What is prevacid used for: Side Effects of Prevacid (Lansoprazole), Warnings, Uses
Prevacid – Uses, Side Effects, Warnings and Interactions
Prevacid (lansoprazole) belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). These are powerful heartburn drugs.
Other PPIs include Nexium, Prilosec and Protonix.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Prevacid in 1995. Prevacid is available in prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) versions.
Recent studies link Prevacid to several serious health risks, especially when taken long-term. Some of the risks associated with Prevacid can result in serious injury or death. These include kidney damage and cancer.
Patients have filed Prevacid lawsuits after suffering severe side effects.
People should speak with their doctors before starting or stopping Prevacid.
What Does Prevacid Treat?
Prevacid treats certain problems related to excess stomach acid. It is generally intended for short-term use — anywhere from 10 days to 12 weeks. But patients sometimes use it for longer periods of time.
Ulcers are open sores in the lining of the stomach.
FDA Approved Prevacid Uses
- Treating and maintaining duodenal ulcers
- Certain gastric ulcer treatments
- Treating symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Treatment and maintenance of erosive esophagitis (EE)
- Treating Zollenger-Ellison syndrome and other hypersecretory conditions
- H. pylori treatment
Prevacid is not meant for quick relief of heartburn. It takes up to four days to relieve symptoms.
Lansoprazole is the active ingredient in Prevacid. It is not effective at treating symptomatic GERD in infants.
How Prevacid Works
Prevacid decreases the amount of acid in the stomach. It blocks an enzyme in the stomach wall responsible for producing the acid. This prevents proton pumps in the stomach from releasing acid.
Decreased stomach acid gives the stomach and esophagus time to heal. It also prevents further damage and complications. This can prevent ulcers from developing or recurring.
Prevacid vs. Zantac
Prevacid is a PPI, like Nexium and Prilosec. PPIs differ from h3 blockers like Zantac and Pepcid.
Both types of medication prevent the stomach from producing too much acid. But they do it in different ways.
Prevacid affects tiny proton pumps that generate acid through a chemical process. Zantac prevents acid-producing cells from responding to histamines in the stomach.
Zantac is advertised to work in as little as 30 minutes. Prevacid can take days and multiple doses to take effect.
Zantac was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2020 and is no longer available. Available h3 blockers include famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).
Learn More About The Zantac Recall
Serious Prevacid Side Effects, Risks and Warnings
Studies have linked Prevacid and other PPIs to several serious side effects. PPI side effects are most common with long-term use lasting a year or more.
Short-term Prevacid use does not usually cause side effects. When side effects do occur, they are typically mild.
Some of the common side effects of Prevacid are constipation, diarrhea, stomach pain and nausea.
Call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms. They could indicate serious side effects of Prevacid.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Decreased or bloody urine
- Watery or bloody diarrhea
- Muscle aches or weakness
- Jerking muscle movements
The FDA has issued several Prevacid warnings since 2010.
Prevacid warnings include:
- Osteoporosis and fractures of the hip, wrist and spine
- Low magnesium levels
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (severe diarrhea that can contain blood or pus)
- Kidney disease and kidney failure due to acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
- Lupus erythematosus (autoimmune disease)
For a complete list of potential side effects, symptoms and FDA warnings, speak to your pharmacist or doctor and review the drug label.
People who suffered kidney problems have filed Prevacid lawsuits. As of July 2019, there were 12,775 pending lawsuits over several different PPIs.
A federal panel combined the lawsuits in a multidistrict litigation. MDLs allow several similar lawsuits to move more quickly through the legal process. The cases are in New Jersey federal court.
Injuries Claimed in Prevacid Lawsuits
- Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)
Multiple lawsuits claim Prevacid and other proton pump inhibitors caused serious side effects that led to kidney disease and failure. Read more about currently pending litigation.
How to Take Prevacid
People take Prevacid orally. It is available in delayed-release capsules and delayed-release orally disintegrating tablets.
Patients can swallow the delayed-release capsules whole. People place the disintegrating tablets on the tongue and allow them to dissolve with or without water.
Patients should take either version before a meal. People should not crush either form of the medicine.
Forms Prevacid Comes In
Prevacid comes in several forms. Over-the-counter and generic prescription versions are available. There are also store brand equivalents. All forms contain the same active ingredient, lansoprazole.
Available Prevacid Versions and Equivalents
- Prescription brand-name for lansoprazole; available in capsule form
- Prevacid SoluTab
- Prescription version of Prevacid designed to dissolve; available for suspension in liquids and as a tablet that dissolves in the mouth
- Prevacid 24HR
- Over-the-counter (OTC) version of Prevacid
- Generic lansoprazole
- Generic prescription versions
- Store brands
- Includes Heartburn Relief 24 Hour and Heartburn Treatment 24 Hour; comparable to Prevacid 24HR
Prescription Prevacid versions come in both 15 mg and 30 mg pills. Prevacid 24 HR comes in 15 mg pills.
Dosages can vary based on the condition Prevacid treats. Doctors may also consider the age and weight of the patient. Doctors may adjust the dosage depending on the patient’s other health conditions.
The recommended daily dosage of Prevacid in people with liver disease is 15 mg.
Recommended Prevacid Doses for Adults
|Condition Being Treated||Recommended Dose||Taken How Often & How Long|
|Duodenal ulcers||15 mg||Once daily for 8 weeks for short-term treatment Once daily for maintenance of healed ulcer|
|Eradication of H. pylori bacteria – Triple therapy||30 mg (Prevacid)
1 gram (Amoxicillin)
500 mg (Clarithromycin)
|Twice daily for 10 to 14 days|
|Benign gastric ulcer||30 mg||Once daily for up to 8 weeks for short-term treatment|
|NSAID-associated gastric ulcer||30 mg or 15 mg||Once daily for 8 weeks for healing
Once daily for up to 12 weeks for risk reduction
|GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)||15 mg or 30 mg||Once a day for up to 8 weeks for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD
Once a day for up to 8 weeks for short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis (EE)
|Maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis (EE)||15 mg||Once a day (controlled studies did not go beyond 12 weeks of treatment)|
|Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome||60 mg||Once daily (doses and length of time of treatment can vary per patient)|
Recommended Prevacid Doses for Children
|Condition Being Treated||Recommended Dose||Taken How Often & How Long|
|Short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis (EE) (ages 1 to 11)||15 mg for kids weighing under 30 kg
30 mg for those weighing more than 30 kg
15 mg for kids weighing under 30 kg
|Once a day for up to 12 weeks|
|Short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD (ages 12 to 17)||15 mg (non-erosive GERD)
30 mg (erosive esophagitis)
|Once daily for up to 8 weeks|
Several recent studies have associated side effects with PPI use in infants. A 2017 study found Prevacid given before a child’s first birthday increased bone fracture risks. And a 2018 study found PPIs taken in infancy can lead to childhood allergies.
Prevacid Overdose and Missed Dose Information
It may be possible to overdose on Prevacid. But a case study found a person who took 20 times the adult dose suffered no adverse reactions.
Tests on rats and mice found no relative overdose risk at 1,300 times the adult dose. Overdose symptoms may include passing out or trouble breathing.
“If over-exposure occurs, call your poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or over-exposure. ”
If a person misses a Prevacid dose, he or she should take a dose as soon as possible. If the person is nearing the time for the next dose, he or she may wait until the next scheduled time.
Prescription vs. Prevacid 24HR (OTC)
Prevacid is available by prescription or over-the-counter (OTC). Prevacid 24HR is the non-prescription version.
Studies have found that Prevacid 24HR often works as well as prescription Prevacid. Prevacid 24HR is only available in a 15 mg dose.
People can take one Prevacid 24HR 15 mg pill daily for 14 days. Prevacid 24HR users should not take the drug for more than 14 days. They should wait at least four months before taking Prevacid 24HR again.
Who Should Not Take Prevacid?
People who are allergic to lansoprazole should not take Prevacid. People allergic to any other PPI or other Prevacid ingredient should avoid it.
Ingredients vary with each Prevacid version. Check label ingredients for allergies before taking Prevacid.
Patients with PKE should talk with their doctor before taking Prevacid SoluTabs.
People Should Talk with Their Doctor Before Taking Prevacid If They Have:
- Low blood magnesium
- Liver disease
- Allergies to any PPI or PPI ingredient
- Phenylketonuria (PKE)
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult their doctor before taking Prevacid or any other medication.
Prevacid Drug Interactions
Prevacid interactions can happen with 290 other drugs or dietary supplements. People should tell their doctor what drugs they take before starting Prevacid.
Some Prevacid interactions can happen with things as common as aspirin or fish oil.
Prevacid Drug Interactions
|HIV Antiretrovirals (including rilpivirine, atazanavir, delavirdine and nelfinavir)||Decreases or increases drug effects|
|Warfarin||Increases risk of bleeding or death|
|Methotrexate||Can lead to methotrexate toxicity|
|Theophylline||Increases clearance of theophylline|
|Drugs dependent on gastric pH for absorption (iron salts)||Reduces absorption|
|Antibiotics (clarithromycin and amoxicillin)||Possible serious adverse reactions, including potentially fatal arrhythmias|
|Tacrolimus||Increases drug’s effects|
|CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 inducers (St. John’s Wort, rifampin and Ritonavir-containing products)||Decreases Prevacid effects|
|CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 inhibitors (voriconazole)||Increases Prevacid effects|
|Sucralfate||Decreases and delays Prevacid absorption|
|Clopidogrel (Plavix)||Decreases effectiveness of Plavix, can increase heart attack risk|
|Aminophylline||May increase aminophylline levels by slowing metabolism, may result in aminophylline toxicity in extremely high doses (interaction is unlikely and effects are minor)|
Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.
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Lansoprazole: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Prescription lansoprazole comes as a delayed-release (releases the medication in the intestine to prevent break-down of the medication by stomach acids) capsule and as a delayed-release orally disintegrating (dissolving) tablet to take by mouth. Nonprescription lansoprazole comes as a delayed-release capsule to take by mouth. Prescription lansoprazole is usually taken once a day, before a meal. When taken in combination with other medications to eliminate H. pylori, prescription lansoprazole is taken twice a day (every 12 hours) or three times a day (every 8 hours), before a meal, for 10 to 14 days. Nonprescription lansoprazole is usually taken once a day, in the morning before eating for 14 days. If needed, additional 14-day treatments may be repeated, not more often than once every 4 months. Take lansoprazole at around the same time(s) every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take lansoprazole exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often or for a longer time than prescribed by your doctor or stated on the package. Tell your doctor if you have taken nonprescription lansoprazole for a longer period of time than stated on the package.
Swallow the prescription capsules whole; do not split, chew, or crush them. If you have difficulty swallowing capsules, you may open the capsule, sprinkle the granules on 1 tablespoon of applesauce, Ensure® pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt, or strained pears and swallow the mixture immediately without chewing. You can also open a capsule and pour the contents into 2 ounces (60 milliliters) of orange juice, apple juice or tomato juice, mix briefly, and swallow immediately. After you swallow the mixture, rinse the glass with some additional juice and drink immediately. Then rinse the glass with juice at least two more times and drink the juice to be sure that you wash all the medication out of the glass.
Swallow the nonprescription capsules whole with a glass of water. Do not split, chew, or crush them.
Do not break, cut or chew the orally disintegrating tablets. Place a tablet on your tongue and wait up to one minute for it to dissolve. After the tablet dissolves, swallow it with or without water. If you cannot swallow the tablet, you may place it in an oral syringe, draw up 4 mL of water for a 15 mg tablet or 10 mL of water for a 30-mg tablet, shake the syringe gently to dissolve the tablet, and squirt the contents into your mouth immediately. Then draw an additional 2 mL of water into the syringe, shake gently, and squirt that water into your mouth. Do not swallow the mixture more than 15 minutes after you dissolve the tablet.
The capsule contents and orally disintegrating tablets can both be given through a feeding tube. If you have a feeding tube, ask your doctor how you should take the medication. Follow these directions carefully.
Do not take nonprescription lansoprazole for immediate relief of heartburn symptoms. It may take 1 to 4 days for you to feel the full benefit of the medication. Call your doctor if your symptoms get worse or do not improve after 14 days or if your symptoms return sooner than 4 months after you finish your treatment. Do not take nonprescription lansoprazole for longer than 14 days or treat yourself with lansoprazole more often than once every 4 months without talking to your doctor.
Continue to take lansoprazole even if you feel well. Do not stop taking prescription lansoprazole without talking to your doctor. If your condition does not improve or gets worse, call your doctor.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a copy of the manufacturer’s information for the patient.
Prevacid – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions
How does this medication work? What will it do for me?
Lansoprazole belongs to the family of medications called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). These medications slow or prevent the production of acid within the stomach.
Lansoprazole is used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers, duodenal (intestinal) ulcers, reflux esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is also used in combination with antibiotics to treat and eradicate H. pylori bacteria (a major cause of duodenal ulcers).
Lansoprazole is used to treat gastric ulcers caused by a family of pain relievers known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and to reduce the risk of gastric ulcers for people who are taking NSAIDs. It is also used to treat conditions associated with the over-production of stomach acid, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.
What form(s) does this medication come in?
Each opaque, hard gelatin, delayed-release capsule of enteric-coated granules, with a pink cap printed with “PREVACID 15” and a bluish-green body printed with “TAP” logo contains 15 mg of lansoprazole. Nonmedicinal ingredients: cellulosic polymers, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium carbonate, methacrylic acid copolymer, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, starch, sucrose, sugar spheres, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Each opaque, hard gelatin, delayed-release capsule of enteric-coated granules, with a pink cap printed with “PREVACID 30” and a black body printed with “TAP” logo contains 30 mg of lansoprazole. Nonmedicinal ingredients: cellulosic polymers, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium carbonate, methacrylic acid copolymer, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, starch, sucrose, sugar spheres, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Each white-to-yellowish-white with orange-to-dark-brown speckles, round, flat-faced, bevelled-edged, uncoated, orally disintegrating tablet of enteric-coated microgranules, with “15” debossed on one side and measuring approximately 9 mm (side to side), with a strawberry flavour, contains 15 mg of lansoprazole. Nonmedicinal ingredients: aspartame (contains 2.5 mg of phenylalanine per 15 mg tablet), citric acid, crospovidone, ferric oxide, glyceryl monostearate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, methacrylic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, polyacrylate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, strawberry flavor, talc, titanium dioxide, and triethyl citrate. May also contain soya lecithin.
Each white-to-yellowish-white, with orange-to-dark brown speckles, round, flat-faced, bevelled-edged, uncoated, orally disintegrating tablet of enteric-coated microgranules, with “30” debossed on one side and measuring approximately 12 mm (side to side) with a strawberry flavour, contains lansoprazole 30 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: aspartame (contains phenylalanine 5.1 mg per 30 mg tablet), citric acid, crospovidone, ferric oxide, glyceryl monostearate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, methacrylic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, polyacrylate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, strawberry flavor, talc, titanium dioxide, and triethyl citrate. May also contain soya lecithin.
How should I use this medication?
To treat duodenal (intestinal) ulcers, the recommended adult dose of lansoprazole is 15 mg daily, before breakfast, for 2 to 4 weeks. For duodenal ulcers that return, lansoprazole may be used for up to one year.
To treat gastric (stomach) ulcers, the recommended adult dose of lansoprazole is 15 mg daily, before breakfast, for 4 to 8 weeks. The usual recommended dose to treat gastric ulcers caused by NSAIDs is 15 mg to 30 mg daily, before breakfast, for up to 8 weeks. When used to reduce the risk of gastric ulcers for people who are taking NSAIDs, the usual dose is 15 mg daily, before breakfast, for up to 12 weeks.
To treat duodenal ulcers caused by H. pylori bacteria (as confirmed by a test), the recommended dose of lansoprazole is 30 mg along with clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1,000 mg, all taken twice daily for 7, 10, or 14 days. All of these medications should be taken before meals. This combination of medications helps kill the bacteria that can cause duodenal ulcers.
To treat GERD and associated heartburn symptoms, the recommended dose of lansoprazole is 15 mg daily before breakfast for up to 8 weeks. Doses up to 30 mg daily are sometimes prescribed for reflux esophagitis or other conditions associated with increased secretion of acid by the stomach.
To treat GERD in children 1 to 11 years of age, the recommended dose is 15 mg to 30 mg (depending on the child’s weight) once daily for up to 12 weeks. An increase in dose may be beneficial for some children. For adolescents 12 to 17 years old who have GERD, the adult dose can be used.
When treating Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or other conditions which overproduce stomach acid, the dose of lansoprazole varies, but is often higher than the doses used to treat ulcers. Doses larger than 60 mg daily are often needed.
Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
Lansoprazole should be taken before breakfast or, if taken twice daily, before breakfast and another meal. The medication should not be crushed or chewed. The capsules should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. People who have difficulty swallowing capsules may open the capsule and sprinkle its contents on a tablespoon of applesauce, which should then be immediately swallowed.
Lansoprazole fast dissolving tablets should not be chewed or cut. They should not be swallowed whole; they should be placed on the tongue for about one minute to allow the tablet to dissolve. Once the tablet has dissolved, the particles can be swallowed. Alternatively, for adults and children who have trouble swallowing, the tablet may be dissolved in an oral syringe with water. Speak to your pharmacist for specific directions.
It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular schedule. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Store this medication at room temperature, protect it from light and moisture, and keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.
Who should NOT take this medication?
Do not take this medication if you:
- are allergic to lansoprazole or any ingredients of the medication
- are taking the medication rilpivirine
- dry mouth
- flu-like symptoms
- trouble sleeping
- abdominal pain
- joint or muscle pain
- pain or burning while urinating
- signs of liver damage, e.g.:
- abdominal pain
- brown urine
- light-coloured stools
- loss of appetite
- yellowing of skin or whites of eyes
- sinus pain
- skin rash
- sore throat
- vision or hearing changes
- severe diarrhea with blood or mucous in the stool
- signs of a serious allergic reaction (swelling of face or throat, hives, or difficulty breathing)
- signs of a severe skin reaction, e. g.:
- high fever
- painful blisters on the skin, mouth, or eyes
- skin peeling off
- amphetamines (e.g., dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine)
- “azole” antifungals (e.g., itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole)
- bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate)
- HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs; e.g., delavirdine, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine)
- HIV protease inhibitors (e.g., atazanavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir)
- iron salts
- multivitamins with minerals
- St. John’s wort
- “statin” anti-cholesterol medications (e.g., atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin)
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
Although most of the side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.
Diarrhea: When gastric acid is decreased, the number of bacteria normally in the digestive system increases. Occasionally, this can cause serious infection in the digestive tract. If you experience severe watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, or abdominal pain while taking lansoprazole, contact your doctor as soon as possible.
Electrolyte balance: Long term use of lansoprazole may cause the levels of electrolytes such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium in the blood to decrease. If you experience symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance such as muscle pains or cramps; dry mouth; numb hands, feet, or lips; or racing heartbeat, contact your doctor as soon as possible. Your doctor may do blood tests periodically to monitor the levels of these electrolytes in your blood while you are taking this medication.
Liver function: Decreased liver function may cause lansoprazole to build up in the body. If you have reduced liver function or liver disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
If you experience symptoms of liver problems such as fatigue, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, nausea, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools, abdominal pain or swelling, and itchy skin, contact your doctor immediately.
Methotrexate interaction: Lansoprazole, like other medications in this group, may interact with methotrexate when the two medications are used at the same time. This combination may lead to higher than expected amounts of methotrexate in the body and can cause serious side effects, including kidney damage, irregular heartbeat, anemia, or infection. If you take lansoprazole and are also going to receive a dose of methotrexate, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
More serious conditions of the stomach and intestines: Even if you experience improvement in acid-related symptoms, it is still possible to have serious underlying stomach problems such as stomach cancer. If you experience symptoms of a more serious condition of the stomach and intestines (e.g., trouble swallowing, unplanned weight loss, vomiting of blood or food, or black stools) while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.
Osteoporosis fractures: Long-term use of lansoprazole may be related to an increased risk of bone fractures in the hip, wrist, or spine, as a result of weakened bones. This risk is further increased if you are at risk of developing osteoporosis. If you have osteoporosis or have risk factors for developing osteoporosis, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Vitamin B12: Long-term use of lansoprazole may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency. If you are a vegetarian or have low vitamin B12 levels, discuss with your doctor if any special monitoring is required.
Pregnancy: There are no adequate or well-controlled studies on the use of this medication by pregnant women. This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if lansoprazole passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of this medication have not been established for use by children under one year old. For children 1 to 17 years old, this medication can be used to treat GERD for a maximum of 12 weeks.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between lansoprazole and any of the following:
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Prevacid
Prevacid: Uses, Taking, Side Effects, Warnings
What is Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
A prescription medicine called a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used to reduce the amount of acid in your stomach.
In adults, Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab are used for:
- 4 weeks for the healing and symptom relief of duodenal ulcers.
- 10 to 14 days with certain antibiotics to treat an infection caused by bacteria called H. pylori.
- maintaining healing of duodenal ulcers. Prevacid has not been studied beyond 12 months for this purpose.
- up to 8 weeks for the healing and symptom relief of stomach ulcers.
- up to 8 weeks for the healing of stomach ulcers in people taking pain medicines called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevacid has not been studied beyond 8 weeks for this purpose.
- reducing the risk of stomach ulcers in people who are at risk of developing stomach ulcers with NSAIDs. Prevacid has not been studied beyond 12 weeks for this purpose.
- up to 8 weeks to treat heartburn and other symptoms that happen with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
GERD happens when acid in your stomach backs up into the tube (esophagus) that connects your mouth to your stomach. This may cause a burning feeling in your chest or throat, sour taste or burping.
- up to 8 weeks for the healing and symptom relief of acid-related damage to the lining of the esophagus (called erosive esophagitis or EE). Your doctor may prescribe another 8 to 16 weeks of Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab for patients whose EE does not improve or whose symptoms return.
- maintaining healing of EE. Prevacid has not been studied beyond 12 months for this purpose.
- the long-term treatment of conditions where your stomach makes too much acid. This includes a rare condition called Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
Give Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab exactly as prescribed by your child’s doctor. Do not increase the dose of Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab or give your child Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab longer than the amount of time your doctor tells you to.
In children 1 to 11 years of age, Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab are used for:
- up to 12 weeks to treat heartburn and other symptoms that can happen with GERD.
- up to 12 weeks for the healing and symptom relief of EE.
In children 12 to 17 years of age, Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab are used for:
- up to 8 weeks to treat heartburn and other symptoms that can happen with GERD.
- up to 8 weeks for the healing and symptom relief of EE.
Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab are not recommended for treating the symptoms of GERD in children less than 1 year of age and may harm them.
What is the most important information I should know about Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
You should take Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab exactly as prescribed, at the lowest dose possible and for the shortest time needed.
Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab may help your acid-related symptoms, but you could still have serious stomach problems. Talk with your doctor.
Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab can cause serious side effects, including:
- A type of kidney problem (acute interstitial nephritis). Some people who take proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medicines, including Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab, may develop a kidney problem called acute interstitial nephritis that can happen at any time during treatment with PPI medicines including Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab. Call your doctor right away if you have a decrease in the amount that you urinate or if you have blood in your urine.
- Diarrhea caused by an infection (Clostridium difficile) in your intestines. Call your doctor right away if you have watery stools or stomach pain that does not go away. You may or may not have a fever.
- Bone fractures (hip, wrist, or spine). Bone fractures in the hip, wrist, or spine may happen in people who take multiple daily doses of PPI medicines and for a long period of time (a year or longer). Tell your doctor if you have a bone fracture, especially in the hip, wrist, or spine.
- Certain types of lupus erythematosus. Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder (the body’s immune cells attack other cells or organs in the body). Some people who take PPI medicines, including Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab, may develop certain types of lupus erythematosus or have worsening of the lupus they already have. Call your doctor right away if you have new or worsening joint pain or a rash on your cheeks or arms that gets worse in the sun.
Talk to your doctor about your risk of these serious side effects.
Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab can have other serious side effects. See “What are the possible side effects of Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?”.
Who should not take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab?
Do not take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab if you are:
- allergic to lansoprazole, any other PPI medicine, or any of the ingredients in Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab.
- taking a medicine that contains rilpivirine (Edurant, Complera, Odefsey, Juluca) used to treat HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab?
Before you take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab, tell your doctor about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
- have low magnesium levels in your blood.
- have liver problems.
- have phenylketonuria. Prevacid SoluTab contains aspartame.
- are pregnant, think you may be pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab may harm your unborn baby. Talk to your doctor about the possible risks to an unborn baby if Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab is taken during pregnancy.
- are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab passes into your breast milk. Talk to your doctor about the best way to feed your baby if you take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab.
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Especially tell your doctor if you take methotrexate (Otrexup, Rasuvo, Trexall, Reditrex, Xatmep).
How should I take Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
- Take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab exactly as prescribed by your doctor.
- Do not change your dose or stop taking Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab without talking to your doctor.
- Take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab before meals.
- Swallow Prevacid capsules whole.
- Do not crush or chew Prevacid capsules.
- If you have trouble swallowing a whole capsule, you can open the capsule and take the contents with certain foods or juices. See the “Instructions for Use” at the end of this Medication Guide for instructions on how to take Prevacid capsules with certain foods or juices.
- See the “Instructions for Use” at the end of this Medication Guide for instructions on how to mix and give Prevacid capsules through a nasogastric tube (NG tube).
- Prevacid SoluTab is a tablet that melts in your mouth with or without water.
- Do not break, cut, crush or chew the tablets.
- See the “Instructions for Use” at the end of this Medication Guide for instructions on how to mix and give Prevacid SoluTab through a syringe and NG tube.
- If you miss a dose of Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab, take it as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose. Take your next dose at your regular time. Do not take 2 doses at the same time.
- If you take too much Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab, call your doctor or your poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 right away or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
What are the possible side effects of Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab can cause serious side effects, including:
- See “What is the most important information I should know about Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?”.
- Low vitamin B12 levels in the body can happen in people who have taken Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab for a long time (more than 3 years). Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of low vitamin B12 levels, including shortness of breath, lightheadedness, irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness, pale skin, feeling tired, mood changes, and tingling or numbness in the arms and legs.
- Low magnesium levels in the body can happen in people who have taken Prevacid for at least 3 months. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of low magnesium levels, including seizures, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, jitteriness, muscle aches or weakness, and spasms of hands, feet or voice.
- Stomach growths (fundic gland polyps). People who take PPI medicines for a long time have an increased risk of developing a certain type of stomach growth called fundic gland polyps, especially after taking PPI medicines for more than 1 year.
The most common side effects of Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab include: diarrhea, stomach-area (abdomen) pain, nausea and constipation.
These are not all the possible side effects of Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
General information about the safe and effective use of Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab for conditions for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab that is written for health professionals.
How should I store Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
Store Prevacid at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
Keep Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab and all medicines out of the reach of children.
What are the ingredients in Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
Active ingredient: lansoprazole.
Prevacid capsules: sugar sphere, sucrose, methacrylic acid copolymer, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, starch, magnesium carbonate, talc, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80, hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, and FD&C Red No. 40.
Prevacid 15 mg capsule only: FD&C Green No. 3.
Prevacid SoluTab: mannitol, methacrylic acid, hydroxypropyl cellulose, lactose monohydrate-microcrystalline cellulose sphere, triethyl citrate, crospovidone, polyacrylate, magnesium carbonate, aspartame, glyceryl monostearate, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, citric acid, titanium dioxide, talc, artificial strawberry flavor, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 and ferric oxide.
Prevacid SoluTab contains 2.5 mg of phenylalanine in each 15 mg tablet and 5.1 mg of phenylalanine in each 30 mg tablet.
For more information go to www.PREVACID.com or call 1-877- TAKEDA-7 (1-877- 825- 3327).
Instructions for use for Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab
- Take Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab before meals.
- Do not crush or chew Prevacid capsules or Prevacid SoluTab.
- Prevacid or Prevacid SoluTab should only be used with the foods and juices listed below.
Prevacid delayed-release capsules (Prevacid capsules)
Taking Prevacid capsules with certain foods:
You can only use applesauce, ENSURE pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt or strained pears.
- Open the capsule.
- Sprinkle the granules on 1 tablespoon of applesauce, ENSURE pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt or strained pears.
- Swallow right away.
Taking Prevacid capsules with certain juices:
You can only use apple juice, orange juice or tomato juice.
- Open the capsule.
- Sprinkle the granules into 60 mL (about ¼ cup) of apple juice, orange juice or tomato juice.
- Swallow right away.
- To make sure that the entire dose is taken, add 1/2 cup or more of juice to the glass, stir and swallow right away.
Giving Prevacid capsules through a nasogastric tube (NG tube) size 16 French or larger:
You can only use apple juice.
- Place 40 mL of apple juice into a clean container.
- Open the capsule and empty the granules into the container of apple juice.
- Use a catheter-tip syringe to draw up the apple juice and granule mixture.
- Gently mix the catheter-tip syringe to keep the granules from settling.
- Attach the catheter-tip syringe to the NG tube.
- Give the mixture right away through the NG tube that goes into the stomach. Do not save the apple juice and granule mixture for later use.
- Refill the catheter-tip syringe with 40 mL of apple juice and mix gently. Flush the NG tube with apple juice.
Prevacid SoluTab Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets (Prevacid SoluTab)
- Do not chew, crush, cut or break the tablets.
- Put the tablet on the tongue and let it dissolve, with or without water.
- Swallow after the tablet dissolves.
- The tablet usually dissolves in less than 1 minute.
For patients who have trouble swallowing tablets, Prevacid SoluTab can be given as follows:
Giving Prevacid SoluTab with water using an oral syringe:
- Put a 15 mg tablet in an oral syringe and draw up 4 mL of water into the oral syringe, or put a 30 mg tablet in an oral syringe and draw up 10 mL of water into the oral syringe.
- Gently shake the oral syringe to mix the tablet and the water.
- After the tablet is mixed in the water, place the tip of the oral syringe in the mouth. Give the medicine within 15 minutes of mixing. Do not save the tablet and water mixture for later use.
- Refill the oral syringe with about 2 mL of water for the 15 mg tablet or 5 mL of water for the 30 mg tablet, and shake gently. Place the tip of the oral syringe in the mouth and give the medicine that is left in the syringe.
Giving Prevacid SoluTab with water through a nasogastric tube (NG tube) size 8 French or larger:
- Put a 15 mg tablet in a catheter-tip syringe and draw up 4 mL of water, or put a 30 mg tablet in a catheter-tip syringe and draw up 10 mL of water.
- Gently shake the catheter-tip syringe to mix the tablet and the water.
- Connect the catheter-tip syringe to the NG tube.
- Give the mixture right away through the NG tube that goes into the stomach. Give the medicine within 15 minutes of mixing. Do not save the granule and water mixture for later use.
- Refill the catheter-tip syringe with about 5 mL of water and shake gently. Flush the NG tube with the water.
How should I store Prevacid and Prevacid SoluTab?
- Store Prevacid capsules and Prevacid SoluTab at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
Instructions for use last revised 10/2017.
Source: National Library of Medicine. Last updated September 24, 2020.
Treating Heartburn and GERD | Choosing Wisely
Heartburn is a feeling of burning pain in your lower chest, behind the breastbone. It comes from acid backing up from your stomach to your throat. You may have seen ads for heartburn drugs, such as Nexium, Prilosec or Prevacid. These drugs are called PPIs (proton pump inhibitors). They keep the stomach from making too much acid. They have been shown to heal irritation of the tube between the throat and the stomach (the esophagus).
In most cases, you don’t need a PPI for heartburn. You can get relief from a less powerful drug. And when you do need a PPI, you should take the lowest dose for as short a time as possible. Here’s why:
You may not need a PPI?
More than half of the people who take PPIs probably do not need them. Simple heartburn can be treated with antacids or other drugs, plus diet and lifestyle changes.
You may only have heartburn every now and then—such as after a big, spicy meal. This may be uncomfortable, but it is not serious. You can usually get relief from an antacid, like Rolaids or Tums, or an h3 blocker, such as Pepcid AC or Zantac.
PPIs have risks.
If you need a PPI, taking a low dose for less than a year is probably safe. PPIs are expensive and have been linked to higher risk of some
problems. Talk with your doctor before taking them for longer than two weeks. Be sure you have a good reason to take the PPI, and take it
for the shortest time possible.
Some risks of taking a PPI for a year or longer include:
- Higher risk of certain fractures.
- Higher risk of kidney disease, or kidney disease that gets worse.
- A higher risk of heart attack.
- In people age 75 and older, a higher risk of dementia.
- Trouble absorbing calcium and vitamin B12.
- Low levels of magnesium in your blood.
- An infection in the intestines called Clostridium difficile.
PPIs can change the way other drugs work.
PPIs interact with some common prescription drugs. For example, some PPIs can reduce the blood-thinning effect of the drug Plavix (generic clopidogrel), according to the US Food and Drug Administration. This can increase the risk of heart attack and even death. If you take Plavix, talk to your doctor about whether you should take a PPI.
PPIs cost more.
Why spend more money on a PPI unless antacids or h3 blockers don’t work? Both the prescription and over-the-counter versions of PPIs are usually more expensive than antacids and h3 blockers. If you are worried about cost, talk to your doctor. He or she can help you find
the least expensive medicine that will work for you.
When should you consider a PPI?
Talk to your doctor if you have symptoms such as trouble swallowing, weight loss, or chest pain. Call the doctor if you don’t get better in about two weeks. The doctor will look for signs of problems such as GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
If you have GERD, you probably need a PPI. Talk to your doctor if:
- You have heartburn at least twice a week for several weeks.
- Food or acid often come back up into your throat.
- You take antacid or h3 blockers, and you make changes like the ones described on this page, but your heartburn does not go away.
If your doctor thinks you need a PPI:
- Ask to start with a low dose of generic prescription lansoprazole or omeprazole. You can also get these medicines over the counter.
- If the heartburn gets better after a few weeks, talk to your doctor about gradually lowering your dose.
This report is for you to use when talking with your healthcare provider. It is not a substitute for medical advice and treatment. Use of this report is at your own risk.
© 2017 Consumer Reports. Developed in cooperation with the American Gastroenterological Association.
Lansoprazole (generic Prevacid) | NextGenRx Pharmacy
Lansoprazole is used to treat certain stomach and esophagus problems (such as acid reflux, ulcers). It works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach makes. It relieves symptoms such as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough. This medication helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus. Lansoprazole belongs to a class of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
How to use Prevacid
Read the Medication Guide and the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking lansoprazole and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually once daily, before a meal. Dosage and length of treatment are based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Children’s dosage is also based on age and weight.
Handle the tablet with dry hands. Place the tablet on your tongue and let it disintegrate. This takes less than 1 minute. Swallow the remaining particles with or without water. Do not crush, chew, or break the tablet or particles.
If you have trouble swallowing the tablet, you may dissolve it in water and take the mixture by mouth through an oral syringe. Place a tablet in an oral syringe and draw up the correct amount of water for your dose (4 milliliters for a 15-milligram tablet, or 10 milliliters for a 30-milligram tablet) into the syringe. Shake the syringe gently to break apart the tablet, then swallow the liquid within 15 minutes. To make sure that you have taken the entire dose, refill the syringe with water (2 milliliters for the 15-milligram tablet, or 5 milliliters for the 30-milligram tablet), shake again, and swallow all of the liquid. Do not prepare the liquid mixture ahead of time for later use. Doing so may destroy the drug.
If you are giving this medication through a tube into the stomach (nasogastric tube), ask your health care professional for detailed instructions on how to properly mix and give it.
If needed, antacids may be taken along with this medication. If you are also taking sucralfate, take lansoprazole at least 30 minutes before sucralfate.
Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day. Continue to take this medication for the prescribed length of treatment even if you are feeling better.
Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens. The risk of side effects goes up over time. Ask your doctor how long you should take this medication.
Information on this medication quoted from WebMD.com
Prevacid (Lansoprazole) – GI for Kids
Lansoprazole (Prevacid) is a medicine (proton pump inhibitor) that blocks the production of stomach acid. Prevacid is used for short-term treatment of stomach and duodenal ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and erosive esophagitis.
How should it be used?
This medication is available in both a capsule and tablet that dissolves in your mouth.
- Take before meals.
- Swallow capsule whole. Do not crush or chew granules.
- If it is difficult to swallow the capsule, open and sprinkle granules on one tablespoon of applesauce, pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt, or strained pears and swallow right away. Granules can also be mixed with 2 ounces of orange or tomato juice.
- Oral SoluTabs can be taken by placing each tablet on the tongue. Swallow with or without water. Do not chew tablet. Tablet can be dissolved in water and given to child in an oral syringe.
Before you start taking this medicine tell you doctor about any of the following:
- All of the medications (including over the counter), vitamins, herbal products, and supplements that you take before beginning this medication.
- Have a problem (hypersensitivity) to lanzoprazole, substituted benzimidazoles, or any other ingredient in the capsule or dissolving tabs:
- – Prevacid capsules contain: lansoprazol, hydroxypropyl cellulose, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium carbonate, methacrylic acid copolymer, starch, talc, sugar sphere, sucrose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, titanium dioxide, hydroxypropyl cellulose, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium carbonate, methacrylic acid copolymer, starch, talc, sugar sphere, sucrose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and titanium dioxide.
- Prevacid Solu-Tabs contain: lansoprazol, lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium carbonate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, talc, mannitol, methacrylic acid, polyacrylate, polyethylene glycol, glyceryl monostearate, polysorbate 80, triethyl citrate, ferric oxide, citric acid, crospovidone, aspartame, artificial strawberry flavor and magnesium stearate.
- Are allergic to any other proton pump inhibitor medication
- Have liver problems
- Are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.
The most common side effects include: diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain.
Contact your doctor immediately if you experience signs of an allergic reaction including:
- Feeling sick
- Fever, shivering/chills, rash
- Muscle and bone pain
- Kidney problems (changes in the amount of urine or color of urine)
- Tiredness, dizziness
- Trouble breathing
Additional side effects may be found on the drug’s website: http://www.prevacid.com
This medication should be stored at room temperature. Keep out of reach of children. Protect from sunlight and moisture.
Call the national poison control center 1-800-222-1222 or 911 in the event of overdose. Symptoms of an overdose include vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, fever, chills, and other signs of infection.
The safety and efficacy of this drug in pediatric patients less than 1 year of age have not been established.
90,000 fuels, quality control and refueling technologies
More than 100 thousand flights are carried out in the world every day. World aviation consumes about 300 million tons of fuel annually. These numbers perfectly reflect the scale and complexity of the aviation fuel supply system. A system that reliably depends on the safety of millions of people using air transport
What do the planes refuel
There are two types of fuel for aircraft.Reciprocating engines that power small airplanes and helicopters run on gas, just like car engines. However, the composition of such fuel is somewhat different from automobile fuel. Gas turbine engines (turbojets and turboprops), which are used in almost all commercial aircraft today, consume jet fuel, also called jet fuel.
The main brand of aviation kerosene, which in Russia is fueled by almost all passenger, transport and military subsonic aircraft and most of the helicopters – TS-1 – sulfurous fuel.It is produced from oil with a high sulfur content.
In Europe, the basis of the aviation fuel supply system is Jet A-1 kerosene. It is considered to be more environmentally friendly precisely due to the lower sulfur content – during its production, the straight-run kerosene-legroin fraction is completely hydrotreated. Russian jet fuel is a mixture of hydrotreated and unrefined straight-run distillates. In general, these are analogs – moreover, the domestic product can be used at much lower temperatures than the Jet.TS-1 today, along with Jet A-1, is included in international documents and operating manuals not only for Russian-made aircraft, but also for aircraft of the Airbus and Boeing families (albeit only operating in Russia). But this is aviation kerosene for civil aviation, not designed for supersonic aircraft.
Gazprom Neft launched R&D to create unleaded aviation gasoline. Together with scientists from the All-Russian Research Institute of the Petroleum Industry, the company’s specialists in 2014 began developing a formulation of unleaded fuel with an octane rating of 91, and now this work has already been completed.
Main aviation fuel for supersonic aviation – RT. During its production, using hydrotreating, aggressive and unstable compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen are removed from petroleum distillate. This increases the thermal stability of the fuel, which is extremely important when flying at supersonic speeds, when due to friction against the air, the entire body of the aircraft heats up, and with it the fuel in the tanks.
Of course, an RT with such characteristics can also be used in conventional aircraft instead of the TC-1.For the most high-speed aircraft, T-6 jet fuel is used, which has even greater thermal stability and increased density.
As for aviation gasoline, it is, in fact, an automobile motor fuel, but with improved properties that affect the reliability of the engine. It is the need to increase detonation resistance, octane number, grade, providing a reserve of dynamic characteristics and reliability that makes aviation gasoline manufacturers add tetraethyl lead to it (ethylate).Because of its toxicity, this additive has long been banned in the production of motor gasoline, but the aircraft engine operates in a much more intense mode, and no one has yet succeeded in creating unleaded aviation gasoline, which is not inferior in characteristics to leaded gasoline, the octane number of which exceeds 92–95.
At the same time, the most modern and advanced aircraft and helicopters with piston engines need aviation gasoline with an increased octane number – not less than 100. Therefore, the development of environmentally friendly analogues of leaded aviation gasoline 100LL (one of the most popular brands in the world) is now being carried out by leading manufacturers and research centers all over the world. …Among other things, Gazprom Neft has a similar program.
100 thousand flights are operated in the world every day
Refueling in the wing
Correct organization of refueling even one aircraft is a complex process and at the same time very responsible. Unfortunately, a lot of incidents and disasters caused by poorly organized refueling have happened in the history of world aviation. Suffice it to recall the accident in 2000, when the Tu-154 of Siberia Airlines flying from Krasnodar, when landing in Novosibirsk, failed all three engines.As the investigation showed, the fuel pumps were simply clogged with particles of epoxy coating, handicraftly applied to the inner walls of the tanker by the craftsmen of one of the Krasnodar repair enterprises. But if in this case, thanks to the professionalism of the pilots, there were no casualties, then in Irkutsk, when the giant An-124 transporter fell on residential buildings in 1997, 72 people were killed. One of the versions of the reason for the failure of three Ruslan engines out of four is the excess water content in aviation fuel, which led to the formation of ice crystals that clogged the fuel filters.To prevent this from happening, the entire refueling process is very strictly regulated, and the fuel itself undergoes several quality checks on the way from the refinery to the aircraft tank.
The first stage is the final control at the refinery itself. However, the quality characteristics of kerosene may change during transportation if all transportation rules are not followed. Therefore, when receiving kerosene at a refueling complex (refueling complex), regardless of which way it came from the plant: by pipe, as at the airports of the Moscow air hub or St. Petersburg Pulkovo; by rail or road, as is the case in most of the country’s air harbors, or, even more so, if kerosene has come a long way, including both land and water routes, as when delivered to remote points, such as Chukotka, entry control is mandatory. Samples are taken from each batch for laboratory research, as well as an arbitration sample, which is immediately sealed and stored in case of disagreements in assessing the quality of different participants in the fuel supply process. The fuel itself, when pumped into the receiving tanks of the refueling complex, passes through filters with a filtration fineness of no more than 15 microns.
Fuel is distributed to the tanks on modern liners automatically using the on-board computer. Balance is extremely important as it affects the alignment of the aircraft.You can control the filling process and adjust it from a special panel located next to the sleeve connection.
Then the kerosene is settled in tanks, after which it undergoes a full-scale test for all the main parameters defined by GOST, such as density, fractional composition, acidity, flash point, kinematic viscosity, resin concentration, water and mechanical impurities content, crystallization onset temperature, interaction with water, electrical conductivity.If the exam is successfully passed, the kerosene receives a quality passport, which becomes a pass for fuel on the airport apron. True, before being issued for refueling the aircraft, the kerosene goes through one more stage of control – at the airfield – and is filtered again, now through an even finer filter. The refueling equipment itself is also checked, which will not be allowed to the plane without a special control coupon.
Airplanes are refueled in two ways.In large modern airports, the apron is connected to the refueling complex by a central refueling system, and fuel hydrants are installed at airplane parking lots. Of these, kerosene is pumped into aircraft tanks through special refueling units (ZA). However, so far another method is still more widespread – with the help of fuel tankers (TZ). In turn, in the TZ, kerosene is poured at loading points – warehouse or apron. Depending on the size of the tank, the tanker can hold up to 60 thousand liters of kerosene.
Before starting the injection, the fuel is checked again, albeit without the use of laboratories. Kerosene is drained from TK tanks into a transparent jar, and the presence of water, ice crystals or sediment in it is visually determined. The presence of water in the aircraft tanks is also checked before and after refueling. Before connecting the tanker hose to the neck of the tank, both the aircraft itself and the TZ must be grounded. There have been cases in history when static electricity discharges ignited fuel and caused serious fires.To ensure the safety of people, planes almost always refuel before passengers board.
Where is kerosene stored
The volume of fuel tanks of the largest and most capacious until recently passenger airliner Boeing-747 reaches 241,140 liters (for the latest modifications). This allows you to fill in about 200 tons of fuel. The more familiar short- and medium-haul Boeing-737 and Airbus A-320 can take 15-25 tons each.
In most aircraft, fuel is stored in the wings and a tank located in the center of the aircraft. On some models, there is another tank in the tail or stabilizer – to make the rear of the aircraft heavier and facilitate takeoff, as well as to adjust the center of the aircraft in flight.
First, fuel is generated from the inner wing compartments, then from the end compartments. However, kerosene is supplied directly to the engines from only one tank – the supply tank (as a rule, the central one), where it is pumped from all other containers.
In order to prevent a decrease in pressure during fuel consumption and cessation of its supply to the fuel system, all tanks are communicated with the atmosphere using special drain tanks at the end of the wing. Outboard air entering them replaces the volume of consumed fuel.
Fuel is automatically distributed to the tanks on modern liners using the on-board computer. Balance is extremely important, as it affects the alignment of the aircraft, the violation of which can lead to the most sad consequences, up to a catastrophe.You can control the filling process and adjust it, if necessary, from a special panel located next to the sleeve connection point.
During the refueling process, the tanker operator himself holds in his hand a special Deadman control device, the button of which must be pressed at regular intervals. If this does not happen, refueling stops – the system perceives the pass in pressing as an abnormal situation. As soon as a predetermined amount of kerosene has entered the tanks, the automatic equipment turns off the fuel supply, and documents are filled out, recording the results of refueling.
Automation in all directions
It is not only the process of refueling the airplanes that is constantly being automated. It is in this direction that the entire aviation fuel supply system is developing. Already today, customers of the world market leaders in this segment can order online refueling of their aircraft at any airport where the fuel operator is present. Such a scheme is being developed, for example, by Air Total International, and Air BP is also creating its integrated cloud-based refueling management system, and it does this in conjunction with the global flight planning center RocketRoute, the platform of which integrates data on the refueling network around the world.
Gazpromneft-Aero is moving in the same direction as part of the Digital Refueling Complex program.
241 thousand liters – the volume of fuel tanks of one of the largest and most capacious passenger airliners Boeing-747
The refueling process itself according to this scheme looks like a frame from a science fiction film. A TZ drives up to the liner in the parking lot, the pilot, as at a regular gas station, pays for fuel with a plastic card using a mobile terminal that is equipped with a fuel tanker. The TK driver prepares and prints out documents confirming the fact of refueling for the pilot from the tablet – after 10 minutes the necessary financial documents arrive at the airline’s office, and the aircraft tanks are filled with fuel.
The presence of such a system, obviously, increases the competitiveness of fuel operators, since it greatly simplifies and optimizes the flight planning process for their customers – airlines.
Bio-kerosene is produced from biomass using the Fischer-Tropsch process, from vegetable oil, they create fuel for aircraft and on the basis of ethyl alcohol.Biocomponents in different proportions (maximum 50-50) are mixed with conventional jet fuel, which can reduce the volume of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by almost 50%.
Another direction of development of the aviation fuel market coincides with the vector of movement of the automotive market – it is the reduction of the level of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The main technology here is the creation of cleaner fuels, primarily through the development and use of biocomponents.
To date, several technologies for the production of aviation biofuel have passed the certification procedure. Bio-kerosene is produced from biomass using the Fischer-Tropsch process *, from vegetable oil, it is used to create fuel for aircraft and on the basis of ethyl alcohol. Biocomponents in different proportions (maximum 50 × 50) are mixed with ordinary jet fuel, which can reduce the volume of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by almost 50%. At the same time, the chemical composition of the final product is equivalent to traditional aviation fuel, and its use does not affect the operational characteristics of aircraft.
One of the first commercial refueling with biofuels began at the airport of Norwegian Oslo, and the German Lufthansa became a pioneer in the use of environmentally friendly kerosene. The use of biofuels is approved by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and several dozen airlines already refuel their aircraft in the US.
But the development of this direction has one but – the production of biofuel is still too expensive, so today, at the time of low oil prices, it cannot compete on equal terms with the conventional Jet, and even more so with the TS-1.
Aviation kerosene, as a rule, is not used in its pure form. Various additives are used to improve its performance. The main ones:
Anti-crystallization (PVC-liquid) : The most famous additive of this type is the IM liquid. When flying at high altitude, the fuel is cooled to very low temperatures (from -30 ° C to -45 ° C). Under these conditions, the water in the fuel will crystallize, ice particles can clog the filters and the engine will stop.Additives effectively solve this problem.
Antistatic : Increases the conductivity of the fuel, while reducing the accumulation of static electricity in the fuel system and thus the risk of fire.
Antioxidant : Combats fuel oxidation and gum build-up in the fuel system and engine.
Antiwear : Extends the life of the fuel system mechanisms.
* The Fischer-Tropsch process is a chemical reaction in the presence of a catalyst in which carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen h3 are converted to various liquid hydrocarbons. Typically, catalysts containing iron and cobalt are used. The fundamental importance of this process is the production of synthetic hydrocarbons
90,000 Using Screen Time on iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
Screen Time gives you real-time access to reports showing how long you have spent on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. You can also set various limits for the aspects that you want to control.
Screen Time lets you see how much time you and your kids are spending in apps, websites, and other resources.This way you can make smarter decisions about how to use your devices and set limits as needed. Learn how to use parental controls to control your child’s device.
Enable Screen Time
- Go to Settings> Screen Time.
- Click Enable Screen Time.
- Click Continue.
- Select This is my [device] or This is my child’s [device].
After you turn on Screen Time, you will see a report on device, application, and website usage. If it’s your child’s device, you can set up Screen Time and set options right on their device, or do it on your own using Family Sharing. After you set up your child’s device, you can also use Family Sharing to view reports and customize settings right from your device.
Screen Time also allows you to set a dedicated passcode to protect your settings so that only you can add time and make changes. Be sure to select a passcode that is different from the one used to unlock your device. To change the passcode on your child’s device, go to Settings> Screen Time [your child’s name]. Then tap Change Screen Time Passcode or Turn Off Screen Time Passcode and confirm the changes using Face ID, Touch ID, or your device passcode.
If you forgot your Screen Time passcode, update your device to the latest iOS or iPadOS, and then reset the passcode.
Set the passcode for Screen Time
You can set a passcode so that only you can change Screen Time settings and allow extra time when the application limits are reached.Use this feature to set privacy and content restrictions for your child’s device. The steps for setting a Screen Time passcode depend on whether you are using Family Sharing.
If you manage a child’s account using Family Sharing
- Go to the Settings menu and select the Screen Time function.
- Scroll down and select the child’s name in the Family section.
- Click Turn On Screen Time, then click Continue.
- Adjust the Rest, Application Limits, and Content & Privacy settings according to any limits you want to set for your child, or click Not Now.
- Click Use Passcode, then enter Passcode when prompted. Re-enter the passcode to confirm.
- Enter your Apple ID and password. They can be used to reset your passcode if you forget it.
Unless you manage your child’s account with Family Sharing
- Make sure you are setting up your child’s device.
- Go to the Settings menu and select the Screen Time function.
- Click Turn On Screen Time, then click Continue.
- Select “This is my child’s [device].”
- Adjust the Rest, Application Limits, and Content & Privacy settings according to any limits you want to set for your child, or click Not Now.
- Click Use Passcode, then enter Passcode when prompted. Re-enter the passcode to confirm.
- Enter your Apple ID and password. They can be used to reset your passcode if you forget it.
View report and set limits
Screen Time provides a report on device usage, open applications, and websites visited. To view the report, go to Settings> Screen Time and tap View. all activity ”below the graph. Here you can view usage information, set restrictions on apps in the Frequently Used category, and see the number of times you’ve picked up your device or received notifications.
If Accounting for All Devices is enabled on your device, you can view general usage information for all devices signed in with your Apple ID and password.
Managing Screen Time parameters
Go to Settings> Screen Time. Then click “See all activity ”, select a category from the list below and set restrictions. Here is a list of the settings that you can control with Screen Time.
Only phone calls and applications that you have allowed are available during the periods scheduled for Idle mode using the Settings app.Idle mode applies to all devices with Screen Time enabled. And 5 minutes before it starts, you get a reminder. If you have set a passcode for Screen Time, an additional option will be displayed for Idle Mode, Idle Lock. If this option is selected, you can enter a passcode when you press the Ask for More Time button after going to Rest Mode to allow the application to be used for 15 minutes, one hour, or a full day.On the child’s account, you can click the 1 More Minute button or the Ask for More Time button once to send an approval request to the parent’s account.
The Application Limits parameter allows you to set daily limits for application categories. For example, during business hours, you can only make apps available from the Performance category, not from the Social and Gaming categories. The Application Limits are reset every day at midnight. You can remove them at any time.
Manage the circle of people with whom your children can communicate throughout the day and in the “At ease” mode. These restrictions apply to contacts in the Phone, FaceTime, Messages, and iCloud apps.Here you can also choose and control which contacts are available on your Apple Watch paired with Family Setting. Known emergency numbers on your iPhone or Apple Watch are always allowed to communicate with your cellular operator. To use this feature, you need to enable iCloud contacts.
Access to certain applications may be required even while the “Idle” mode is active or when the “All applications” limit is selected.The Phone, Messages, FaceTime, and Maps apps are allowed by default, but you can also set restrictions on them if needed.
Privacy and Content Restrictions
You decide what type of content can be displayed on your device. Block inappropriate content, the ability to shop and download files, and manage your privacy settings using the Privacy & Content Restrictions setting.
Date of publication:
90,000 How did it appear and what is the loft style. What is used to create a loft-style design.
Loft style is preferred by creative, freedom-loving people who value practicality and minimalism. Despite the fact that at first glance, interior decoration in a loft seems to be quite budgetary, it is rightfully considered one of the most expensive styles.
The “loft” direction was born in the 40s of the XX century. in the industrial neighborhoods of New York. It involved the re-equipment of industrial premises and workshops for living rooms. In such premises, young artists and musicians held exhibitions, created and settled in huge open spaces with their inherent creative approach.Already by the 50s, these apartments had become very popular and increased in price due to their convenient location, spaciousness and special urban charm. Thus, abandoned factory and warehouse areas have turned into luxury loft-style apartments.
Following the USA, the loft style fashion spread all over the world.
Translated from English “loft” means “attic, attic, gallery, top floor of a warehouse or factory building.” Indeed, the interior in the loft style initially resembles a workshop or workshop.But looking closely, you can note the original style of the home and appreciate the taste of its owners.
Loft is a spacious, large open space. As a rule, it is filled with natural sunlight and has large windows. Its main distinguishing features are high ceilings and the absence of any partitions. Only the bathroom, bedroom and utility rooms are isolated from prying eyes. Unlike a toilet, a bathtub can be located directly in the sleeping area.
Old in this style (brick walls, stairs, pipes, uncovered ventilation systems) harmoniously combines with modern (fashionable appliances, metal and mirrors).
Brick, plaster, plank floor are the highlights of the loft-style interior.
Cold shades prevail in the color scheme. A modern loft does not tolerate too dark details. To ensure maximum light in the room, curtains are usually not used.
|Complete blood count||tube with K2-EDTA, K3-EDTA|
|Glycosylated hemoglobin||tube with K2-EDTA, K3-EDTA|
|Glucose, glucose tolerance test||Separator tube|
|Homocysteine ||homocysteine test tube|
|Biochemical blood tests||tube with separating gel or clot activator|
|Hormones||tube with separating gel or clot activator|
|Antibodies to infectious agents||tube with separating gel or clot activator|
|Oncological markers||tube with separating gel or clot activator|
|Immunoglobulin E and allergens||tube with separating gel or clot activator|
|Immunoglobulins G, M, A, autoantibodies||tube with separating gel or clot activator|
|Studies of the hemostasis system||tube with sodium citrate 3.8% (clotting factors and platelet function) or CTAD (citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole) (clotting factors only)|
|Pathogens of infectious diseases by PCR||
tubes with K3-EDTA or sodium citrate 3.8%.It is allowed to take the material into test tubes with a gel or a coagulation activator.
The use of K2-EDTA tubes or heparin tubes is prohibited
|Polymorphisms by PCR||
tubes with K3-EDTA, sodium citrate 3.8%.
The use of K2-EDTA tubes or heparin tubes is prohibited
tubes with coagulation activator, with K2-EDTA, K3-EDTA.
Use of gel tubes is prohibited
Personal account of the information exchange participant
To the attention of microfinance companies, microcredit companies and self-regulatory organizations of microcredit companies!
The program-questionnaire for preparing electronic documents for microfinance companies and microcredit companies has been updated – version 2.16.3, build 22.214.171.124 dated March 29, 2021. (hereinafter – Application form) (Download).
Added to the current version of the Application Form:
– reporting forms in accordance with Bank of Russia Ordinance No. 5523-U dated 03.08.2020 “On the Forms, Terms and Procedure for Compiling and Submitting to the Bank of Russia reports of microfinance companies and microcredit companies, and the timing of submission by microfinance companies to the Bank of Russia of an auditor’s report on the annual accounting (financial) statements, the procedure and timing for the disclosure of accounting (financial) statements by microfinance companies and an auditor’s report on the annual accounting (financial) statements “;
– Form “Covering letter of SRO MCC” for the possibility of self-regulatory organizations submitting reports of their members – microcredit companies.
Please note that regular reporting is drawn up and submitted to the Bank of Russia in accordance with the requirements of the Bank of Russia Ordinance No. 5523-U starting from the reporting:
for microfinance companies – for April 2021;
for microcredit companies – for the first half of 2021.
Reporting on forms 0420841, 0420848, 0420849, is drawn up and submitted in accordance with the requirements of the Bank of Russia Ordinance No. 5523-U starting from the reporting as of the date of its entry into force, namely, from 01.04.2021. Reporting in form 0420839 in accordance with clause 7 of Bank of Russia Ordinance No. 5523-U is drawn up by microcredit companies as of the date of its entry into force, that is, as of 01.04.2021, and subsequently – in the event of an event that is the basis for its presentation. Reporting in the form 0420847 is drawn up and submitted, starting from the reporting for the II quarter of 2021.
Preparation and submission to the Bank of Russia of reports of members of a self-regulatory organization is carried out in accordance with the instructions.
XSD schemas of reporting forms are available here.
We suggest sending comments and suggestions on the functioning of the Application Forms by e-mail to the address: [email protected] In the subject line of the letter, it is necessary to indicate the TIN and the name of the organization in the form: “TIN, Name of the organization. Subject of the appeal. ”
What is a relational database
Relational databases are databases that are used to store and provide access to related items of information.Relational databases are based on the relational model – an intuitive, visual, tabular way of presenting data. Each row contained in a table in such a database is a record with a unique identifier called key . Table columns have data attributes, and each record usually contains a value for each attribute, making it easy to establish relationships between data items.
The structure of relational databases
The relational model implies a logical structure of data: tables, views and indexes.The logical structure is different from the physical storage structure. This separation enables administrators to manage the physical storage without changing the data contained in the logical structure. For example, changing the name of a database file will not affect the tables stored in it.
The separation between the physical and logical levels extends to operations, which are clearly defined actions with data and database structures. Logical operations enable applications to define the required content, while physical operations determine how data is accessed and a task is completed.
To ensure the accuracy and availability of data, relational databases must adhere to certain integrity rules. For example, integrity rules can prevent the use of duplicate rows in tables to eliminate the possibility of incorrect information entering the database.
In the early databases, the data for each application was stored in a separate, unique structure. If a developer wanted to create an application to use such data, he had to know the specific structure well in order to find the required data.This organization method was inefficient, difficult to maintain, and made it difficult to optimize application performance. The relational model was designed to eliminate the need for a variety of data structures.
It provided a standard way to present data and send queries that could be used in any application. The developers realized that tables are a key benefit of relational databases because they provide an intuitive, efficient, and flexible way to store and access structured information.
Over time, as developers began to use Structured Query Language (SQL) to write data to a database and submit queries, another advantage of the relational model became apparent. SQL has been widely used as a query language in databases for many years. It is based on relational algebra algorithms and a clear mathematical structure, making it easy and efficient to optimize any database query. By comparison, other approaches have to create separate, unique queries.
Benefits of relational databases
Companies of all types and sizes use a simple yet functional relational model to serve a variety of information needs. Relational databases are used to track inventory, process trade transactions over the Internet, manage large volumes of critical customer data, and more. Relational databases can be recommended for any information needs where data items are interconnected and need to be secure and reliable. managing them based on integrity rules.
Relational databases date back to the 1970s. Today, the advantages of the relational approach have made it the most widely used database model in the world.
The relational model most effectively maintains data integrity across all applications and copies ( instances ) of the database. For example, when a customer deposits money into an account using an ATM and then checks the balance on a mobile phone, he expects the received funds to be immediately displayed on the account.Relational databases are great for ensuring data integrity across multiple database instances at the same time.
Other types of databases cannot maintain the integrity of large amounts of data at the same time. Some modern database types, such as NoSQL, only provide so-called “ultimate integrity.” This means that when data is being scaled or multiple users are using the same data at the same time, it takes some time to “make changes”.In some cases, the final integrity is fine (for example, for updating items in the product catalog), but for critical business operations (for example, shopping cart transactions) relational databases are a fundamental standard.
Committing changes and atomicity
Relational databases use very detailed and strict business rules and policies for committing changes to the database (that is, saving changes to data permanently).Consider, for example, a warehouse database that tracks three parts that are always used in a set. When one of them is taken out of inventory, the other two must also be retrieved. If one of the three parts is not available, the other two also cannot be sold separately, that is, all three parts must be available to make changes to the database. A relational database will not allow changes to be saved unless all three parts are affected. This feature of relational databases is called atomicity or continuity.Continuity is essential to maintain the accuracy of the data in the database and to comply with rules, regulations and business policies.
Stored procedures and relational databases
Data access involves many repetitive actions. For example, sometimes a simple query to retrieve information from a table needs to be repeated a hundred or a thousand times to get the desired result. Such database access scenarios require some kind of programming code.It would be tedious for developers to write standard data access code for a new application every time. Fortunately, relational databases support stored procedures, which are blocks of code that can be accessed through a normal call from the application code. For example, the same stored procedure can be used to sequentially label records for user convenience across different applications. Stored procedures also help developers ensure that certain data functions are correctly implemented in an application.
Database locks and concurrent access
When several users or applications try to change the same data at the same time, this can lead to a conflict in the database. Locking and concurrent access reduce the likelihood of conflicts and help maintain data integrity.
Lock prevents other users and applications from accessing the data while it is being updated. In some databases, locking can be applied to an entire table, which negatively affects the performance of the application.In other types of databases, such as relational Oracle databases, locking is performed at the level of one record, leaving other records in the table available. This approach helps to maintain the effectiveness of the application.
Concurrent Access Tool is used when multiple users or applications are trying to query the same database at the same time. It provides user and application access to the database in accordance with control policies.
Characteristics to look for when choosing a relational database
The software that is used to store, monitor, retrieve and query data in a database is referred to as relational database management system (RDBMS) .An RDBMS provides the interface between users and applications and the database, as well as administrative functions for managing data storage, performance, and access to data.
There are several factors to consider when choosing a database type and relational database products. The choice of RDBMS depends on the needs of your organization. Ask yourself the following questions.
- What are our data accuracy requirements? Will we use business logic to store and maintain data accuracy? Does our data have more stringent accuracy requirements (for example, if you work with financial data and reporting)?
- Do We Need Scalability? How much data needs to be managed and what is the projected growth in that volume? Should the database model support mirrors (as separate instances) in order to scale? If so, can we ensure the integrity of the data in these instances?
- How important is concurrent access? Will users and applications need concurrent access to data? Does the database software support concurrent access without compromising security?
- What are our needs for efficient and reliable databases? Do we need a highly efficient and reliable system? What are the speed requirements for queries? What guarantees does the service provider provide in accordance with a service agreement (SLA) or in case of unplanned downtime?
Relational Database of the Future: Standalone Database
90,000 Web Technologies for Developers | MDN
Modern web technologies provide developers with unlimited opportunities to implement their ideas.In order for you to use their full potential, you need to know how to use them correctly. On this page, we have tried to collect links to documentation on various technologies that may be useful to you.
Web Development Basics
- Hypertext Markup Language is a language used to structure and describe the content of a web page in a structured manner.
- Cascading style sheets are used to describe the appearance of web content.
- HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol over which HTML and other media documents are delivered.
- Web API
- This section includes reference material for each of the individual APIs, which contain tremendous capabilities for creating web scripting, including the DOM and all related APIs that you can use to build web content and applications.
- The Web API Reference lists all interfaces in alphabetical order.
- WebAPI (en-US) – this page contains a list of APIs for interacting with devices and other APIs that are no less useful for applications.
- Event Help contains a list of events that occur on a web page or web application.
- Web Components
- Web Components is a collection of different technologies that allow you to create your own reusable elements – with their functionality encapsulated from the rest of your code – and use them in your web applications.
- SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics – scalable vector graphics) – allows you to describe an image in the form of lines, curves and other geometric shapes. Thanks to this, you can scale the drawing without losing quality.
Audio, video and multimedia
- Web media technology
- List of media related APIs, with links to documentation for each.
- Media capture and streams API
- Reference for an API used to stream, write, and manage data both locally and over the network. Also includes tools for using local cameras and microphones to capture video, audio, and still images.
- Using HTML audio and video
- Include video and / or audio in a web page and control their playback.
- RTC in WebRTC stands for Real-Time Communications, a technology that provides audio or video streaming and data exchange between peer-to-peer browser clients.
- The Math Markup Language provides the ability to display complex mathematical equations and syntax.
- Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) allows you to transform an XML document into human-readable HTML.
- Functional extension that provides additional capabilities for XSLT.
- XPath allows you to select a DOM node in a document using more powerful syntax than is provided by regular CSS selectors.
- Web Developer Guide
- Web Developer’s Guide provides helpful step-by-step materials to help you make full use of web technologies to accomplish your goals and realize your ideas.
- Training Materials for Web Developers
- The Tutorial will take you step-by-step through APIs, technologies, and broaden your web horizons.
- This page will provide links to all the help information available on MDN; in the meantime, you can use the links to web technologies from the left side of this page.