
List of links to DermNetNZ tinea pages
Link to DermNet’s pages about fungal skin infections.
Deep fungal infections
Other fungal infections
Treatment of fungal infections
Differential diagnosis of fungal infections
See smartphone apps to check your skin.
Books about skin diseases
Fungal Skin Infection (Tinea)
A fungal infection occurs when too much fungus grows on or in the body. Fungus normally lives on the skin in small amounts and does not cause harm. But when too much grows on the skin, it causes an infection. This is also known as tinea. Fungal skin infections are common and not usually serious.
The infection often starts as a small red area the size of a pea. The skin may turn dry and flaky. The area may itch. As the fungus grows, it spreads out in a red circle. Because of how it looks, fungal skin infection is often called ringworm, but it is not caused by a worm. Fungal skin infections can occur on many parts of the body. They can grow on the head, chest, arms, buttocks or legs. On the feet, fungal infection is known as “athlete’s foot.” It causes itchy, sometimes painful sores between the toes and the bottom or sides of the feet. In the groin, the rash is called “jock itch.”
People with weak immune systems can get a fungal infection more easily. This includes people with diabetes or HIV, or who are being treated for cancer. In these cases, the fungal infection can spread and cause severe illness. Fungal infections are also more common in people who are overweight.
In most cases, treatment is done with antifungal cream or ointment. If the infection is on your scalp, you will need to take oral medicine. To confirm the diagnosis of a fungal infection, the healthcare provider may take a small scraping of the skin to be tested in a lab.
Common fungal infections are treated with creams on the skin or oral medicine.
Follow all instructions when using antifungal cream or ointment on your skin.
If you were prescribed an oral medicine, read the patient information. Talk with your healthcare provider about the risks and side effects.
Let your skin dry completely after bathing. Carefully dry your feet and between your toes.
Dress in loose cotton clothing.
Don’t scratch the affected area. This can delay healing and may spread the infection. It can also cause a bacterial infection.
Keep your skin clean, but don’t wash the skin too much. This can irritate your skin.
Keep in mind that it may take a week before the fungus starts to go away. It can take 2 to 4 weeks to fully clear. To prevent it from coming back, use the medicine until the rash is all gone.
Follow up with your healthcare provider if the rash does not get better after 10 days of treatment. Also follow up if the rash spreads to other parts of your body.
When to seek medical advice
Call your healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:
Fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider
Redness or swelling that gets worse
Pain that gets worse
Foul-smelling fluid leaking from the skin
Fungus Infections – American Osteopathic College of Dermatology (AOCD)
Tinea is the name given to a fungal skin infection. Most people will develop some resistance to skin fungus after being infected. Others appear to have a susceptibility to fungal infections. Sometime the susceptibility will run in the family.
Tinea Pedis (Athlete’s foot)
This is the most common type of fungal infection and only affects humans. It is spread by direct contact, most often through bare feet in bathrooms and health clubs. Leather or plastic footwear that doesn’t “breathe” encourages tinea pedis. It is rare in children.
In most cases, the skin becomes white, soft and peels away between the toes (especially between the fourth and little toes). It may infect the sole of the foot resulting in peeling, scaling, itching and sometimes blistering. Only one, or both feet may be involved.
Onychomycosis (Tinea unguium, nail fungus)
Toenail infection is usually associated with tinea pedis. It is very difficult to eradicate. Often the great toenail is the first to show signs, especially if it has been injured. The nail yellows, and after years thickens and breaks easily. Fingernail infections are similar, but less common.
Tinea Cruris (Jock itch)
Some subjects with tinea pedis also develop a rash in the groin (tinea cruris), especially if they tend to sweat a lot. It is common and affects men more often than women. It has an itchy spreading red border.
Tinea Corporis (Ringworm)
Tinea corporis is the name given to a fungus infection of the skin that is not one of the other ones listed here. It may be spread from person to person, from contact with an infected animal, most often a cat, or from exposure to fungus in the soil. Itchy red scaly patches come up anywhere the animal has rubbed. They often develop into a ring. This kind of tinea usually clears up with appropriate creams. If due to an animal, even if it has no signs of a skin problem it will need treatment too.
Tinea Capitis (Scalp ringworm)
Tinea capitis usually occurs mostly in children and results in scaling and patchy hair loss. It is epidemic in many African American communities. The scalp can look quite moth-eaten but with the right treatment the hair will grow back normally and will not result in permanent hair loss.
An exception may be a kerion; this is a very inflammatory tinea of the scalp and looks like a boil or abscess. It is hard to immediately confirm that the symptoms are due to tinea infection and to establish the identity of the infecting organism. This may be treated with prednisone to prevent permanent hair loss.
Tinea infections can be treated by a variety of different medications. For tinea pedis, cruris, and corporis, creams such as Lamisil-AT and Micatin AF can be bought over the counter at a pharmacy. Prescription creams are stronger, faster and require fewer applications. Sometimes oral medications are necessary. These are very effective, and include griseofulvin (Grispeg, Fulvicin), terbinafine (Lamisil), itraconazole (Sporonox), and fluconazole (Diflucan). Tinea capitis, tinea unguium and chronic tinea pedis are difficult to eradicate completely and require oral treatment.
People with tinea pedis should discourage further growth of the fungus by keeping their feet as dry as possible. Wear open-toed sandals whenever possible, avoid boots, dry carefully after washing, and use an antifungal foot powder (Zeasorb-AF) daily. See “Fungal Infections: Preventing Recurrence“
Back to Index
The medical information provided in this site is for educational purposes only and is the property of the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice and shall not create a physician – patient relationship. If you have a specific question or concern about a skin lesion or disease, please consult a dermatologist. Any use, re-creation, dissemination, forwarding or copying of this information is strictly prohibited unless expressed written permission is given by the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology.
Fungal Infections Are Common. Here Are the Top 3…
There are all kinds of fungal infections people can suffer from. If you’re struggling with fungal infection symptoms and you’re not sure what to do, it helps to understand your treatment options. Here’s what you need to know.
What to Know About Identifying and Treating Fungal Infections
What Is a Fungal Infection?
Before you can understand your treatment options for fungal skin infections and the like, it’s important to know what you’re dealing with when you’re diagnosed with a fungal infection. As the name suggests, a fungal skin infection is a condition caused by fungus growing on the skin. Also called mycosis, these types of infections are quite common. Athlete’s foot, jock itch, and yeast infections are all common types of fungal infections that can occur on the skin. And while fungus does normally live on the skin to some extent, it only becomes a problem when an environmental irritant or some kind of imbalance on the skin occurs. As a result, the fungus will start to rapidly overproduce, which leads to a skin infection. Some of the most common symptoms of these infections include things like itching, redness, rash, and flaking or peeling skin. Now that you have a better idea of what a fungal infection actually is, let’s take a look at a few of the most common fungal infection treatments.
Topical Antifungal Treatments
If you’re dealing with a mild fungal infection, topical antifungal treatments are typically going to be your best bet. Topical antifungal medications can come in a number of different forms, including creams, liquids, and even sprays. In the event that you have a fungal infection on the skin, scalp, or nails, this is the most common form of treatment. Topical antifungal creams like clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole are some of the most commonly prescribed in these instances. Of course, antifungal topical treatments don’t have to be used alone. In fact, these treatments are frequently combined with other topical treatments if there are multiple symptoms that need to be treated. For example, an antifungal cream might be paired up with a topical corticosteroid treatment to help mitigate skin rash symptoms. While the antifungal treatment clears up the skin infection, the corticosteroid can help reduce itchiness and inflammation, as well.
Fungal infections can happen just about anywhere on the body. In fact, fungal foot infections are just as common as fungal scalp infections! Fortunately, there’s a treatment for that. Antifungal shampoos are typically the first course of treatment if a fungal infection occurs on the scalp. This type of fungal infection treatment does fall under the category of topical treatments, but it’s specifically designed for the scalp. In addition, the key ingredient in antifungal shampoo is specifically ketoconazole.
Antifungal Oral Medications
If topical antifungal treatments aren’t working or aren’t an option for your infection, then systemic treatment may be necessary. Typically, oral antifungal medications are the preferred course of action for this treatment. Like topical medications, there are multiple forms of oral antifungal treatments. For instance, miconazole is available in the form of an oral gel and can be used to treat thrush, which is a candidal infection that can occur in the mouth and throat. Oral antifungal treatments can also be used, as we mentioned, for systemic treatment of a fungal skin or nail infection.
Fungal infections are more common than you might think. If you think you may be suffering from a fungal skin infection, make an appointment with a member of our team at North Pacific Dermatology today.
Fungal Infections – Honolulu, HI: Matsuda Dermatology
The skin, being the body’s first layer of protection, keeps bacteria and other foreign invaders from entering the body. However, when it cannot protect itself, skin conditions such as fungal infections occur. Fungal skin infections may most likely develop through the accumulation of microscopic organisms in dark, warm, and moist areas in the body.
WHAT IS A RINGWORM?
This skin condition appears on the skin as scaly skin or small blisters forming a red ring, forming outward as the infection spreads throughout the surrounding skin. Fungi called dermatophytes are often responsible for this disease. Other types of ringworm may also be found on the scalp, face, hands, and nails.
WHAT AREAS ARE COMMONLY AFFECTED FROM FUNGAL INFECTIONS?
Also known as tinea manuum, ringworm commonly targets the hands, appearing on areas such as the palms and the spaces between one’s fingers. Hyperkeratosis, or thickening, is most often found on these areas.
WHAT IS ATHLETE’S FOOT?
Also known as tinea pedis, it is a fungal infection or ringworm of the feet. It may manifest peeling, itching, and burning of the skin. Sometimes it could even develop sores and blisters if not properly managed. Since the feet normally become warm and moist in wearing shoes and socks, fungus can accumulate in this area best.
WHAT CAUSES ATHLETE’S FOOT?
Wearing shoes that are too tight can prevent the feet to breathe and may produce fungal growth. Fungus thrives on dead tissue of the toenails and outer layers of the skin on the feet. A common fungus, called trichophyton rubrum, is usually responsible for athlete’s foot.
WHAT IS THE TREATMENT FOR ATHLETE’S FOOT?
Topical antifungal medication can be applied on one’s feet to treat this condition. However, in severe conditions, the physician may advise oral drugs. Dr. Matsuda and Dr. Sheu in Honolulu, HI may prescribe you with effective treatments for this condition. Other than medications, it is advised that the patient keep his or her feet clean and dry at all times.
WHERE ELSE CAN RINGWORM DEVELOP?
Ringworm can also develop on the nails. This condition, also called tinea unguium, is manifested by malformed, crumbly, and thickened nails. It is also commonly linked with athlete’s foot as it also develops on the toenails. Tinea cruris, or ringworm of the groin, is common in young men who are actively participating in sports activities. In this case, the groin becomes itchy and appears red. Ringworm can also occur on one’s body, or tinea corporis, particularly in the abdomen or limbs. It often appears red and raised, surrounding the clear area in the middle.
WHAT ARE YEAST INFECTIONS?
There are different types of yeast infections, which are caused by the fungus called Candida albicans.
Thrush. Naturally, we possess the candida fungus in our bodies. However, when the immune system is compromised, such as in cases of illness, pregnancy, or poorly controlled diabetes, this fungus can multiply causing thrush. Thrush often occurs in the mouth, yet it can also develop in areas that have a mucus membrane. These areas include the vagina as well as other areas in the skin which are commonly folded. Genital thrush can be painful, itchy, and may manifest a white discharge. It is also commonly found on the side of the mouths of newborn babies.
Intertrigo. Candida albicans may abnormally develop on certain areas on your skin where the environment is moist and warm. Intertrigo, which is characterized by soreness, scaling, and itching, may be commonly found on the armpits, groin, or on the skin under the breast.
Pityriasis versicolor. Literally meaning ‘of various colors’, this type of yeast infection commonly manifests as dark patches that appear in contrast to pale skin as well as light patches on people with darker skin. It commonly occurs in Hawaii with its warm, humid climate.
WHO ARE AT RISK FOR FUNGAL INFECTIONS?
There are various causes of fungal infections. You are at most risk of this condition if:
- You are currently on steroids.
- You are currently on antibiotic therapy.
- You are overweight.
- You have diabetes (and uncontrolled, at that).
- You have a compromised immune system (such as in the case of HIV or cancer).
- You have had any type of fungal skin infection in the past.
HOW ARE FUNGAL INFECTIONS PREVENTED?
Here are some preventive measures to reduce your risk of fungal infections.
- Wear loose fitting underwear.
- Choose socks that are of cotton material.
- Do not share towels and combs.
- Always wear sandals in communal areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools.
- Dry your skin thoroughly after taking a bath.
- Change clothes every day.
Mixed Fungal Infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) of Severe Hand Injury
Severe hand injuries are almost always heavily contaminated and hence wound infections in those patients are frequent. Fungal wound infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. A case of mixed fungal infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) was documented in a young male patient, with a severe hand injury caused by a corn picker. The diagnosis of fungal infection was confirmed microbiologically and histopathologically. The treatment was conducted with repeated surgical necrectomy and administration of antifungal drugs according to the antimycogram. After ten weeks the patient was successfully cured. The aggressive nature of Mucor and Aspergillus skin infection was described. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary for an early diagnosis and the initiation of the adequate treatment. Early detection, surgical intervention, and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare infection that could potentially lead to loss of limbs or even death.
Molds such as Aspergillus and Mucor are the most common opportunistic filamentous fungi, which can cause very serious infections that develop rapidly and that can sometimes be fatal. Generally these infections occur in immunocompromised patients, patients with unregulated diabetes, and patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Rare cases of these types of fungal infections in previously healthy immunocompetent patients are documented. The infection is caused by spores from the environment, which get into the body through the lungs, gastrointestinal system, or the skin. Primary infection of the skin may occur only when the skin is damaged [1, 2]. Here we present the case of a young farmer with a hand injury sustained on a farm, where a mixed infection caused by bacteria and fungi developed and was successfully cured.
2. Case Report
A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with a severe left hand injury caused by a corn picker (Figure 1). The patient was a young and healthy person. He underwent an operation within the first 6 hours after the injury occurred. Amputation of the I–V fingers was done in general anesthesia and defects of the skin were covered with split-thickness skin grafts. Wound toilet was conducted with povidone iodine. Upon admission, the patient received antitetanus and antibiotic prophylaxis (ceftriaxone gr, amikacin mg, and metronidazole mg). The operative and early postoperative course were normal. In the further postoperative period the patient was in good general condition, with normal body temperature, with normal laboratory results and microbiological findings of the wound swabs. Local findings were also normal; wounds were clean and dry; the grafts were well fitted, pink, and with no secretion; after 7 days the grafts were fully attached to the whole surface. The dressing of the wounds was conducted with greasy gauze and povidone iodine compresses. On the eighth day of the regular dressing a scanty turbid secretion appeared in the wound, and circumscripted yellowish orange fields appeared on the skin grafts. A fungal infection was suspected (Figure 2). The wound swabs were taken for microbiological analysis. Antibiotics were suspended. Dressing of the wounds was done twice a day with topical application of miconazole cream. Enterococcus and Candida spp. in large numbers and Aspergillus sp. in small numbers were isolated from the wound swab. The next day, there was almost a complete loss of skin grafts with visible plaques of very dark brown granulation tissue necrosis (Figure 3). Again, swabs were obtained and a biopsy was taken for histopathological analysis. The dressing of the wounds was still conducted twice a day with miconazole. Swab analysis showed that next to the Enterococcus and Candida spp. there was Aspergillus sp. in large numbers. Histological examination showed fragments of connective tissue with preserved morphology, fat tissue saturated with granulocytes and zones of necrosis, necrotic stratified squamous epithelium, many granulocytes, colonies of bacteria (cocci), and colonies of fungi (hyphae and spores). According to the antimycogram and in consultation with the infectious disease specialist, it was determined that further therapy was to include amphotericin B (250 mg/kg/24 h). One week after the infection occurred voriconazole was included with an initial dose of mg and then 200 mg a day for three weeks. Wound swabs were obtained twice a week; during the first week a biopsy was taken three times. Histological findings of the fifth day of the infection correspond to skin necrosis with the presence of fungi-zygomycetes; the differential diagnosis in the first place is Mucor. Microscopically, skin with large areas of necrosis, covered with dense necrotic detritus, with fibrin and inflammatory infiltrate (Figure 4). In the necrotic masses colonies of bacteria and fungi are clearly visible. Hyphae are broad and long, measuring from about 20 to 30 microns, without septa, branching at an angle of up to 90 degrees. The edges have a darker color than the bright center (Figure 5). A week after the infection began, in the wound swab, Enterococcus and Candida spp. were isolated; after 12 days there was only colonization of Enterococcus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and two days after that the swabs were negative. Blood cultures were negative. The blood analysis showed that sedimentation rate was moderately accelerated for three weeks after the infection occurred (first hour 22 mm/h) and slightly elevated gamma GT (up to 73 U/L). During the whole time the patient was in a good general condition and with normal body temperature. Wound treatment was carried out by repeated necrectomy and dressing with miconazole and compresses of calcium alginate with silver. After the swabs were negative and the skin defects were covered with healthy granulation tissue (Figure 6), transplantation of free skin grafts was carried out. The grafts were fully accepted one week after (Figure 7). There was no proximal propagation of the infection and no need for reamputation. The patient was discharged from the hospital 51 days after the injury.
Fungal infection is easily understood in immunocompromised patients with deficient phagocytosis. In cases of posttraumatic fungal infections (filamentous fungal infection) the existence of acidosis due to the large tissue damage and loss of vitality, with local immunodepression, may be the explanation for the development of this type of infection in previously healthy individuals [1, 2]. Risk factors for fungal infections are existence of immune deficiency, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, myeloproliferative diseases, long-term use of corticosteroids, transplant patients, AIDS, intravenous drug users, and patients undergoing chemotherapy [3–5]. A large number of spores of these fungi are present in the soil. Most of these infections have been described in traffic and agricultural traumatism and in natural disasters . For the fungal infection to develop there has to be an open wound in the skin through which the spores are inoculated into the tissue . That is the reason why initial surgical treatment of wounds is very important, especially in the case of agricultural injuries. Wound toilet, the removal of any foreign material from the wound and its surroundings, disinfection, and debridement of dead tissue are essential. It should be noted that povidone iodine cannot eradicate inert spores from the patient, which may be the explanation for the subsequent development of the fungal infection . These infections are characterized by the invasion of hyphae in healthy tissue and blood vessels and consecutive thrombosis and necrosis of the affected tissue, which is manifested by a local inflammatory reaction and the presence of mold colonies . As a consequence of the infection progression sepsis may develop. In open skin injuries symptoms are usually manifested within 10 days after the injury . Diagnosis is based on the histological examination of repeated tissue biopsies and the culture of wound swabs. The culture of wound exudates is not always reliable, because the results are positive in only 30% of histologically proven Mucor mycosis . Clinically, Mucor mycosis is characterized by necrosis with a dark central part or by necrotizing cellulitis, while in the case of Aspergillus infection papules are present, nodules, and/or necrosis. Histologically, Mucor mycosis is presented with necrosis and invasion of blood vessels; hyphae are broad, not septated (rarely septated), and with a branching angle of 90°. Granulomatous inflammation and focal necrosis are present subcutaneously. Aspergillus infection histological finding corresponds with granuloma or abscess; hyaline dichotomous septated hyphae which are branching at an angle of 45° are seen; also, vascular invasion and occlusion are present . Given the aggressive nature of this fungal infection it is essential to start with the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. Since the symptoms, clinical signs, and local findings are nonspecific, it is crucial to set a high level of suspicion for a fungal infection, immediately discontinue antibiotics, begin aggressive surgical debridement, set the right diagnosis, and initiate parenteral systemic antifungal therapy [4, 7, 8]. Early identification of fungi is important to initiate parenteral antifungal therapy. Antifungal therapy involves intravenous application of amphotericin B in the case of Aspergillus infection and in the case of Mucor mycosis . Since 2002, in addition to amphotericin B, or in combination with it, other antifungal drugs as voriconazole, posaconazole, and so forth are also used . Adequate surgical treatment is of great importance in posttraumatic infections. In these cases, there is a rapid spread of infection followed by expanding areas of necrosis where the penetration of antifungal drugs is difficult, all of which result in the alteration of the local tissue defense capability due to the tissue acidosis and abnormal phagocytic function. Aggressive debridement is one of the preconditions for a successful treatment.
The possibility of fungal infections should always be considered, especially in cases where the infection occurs a week or more after the injury, when there is a loss of skin grafts that were accepted, in the case of a patient with risk factors and patients with severe agricultural injuries. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary for an early diagnosis and the initiation of the adequate treatment. Early detection, surgical intervention, and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare infection that could potentially lead to loss of limbs or even death.
The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper. This paper has not been published previously.
Conflict of Interests
The authors report that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
The authors are indebted to Nina Stajnic for editing the English translation.
Copyright © 2014 Milana Obradovic-Tomasev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
90,000 Treatment of fungal skin diseases in St. Petersburg
The author of the article: Doctor dermatologist-cosmetologist Loskutova E. I.
Work experience: 3 years
On summer days, you always want to take air baths with the maximum effect – the clothes become lighter and more open – the sleeves are shortened or disappear, the trousers turn into shorts.But we can not always allow such a transformation to the items of our wardrobe, and this is due to the ugly neoplasms on the skin. We can assume that this irritation, maybe a sign of an allergy that is about to pass, but it is worth taking a closer look. You may be a victim of a fungal skin disease.
Prices for services
Initial appointment with a dermatologist (assessment of patient complaints, taking anamnesis, examination, making a preliminary diagnosis, consultation)
Initial appointment – a visit to a doctor of a specific specialty for the first time.
To make an appointment
What is skin fungus?
Dermatomycosis (fungal skin diseases) have been known to mankind for a long time. This is the result of exposure to the body of various pathogenic fungi. Once on the skin and mucous membranes, they can penetrate and spread through the blood and lymph vessels throughout the body.
Fungal diseases of the body belong to superficial mycoses, among them are:
- Keratomycosis – fungal lesions of the upper layer of the skin. This group includes pityriasis versicolor, nodular trichosporia, erythrasma, axillary trichomycosis;
- Dermatomycosis – deeper lesions of the skin caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or molds. Among them are epidermomycosis, microsporia, rubromycosis, trichophytosis, favus;
- Candidiasis is a pathological lesion of the skin and mucous membranes by yeast-like fungi Candida albicans.
Who is most susceptible to fungal skin disease?
Today, the prevalence of fungal diseases ranks first in all countries of the world among infectious diseases. In part, this can be explained by the simplicity of infection – the fungus enters the skin of a healthy person through contact with a sick person or indirectly, through common accessories: combs, towels, manicure or pedicure tools, etc.
But in addition to the ingress of pathogenic fungi on the skin, favorable factors are also needed for their survival: a person’s age, excessive sweating, the state of the endocrine glands, a lack of vitamins in the body, and so on.
In addition, infectious and chronic diseases reduce immunity, increasing the body’s susceptibility to fungal infection.
Symptoms and diagnosis of skin fungus
The clinical manifestations of fungal skin lesions are very diverse. Common symptoms include cracking and flaking of the skin, redness, blistering, itching, and burning. But each disease has its own distinctive features, for example:
- With microsporia, there are round or oval, pink or red lesions on the skin (up to 2 cm in diameter), with clear boundaries, desquamation in the center, and covered with vesicles along the periphery;
- Classic symptoms of trichophytosis: the affected areas of a larger size are red-cyanotic, a roller of a bright red hue stands out around the circumference of the altered skin, and on its surface you can see changes in the form of nodules and peeling;
- Signs of mycosis of the feet or hands are characterized by scaling, burning, and the formation of bubbles in the interdigital folds. In the absence of adequate treatment, the infection affects the inguinal-femoral and intergluteal folds, mammary glands, trunk, face, etc.;
- Lesions on the skin in the form of white spots, disturbing every third inhabitant of our planet, most often indicate pityriasis versicolor. Its characteristic feature, for which it also received the name multi-colored, is that at first the spots are pink, light brown in color, and only then the skin is completely discolored. The signs are especially clearly visible after visiting the beach or solarium;
- In candidiasis of the skin, small folds on the hands and feet are affected, followed by the formation of small, inconspicuous bubbles.Over time, the process spreads, erosion forms, the stratum corneum exfoliates.
Make an appointment
How to get rid of skin fungus?
To treat the fungus on the body should be comprehensive and under the supervision of a doctor. A specialist can diagnose fungal infections on a patient’s skin, usually by looking at the appearance of the skin and the location of the rash. Sometimes, in order to confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a study to determine the type of microorganism.The choice of this or that form of treatment depends on the clinical picture, the location of the lesion and the type of pathogen.
Treatment necessarily includes antifungal ointments, lotions, creams, emollients, and exfoliators.
To alleviate the condition, baths and compresses with decoctions and herbal infusions are recommended. To relieve inflammation, lotions, wet-drying dressings are prescribed, and in chronic cases – permissive agents.
In addition, the patient may be prescribed antihistamines, immunomodulators and multivitamins.
Important! Antifungal treatment with both external and internal means should be carried out until the pathogens are completely eradicated. You cannot interrupt the treatment after the first successes, when it seems that the skin is completely cleared. For complete confidence, it is necessary to repeat the examination of tissue from previously affected areas to make sure that there are no more fungi there.
Prevention: How to Avoid Fungal Skin Disease?
There are several rules, following which you can reduce the risk of contracting a fungal infection of the skin and limit its spread:
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene, use your own towel, sponges, slippers, combs, hats and so on;
- A pet can also become a source of infection.Monitor the condition of his coat and skin, if pathologies appear, be sure to show him to the veterinarian;
- Wash clothes and bedding often;
- Keep your feet clean and dry, dry your feet thoroughly after swimming and exercising, paying particular attention to the spaces between the toes;
- Wear cotton socks, they absorb moisture better than woolen ones;
- Wear open shoes in hot weather;
- Treat socks and shoes with antifungal agents.
Compliance with these rules, as well as a timely visit to a doctor, will help you avoid such an unpleasant and ugly infection as a fungal infection of the skin. Do not run the disease even at the slightest suspicion. The clinic “Altermed” is always ready to assist you with top-class dermatologists!
Other articles by this author
90,000 characteristic symptoms and routes of infection
Hand fungus, or scientifically mycosis, spreads at an incredible rate, which indicates a high degree of resistance of pathogenic fungi to the effects of various stress factors that can be quite harmful to other living organisms.One of the evolutionary adaptations of fungi to survival is unpretentiousness in the choice of location and main habitat. Fungi inhabit most accessible places and areas, including the human body, which increases the chances of infection with these pathogenic microorganisms.
Since the mere presence of fungi in the environment and internal environment does not yet indicate the occurrence of an infectious disease, it is worth paying attention to the fact that the fungus begins to pose a particular danger when it begins to multiply.A sharp change in the usual physiological functions of these microorganisms to pathological for humans is explained by a change in the conditions of its existence for those suitable for reproduction, as well as a decrease in the strength of the protective barrier of the human body.
Although fungal microorganisms can exist in critical conditions for up to 2 years, they need a sufficient level of moisture, heat and food material. That is why the fungus most often lives in places inaccessible to direct sunlight, with an increased level of air humidity and a consistently high temperature.
The human fungus is nourished by keratin, which is found in large quantities in the nails, scalp and the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis. Pathogenic fungi most often settle on the outer layers of the skin for more efficient extraction of keratin. They have specific structures that produce proteins and enzymes capable of cleaving and dissolving the superficial stratum corneum of the skin for deeper penetration into the epithelial tissue.
Fungal microorganisms are also able to remove sebum from the outer layer of the skin, which serves as a protective film on the path of penetration of pathogenic microflora, thereby opening up access to the human body.
The main causative agents of fungal infections are dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. The external symptoms of the diseases that they cause are often quite similar, however, each type of mushroom has different methods and ways of treatment, therefore, at the first signs of fungus on the skin of the hands, the best solution would be to consult a dermatologist who can conduct a qualitative diagnosis of pathogenic microflora to establish an accurate diagnosis and drawing up the necessary medical complex.
The characteristic features that determine the specific parasitism of the fungus on the skin are pathological dryness of the epidermis, regular flaking, the appearance of a typical clinical picture of “white flour” in the folds between the fingers, calluses, white and red spots, microcracks on the fingers and palms, permanent itching, thickening of the outer stratum corneum, which is called hyperkeratosis, loose structure of the affected area of the skin, the appearance of characteristic grooves of the transverse and longitudinal direction.
If the focus of infection spreads to the nail plates and ridges, which happens in the case of prolonged parasitization of microorganisms and the transition of the disease to a more severe stage, a person suffering from fungus of the hands may experience a change in the pale pink shade of the nail to yellow, green, purple or brown , which is explained by the increased concentration of horny masses on the skin under the nail plate, the nail itself can bend inward under the pressure of the inflamed nail fold, there are often cases of delamination of the nail plate, which continues to grow, but looks already like a nail that constantly disintegrates into layers and does not have an integral structures.
In especially severe stages of the development of the infection, the nail is separated from the skin, but usually the treatment of the fungus begins much earlier, which helps to avoid such a terminal condition.
Immediately it is necessary to find out that the fungus of the skin of the hands is much less common than the fungus of the feet, since the feet are covered with shoes most of the time, which is the optimal conditions for the development of a fungal infection. Specialists often diagnose both foot fungus and hand fungus at the same time, since one of the most common causes of an infectious disease on the epidermis of the hands is self-infection.The fungus can be transmitted to the nail plates and the outer layer of the skin by washing the feet, as well as by brushing them regularly.
The fungus is often spread from an infected person by shaking hands, sharing wardrobe or personal hygiene items, towels, bedding, washcloths, and gloves.
Fungal infection of the hands most often affects the weaker sex, since women usually do most of the housework, which includes washing dishes, prolonged use of harsh chemical detergents without gloves and damp cleaning.
An increased risk of infection with fungal microorganisms is observed in professionals who often deal with detergents, detergents, solutions and raw dough.
Dermatologists often, when examining patients suffering from a fungal infectious disease, advise to be examined by other doctors, for example, an endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, nephrologist or neurologist. Although the fungus is an independent disease, in people infected with the infection, the immune defense can be significantly weakened, hormonal disturbances, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract or urinary tract can be observed, which reduced the protective functions of the human body, making it an easy and accessible target for pathogenic microflora.
Constant stress and regular conflicts create a stable psycho-emotional background, which also affects the general health of a person, making him vulnerable to pathogens of various diseases and pathologies.
When treating a fungal infection, attention should be paid to general improvement, and not only to local treatment of the focus of the disease, since dermatologists classify fungus on the skin of the hands as a recurrent disease that can come back again and again until the body becomes strong enough to resist the onslaught of pathogens.
Prevention of fungal infection is possible with the systematic observance of basic rules of hygiene and basic principles of prevention.
Since the action of aggressive chemicals thinns the skin, removes the protective layer of sebum and can provoke cracks in the epidermis, experts strongly recommend working with surfactants and detergents in gloves, and then thoroughly rinse your hands with soap and apply a nourishing cream.
Try, if possible, to avoid violations of the integrity of the skin and injuries, as damage to the outer skin opens up pathogenic microflora access to internal tissues and organs.If damage to the integrity of the epidermis is still present, the wound should be disinfected and treated.
For preventive purposes, you should visit a doctor at least once every six months, since most diseases are characterized by an asymptomatic initial stage of development, which complicates the diagnosis of pathology. All emerging diseases should be treated in a timely manner, without ignoring the symptoms, since the appearance of one anomaly can lead to the development of another.
You must carefully monitor your daily diet, which should include dairy products, fish and poultry meat, fresh vegetables and fruits, garlic, peppers, citrus fruits, legumes, nuts, herbs and dried apricots.
By carefully monitoring your health, adjusting the daily routine and nutrition, as well as systematically observing the basic rules of hygiene, you can avoid infection with a fungus, since it is always easier to prevent a disease than to cure it.
symptoms, signs and treatment of a fungal infection
Fungal infections of the skin and nails are one of the most common diseases. According to official statistics, only onychomycosis – nail fungus – affects from 2 to 14% of people in the world, and unofficial data speak of 10–20% .
Damage to the skin and its appendages is caused by a large group of parasitic fungi, but the main pathogens are dermatomycetes, yeast-like and mold fungi. The occurrence of fungal diseases is closely related to the climatic and living conditions in which people live, as well as age, the presence of concomitant pathologies and profession.
Fungal infection is potentially harmful to the whole body. And those patients who perceive it exclusively as an aesthetic problem that require masking under a layer of varnish or foundation are deeply mistaken – mycosis must be treated.In the absence of adequate therapy, fungal infection can rapidly progress and infect more and more new areas of the body. With advanced forms of the disease, an allergic reaction occurs in the body, provoking eczema and allergic dermatitis. The appearance of foci not only on the skin and nails, but even on the blood vessels and lymph nodes of the legs is possible, which, in turn, leads to the development or aggravation of trophic ulcers of the lower extremities .
Besides, nail and skin fungus is highly contagious – it is easily transmitted from person to person.If one of the family members has a fungal infection, then with a high probability, after a while, the rest of the household will also catch the infection. This is especially true today, when, due to the pandemic, people are forced to spend more time at home, actively interacting with each other. But the current situation also has its pluses: many have the opportunity to work remotely, which means that now is the time to stop hiding the fungus with decorative means and start treating it closely.
Fungal infection of the skin and nails: causes and symptoms
The causes of fungal infection are quite simple, most often it is direct contact with an already sick person or objects that he used – washcloths, slippers, towels, bathroom rugs, manicure accessories.Quite often, infection occurs when visiting saunas and baths, swimming pools, water parks, gyms, solariums, public beaches.
As already mentioned, the climate plays an important role in the spread of skin and nail fungus. Most often, mycoses are recorded in subtropical regions: heat and humidity contribute to the development of the disease. Mycoses are also common among residents of regions with a temperate and cold climate – where residents have to wear warm shoes for a long time.
Several factors contribute to the development of onychomycosis and skin mycoses:
- Wearing tight or poorly breathing shoes. This is especially true for women who spend most of their day in tight high-heeled shoes in pursuit of fashion. But often the fungus occurs in those who, by the nature of their activity, are forced to stay in uncomfortable shoes or shoes made of synthetic materials for a long time – miners, workers of metallurgical enterprises, cleaning workers, and the military.
- Injuries to nails and skin can be a gateway for pathogenic fungi to enter the body. The development of mycosis is facilitated by micro-damage to the skin – cracks in the folds between the fingers, arising from increased sweating or, conversely, dry skin, poor drying after contact with water, and even because of flat feet.
- Violation of the blood supply in the fingers. It is most common in people who are sedentary, overweight, smoke, and wear uncomfortable or tight shoes. Insufficient blood supply deprives cells of essential nutrients and oxygen, weakens them, creates conditions for the rooting of mycelium.
- Weakened immunity. In this case, the body simply does not have enough resources to cope with the dangerous “aggressor”. In people with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, as well as constantly taking antibiotics, corticosteroids and cytostatics, fungus on the skin and nails occurs five times more often than in healthy people .
- Concomitant diseases. Venous insufficiency, lymphostasis, and foot deformities are predisposing to the appearance of mycoses. Very often, the fungus infects patients with diabetes mellitus – the risk of mycosis incidence increases by 30% .
- Older age. Skin lesions with fungal infections and nail fungal infections are more common in middle-aged and elderly people, while mycoses are extremely rare in children and adolescents .In most cases, this is due to age-related changes in the body, for example, a decrease in the growth rate of the nail plates.
Elderly people, unfortunately, rarely pay attention to fungal diseases, so relatives should be vigilant and caring, if necessary, immediately organize a visit to the doctor and monitor the implementation of all medical appointments.
It is not so difficult to identify a fungus, it has a whole bunch of characteristic features. Moreover, the manifestations of a fungal infection of the skin and nails are generally similar.
The symptoms of a fungal skin infection are as follows.
- Dryness and flaking. They are one of the first to appear, on the affected area in the form of separate scales, the upper layer of the epidermis begins to be rejected. With a deeper lesion, active peeling of the skin occurs, which intensifies over time.
- Skin thickening. The affected area is thickened, rough to the touch, often coarse, and discolored from pinkish to grayish or yellowish.
- Red or white spots with sharp edges. At the initial stage of the disease, only one such spot of a small size may appear – it is very important to notice it in time. Later, more and more new spots appear, which merge with each other. The skin in these areas may hurt or itch.
- Small eruptions or blisters filled with liquid.
- Burning and itching is one of the most characteristic symptoms of skin fungus. They can be present constantly, giving the patient considerable discomfort, and sometimes they appear only periodically.
Nail fungus is characterized by the following clinical signs:
- Discoloration of the affected nail. A healthy nail is translucent, has a pale pink color and a white edge. At the first stage of the disease, spots of gray, white or yellow appear on the nail, their number gradually increases, capturing more and more space of the nail.
- Thickening of the nail plate. The stratum corneum with a fungal infection begins to grow, the nail becomes uneven and thick.
- Destruction of the nail plate (onycholysis). The nail is crumbling and flaking from its bed, sometimes completely. This symptom manifests itself with advanced onychomycosis.
- Inflammation of the skin around the affected nail.
It should be noted that nail fungus is often accompanied by skin fungus, since usually the infection of the nail plate occurs after infection of the feet and interdigital folds. For this reason, itching, burning and foul odor can be considered symptoms of both types of disease.
How can a fungal infection be treated
Today there are many effective antimycotic drugs for the treatment of fungal diseases, which differ from each other in the form of release and compositions, which means that they are more or less suitable for the treatment of mycoses of various localization.
- Medicinal varnishes . Most of them are made on the basis of such active substances as amorolfine, ciclopirox and terbinafine, more “exotic” varnishes include rye enzymes or formic acid.It should be noted that the therapeutic effect of varnishes is possible only in the initial stages of the disease, when the fungus has not yet penetrated into the deep layers of the nail plate. In other cases, these funds are suitable only for a slight masking of the signs of the disease.
- Tablets . Tableted forms of antimycotics are produced for the treatment of mainly systemic mycoses; they may include amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole. These substances are capable of destroying the cell membrane, blocking the synthesis of DNA and RNA of the fungus, and stopping the formation of new spores in the human body.Tablets must be taken in courses, clearly observing the time of admission and dosage. In some cases, the course of treatment can last for several months, but it gives a lasting positive effect. The difficulty in prescribing pills is that they have numerous contraindications that limit the possibility of taking them by elderly patients, who are precisely at the main risk group for morbidity. Many systemic antimycotics are quite toxic and can disrupt the work of internal organs.
- Solutions . The main plus of this dosage form is high efficiency in the absence of many contraindications inherent in the tablet forms of antimycotics, because the medicinal substances of the solutions are practically not absorbed into the systemic circulation, and therefore do not have a negative effect on the body as a whole. Another plus is the ability to penetrate deep into the layers of the skin: this, by the way, makes the solution the optimal dosage form for the treatment of onychomycosis.
- Creams. These agents are mainly used to treat skin fungus. The fatty base forms a special film on the skin surface, relieves itching and burning, and the active substance fights against fungal infection.
Unfortunately, many people, embarrassed by their illness, try to hide the signs of a fungal infection instead of going to a specialist and starting treatment. Delay in this case is fraught not only with the progression of the fungal infection, but also with the appearance of new infected in the family.
All information related to health and medicine is presented for informational purposes only and is not a reason for self-diagnosis or self-medication.
Is a fungus dangerous? – Bratsk regional dermatovenerologic dispensary
WHAT IS A FUNGUS?
Fungal diseases of the skin and nails belong to the group of human infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic fungi.Fungal infections (mycoses) are different. There are very severe forms of infections with a high mortality rate. However, not many people suffer from them. Mycosis of the nails is not one of them and it is impossible to die directly from it. But fungal infection of the skin and nails is one of the most common fungal diseases. It is a contagious disease that spreads from person to person.
WHAT DOES A FUNGUS LOOK ON NAILS?
Many people do not pay attention to changes in the nail plates, very often they consider these changes to be a consequence of trauma or age characteristics.Fungal nail diseases have many different manifestations. But as a rule, changes in nails with a fungal disease have three main manifestations: changes in the color of the nail plate, its thickening, crumbling or destruction.
FUNGUS OR NOT FUNGUS?
So, you may notice some changes in the skin or nail plates. It remains to decide whether it is a fungus or not.
Many non-fungal diseases of the skin and nails are known – several hundred names.However, according to statistics, every second nail disease is fungal. That is, if your nails are changed, the chance of having a nail fungus is 50%, regardless of any manifestations and factors. But what about diseases of the skin of the feet? They obey the same laws of probability. That is, most of the lesions of the skin of the feet are fungal. Remember, untreated fungus on the skin of the feet will sooner or later turn into nail fungus. And it is not so easy to get rid of the nail fungus. Don’t be fooled. If you suspect you have a skin or nail disease, contact your mycologist!
Although most nail changes turn out to be fungal, another nature of these changes should be considered.Here it is necessary to highlight, first of all, chronic nail trauma. Changes in nails can occur with some common skin diseases, internal infectious diseases, lesions of the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems, various kinds of intoxication, as well as dystrophy. Finally, nail changes can be congenital. These nail changes are outwardly similar to fungal infections, but they are not. Treatment with antifungal drugs for non-fungal nail diseases, of course, will not be successful.This is another reason to consult a mycologist, and not try to heal yourself for any nail changes.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO RECOGNIZE THE NAIL FUNGUS?
No, you can’t! And not a single professional doctor, no matter how experienced he has, will undertake the treatment of a fungal disease without confirming the diagnosis in the laboratory, even with the most typical signs of fungus on the legs. Laboratory confirmation is a prerequisite for any fungal disease.Simply put, if the laboratory finds a fungus in a skin flake or a piece of a nail taken for analysis, then this is a fungal disease.
DILEMMA: TO TREAT OR NOT TO TREAT THE FUNGUS?
Some people have doubts about whether it is worth taking a nail fungus treatment at all. Many argue as follows: does the treatment of a fungal disease require money? Requires. How long will it take to be treated? Perhaps for a long time. Then, really, why bother to be treated for mycosis? Is it all the same that the nails are changed, because they can finally be hidden …
Is this game worth the candle? Why do you need mycosis treatment? Let’s try to understand this issue …
Once started, the fungal infection will not go anywhere until the fungus is destroyed.Fungi are very tenacious and can survive for months in the fallen off skin scales. What, then, can you expect from the fungus lurking in the nails? First, the cells of the fungus enter the skin, become fixed, multiply and spread on it, and then, under favorable conditions, are introduced into the nail. Over time, the fungus affects all parts of the nail and spreads to other nails or skin. Nail fungus is a hotbed and source of infection for other parts of the body. Even if all foci of the fungus on the skin of the feet or trunk are cured, then re-infection will come from the remaining foci of infection in the nails.
Fungal nail diseases impair quality of life. Research conducted by the National Academy of Mycology has shown that the presence of nail fungus or mycosis of the feet significantly reduces the quality of life – a set of indicators characterizing the emotional, mental and social well-being of a person. It turned out that the quality of life in case of fungal nail disease decreases on average to 50–55% of the full value typical for a healthy person. At the same time, patients noted not only physical inconveniences associated with thickening or destruction of nails, but also experienced various experiences, fears, negative emotions.It was found that the nail fungus severely limits a person’s activity, interfering with his rest, sports, communication with other people. Moreover, feelings of discomfort and shame for the condition of their nails sometimes prevented them from seeing a doctor in a timely manner. The longer the disease lasted, the more severe the nail fungus became, and the worse the quality of life became.
In addition to reducing the quality of life, fungus leads to certain health problems. The first and main health problem, which is caused by the presence of nail mycosis, is the fungus itself – a chronic infectious disease that is steadily destroying nails, and threatens to spread to the people around them, especially to the family members of the patient.The presence of a relative with a fungus, by the way, is noted by at least 1/3 of patients with nail lesions. According to medical statistics and epidemiological studies, in Russia, the presence of fungal nail disease can be expected in almost every fifth adult. At the same time, the incidence over the past 10 years has increased by 2.5 times. A further increase in the incidence is expected. At the same time, the likelihood of the presence of a fungus increases with age: approximately 2 times for every 10 years of life.
Untreated nail mycosis and mycosis of the feet are considered as gateways for other infectious diseases – for example, bacterial – erysipelas.Fungal nail infection significantly complicates the course of diabetes mellitus and can lead to serious complications.
Allergization of the human body with a fungal infection is possible – the formation of hypersensitivity to the fungus as an allergen, that is, fungal allergy. The development or worsening of the course of diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic dermatitis, various skin rashes and reactions is possible.
In very rare cases, as a rule, against the background of immunodeficiency, untreated nail fungus led to the development of deep mycosis – the germination or penetration of the fungus with blood into the internal organs, which was fatal.Fortunately, most modern nail fungus patients do not have such outcomes. But even if you completely exclude their possibility, you can not leave the fungal disease of the nails without treatment. It is impossible not to treat scabies, head lice and other infectious diseases. If you have a suspicion of nail fungus, we advise you to see a doctor as soon as possible.
While we were thinking this way, the fungus in someone’s nail may have moved forward a fraction of a millimeter. This is his job, a small business, so to speak.The fungus does this all the time, day in and day out. Days add up to weeks, weeks to months, months to years. Over the years, the disease becomes worse if the fungus is left untreated. In one of the latest studies, it was shown that every 5 years the severity of onychomycosis increases by several points of a special scale. This means that new nails are affected by the fungus, and in each of them the affected area and the degree of thickening grow. This means that the negative impact of mycosis on health and quality of life will be stronger.This is a proven fact. But that is not all. The more severe the fungal infection of the nails, the more difficult it is to treat. If in the early stages of infection antifungal varnish or nail solution can help, then after a few years, antifungal pills cannot be dispensed with. The longer the illness lasts, the longer they will have to be taken (and more to buy). And after ten to twenty years, as a rule, only the removal of the nail plate, plus these funds, will help.
See your doctor as early as possible.Every year you give the fungus a delay, you lengthen the required period of treatment and observation, add large doses of drugs, make the necessary processing of nails. Don’t make a big mistake – don’t take systemic medications on your own!
If fungal diseases of the nails did not cause the changes mentioned above, then, in fact, the treatment of the fungus would become just a matter of attitude to one’s appearance. Then we would put healthy nails on the same list along with white teeth, clear skin and no bad odor.And the question of the cost of treating mycosis would sound like this: Are you willing to give money to get back your un-eaten, un-thickened and unwanted nails? However, the question is not the only one. Are you willing to pay to protect your family from athlete’s foot? Do you want to regain your previous quality of life? Are you able to stop the spread of infection today?
We hope that we have convinced you that the fungus is a disease and it should be treated. BECAUSE ELSE – YOU WILL GIVE YOURSELF THE FUNGUS “FOR EATING” AND IT WILL BE NEGATIVE
REFLECTED ON YOUR LIFE IF IT IS NOT RID OF IT!
BECAUSE ANYWHERE – YOU WILL infect your relatives and friends, and then the rest of the people!
90,000 Fungal skin diseases “Clinic of cosmetology and dermatology” LaserVita “- treatment of skin and hair.
The most common culprits of this skin lesion are:
Rubrophytosis most often affects the nails, skin of the palms, buttocks, thighs and lower legs, but it can be localized on any part of the body, including the skin of the face.
Onychomycosis with rubrophytosis is characterized by the defeat of all nails. At the same time, the appearance in the thickness of the nail of stripes of yellowish and white color, subungual hyperkeratosis, significant thinning, exfoliation of the nail plate from the nail bed with the formation of voids is characteristic.
Rubrophytosis of the hands at the onset of the disease is characterized by lesions of the skin of the palms and is unilateral. Dry skin, thickening of the stratum corneum, peeling and exaggeration of skin furrows are observed.
Rubrophytosis of smooth skin is characterized by the presence of pink or red-pink spots of rounded outlines with clear boundaries. Small scales are usually present on the surface of the spots, along their periphery there is a ridge consisting of papules. The defeat of the vellus hair. Hair loses its natural shine, becomes dull and brittle.
Epidermophytosis of nails (onychomycosis)
Caused by various types of fungi. After onset, lesions often become chronic and asymptomatic. The disease is observed in 20% of cases over the age of 40-60 years.
Characteristic symptoms: yellow or white nail plate, the surface of the nail may soften, become dry and flaky, may thicken and acquire various shades of yellow-brown, etc.
This skin lesion is caused by fungi of the genus Candida, which can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes.Candida also exists in the normal flora of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. It manifests itself as pustules, a red naked shiny surface. The most common: diaper dermatitis, candidiasis of large skin folds, candidal balanitis. Grows and spreads best in warm, humid environments.
Caused by lipophilic yeasts of the species Pityrosporum orbiculare. It is also part of the normal skin flora.Excess moisture and heat predisposes to infection. It is characterized by numerous small scaly papules, more often on the upper half of the body. Itching rarely bothers. On dark skin, lesions appear in the form of hypopigmentation, and on light skin they have a pink or yellowish-brown color.
Doctors of the Academy of Dermatology “Lazervita” approach treatment in a complex manner. We offer not only drug therapy, but also physiotherapy methods for a speedy recovery and rehabilitation.
Fungal skin diseases: symptoms and prevention
Today, fungal skin diseases are an urgent problem for many people.The impetus for the development of mycosis can be not only walking barefoot in public places or poorly fitted shoes, which provide an optimal climatic environment for fungus (fever and sweating of the feet), but also a weakening of the immune system, as well as endocrine diseases of the pancreas (diabetes mellitus) or the thyroid gland.
Fungi are everywhere – in the air, in the soil, on the skin of every person. A healthy body is in symbiosis with a fungus. But as soon as the conditions change, and the fungus immediately breaks “neutrality.”About how to protect yourself from fungal infection, what to do in case of infection and how long to treat the consequences of mycosis Beauty HUB asked the expert.
– Yaroslav, tell us what a fungal skin disease is and how it manifests itself.
– Fungal skin lesions are diseases caused by parasitic fungi, which, when in contact with the skin, retain the ability to grow rapidly and aggressively. Fungal skin diseases can be divided into four large groups.
1. Keratomycosis – diseases in which fungi parasitize in the superficial parts of the stratum corneum of the epidermis and do not cause acute manifestations of inflammation, and, therefore, rarely cause itching and discomfort. Often manifested by various spots on the skin of the back, chest, shoulders. The color of the affected area can be from pale pink to dark brown, while there may be slight peeling of the skin and intermittent itching.
2. Dermatomycosis – diseases in which parasitic fungi grow in deeper layers of the skin and can affect hair and nails (onychomycosis).This group of fungal infections is highly contagious (infectious). The rash may be accompanied by allergy-like blisters near the primary lesion. Clinical signs: redness of smooth skin, skin folds, color from pink to bright red. In areas of inflammation, hair may fall out; the affected nails change shape, exfoliate, turn yellow, brown, and an unpleasant odor may appear.
3. Fungal diseases that cause Malassezia and Candida can be distinguished into separate groups.These representatives can normally “live” on the skin and mucous membranes of a person (saprophytes). But under certain conditions (antibiotic therapy, reduced immunity , violation of hygienic care) can acquire pathogenic properties and cause diseases such as candidiasis (oral mucosa, genitals, rarely smooth skin, nails), seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, reticular papillomatosis. Diseases can be accompanied by severe discomfort (itching, burning). Visual signs: skin and mucous membranes are red, irritated.
– Where is the most common infection of the fungus and how is it transmitted?
– Unfortunately, everyone can become infected with a fungus, because we have a large number of social contacts, we are constantly surrounded by many people. Sick people carry a fungal infection, therefore, it is more likely to become infected when visiting the pool, saunas, water parks, baths, beauty salons, hairdressers, etc. The likelihood of getting sick increases in the elderly, with diabetes, diseases accompanied by impaired blood circulation in the extremities , which can lead to violations of the barrier properties of the skin.
– How to treat onychomycosis? Is it possible to fix the problem on my own or only under the supervision of a doctor?
– Diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis should only take place under the supervision and supervision of a physician. At the same time, it is important to correctly carry out the diagnosis, which the patient cannot carry out on his own due to the lack of knowledge and experience in this area, as well as the appropriate equipment.
As for the treatment, it all depends on the location of the lesion, the depth of the lesion of the skin, the area.Treatment requires a systematic and precise implementation of prescriptions. Otherwise, a positive result will not be achieved, and the disease may become topical. In the treatment of onychomycosis, various dosage forms are used: creams, ointments, special kits, etc. A systemic approach includes the need to take antifungal pills. At the consultation, the dermatologist must explain in detail and justify the principles of treatment and the importance of its correct implementation.
– How long does it take to recover from a fungus?
– Depending on the location of the lesion, the area and depth of penetration of the fungal infection, treatment takes from several weeks (21 days) to several months (3-9 months).
– What can you recommend to prevent this disease? Your top tips for your patients.
– My main advice is to live a fulfilling, happy life. And stick to these simple rules.
- Observe personal hygiene.
- Please use personalized bath accessories.
- Do not measure shoes on bare feet in stores, clothes on the body without underwear.
- Have your own set of manicure and pedicure tools.
- If you are concerned about something, seek the help of a dermatologist.
Subscribe to our Facebook and do not miss the most useful materials from Beauty HUB !
90,000 Fungal skin lesions | Therapy
Symptoms of skin lesions by a fungal infection, as a rule, appear in the form of slight irritation, peeling and redness, may be accompanied by itching, swelling, blistering and severe peeling.Fungi usually live on wet areas of the body, in places where the skin comes into contact with the skin: in the interdigital spaces of the feet and hands, in the groin areas, in women – under the mammary glands. In the skin folds of the trunk – in obese, obese people.
Fungal infection has an interesting feature of causing the appearance of rashes on skin areas remote from the main focus of infection. For example, with lesions of the feet, blistering rashes appear on the palmar surface of the fingers of the hand.This is due to the fact that the fungal infection causes allergization of the whole body.
To confirm the presence of a fungal infection, the doctor must make a skin scraping and send it to the laboratory to establish the fact of fungal infection.
In case of damage to the nails (onychomycosis), both on the toes and on the fingers of the hands, as a rule, the Trichophyton fungus is found in the analyzes (scrapings). The affected nail becomes yellowish-brown in color, thickens, begins to crumble, due to which the fungus spreads to the fingers.Also, trichophyton can form rounded foci with enlightenment in the center on any part of the skin, on the periphery of which there is a red or pink rash.
The defeat of the groin area can be caused by various types of fungi, including yeast. More often men suffer from this disease, especially young ones who are actively involved in sports, which is accompanied by an inevitable increase in sweating. In addition to epidermophytosis of the inguinal folds, the trunk is often affected by the fungus Pitirosporum – with natural light skin, dark, flaky spots are noted, with natural dark skin, light spots.Balzer’s test for latent peeling is positive. Most often, spots are located on the upper back, the front surface of the chest, on the lateral surfaces of the trunk. After some time, individual spots merge with each other, forming large foci. With severe damage, such foci appear on the elbows, in the popliteal fossa.
When treating a fungal infection, in addition to the use of medicines prescribed by a doctor, it is necessary to observe dry skin, since ignoring this simple rule can delay recovery for a long time, or the treatment may be ineffective.