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What is pubic lice caused by: Pubic lice (crabs) – Symptoms and causes

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Pubic lice (crabs) – Symptoms and causes

Overview

Pubic lice, commonly called crabs, are tiny insects found in your genital area. They are a different type of louse from head lice and body lice. Measuring 1/16 inch (1.6 millimeters) or less, pubic lice received their nickname because their bodies resemble tiny crabs.

The most common way to get pubic lice is through sexual activity. In children, pubic lice may be found in the eyebrows or eyelashes and can be a sign of sexual abuse. However, it may be possible to catch pubic lice after sharing clothing, bedsheets or towels with an infected person.

Pubic lice feed on your blood, and their bites can cause severe itching. Treatment includes applying over-the-counter creams and lotions that kill the parasites and their eggs.

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Symptoms

If you have pubic lice (crabs), you may experience intense itching in your genital region. Pubic lice can spread to other areas with coarse body hair, including the:

  • Legs
  • Chest
  • Armpits
  • Beard or mustache
  • Eyelashes or eyebrows, more commonly in children

When to see a doctor

Seek medical advice about pubic lice treatment if:

  • Over-the-counter products don’t kill the lice
  • You’re pregnant
  • You have any infected skin abrasions from scratching

Causes

Pubic lice are most commonly spread during sexual activity. You may also get pubic lice from infested sheets, blankets, towels or clothes.

Risk factors

People who have other sexually transmitted infections are more likely to also have pubic lice.

Complications

Pubic lice infestations can usually be treated with a louse-killing lotion or gel. However, a pubic lice infestation sometimes leads to complications such as:

  • Discolored skin. Pale blue spots may develop where pubic lice have been feeding continually.
  • Secondary infections. If itchy lice bites cause you to scratch yourself raw, these wounds can become infected.
  • Eye irritation. Children who have pubic lice on their eyelashes may develop a type of pink eye (conjunctivitis).

Prevention

To prevent pubic lice infestation, avoid having sexual contact or sharing bedding or clothing with anyone who has an infestation. If you are being treated for pubic lice, all sexual partners also must be treated.


Dec. 09, 2020

Show references

  1. AskMayoExpert. Lice. Mayo Clinic; 2020.
  2. Goldstein AO, et al. Pediculosis pubis and pediculosis ciliaris. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 25, 2020.
  3. Kang S, et al., eds. Scabies, other mites, and pediculosis. In: Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology. 9th ed. McGraw Hill; 2019. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Nov. 25, 2020.
  4. Hoffman BL, et al. Gynecologic infection. In: Williams Gynecology. 4th ed. McGraw Hill; 2020. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Nov. 25, 2020.
  5. Parasites: Pubic “crab” lice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lice/pubic/. Accessed Nov. 25, 2020.

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Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

Pubic lice, also known as crab lice or crabs, are tiny, parasitic insects that feed on blood. They spread easily and cause itching and red spots.

Lice often live on the skin in the genital area, but they may be present in any area of the body with coarse hair, including the eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, mustache, and any hair on the back or abdomen.

Adult lice are gray-brown and about 1.1–1.8 millimeters long. A person may be able to see them with the naked eye. The eggs and immature lice are smaller, however, and they may not be visible without a magnifying glass.

Lice usually pass from person to person during sex, and healthcare professionals consider them a sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, close hugging and kissing can also allow them to spread, as can sharing towels and other personal items.

It is easy to pass lice to another person, especially an intimate partner.

People can treat lice using over-the-counter (OTC) preparations. It is essential to follow the instructions precisely.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend either a 1% permethrin lotion or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide.

They note that lindane shampoo, which is a prescription medication, can kill lice and eggs, but it can be toxic to the brain and nervous system.

People should only use lindane if other treatments have not worked or if they cannot use other remedies. It is not suitable for infants and children, older people, those who are prone to seizures, individuals with skin problems, and people weighing less than 110 pounds. People should not use it during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Other prescription treatments include malathion (Ovide) lotion 0.5% and ivermectin (Stromectol). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not approved malathion for the treatment of pubic lice, and they have only approved the topical form of ivermectin, not the oral form.

The exact instructions for use will vary, but the overall process is as follows:

  1. Wash and towel dry the affected area.
  2. Saturate the affected hair with medication.
  3. Leave for as long as the instructions recommend, then remove according to the instructions.
  4. Remove the nits, or eggs, using the fingernails or a fine comb.
  5. Change into clean underwear.

If lice remain after 9 days, apply the treatment again.

In addition, people with lice should do the following:

  • Avoid sexual contact with others until the lice have gone.
  • Inform any partners or people who may have been in close contact.
  • Consider testing for other STIs.

Even if the lice appear to have gone, the person should continue treatment because if any eggs remain, they may hatch and start a new cycle. If OTC medications do not kill the lice, a doctor may prescribe a stronger lotion or shampoo.

It is important to ask a healthcare professional about treatments for lice, as options that are suitable for body hair may be harmful to use on the face.

The main symptom of pubic lice is itching, which may start about 5 days after the first contact.

A person may also notice:

  • small red bumps or spots on the skin
  • blue spots on the thighs or lower abdomen
  • dark brown or black powder — louse droppings — on the skin or in the underwear

Symptoms can affect the pubic region or any part of the body that has hair, including the eyelashes.

Will I see the lice?

An adult pubic louse is large enough to see. It has six legs, including large back legs that look like the claws of a crab. The lice use these back legs to cling onto the hair.

The eggs are yellowish-white, oval-shaped, and usually too small to see without a microscope. They stick firmly to the base of the hair.

The signs of lice may be visible in coarse hair in the pubic region, but also under the arms and elsewhere.

After treatment, empty eggshells may remain, but this does not necessarily mean that the infestation is still present.

Lice cannot jump, fly, or swim, but they can crawl.

They can move from one person to another in the following ways:

  • during any type of sexual activity
  • through nonsexual bodily contact, such as hugging or kissing, although this is less common
  • by sharing towels, bedding, and other personal items

They can also spread from one part of the body to another on the hands, for example, if a person touches their pubic hair and then their eyelashes.

Barrier protection does not prevent lice from spreading. It is the proximity of body hair that enables their transmission.

Risk factors for getting pubic lice include:

  • being sexually active
  • having more than one sex partner
  • having sexual relations with a person who has an infestation
  • sharing towels, bedding, or clothing

OTC treatment can usually remove lice and their eggs, as long as the person follows the instructions.

The person should seek medical advice if:

  • OTC medication does not kill the lice
  • lice occur during pregnancy, when treatment may not be suitable
  • a skin infection results from scratching
  • they are under 18 years of age

Without treatment, complications can arise. Pubic lice do not pass on diseases, but scratching the affected area of skin can lead to sores or a skin infection.

If lice are present in the eyelashes, there is a risk of inflammation and infection, such as conjunctivitis.

If a person is not sure whether the lice have gone, a healthcare professional can help them check.

Following treatment, if there are still moving lice or eggs that are not empty, the person should see a doctor. Stronger medication may be necessary.

Lice and eggs are easy to detect through a visual examination of the affected area. A magnifying glass may help. If there are moving lice, the person will need treatment.

The presence of eggs does not necessarily mean that there is an infestation, as some empty eggshells may remain after successful treatment.

A doctor may recommend screening for other STIs as a precaution.

Pubic lice on the eyelashes or eyebrows of children may sometimes be a sign of child abuse, according to the CDC.

People can avoid getting pubic lice or spreading them to others by:

  • seeking early treatment
  • refraining from sexual activity until the lice have gone
  • ensuring that any sexual partners also have treatment
  • refraining from sharing towels and other personal items with others
  • removing pubic and other bodily hair

After an infestation, a person should wash clothes, bed linen, sleeping bags, and towels in water of at least 130ºF and then dry them on a hot cycle for at least 20 minutes.

If there are items that the person cannot wash, they can put these into a plastic bag for 2 weeks or take them for dry cleaning.

It is not necessary to fumigate the home, but it may be a good idea to treat soft furnishings with a spray and vacuum them.

Pubic lice, or crabs, are a common problem that people can transmit through sexual contact and in other ways. The lice do not pass on diseases, but they spread easily to other people and can cause itching and distress.

Treatment is available, and people should make sure that they follow the instructions carefully. It may be a good idea for everyone in the household to receive treatment.

Products for removing pubic lice are available for purchase from pharmacies or online.

Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

Pubic lice, also known as crab lice or crabs, are tiny, parasitic insects that feed on blood. They spread easily and cause itching and red spots.

Lice often live on the skin in the genital area, but they may be present in any area of the body with coarse hair, including the eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, mustache, and any hair on the back or abdomen.

Adult lice are gray-brown and about 1.1–1.8 millimeters long. A person may be able to see them with the naked eye. The eggs and immature lice are smaller, however, and they may not be visible without a magnifying glass.

Lice usually pass from person to person during sex, and healthcare professionals consider them a sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, close hugging and kissing can also allow them to spread, as can sharing towels and other personal items.

It is easy to pass lice to another person, especially an intimate partner.

People can treat lice using over-the-counter (OTC) preparations. It is essential to follow the instructions precisely.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend either a 1% permethrin lotion or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide.

They note that lindane shampoo, which is a prescription medication, can kill lice and eggs, but it can be toxic to the brain and nervous system.

People should only use lindane if other treatments have not worked or if they cannot use other remedies. It is not suitable for infants and children, older people, those who are prone to seizures, individuals with skin problems, and people weighing less than 110 pounds. People should not use it during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Other prescription treatments include malathion (Ovide) lotion 0.5% and ivermectin (Stromectol). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not approved malathion for the treatment of pubic lice, and they have only approved the topical form of ivermectin, not the oral form.

The exact instructions for use will vary, but the overall process is as follows:

  1. Wash and towel dry the affected area.
  2. Saturate the affected hair with medication.
  3. Leave for as long as the instructions recommend, then remove according to the instructions.
  4. Remove the nits, or eggs, using the fingernails or a fine comb.
  5. Change into clean underwear.

If lice remain after 9 days, apply the treatment again.

In addition, people with lice should do the following:

  • Avoid sexual contact with others until the lice have gone.
  • Inform any partners or people who may have been in close contact.
  • Consider testing for other STIs.

Even if the lice appear to have gone, the person should continue treatment because if any eggs remain, they may hatch and start a new cycle. If OTC medications do not kill the lice, a doctor may prescribe a stronger lotion or shampoo.

It is important to ask a healthcare professional about treatments for lice, as options that are suitable for body hair may be harmful to use on the face.

The main symptom of pubic lice is itching, which may start about 5 days after the first contact.

A person may also notice:

  • small red bumps or spots on the skin
  • blue spots on the thighs or lower abdomen
  • dark brown or black powder — louse droppings — on the skin or in the underwear

Symptoms can affect the pubic region or any part of the body that has hair, including the eyelashes.

Will I see the lice?

An adult pubic louse is large enough to see. It has six legs, including large back legs that look like the claws of a crab. The lice use these back legs to cling onto the hair.

The eggs are yellowish-white, oval-shaped, and usually too small to see without a microscope. They stick firmly to the base of the hair.

The signs of lice may be visible in coarse hair in the pubic region, but also under the arms and elsewhere.

After treatment, empty eggshells may remain, but this does not necessarily mean that the infestation is still present.

Lice cannot jump, fly, or swim, but they can crawl.

They can move from one person to another in the following ways:

  • during any type of sexual activity
  • through nonsexual bodily contact, such as hugging or kissing, although this is less common
  • by sharing towels, bedding, and other personal items

They can also spread from one part of the body to another on the hands, for example, if a person touches their pubic hair and then their eyelashes.

Barrier protection does not prevent lice from spreading. It is the proximity of body hair that enables their transmission.

Risk factors for getting pubic lice include:

  • being sexually active
  • having more than one sex partner
  • having sexual relations with a person who has an infestation
  • sharing towels, bedding, or clothing

OTC treatment can usually remove lice and their eggs, as long as the person follows the instructions.

The person should seek medical advice if:

  • OTC medication does not kill the lice
  • lice occur during pregnancy, when treatment may not be suitable
  • a skin infection results from scratching
  • they are under 18 years of age

Without treatment, complications can arise. Pubic lice do not pass on diseases, but scratching the affected area of skin can lead to sores or a skin infection.

If lice are present in the eyelashes, there is a risk of inflammation and infection, such as conjunctivitis.

If a person is not sure whether the lice have gone, a healthcare professional can help them check.

Following treatment, if there are still moving lice or eggs that are not empty, the person should see a doctor. Stronger medication may be necessary.

Lice and eggs are easy to detect through a visual examination of the affected area. A magnifying glass may help. If there are moving lice, the person will need treatment.

The presence of eggs does not necessarily mean that there is an infestation, as some empty eggshells may remain after successful treatment.

A doctor may recommend screening for other STIs as a precaution.

Pubic lice on the eyelashes or eyebrows of children may sometimes be a sign of child abuse, according to the CDC.

People can avoid getting pubic lice or spreading them to others by:

  • seeking early treatment
  • refraining from sexual activity until the lice have gone
  • ensuring that any sexual partners also have treatment
  • refraining from sharing towels and other personal items with others
  • removing pubic and other bodily hair

After an infestation, a person should wash clothes, bed linen, sleeping bags, and towels in water of at least 130ºF and then dry them on a hot cycle for at least 20 minutes.

If there are items that the person cannot wash, they can put these into a plastic bag for 2 weeks or take them for dry cleaning.

It is not necessary to fumigate the home, but it may be a good idea to treat soft furnishings with a spray and vacuum them.

Pubic lice, or crabs, are a common problem that people can transmit through sexual contact and in other ways. The lice do not pass on diseases, but they spread easily to other people and can cause itching and distress.

Treatment is available, and people should make sure that they follow the instructions carefully. It may be a good idea for everyone in the household to receive treatment.

Products for removing pubic lice are available for purchase from pharmacies or online.

Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

Pubic lice, also known as crab lice or crabs, are tiny, parasitic insects that feed on blood. They spread easily and cause itching and red spots.

Lice often live on the skin in the genital area, but they may be present in any area of the body with coarse hair, including the eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, mustache, and any hair on the back or abdomen.

Adult lice are gray-brown and about 1.1–1.8 millimeters long. A person may be able to see them with the naked eye. The eggs and immature lice are smaller, however, and they may not be visible without a magnifying glass.

Lice usually pass from person to person during sex, and healthcare professionals consider them a sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, close hugging and kissing can also allow them to spread, as can sharing towels and other personal items.

It is easy to pass lice to another person, especially an intimate partner.

People can treat lice using over-the-counter (OTC) preparations. It is essential to follow the instructions precisely.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend either a 1% permethrin lotion or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide.

They note that lindane shampoo, which is a prescription medication, can kill lice and eggs, but it can be toxic to the brain and nervous system.

People should only use lindane if other treatments have not worked or if they cannot use other remedies. It is not suitable for infants and children, older people, those who are prone to seizures, individuals with skin problems, and people weighing less than 110 pounds. People should not use it during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Other prescription treatments include malathion (Ovide) lotion 0.5% and ivermectin (Stromectol). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not approved malathion for the treatment of pubic lice, and they have only approved the topical form of ivermectin, not the oral form.

The exact instructions for use will vary, but the overall process is as follows:

  1. Wash and towel dry the affected area.
  2. Saturate the affected hair with medication.
  3. Leave for as long as the instructions recommend, then remove according to the instructions.
  4. Remove the nits, or eggs, using the fingernails or a fine comb.
  5. Change into clean underwear.

If lice remain after 9 days, apply the treatment again.

In addition, people with lice should do the following:

  • Avoid sexual contact with others until the lice have gone.
  • Inform any partners or people who may have been in close contact.
  • Consider testing for other STIs.

Even if the lice appear to have gone, the person should continue treatment because if any eggs remain, they may hatch and start a new cycle. If OTC medications do not kill the lice, a doctor may prescribe a stronger lotion or shampoo.

It is important to ask a healthcare professional about treatments for lice, as options that are suitable for body hair may be harmful to use on the face.

The main symptom of pubic lice is itching, which may start about 5 days after the first contact.

A person may also notice:

  • small red bumps or spots on the skin
  • blue spots on the thighs or lower abdomen
  • dark brown or black powder — louse droppings — on the skin or in the underwear

Symptoms can affect the pubic region or any part of the body that has hair, including the eyelashes.

Will I see the lice?

An adult pubic louse is large enough to see. It has six legs, including large back legs that look like the claws of a crab. The lice use these back legs to cling onto the hair.

The eggs are yellowish-white, oval-shaped, and usually too small to see without a microscope. They stick firmly to the base of the hair.

The signs of lice may be visible in coarse hair in the pubic region, but also under the arms and elsewhere.

After treatment, empty eggshells may remain, but this does not necessarily mean that the infestation is still present.

Lice cannot jump, fly, or swim, but they can crawl.

They can move from one person to another in the following ways:

  • during any type of sexual activity
  • through nonsexual bodily contact, such as hugging or kissing, although this is less common
  • by sharing towels, bedding, and other personal items

They can also spread from one part of the body to another on the hands, for example, if a person touches their pubic hair and then their eyelashes.

Barrier protection does not prevent lice from spreading. It is the proximity of body hair that enables their transmission.

Risk factors for getting pubic lice include:

  • being sexually active
  • having more than one sex partner
  • having sexual relations with a person who has an infestation
  • sharing towels, bedding, or clothing

OTC treatment can usually remove lice and their eggs, as long as the person follows the instructions.

The person should seek medical advice if:

  • OTC medication does not kill the lice
  • lice occur during pregnancy, when treatment may not be suitable
  • a skin infection results from scratching
  • they are under 18 years of age

Without treatment, complications can arise. Pubic lice do not pass on diseases, but scratching the affected area of skin can lead to sores or a skin infection.

If lice are present in the eyelashes, there is a risk of inflammation and infection, such as conjunctivitis.

If a person is not sure whether the lice have gone, a healthcare professional can help them check.

Following treatment, if there are still moving lice or eggs that are not empty, the person should see a doctor. Stronger medication may be necessary.

Lice and eggs are easy to detect through a visual examination of the affected area. A magnifying glass may help. If there are moving lice, the person will need treatment.

The presence of eggs does not necessarily mean that there is an infestation, as some empty eggshells may remain after successful treatment.

A doctor may recommend screening for other STIs as a precaution.

Pubic lice on the eyelashes or eyebrows of children may sometimes be a sign of child abuse, according to the CDC.

People can avoid getting pubic lice or spreading them to others by:

  • seeking early treatment
  • refraining from sexual activity until the lice have gone
  • ensuring that any sexual partners also have treatment
  • refraining from sharing towels and other personal items with others
  • removing pubic and other bodily hair

After an infestation, a person should wash clothes, bed linen, sleeping bags, and towels in water of at least 130ºF and then dry them on a hot cycle for at least 20 minutes.

If there are items that the person cannot wash, they can put these into a plastic bag for 2 weeks or take them for dry cleaning.

It is not necessary to fumigate the home, but it may be a good idea to treat soft furnishings with a spray and vacuum them.

Pubic lice, or crabs, are a common problem that people can transmit through sexual contact and in other ways. The lice do not pass on diseases, but they spread easily to other people and can cause itching and distress.

Treatment is available, and people should make sure that they follow the instructions carefully. It may be a good idea for everyone in the household to receive treatment.

Products for removing pubic lice are available for purchase from pharmacies or online.

Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

Pubic lice, also known as crab lice or crabs, are tiny, parasitic insects that feed on blood. They spread easily and cause itching and red spots.

Lice often live on the skin in the genital area, but they may be present in any area of the body with coarse hair, including the eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, mustache, and any hair on the back or abdomen.

Adult lice are gray-brown and about 1.1–1.8 millimeters long. A person may be able to see them with the naked eye. The eggs and immature lice are smaller, however, and they may not be visible without a magnifying glass.

Lice usually pass from person to person during sex, and healthcare professionals consider them a sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, close hugging and kissing can also allow them to spread, as can sharing towels and other personal items.

It is easy to pass lice to another person, especially an intimate partner.

People can treat lice using over-the-counter (OTC) preparations. It is essential to follow the instructions precisely.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend either a 1% permethrin lotion or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide.

They note that lindane shampoo, which is a prescription medication, can kill lice and eggs, but it can be toxic to the brain and nervous system.

People should only use lindane if other treatments have not worked or if they cannot use other remedies. It is not suitable for infants and children, older people, those who are prone to seizures, individuals with skin problems, and people weighing less than 110 pounds. People should not use it during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Other prescription treatments include malathion (Ovide) lotion 0.5% and ivermectin (Stromectol). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not approved malathion for the treatment of pubic lice, and they have only approved the topical form of ivermectin, not the oral form.

The exact instructions for use will vary, but the overall process is as follows:

  1. Wash and towel dry the affected area.
  2. Saturate the affected hair with medication.
  3. Leave for as long as the instructions recommend, then remove according to the instructions.
  4. Remove the nits, or eggs, using the fingernails or a fine comb.
  5. Change into clean underwear.

If lice remain after 9 days, apply the treatment again.

In addition, people with lice should do the following:

  • Avoid sexual contact with others until the lice have gone.
  • Inform any partners or people who may have been in close contact.
  • Consider testing for other STIs.

Even if the lice appear to have gone, the person should continue treatment because if any eggs remain, they may hatch and start a new cycle. If OTC medications do not kill the lice, a doctor may prescribe a stronger lotion or shampoo.

It is important to ask a healthcare professional about treatments for lice, as options that are suitable for body hair may be harmful to use on the face.

The main symptom of pubic lice is itching, which may start about 5 days after the first contact.

A person may also notice:

  • small red bumps or spots on the skin
  • blue spots on the thighs or lower abdomen
  • dark brown or black powder — louse droppings — on the skin or in the underwear

Symptoms can affect the pubic region or any part of the body that has hair, including the eyelashes.

Will I see the lice?

An adult pubic louse is large enough to see. It has six legs, including large back legs that look like the claws of a crab. The lice use these back legs to cling onto the hair.

The eggs are yellowish-white, oval-shaped, and usually too small to see without a microscope. They stick firmly to the base of the hair.

The signs of lice may be visible in coarse hair in the pubic region, but also under the arms and elsewhere.

After treatment, empty eggshells may remain, but this does not necessarily mean that the infestation is still present.

Lice cannot jump, fly, or swim, but they can crawl.

They can move from one person to another in the following ways:

  • during any type of sexual activity
  • through nonsexual bodily contact, such as hugging or kissing, although this is less common
  • by sharing towels, bedding, and other personal items

They can also spread from one part of the body to another on the hands, for example, if a person touches their pubic hair and then their eyelashes.

Barrier protection does not prevent lice from spreading. It is the proximity of body hair that enables their transmission.

Risk factors for getting pubic lice include:

  • being sexually active
  • having more than one sex partner
  • having sexual relations with a person who has an infestation
  • sharing towels, bedding, or clothing

OTC treatment can usually remove lice and their eggs, as long as the person follows the instructions.

The person should seek medical advice if:

  • OTC medication does not kill the lice
  • lice occur during pregnancy, when treatment may not be suitable
  • a skin infection results from scratching
  • they are under 18 years of age

Without treatment, complications can arise. Pubic lice do not pass on diseases, but scratching the affected area of skin can lead to sores or a skin infection.

If lice are present in the eyelashes, there is a risk of inflammation and infection, such as conjunctivitis.

If a person is not sure whether the lice have gone, a healthcare professional can help them check.

Following treatment, if there are still moving lice or eggs that are not empty, the person should see a doctor. Stronger medication may be necessary.

Lice and eggs are easy to detect through a visual examination of the affected area. A magnifying glass may help. If there are moving lice, the person will need treatment.

The presence of eggs does not necessarily mean that there is an infestation, as some empty eggshells may remain after successful treatment.

A doctor may recommend screening for other STIs as a precaution.

Pubic lice on the eyelashes or eyebrows of children may sometimes be a sign of child abuse, according to the CDC.

People can avoid getting pubic lice or spreading them to others by:

  • seeking early treatment
  • refraining from sexual activity until the lice have gone
  • ensuring that any sexual partners also have treatment
  • refraining from sharing towels and other personal items with others
  • removing pubic and other bodily hair

After an infestation, a person should wash clothes, bed linen, sleeping bags, and towels in water of at least 130ºF and then dry them on a hot cycle for at least 20 minutes.

If there are items that the person cannot wash, they can put these into a plastic bag for 2 weeks or take them for dry cleaning.

It is not necessary to fumigate the home, but it may be a good idea to treat soft furnishings with a spray and vacuum them.

Pubic lice, or crabs, are a common problem that people can transmit through sexual contact and in other ways. The lice do not pass on diseases, but they spread easily to other people and can cause itching and distress.

Treatment is available, and people should make sure that they follow the instructions carefully. It may be a good idea for everyone in the household to receive treatment.

Products for removing pubic lice are available for purchase from pharmacies or online.

Pubic Lice (Genital Crabs): Symptoms, Treatment



Overview

What are pubic lice?

Pubic lice are also called crabs. These tiny insects live on your pubic hair — the hair below the belly button, around the genitals. Pubic lice rarely live on the scalp, but they can live in other hairy parts of the body, including:

  • Armpits.
  • Beard and mustache.
  • Chest.
  • Eyebrows and eyelashes.

Are pubic lice a disease?

Pubic lice don’t carry or spread diseases. So you can’t get sick from them. But they are annoying and itchy. You may end up with a bacterial infection from scratching. When you scratch, you can break the skin. Bacteria can enter the skin and cause an infection.

Are pubic lice an STD?

Pubic lice often get lumped in with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). That’s because people get pubic lice most often during sex. But pubic lice are not an actual disease or infection.

How do you get pubic lice?

You get genital crabs by coming into close physical contact with a person who has them. The lice jump from the pubic hair of one person to another. Usually, people catch crabs by having sex with a person who has them. Even if there’s no penetration or intercourse, the close physical contact means you can catch or spread crabs.

You can occasionally get crabs other ways, too. You can catch them by sharing or having contact with the clothes, linens and towels of a person who has them. But you won’t get crabs through casual contact, such as handshakes or hugs.

Can I get crabs by sharing a toilet seat with a person who has crabs?

You most likely cannot get crabs by sharing a toilet seat with someone who has them. The lice can’t live very long when they’re away from a human body. And their legs can’t hold onto a smooth surface like a toilet seat.

What do pubic lice look like?

The lice look different depending on their stage of growth:

  • Nits: These lice eggs are hard to see. They’re usually oval and yellow or white.
  • Nymph: This is the young louse (singular of lice) that hatches from the egg. Each one needs about two to three weeks to become a mature adult.
  • Adult: A fully grown louse has six legs. The front legs are larger and resemble a crab’s pincher claws. Adults are tan or grayish-white.

Nymphs and adult lice feed on blood. Once a louse falls off a person, it dies within a day or two.

Can I get pubic lice from a pet?

No. Dogs, cats and other pets don’t spread pubic lice.

Are pubic lice the same as head lice?

The lice you can get on your head are a different type of lice than pubic lice.

Can children get pubic lice?

Children might get infested if they sleep in the same bed as someone who has pubic lice. Often, pubic lice in a child is a sign of sexual abuse.

How common are pubic lice?

Pubic lice are common, found in people around the world, of every race and ethnic group. Pubic lice are most common in adults. Every year, about 3 million people in the United States get pubic lice.



Symptoms and Causes

What causes pubic lice?

You typically get pubic lice by being physically close to a person who has them. During sex, for example, the lice can jump from your partner’s pubic hair to your own.

Less often, lice spread through shared clothes, towels and linens.

What are the symptoms of crabs?

Pubic lice symptoms often show up about five days after you get infested. Symptoms of crabs include:

  • Pruritus (severe itching) in hairy areas, especially pubic hair.
  • Specks of blood in your underwear.
  • Small white dots on pubic hair that are hard to remove.
  • Pale bluish spots on your thighs, buttocks and lower abdomen.
  • Low fever and feeling run-down.

Why do pubic lice itch?

The lice feed on your blood. They make small bites on your skin. An allergic reaction to the bites causes the itchiness.



Diagnosis and Tests

How can I know if I have pubic lice?

You may see the lice, though they’re small and can be hard to spot. That’s the best way to know for sure if you have them. Pubic lice are the size of a pinhead and look like tiny gray crabs.

How will my provider diagnose pubic lice?

You may have symptoms of pubic lice but can’t see the lice. If you’re not sure, see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Your provider may use a magnifying glass to spot the lice. If you have pubic lice, your provider will likely recommend testing for sexually transmitted diseases.



Management and Treatment

What is pubic lice treatment?

You treat pubic lice using a special shampoo or cream. You can typically buy these treatments over-the-counter, without a prescription. They are safe and effective. Make sure to follow the directions on the package carefully

For best results from the lice treatment, follow these steps:

  • Check for lice in your underarm hair and other hairy parts of your body. Wash and dry your body.
  • Apply the shampoo or cream on all the areas that may have crabs — thighs, underarms and trunk (lower abdomen and buttocks, including near the rectum). Do not put it on your eyelashes.
  • Leave the shampoo or cream for the amount of time recommended in the instructions, then rinse it off.
  • Remove nits from hair strands using fingers or a fine-toothed comb. Put on clean underwear and clothing after treatment.
  • Clean your clothes, bed linens and towels using the hot cycles of your washer and dryer. The heat destroys the crabs. Place items you can’t wash in a sealed plastic bag for two weeks. Or get them dry-cleaned.
  • Do not spray insecticide on your clothes or other objects in your house.
  • Pause your sex life until the crabs go away, usually about two weeks.
  • Repeat the treatment in nine to 10 days if the lice remain.

What are the types of shampoos and creams for pubic lice?

Pubic lice treatments that you can buy without a prescription include:

Common brand names of these lice treatments include A-200®, RID® and Nix®.

Are there prescription medications for pubic lice?

If over-the-counter approaches don’t work, you may need a prescription for stronger treatments. Your healthcare provider may recommend a topical cream for your body or a shampoo. Oral medicines (taken by mouth) may provide another option, too. Lice get exposed to these drugs when they bite you and draw blood.

One of the prescription options is called lindane shampoo (Kwell®). It destroys lice and eggs but can have serious side effects. It may be toxic to the brain and nervous system. Usually, providers recommend lindane shampoo only when other treatments have failed.

Can I use other at-home treatments for pubic lice?

Special lice shampoos or creams are the only treatments that will work. They destroy pubic lice. Shaving or taking hot baths won’t destroy the lice. You can use a hydrocortisone cream to stop the itching, but it won’t treat the lice.

How do I treat lice in my eyelashes?

You need special treatment for lice in your eyelashes. Contact your healthcare provider to find out the best way to treat the problem.

Can I use pubic lice treatment if I’m pregnant or breastfeeding?

If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, talk to your healthcare provider before using any lice treatment.

Should my sex partner(s) get treated?

Get in touch with your sexual partner(s) from the previous month. They may have pubic lice, too, and will need treatment.



Prevention

How can I prevent genital crabs?

The only guaranteed way to prevent pubic lice is to avoid any close physical contact with people. Still, you can take reasonable steps to lower your risk for crabs and prevent them from coming back:

Do:

  • Limit your sex partners. And try to avoid sex with people who have multiple sex partners.
  • Make sure your partner(s) get treated if you had pubic lice.
  • Wash and dry clothing, bedding and towels.
  • Finish treatment and check that the crabs are gone before resuming sex.

Don’t:

  • Have sex or close physical contact with someone who has crabs.
  • Share clothing, bedding or towels with a person who has crabs.
  • Use insecticide sprays. They don’t control crabs and can be harmful.
  • Try on bathing suits when shopping. If you do try them on, wear underwear.

Can I use pubic lice shampoo preventively?

Perhaps you found out that a sexual partner from the past month got pubic lice. It’s fine to use one of the lice shampoos or creams to be safe.

Will frequent showers prevent pubic lice?

Getting pubic lice has nothing to do with your hygiene. You get pubic lice by having close physical contact with a person who has them.



Outlook / Prognosis

Are pubic lice dangerous?

No, pubic lice won’t cause serious health concerns. Usually, the main problems that the lice cause are itching and discomfort. You may get a bacterial infection if you end up scratching your skin a lot.

Can I get pubic lice more than once?

Yes, you can get crabs again. Take steps to prevent pubic lice, so you don’t get them again.



Living With

When can I resume sex?

Pause your sex life until both you and your partner(s) have finished treatment. Check that the lice have not returned.

What else should I ask my healthcare provider?

If you have pubic lice, ask your provider:

  • What pubic lice treatment do you recommend?
  • How many times should I do the treatment?
  • When can I resume having sex?
  • Should I tell my sexual partner(s) that I have pubic lice?
  • How can I prevent the lice from coming back?
  • Are there any long-term complications from crabs?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

If you have pubic lice, or genital crabs, don’t feel alarmed. While crabs can be annoying and cause discomfort, it’s easy to treat them. Pubic lice won’t cause long-term health problems, either. If you’re not sure you have crabs, talk to your healthcare provider. Pubic lice treatment usually involves special creams or shampoos to destroy the lice. After treatment, make sure to comb any nits (eggs) out of your hair. Wash all clothes, bedding and towels to destroy any lice living there. And suggest to recent sexual partner(s) that they get treated as well.

CDC – Lice – Pubic “Crab” – General Information

 

What are pubic lice?

Also called crab lice or “crabs,” pubic lice are parasitic insects found primarily in the pubic or genital area of humans. Pubic lice infestation is found worldwide and occurs in all races, ethnic groups, and levels of society.

What do pubic lice look like?

Pubic lice have three forms: the egg (also called a nit), the nymph, and the adult.

Nit: Nits are lice eggs. They can be hard to see and are found firmly attached to the hair shaft. They are oval and usually yellow to white. Pubic lice nits take about 6–10 days to hatch.

Nymph: The nymph is an immature louse that hatches from the nit (egg). A nymph looks like an adult pubic louse but it is smaller. Pubic lice nymphs take about 2–3 weeks after hatching to mature into adults capable of reproducing. To live, a nymph must feed on blood.

Adult: The adult pubic louse resembles a miniature crab when viewed through a strong magnifying glass. Pubic lice have six legs; their two front legs are very large and look like the pincher claws of a crab. This is how they got the nickname “crabs.” Pubic lice are tan to grayish-white in color. Females lay nits and are usually larger than males. To live, lice must feed on blood. If the louse falls off a person, it dies within 1–2 days.

Where are pubic lice found?

Pubic lice usually are found in the genital area on pubic hair; but they may occasionally be found on other coarse body hair, such as hair on the legs, armpits, mustache, beard, eyebrows, or eyelashes. Pubic lice on the eyebrows or eyelashes of children may be a sign of sexual exposure or abuse. Lice found on the head generally are head lice, not pubic lice.

Animals do not get or spread pubic lice.

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What are the signs and symptoms of pubic lice?

Signs and symptoms of pubic lice include

  • Itching in the genital area
  • Visible nits (lice eggs) or crawling lice
How did I get pubic lice?

Pubic lice usually are spread through sexual contact and are most common in adults. Pubic lice found on children may be a sign of sexual exposure or abuse. Occasionally, pubic lice may be spread by close personal contact or contact with articles such as clothing, bed linens, or towels that have been used by an infested person. A common misconception is that pubic lice are spread easily by sitting on a toilet seat. This would be extremely rare because lice cannot live long away from a warm human body and they do not have feet designed to hold onto or walk on smooth surfaces such as toilet seats.

Persons infested with pubic lice should be examined for the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases.

How is a pubic lice infestation diagnosed?

A pubic lice infestation is diagnosed by finding a “crab” louse or egg (nit) on hair in the pubic region or, less commonly, elsewhere on the body (eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, armpit, perianal area, groin, trunk, scalp). Pubic lice may be difficult to find because there may be only a few. Pubic lice often attach themselves to more than one hair and generally do not crawl as quickly as head and body lice. If crawling lice are not seen, finding nits in the pubic area strongly suggests that a person is infested and should be treated. If you are unsure about infestation or if treatment is not successful, see a health care provider for a diagnosis. Persons infested with pubic lice should be investigated for the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases.

Although pubic lice and nits can be large enough to be seen with the naked eye, a magnifying lens may be necessary to find lice or eggs.

How is a pubic lice infestation treated?

See our Treatment page.

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This information is not meant to be used for self-diagnosis or as a substitute for consultation with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think that you may have a parasitic infection, consult a health care provider.

Pediculosis

Lice is a parasitic infection of the skin that develops on the hairy parts of the body. Lice are small parasitic insects that feed on human blood. Head lice causes itching and irritation of the skin.

Lice infection occurs through personal contact with the carrier of the infection or through his personal belongings. Often occurs in children’s groups (kindergartens, schools).

There are several types of human lice – head lice, body lice (living on clothes) and pubic lice.

Lice can be successfully treated.

Russian synonyms

Pediculosis

English synonyms

Lice, pediculosis

Symptoms

Pediculosis may present with the following symptoms and signs:

  • Severe itching, burning, irritation in the area of ​​hairy parts of the body. Itching is often noticeable at night. Sometimes lice occurs without itching.
  • Feeling of hair movement, tickling in the hairy area.
  • Lice, lice eggs (nits) on the scalp, body or clothing. Lice can be seen upon close examination, adults reach 1-2 mm in size, body lice – 2-4 mm. Nits are oval grayish-whitish eggs, about 5 mm in size, attached to the base of the hair.
  • Combing the affected area.
  • Small red spots on the scalp, neck, shoulders; in the presence of body lice – on the buttocks, abdomen, shoulders.
  • Small grayish-bluish spots on the trunk, buttocks, thighs in the presence of pubic lice.The appearance of the spots is due to the composition of the lice saliva.
  • The enlargement of the occipital lymph nodes is caused by the reaction of the patient’s immune system to the presence of lice.

General information on disease

Lice is a parasitic skin disease that develops on the hairy parts of the body. Human lice, settling on the human body or clothing, feed on human blood, causing itching, irritation of the affected area.

Infection with lice most often occurs through personal contact with the carrier of lice or with his things (headgear, comb, clothing, bedding, soft toys).Often the disease occurs in children’s groups (kindergartens, schools).

The presence of lice is not related to the degree of personal hygiene.

When lice enter the human body, they pierce the skin, injecting saliva, and then sucking out the blood. It is the saliva of the lice that causes itching.

One female head and pubic lice lays about 3-6 eggs per day, attaching them to the base of human hair. Lice from nits hatch after about 8-10 days.

Outside the human body, nits of head and pubic lice can exist for about 10 days.When the eggs of lice (nits) land on the hairy part of the human body, they attach to the hair, where they develop further. The body louse lays eggs in the folds of clothing, less often sticks to the hair on the human body.

There are several types of human lice:

  • Head lice are the most common type of head lice. Most often they are found in girls 5-11 years old, but infection is possible at any age. This type of lice lives on the scalp, but it can also involve the eyebrows, eyelashes and beard.

As a rule, with active infection, there are about 20 adult lice, severe itching develops.

  • Body lice live on a person’s clothes, on bed linen. Transmitted through the sharing of contaminated items. They are carriers of typhus, trench fever. Body lice bites cause itching.
  • Pubic lice are often transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person; can be passed from parents to children, through towels, clothes, bedding.

They live most often on the pubis, can spread to the thighs, trunk and face (beard, mustache, eyelashes). Pubic lice bites cause itching. In the presence of lice on the eyelashes, there is a burning sensation, irritation.

Mixed lice may sometimes occur, with several types of lice present.

Who is at risk?

The group at increased risk of developing head lice includes:

  • Girls 5-11 years old
  • Students of boarding schools, kindergartens, schools
  • Prisoners and colonies
  • Military
  • People with increased sexual activity who often change partners
  • Living in unfavorable conditions, in cramped conditions; homeless people

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of lice consists in establishing the presence of parasites on the human body, on his clothes or personal belongings.

For this, combing wet hair with a comb with fine teeth, a thorough examination of the body, clothing, personal items (hats, bed linen, towels, soft toys, furniture, pillows) can be used. A magnifying glass and strong light sources can be used to increase the effectiveness of diagnostic measures.

30% of people infected with lice have concomitant sexually transmitted diseases. It is recommended to conduct laboratory tests aimed at detecting HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, trichomoniasis.

Treatment

Treatment consists in the elimination of lice and depends on their habitat.

Head lice and nits are eliminated by using a special shampoo or lotion applied to the scalp. Pubic lice are destroyed with creams, shampoos. Body lice that fall on the human body are destroyed; clothes, bedding of a person are carefully processed.

If all the recommendations are followed, lice can be successfully treated.

Prevention

The spread of head lice in schools and kindergartens is difficult to prevent. The risk can be reduced by observing the following measures:

You should only use your own personal belongings and do not lend them to others. The list of these things includes: clothes, hats, scarves, combs, elastic bands, headphones, a towel, bed linen, soft toys, mascara, etc.

Recommended analyzes

90,000 Pubic lice

Pubic lice are ectoparasites found throughout the world.As a rule, they live in the groin area. Much less common in the scalp of the face, including the area of ​​eyelashes, eyebrows, mustache and beard. They feed in the same way as head and body lice – human blood. They are not adapted to any other living conditions, and therefore they easily die without a person.

External signs

Pubic lice are one of the smallest parasites that can inhabit the human body. Their body length is no more than 2 mm.Moreover, the females are much larger. The abdomen is rounded, the color is pale gray, which helps insects to successfully hide among the hair. To some extent, they bear little resemblance to crabs: the body is trapezoidal with a fairly wide thoracic region, the back part is noticeably narrowed.

The limbs are tenacious and well developed, two pairs of them are equipped with small hooks. The latter allow you to firmly hold on to the hairline and move freely from one hair to another. The eyes, like those of other members of the family, see poorly.The sense of smell is much better developed. Pubic lice larvae are even smaller. The length of their body barely reaches 0.7 mm.

Reproduction

This classification of lice multiplies very quickly. A sexually mature female reproduces up to 3 eggs at a time. For the entire life cycle, this figure is equal to 50 (given the fact that the insect lives for about a month). The expectant mother attaches the formed eggs to the hairs with special wax. Removing them in the future is a very difficult task.

As you know, the eggs of pubic lice are called nits. By their appearance, they resemble a small capsule. Above is a special valve cap. It opens after a sufficient amount of gases released by the larva have accumulated. It takes about 7 days for the egg to fully develop. If the temperature drops to 20 ° C or vice versa, it rises to 40 ° C, the offspring stops developing. At the same time, adults lose their reproductive function, and sometimes they die.

The larva that emerged from the egg is an almost complete copy of its parents. The only differences are the lack of genitals and smaller sizes. For 2 – 2.5 weeks, the nymph continues to develop. She undergoes three molts and each time it becomes more and more similar to an adult. After the end of the last regeneration processes, the female needs to get enough blood and that’s it – she is ready for the upcoming mating and further procreation.

Lifestyle

All types of lice are closely related to their vital activity with humans.Unlike other parasites, which only occasionally crawl onto its skin to satisfy hunger, lice always remain in place. After all, initially their evolutionary skills are aimed at one thing – adaptation to being on the body of people.

If an insect accidentally finds itself outside its natural environment, after a few days it dies of hunger. Only a nearby naked person can save him. In this case, the louse will calmly crawl onto it and continue to multiply.However, she cannot find a new owner on her own due to her natural inactivity.

Interestingly, how many species of lice would not exist on the planet, only pubic lice can parasitize on the eyebrows and eyelashes. They feed on human blood, as mentioned earlier. Stylet-like outgrowths in the mouth serve as faithful helpers in this matter. They quickly pierce the skin and find blood vessels. During the absorption of liquid, the insect expands its esophagus and sucks in everything according to the principle of a pump.Special enzymes prevent blood clotting and facilitate its entry into the parasite’s body

Lice bites cause itching similar to that of a mosquito. They feed every 4-5 hours, while sucking 0.5 mg of blood. They cannot stand hunger and in the absence of a power source they die in a day or two.

Why are pubic lice dangerous?

Pubic lice are almost never carriers of infectious diseases.Most often, their natural activity is enough to make a person’s quality of life deteriorate several times. For example, itching throughout the body can cause a person to scratch the affected area of ​​the skin. As a result: weakening of the body’s protective barriers, penetration into open wounds of secondary infections. Papules and pustular inflammations are formed, which in advanced cases develop into pyoderma. If the parasites have invaded the area of ​​the eyelids and eyelashes, then sooner or later conjunctivitis or blepharitis will begin to develop.

Regarding the main symptoms of infection with pubic lice, the following can be distinguished:

  • bluish spots on the skin caused by hemorrhage after bites or a special reaction to an enzyme produced by insects;

  • severe itching, which first covers the pubic area, and then expands throughout the body;

  • rash, as a result of an allergic reaction to the same enzyme;
  • rusty grains on linen – adult excrement.

Pediculosis

16.10.2019

Views: 5072

Pediculosis : photos, preparations, how to get rid of lice

Pediculosis (mites)

Many parents believe that their child cannot get head lice because they follow the rules of hygiene and keep the house clean.

However, everyone can “catch” lice in any place, be it a children’s sandpit, public transport, school or kindergarten.

They are capable of carrying serious infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to know how to get rid of lice and prevent infection.

Contents of article

1. Code according to ICD-10


2.Causes


3. Symptoms


four.Treatment


5. Prevention

What is this disease

Pediculosis is usually called a disease of the skin and hair, which is caused by ectoparasites – lice.These small insects feed from twice a day thanks to their sharp proboscis and suck several mg of blood per day. After that, the color of the parasite changes from gray to red.

Lice are capable of crawling quickly, they cannot fly or jump. Parasites die at rather high or low temperatures, as well as without human blood.

The ideal temperature for lice breeding is 28 degrees.

The disease is caused by parasites of three types:

one.Head. Found on the beard, eyelashes, head, eyebrows.

2. Wages. Lice are found in the folds of the skin.

3. Pubic. Habitat – pubic hair.

Having reached the hair, the lice multiply rapidly by laying eggs – nits. One individual can reproduce up to 10 eggs in 24 hours, which mature within a week.

Code according to ICD-10

According to the ICD-10 classes, head lice has a code of B85.0 , wardrobe – B85.1 , pubic – B 85.3 . In the International Classification of Diseases, unspecified pediculosis under code 85.2 is distinguished, as well as a mixed type – B85.4 (infection with two or three types of lice).

Causes

In order not to get sick, you need to know where the lice come from. The source of transmission is a person who has parasites on their body or hair.

They can be infected in the following ways:

1. By skin contact. It can be hugs or intercourse.

2. Through personal items. Usually these are combs, elastic bands, scarves, pillows, towels. Pubic lice can be infected through underwear, head lice from someone else’s hat.

3. Out of the water. In pools, seas and lakes, lice live for about two days.They can also crawl out of the sand, including from the sandbox.

The provoking factors of head lice include:

· long hair;

· Unsanitary living conditions;

· Ignoring the rules of personal hygiene;

· Low parental control over the child.

Most often, foci of the disease appear in the habitats of homeless people, prisons, shelters, as well as where there is no free access to water and conditions that do not meet sanitary standards are observed.Knowing how lice are transmitted can help protect yourself and your child.

Symptoms

Head lice can be detected by visual inspection.

More common head type disease. To examine a person, you should sit him on a chair under a bright light and examine the strands of hair with a fine comb. Unlike dandruff, lice eggs are difficult to remove from the hair, and when crushed, they emit a characteristic click.The clinical manifestations of head lice depend on the age of the patient, the degree of the lesion, the type of pathogen and its localization.


Head lice accompanied by severe itching. The patient scratches his head all the time. At the site of the bites, the skin is damaged and covered with crusts, such lesions are observed behind the ears, at the temples, on the back of the head. The hair follicles are inflamed. On the head of a child or adult, you can find lice eggs – nits that are white, gray or yellowish in color.

Dressing type The disease affects the skin surface of the back, neck, abdomen, lower back, groin and armpits. Parasite bites cause small rashes, similar to mosquito bites, to form.


Often pustular inflammation and scars join them. Over time, clothes head lice leads to flaking of the skin.

Pubic form of the disease is characterized by slight itching, round grayish spots at the bite sites. Lice are often found at the root of the hair and have little movement. The presence of lice always disgusts a person with himself. Itching interferes with sleep, the patient gets tired quickly and gets irritated over trifles. He develops apathy, depression , psychoses .

More than 75 thousand parasites can cause human death, however, psychological and neurological factors sometimes become the cause of death.

Treatment

Competent therapy will allow you to avoid infecting others, relieve you of unpleasant complications and discomfort. Therefore, it is important to know what to do at the first sign of head lice.


For the treatment of pathology, various folk remedies and medicines are used.

Pharmacy preparations

Treatment of the disease should be comprehensive and designed not only for the destruction of lice, but also their eggs.

The methods of therapy involve the use of antiparasitic drugs. They are available in the form of shampoos, emulsions, sprays, aerosols.


These include:

Itax shampoo;


· Pedilin;


· Foxilon;


· Couple Plus;


· Malathion;


Lindane


· Permethrin.

These products are available in pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription and can eliminate lice in one go, but it is advisable to use them twice.

Re-processing is carried out in a week. It is important to act according to the instructions for the preparation and thoroughly wash off the composition after application.

In rare cases, a remedy for head lice does not have an effective effect. This can be due to two reasons:

one.Failure to comply with the rules for applying the drug.

2. Insensitivity of parasites to the active substance.

In the case of head lice , personal hygiene must be observed and all linen must be boiled well, and clothes must be washed. Elimination of pubic lice consists in shaving hair and using antiparasitic agents. Lice bites are treated with an antiseptic solution.

It is important to make sure that there is no allergy to the drug against lice, and it is better to consult a specialist before using it.In case of infection of children, you will need the help of a pediatrician.

Home treatment

Previously, kerosene was used to remove ectoparasites. Such a remedy for lice and nits is not suitable for children. It can cause allergies and make the situation worse.

The following recipes are popular today:

Chemerichnaya water. It is necessary to purchase two bottles of the product in the pharmacy and thoroughly wipe the hair roots with the composition, combing Then the hair is collected and covered with cellophane and a warm scarf.After four hours, the product is washed off. It is better to leave the composition overnight to surely remove the parasites.

Tar soap. It is necessary to wet the hair, lather it with tar soap and rinse immediately. Then it is applied again and left for 40 minutes, then the hair is washed with water. This procedure must be done daily for seven days. In order to see the result, you need to comb the strands with a comb over a white sheet.
Onions and garlic. It is necessary to chop one head of garlic and one onion until smooth and evenly apply the resulting mass on the scalp, distributing it along the entire length of the hair.Then you should put on a hat. After two hours, the composition is washed off and combed through the hair with a comb.

If you use traditional methods together with specialized shampoos, then you can forget about lice.

It is also useful to use sorrel broth for rinsing. To prepare it, you need to pour three tablespoons of chopped sorrel with 0.5 liters of boiling water and leave for half an hour, and then boil for 15 minutes in a water bath.


Prevention


The use of special preparations does not protect against re-infection with parasites.Therefore, it is important to observe preventive control measures, which include the following recommendations:


1. It is necessary to regularly examine the hair and skin of a person who has recently had an illness.

2. It is important to follow the rules of personal hygiene, regularly wash clothes and bed linen, iron them with an iron.

3. Hair should be washed at least once every seven days.

4. You need to use only your own things and not share them with another person.You can not wear someone else’s headdress or use the accessories of unfamiliar people.

5. Avoid casual sex and close contact with strangers.

6. It is necessary to periodically clean outer clothing and upholstered furniture, ventilate the room.

7. It is necessary to limit communication with people who live in unsanitary conditions.

8. It is advised to take a bath with essential oils.Their smells ward off lice.

In schools and kindergartens, regular check-ups are carried out to detect lice in the hair of children. But none of the preventive measures gives one hundred percent protection against the disease, because you can get infected with it at any time and in any place.

90,000 photos, symptoms, treatments and a review of the means

Each of the 3 types of human lice found on his body a special place for parasitism, which excluded interspecies competition and ensured prosperity and well-being for everyone except humans.

The favorite habitat of pubic lice (ploshchik) became the area:

90,028 90,029 genitals;

90,029 anus;

90,029 armpits;

90,029 less often than eyelashes and beards.

These areas attract insects with a large number of apocrine glands, the secret of which serves as a kind of reference point in their search for a place of permanent deployment. The parasites feed on blood. Deprived of a host and food, they fall into suspended animation for several months.

Biological characteristics of pubic lice

You can diagnose lice on your own, it is enough to know what pubic lice look like.Outwardly, they look like miniature gray-yellow crabs. Adult insects are visible to the naked eye and have a body length of 1 to 3 mm. Nits are deposited at the hair roots.

How long a person has been infected with lice is judged by their location on the hair. The farther from the base, the longer the parasitization lasts, since insects, initially attaching themselves to the hair root, remain motionless in the future.

If the parasite is detached from a person, then the maximum life span is 24 hours, while the larvae are viable for a week.

Sources of infection with pubic lice

Many people wonder where pubic lice come from and what are the causes of infection? There is only one answer – contact with a human carrier. Although there are 2 ways of infection. The main one is sexual, less often household. There have been cases of infection through public toilets, solariums, swimming pools, public baths, etc.

Pubic louse is a purely human parasite and cannot live on animals, therefore it is also impossible to get infected from the latter. Pubic louse in women is the same frequency of occurrence as a guest as in men.

Symptoms of phthiriasis

Parasitization begins from the moment the louse crawled onto its new host. He may not even be aware of this. The so-called incubation period lasts for a month. Lice attached to the base of the hair are immersed in the skin of the proboscis. After the act of saturation, pubic lice in the photo look different: they increase in size and become brown-red. The louse eats twice a day. Other symptoms of pubic lice gradually begin to appear:

  • Itching.Most often it captures the pubic area, but it can gradually expand on the trunk, especially if it is covered with dense vegetation. Insects in this way can reach a mustache with a beard. The patient combs the itchy areas, which causes redness and irritation of the skin, eczema, and its secondary infection. Gradually intensifying, itching at night reaches its climax. It is a consequence of the action of an enzyme contained in the saliva of the parasite. The same enzyme inhibits blood clotting.
  • In addition to itching, other signs of pubic lice may appear on the skin – small (up to 1 cm) rapidly disappearing shadow spots.They are caused by hemorrhages after parasite bites or the deposition of secretions from their saliva.
  • Rash as a result of an allergic reaction of the human body to foreign substances of insect saliva.
  • And one more symptoms of infection: rusty grains on linen are the excrement of pubic lice and nits on the hair.

How to treat phthiriasis

Regular washing fails to get rid of pubic lice and their nits. Treatment involves the use of special pediculicidal agents.A single treatment with such formulations is usually sufficient. In case of a large accumulation of parasites, the hair in the infected area is shaved off. Both partners should undergo treatment, because the main method of transmission of phthiriasis is sexual. Therapy is impossible without high-temperature treatment of linen by boiling or washing in hot water.

The remedy for pubic lice can be combined or mono-component (with one active ingredient in the composition). In combined preparations, in addition to the main chemical agent, there is also a substance that prolongs the effect of the main component.

These formulations include Spray-Pax. Getting rid of pubic lice with a combined remedy occurs quickly and, as a rule, consists of one session.

Of the most effective and popular means, experts recommend:

  • Aerosol Spray-Pax. Contains an insecticide that acts on the nervous system of parasites. Spraying is carried out in the area of ​​the affected parts of the body. The exposure time is 30 minutes, after which the composition is washed off with warm water and soap. One bottle can cure both partners.The drug is contraindicated in pregnant women, during breastfeeding, as well as in those who have traces of severe scratching on their skin.
  • Nittifor. Acts on adult insects, as well as on nits and larvae. The undiluted composition of 30 ml is rubbed into the hairy parts of the body and kept for 40 minutes. To consolidate the success, the procedure is repeated after a week.
  • Medifox in the form of an emulsion. A working solution must be prepared from the concentrate. To do this, dissolve 4 ml of 5% emulsion in 100 ml of water. Get a 0.2% solution.It is applied to the hair, kept for 20 minutes and washed off. Costs for one treatment are from 30 to 100 ml.
  • Medifox – Super (emulsion). More concentrated composition. The working solution is obtained by diluting 1 ml of the product in 100 ml of water. Soak for about 20 minutes and wash off with running water and soap.
  • Shampoo Veda. It is applied in the form of a foam to the affected areas of the body. It is washed off after 10 minutes.
  • Vitar soap. Exposure time 20 minutes. It is recommended to repeat the procedure after 7 days.
  • Malatin in the form of lotion (0.5%) and shampoo (1%). Apply to damp hair, rub into the skin and rinse off after 3 minutes with water without detergents. After a week, the procedure is repeated.

And how to get rid of pubic lice, if they hit the eyelashes? None of the above drugs are suitable for this. Experts recommend petroleum jelly, which they lubricate the eyelashes, thereby closing the entrances to the trachea of ​​the lice, which causes them to suffocate and die. The course lasts a week with a frequency of 2 procedures per day.

How to treat phthiriasis at home

Treatment at home consists in depriving the parasites of the place for attachment, for which they simply shave off the hair in all areas where there are noticeable traces of insect activity. Sulfur ointment or tar soap is also used.

It is better to seek qualified help, correct diagnosis and treatment at the first symptoms of infection. Because pubic lice can be accompanied by other genital infections, more serious and dangerous.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qy2MgBBUCU

90,000 Puff Lice are … What are Puff Lice?

Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiaceae) – obligate intracellular symbiotic bacteria related to rickettsia, transmitted transovarially (through eggs). These bacteria are responsible for many reproductive abnormalities in arthropods, and for some insects and filarial nematodes they are necessary for the development and life of [7] .

All studied Phthiraptera species (representatives of three suborders) carried Wolbachia.The most common supergroups (clades) are the common Wolbachia of arthropods – A and B, but there is also a rare supergroup F. The same species can carry from one to four lines of Wolbachia, including those from different supergroups. The effect of Wolbachia on lice is unknown, but it is believed that they are responsible for the predominance of females in populations, and may also be responsible for the emergence of parthenogenetic species [6] [8] [9] .

The “vertical” mode of transmission of Wolbachia should match the evolution of bacteria and their hosts.This, however, has never been observed, and there are obviously ways of horizontal transmission as well. This is also true for lice, and here the question of the “carriers” of Wolbachia between them is especially mysterious. It is assumed that in some bird chewing lice a certain role here can be played by bloodsucking flies – other ectoparasites of birds with which the chewing lice come into direct contact [6] .

Riesia

Risia (‘Candidatus Riesia’ ) (Gammaproteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae) are obligate endosymbiotic lice bacteria, whose relatives are also internal symbionts of insects, are transmitted transovarially.These bacteria are found in all studied Anoplura species and, apparently, are not found in other lice and insects in general. Like wolbachia, filariae, rhizias are primary symbionts, that is, their presence is necessary for the life of the host. Rizias are thought to supply the lice with some essential substances that are obviously lacking in the blood of the lice hosts.

Risia are localized intracellularly in the so-called. “Gastric discs”. In contrast to Wolbachia, these bacteria have to undergo complex migrations to reach oocytes, including extracellular stages [10] [11] .

Symbionts of lice

Many chewing lice, like sucking lice, carry primary symbionts. The chewing lice bacteria, however, are not directly related to the symbionts of sucking lice and have a different localization in the host’s body. Fluffy lice symbionts Columbicola columbae (Ischnocera) belong to the same family as Rhizia (Gammaproteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae), but their closest relatives are the endosymbionts of the tsetse fly and grain weevils. In nymphs and males, these bacteria are located in bacteriocytes on the sides of the body, that is, they are not associated with the digestive tube.The transmission of bacteria is transovarial, and therefore, in the body of the female, they are forced in each generation of hosts to migrate into the reproductive tubes to reach the oocytes [12] [2] .

The significance of these bacteria for chewing lice is unknown, it is assumed that they, like rhizia, participate in the production of substances that are absent in the diet of chewing lice, but are necessary for them to live.

Pathogenicity

Lice and lice are not normally lethal parasites. It is even assumed that many bird chewing lice bring minimal damage to their owners.However, in most cases, a negative effect can be detected. Often this effect is based on irritation causing anxiety and scratching, which indirectly leads to a decrease in overall vitality. For example, an increase in the time required for grooming requires time and energy, which, among other things, leads to an increase in the availability of individuals with a higher intensity of parasite infestation for predators [2] [13] .

Skin diseases are often also the result of scratching, but can also be caused by the insects themselves (including human lice).Some of these diseases are fatal to young hosts.

For feather parasites, it is assumed that changes in the shape of feathers caused by them can lead to a deterioration in aerodynamic characteristics, as well as to a deterioration in the breeding plumage of males. Those forms that eat down lead indirectly to depletion, as the infected bird has to spend more energy to warm the body [2] .

Another, often more dangerous side of the parasitism of chewing lice and lice is the fact of their role as carriers of pathogens of dangerous host diseases.These pathogens include bacteria, round and flatworms, fungi, and probably also viruses [2] [14] . Among human lice, all three species ( Pediculus humanus , P. capitis and Pthirus pubis ) can carry dangerous bacterial pathogens, but only Pediculus humanus plays such a role in human populations. This species carries three bacterial agents: Rickettsia prowazekii , Borrelia recurrentis and Bartonella quintana [15] [16] .

Rickettsia prowazekii

Rickettsia prowazekii (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiaceae) is the causative agent of epidemic typhus. Rickettsiae infect lice orally and then infect midgut epithelial cells. Here they are actively multiplying, and then they go out into the intestinal lumen. Human infection occurs with lice feces that enter the wounds on the skin when scratching the bitten areas. Rickettsiae are fatal to lice, causing rupture of the intestinal wall and mixing of the contents of the intestine and hemolymph (“red lice”).Currently, the disease is rare, bacteria are found mainly in homeless people. The unfavorable situation remains in Burundi and among the homeless, at least in Russia.

Borrelia recurrentis

Borrelia recurrentis (Spirochaetes: Spirochaetaceae) – the causative agent of relapsing fever. Lice become infected when they eat. Borrelia penetrate through the intestinal wall into the hemocoel, where they stay. Infection of a person occurs when a person crushes a louse, when the contents of the hemolymph gets on the damaged skin.The disease is currently localized in Ethiopia.

Bartonella quintana

Bartonella quintana (Alphaproteobacteria: Bartonellaceae) – causative agent of trench fever, bacterial angiomatosis, bacteremia, endocarditis. The life cycle is similar to that of Rickettsia prowazekii , but Bartonella does not multiply in the epithelium, but in the intestinal lumen, and these bacteria are not fatal for lice. Human infection occurs in the same way – with the feces of the parasite. Bartonella is found in lice all over the world.

Origin

The origin of Phthiraptera is associated with the group of hay-eaters (Psocoptera). This assumption is supported by a number of undoubted morphological synapomorphies, and the common origin of these two groups is beyond doubt. However, the main controversy has been about the historical relationship of these two groups: whether they are sisters or are lice descended from hay-eaters. Cladistic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports the second option.According to these scenarios, one of the hay-eating families, Liposcelidae, is sister to all Phthiraptera [2] . Recent studies involving such a popular gene in cladistic reconstructions as the nuclear rRNA gene of the small subunit of the ribosome have shown unexpected results. Liposcelidae and another family of hay-eaters turn out to be sister to Amblycera, and this whole clade is sister to other chewing lice (including Anoplura).Thus, chewing lice arise within the same clade of hay-eaters, but independently from two close “sources” [17] .

The likely scenario of the transition to parasitism in this branch (once or twice) includes the evolution from commensal forms to obligate parasites. Thus, many Psocoptera (including some Liposcelidae) can live on hair and feathers and in nests of warm-blooded vertebrates . The question of the primacy of mammals or birds as lice hosts remains a matter of speculation.

Fossil lice are well known from the Pleistocene frozen mammals. Hair with nits is also found in Baltic amber. The earliest reliable find of a corporal Phthiraptera is the Eocene Amblycera Megamenopon rasnitsyni . The insect Saurodectes , which looks like a louse, is also known from the Early Cretaceous. Its appearance speaks of an ectoparasitic lifestyle, however, its huge size for lice (17 mm) and some other features speak against the phthyrapteroid hypothesis [18] .

Due to the fragmentation and low reliability of the ancient remains, attempts are made to determine the time of occurrence of Phthiraptera from indirect data. Different methods give significantly divergent results: from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Carboniferous.

Phylogeny

Relatively long ago, ideas appeared that lice descended from chewing lice, however, cladistic reconstructions brought clarity in the historical relations of suborders.

The holophilia of individual suborders Phthiraptera is confirmed by good morphological apomorphies (doubts remain regarding the huge Ischnocera group).This is also confirmed by works on molecular characteristics [19] [20] [1] [21] .

The most basal group is Amblycera. The crown consists of Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura, while Ischnocera is the sister group of this latter clade. Taking into account the latest advances in the reconstruction of the history of the entire Psocodea group, this general scheme of the relationship between the groups of chewing lice and lice does not fundamentally change (see below).

      Rhynchophthirina Anoplura
                   \ /
      Ischnocera \ /
             \ \ /
  Amblycera \ \ /
       \ \ /
        \ \ /
         \ \ /
          \ \ /
           \ /
            \ /
             \ /
              \ /
              /
 

Limited mobility, almost strict confinement to a certain individual of the host, and for lice – and the correspondence of the attachment organs to the thickness of the host’s hair are prerequisites for the coordinated evolution of parasites and their hosts – to their co-evolution.Indirect evidence of this is the fact of the widespread specificity of chewing lice and lice in relation to the choice of hosts: many species have only one host. However, the exceptions are just as striking: the hosts of Menacanthus eurysternus are 118 bird species from 20 families [2] ! At the family level, specificity often manifests itself in the choice of hosts from one or more groups (see below). A rigorous analysis of the correspondence between the cladograms of these parasites and the cladograms of their hosts showed that a significant proportion of the diversity of lice and chewing lice at the genus level can be explained by coevolution.Nevertheless, phenomena such as host change and independent speciation in the parasite [22] [23] [24] play a significant role.

System

The Phthiraptera system previously consisted of two separate orders: Mallophaga (chewing lice) and Anoplura (sucking lice). The desire to reflect the phylogeny in the system led to a decrease in the ranks of these two orders to suborders within Phthiraptera, and later to an equalization of the ranks of all hoards of chewing lice and lice.We observe the latter situation today, with four suborders: Amblycera, Ischnocera, Rhynchophthirina, and Anoplura. The family system within suborders is fairly stable. However, the views on the Ischnocera system have not been settled: some families and even genus are assumed to be para- or polyphyletic, and the overwhelming majority of species are concentrated in the combined family Philopteridae [20] .

Families of the order Phthiraptera (the circle of hosts is indicated in brackets) [18] [20] :

Suborder Amblycera

Suborder Ischnocera

Suborder Rhynchophthirina

Suborder Anoplura

Notes

  1. 1 2 Smith, 2003
  2. 1 2 3 4 908 908 6

    8 9 10 Johnson, Clayton, 2003

  3. Kristensen, 2005
  4. Fernando, 1933
  5. Gullan et al., 2004
  6. 1 2 3 Covacin, Barker, 2006
  7. Werren, 1997
  8. Perotti et al. , 2004
  9. Kyei-Poku et al. , 2005
  10. Sasaki-Fukatsu et al. , 2006
  11. Allen et al. , 2007
  12. Fukatsu et al., 2007
  13. Kettle, 1984
  14. Cole, 1999
  15. Roux, Raoult, 1999
  16. et al. , 2005
  17. Johnson et al. , 2004
  18. 1 2 Grimaldi, Engel, 2005
  19. Johnson, Whiting, 2002
  20. 1 2 3 Smith, 2001
  21. Smith et al., 2003
  22. Marshall, 2002
  23. Reed et al. , 2007
  24. Paterson et al. , 2000

Literature

  • Allen, J.M., D.L. Reed, M.A. Perotti & H.R. Braig (2007). Evolutionary relationships of Candidatus Riesia spp., Endosymbiotic Enterobacteriaceae living within hematophagous primate lice. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 73 (5): 1659-1664.
  • Badiaga, S., P. Brouqui & D. Raoult (2005). Autochthonous epidemic typhus associated with Bartonella quintana bacteremia in a homeless person. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 72 (5): 638-639.
  • Barker, S.C., M. Whiting, K.P. Johnson, A. Murrell (2003). Phylogeny of the lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) inferred from small subunit rRNA. Zoologica Scripta 32 (5): 407-414.
  • Covacin, C.& S.C. Barker (2007). Supergroup F Wolbachia bacteria parasitise lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Parasitology Research 100 (3): 479-485.
  • Cox, F.E.G. (1993). Modern parasitology: a textbook of parasitology. Blackwell Publ. 276 pp.
  • Fernando, W. (1933). The development and homologies of the mouth-parts of the head-louse. Quarternary Journal of Microscopic Sciences, New Series 76 : 231-241.
  • Fukatsu, T., R. Koga, W.A. Smith, K. Tanaka, N. Nikoh, K. Sasaki-Fukatsu, K. Yoshizawa, C. Dale & D.H. Clayton (2007). Bacterial endosymbiont of the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae , allied to endosymbionts of grain weevils and tsetse flies. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 73 (20): 6660-6668.
  • Grimaldi, D.A. & M.S. Engel (2005). Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press. 755 pp.
  • Gullan, J.P., P.S. Cranston, K.Hansen McInnes (2004). The insects: an outline of entomology. Blackwell Publ. 505 pp.
  • Johnson, K.P. & D.H. Clayton (2003). The biology, ecology, and evolution of chewing lice. In: The chewing lice: World checklist and biological overview. Illinois Natural History Survey Special publication 24 : 1-25.
  • Johnson, K.P. & M.F. Whiting (2002). Multiple genes and the monophyly of Ischnocera (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (1): 101-110.
  • Johnson, K.P., K. Yoshizawa & V.S. Smith (2004). Multiple origins of parasitism in lice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271 : 1771-1776.
  • Kayser, F.H. (2004). Medical microbiology. Thieme Publ. 727 pp.
  • Kettle, D.S. (1984). Medical and veterinary entomology. Routledge Publ. 658 pp.
  • Kristensen, N.P. (2005). A compendum of hexapod systematics. Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen.44 pp. + Figs.
  • Kyei-Poku, G.K., D.D. Colwell, P. Coghlin, B. Benkel & K.D. Floate (2005) On the ubiquity and phylogeny of Wolbachia in lice. Molecular Ecology 14 (1): 285-294.
  • Marshall, I.K. (2002). Congruence and cospeciation: morphological and molecular phylogenetics of the Amblycera (Phthiraptera). PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow , 252 pp.
  • Paterson, A.M., G.P. Wallis, L.J. Wallis & R.D. Gray (2000).Seabird and louse coevolution: complex histories revealed by 12S rRNA sequences and reconciliation analyzes. Systematic Biology 49 (3): 383-399.
  • Perotti, M.A., S.S. Catalá, A.V. Ormeño, M. Żelazowska, S.M. Biliński & H.R. Braig (2004). The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time. Genetics 5 (10): 1-13.
  • Roux, V. & D. Raoult (1999). Body lice as tools for diagnosis and surveillance of reemerging diseases. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37 (3): 596-599.
  • Sasaki-Fukatsu, K., R. Koga, N. Nikoh, K. Yoshizawa, S. Kasai, M. Mihara, M. Kobayashi, T. Tomita & T. Fukatsu (2006). Symbiotic bacteria associated with stomach discs of human lice. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 72 (11): 7349-7352.
  • Smith, V.S. (2001). Avian louse phylogeny (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera): a cladistic study based on morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 132 : 81-144.
  • Smith, V.S. (2003). Lousy phylogenies: Phthiraptera systematics and the antiquity of lice. Proceedings of 1st Dresden Meeting on Insect Phylogeny : 150-151.
  • Smith, V.S., R.D.M. Page & K.P. Johnson (2004). Data incongruence and the problem of avian louse phylogeny. Zoologica Scripta 33 (3): 239-259.
  • Werren, J.H. (1997). Biology of Wolbachia . Annual Reviews – Entomology 42 : 587-609.

Internet sources

90,000 Pubic lice (ploshchit) in humans: signs, symptoms, treatment

Published: 03 May 2016, 11:34

Many people in their lives have faced such a disease as head lice. This rather unpleasant manifestation is associated with parasitic insects that appear in the hairy parts of the body. They are called lice, and the larvae are called nits. To a greater extent, these parasites are found in young children and adolescents on the head.

Adults suffer from another ailment of a similar etiology called pubic lice. Photos and videos of these parasites can be seen in medical reference books. Also, a lot of material on this topic has been collected in information sources of the worldwide network.

What do pubic lice look like? Unlike clothes or head lice, the ploshchit has a more crab-like and compact appearance, its length does not exceed 2 mm. In size, it is much smaller and practically invisible on the body, due to the light pigmentation of the body.In many cases, the disease can only be detected by visiting a doctor.

According to the morphology of the pubic louse, it belongs to the genus Pediculus. It has three pairs of legs and a small antennae head that retracts into the body. The front pair of legs is the smallest, the back one is the largest. Each of them has one segment with pincers-toes, which it uses when moving.

If we talk about the medical significance of pubic lice, then it should be noted that they are capable of carrying some dangerous diseases (Volyn fever, typhus).The carrion even has the ability to partially grow into human skin, to lead an immobile lifestyle. In such places, small ulcers form from the constant influence of the insect, since it feeds on human blood.

The life cycle of a pubic louse lasts 24 days, then it dies. During this time, the plovers have time to lay up to 12 eggs. The most comfortable temperature for the development of their larvae is the temperature of the human body (36-38 0 C). Within 30 minutes after birth, the larvae begin to feed on human blood.These parasites do not live a day without food. They are also able to survive outside the human body, falling into anabiotic state. If it lasts more than 2-3 months, the insect never comes to life.

Pubic lice are multicellular, very hardy and dangerous parasites. They are able to live in water for up to 2 days, withstand loads of up to 900 grams. And exist under a 30-centimeter ball of sand for up to 4 days.

Causes of pubic lice

Small insects are found in the genital area, pubis, groin, armpits.In men, the plovers are also localized on the chest and abdomen, if they are covered with thick hair.

In medical practice, a disease that is caused by the influence of these parasites on human skin is called phthiriasis (a photo of the signs of the disease can be seen on this page).

Where do pubic lice come from? The main reasons for the appearance is direct contact with the wearer. They are easily transmitted. Most often this happens during intimacy. Also, the reasons for the appearance of pubic lice (see.photo) can be attributed:

  • Violation of hygiene rules.
  • Use of another person’s personal belongings.
  • Living together with the wearer.
  • Wearing someone else’s clothes.
  • The use of bed linen in trains, hotels.
  • Swimming in public pools, as well as in lakes, rivers, ponds.

Where can you find pubic lice?

The appearance of lice on the pubic part (see.photo) can be felt when the disease is already in a neglected state. There are so many of them that a person can visually detect insects. The danger of a further history of the disease is that the parasites can spread to other parts of the body. In this case, men who have abundant hair on the chest and abdomen are at risk. In women, insects are localized in the pubis and armpits, if they are covered with thick hair. Pubic lice rarely appear in children.

Many people ask doctors about whether pubic lice can appear on the head, on the eyelashes? In medical practice, there is a percentage of such cases. Usually, when phthiriasis is diagnosed, signs of head lice are found at the same time. Head and pubic lice affect virtually every part of the body that is covered with hair.

How are pubic lice transmitted and where do they come from?

The parasitic microorganism in the form of a small insect goes through its life cycle.After an adult enters the human body, it begins its harmful influence.

How are pubic lice spread? The method of transmission of parasites from person to person is sexual intercourse or intimacy. They are also transmitted through any contact.

The adult lays eggs on the hairs. By nature, she is a lazy creature, therefore, during the period of her life she rarely moves and leads a sedentary way of life. Young insects are more mobile.

From what and how do pubic lice appear? Larvae appear from the laid eggs for 2-3 days.At the first stage of development, they are about 1 mm in length. The second stage is characterized by a slight increase in growth. In the third stage, the form of the parasite is fully formed. The size of an average individual is 1.5 mm. She already has a fully formed organism capable of reproduction.

Symptoms, signs of pubic lice

In the initial stages of the disease, there are practically no signs of pubic lice. During this period, there are very few of them and the impression of a minor rash appears.A person may even confuse their effect with allergies and not pay much attention to it. This history lasts about a month. After this period, the development of the painful process occurs more rapidly.

What are the first signs of pubic lice? The symptoms of this disease are itching and redness of the insect bite. A person suffers greatly from an irresistible desire to scratch the pubic area. This causes significant discomfort. The quality of life is significantly impaired.Scratching can cause wounds, and in more difficult situations it can lead to excoriation (severe damage to the skin). The damaged epidermis is covered with a scaly crust. The appearance of an associated infection is often detected.

One should not judge the presence of parasites by itching and rash alone. Pubic lice manifests itself with symptoms in the form of point, clear specks of a bluish tint with vesicles and papules.

It should be noted that the symptoms of phthiriasis (pubic lice) in women and in men are manifested in the same way.The most irrefutable sign is the visual detection of an insect on the body.

Pubic lice treatment

To avoid the onset of symptoms of phthiriasis, you must adhere to preventive measures. These include the rules of personal hygiene, avoiding casual intimate relationships and visiting questionable public places (baths, swimming pools, saunas). Early diagnosis will also help get rid of parasites quickly.

How is phthiriasis (pubic lice) treated? Therapy consists in the use of effective modern drugs, which are widely prescribed by doctors to eliminate the signs of the disease.Most commonly used pubic lice medications:

  • Spray-Pax . The healing fluid is released in the form of an aerosol. It is very easy to use. It is enough to apply a little product to the affected area, according to the instructions. It is recommended to wait about 30 minutes after application and then rinse off.
  • Nittifor . Produced in the form of a water-alcohol solution for external use. Use the drug directly at the site of the lesion without preliminary dilution with water.It destroys both larvae and adult insects. It is enough to treat the affected areas just twice with an interval of up to 7 days in order to completely get rid of the parasites.
  • Sulfur-mercury ointment . It is applied for 14 days. Every day, the ointment is rubbed into the skin of the pubic area once. At the end of the course, all larvae and adult pubic lice die out.
  • Medifox Emulsion . Available in the form of a liquid solution. According to the recommendations of experts, it is necessary to use the drug for a week.Apply to the skin at intervals of a day, and only once. During this period, it is advisable not to wash. Only at the end of the course, the parasites disappear without a trace.

In addition to drugs for pubic lice, various hygiene products are also used. These include special shampoos (Pedilin, Veda-2) and soaps (Vitar). These are effective remedies for pubic lice.

There are also alternative methods for the treatment of phthiriasis. They consist in the use of dust and kerosene.According to modern doctors, such therapy does not completely destroy parasites, but only inhibits their development for a while. In addition, the use of these funds is unsafe for the body.

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26 Apr 2016, 13:26 The most affordable remedies for vulvitis
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Reviews and comments

Marina – 08 Dec 2018, 10:34

It seems to me that all remedies for pubic lice are useful. Even panthenol spray. They are all the same type and help in the same way.

Claudia – 03 Dec 2018, 18:05

Nonna, Medifox Emulsion, although expensive, helps very well. This is verified.

Nonna – 19 Nov 2018, 00:56

Nittifor is also not a bad drug for pubic plaques. It is much cheaper than Medifox emulsion.

Denis – 14 Nov 2018, 16:19

Spray Skin-Cap is not worse and you can even buy it online. There is also plenty of it in pharmacies at an affordable price. So look for an alternative.

Elena – 09 Nov 2018, 18:03

What you can’t do for the sake of treatment. Degtem treated lice. Here’s a smelly one. I washed myself after it for about a week, but the smell still remained.Shaved everything on the pubis. Then I bought an expensive cologne and so killed the smell. But I got rid of lice in three days.

Leave a review or comment

From pubic lice drugs. How to get rid of pubic lice with folk remedies at home? Mechanical method of treatment of head lice

Thank you

The site provides background information for informational purposes only. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases must be carried out under the supervision of a specialist.All drugs have contraindications. A specialist consultation is required!

Pubic lice are not only a source of skin pathology, but also carry pathogens of various infections, including epidemic and dangerous ones – for example, typhus, trench fever, etc. In addition, if a person is infected with pubic lice, then another sexually transmitted infection is detected in every third individual with phthiriasis.

If a person cannot resist, and scratches the skin, then strong scratching is formed.Often, the skin begins to peel off, a large amount of dandruff forms. Red bloody crusts form on the combs. In severe cases, dermatitis or an eczema-like condition develops.

Scratching also leads to the formation of excoriation – areas of severely damaged skin. The presence of excoriation seriously increases the risk of attaching any bacterial infection, since pathogenic microorganisms easily penetrate the bloodstream through the disturbed skin and lead to the development of inflammation.

With the empirical use of hormonal antiallergic ointments, the pubic louse begins to multiply intensively, and the itching increases significantly.

The second sign of phthiriasis is a rash that looks like multiple papules and bluish patches on the skin. Blue spots (maculae caeruleae) are associated with the fact that the saliva of the pubic louse leads to the breakdown of hemoglobin, and as a result, decay products, colored in a bluish color, accumulate at the site of an open wound-bite. Usually the spots are small, up to 2-3 millimeters in diameter.Pressing on the stain leads to its elimination. These blue spots are very similar to spotted syphilis, typhoid or syphilitic roseola.

The foci of localization of the rash may undergo lichenization. Lichenization is a process in which the skin under the rash thickens, the line pattern appears more clearly, and sometimes the normal color is disrupted. The skin looks rough, wrinkled with various deep wrinkles and lines.

Itchy and painful small papules and vesicles develop at the sites of pubic lice bites.

With localization of pubic lice on the eyelashes, blepharitis often develops.

Modern diagnostics

According to modern concepts, pubic lice is considered a disease that is rarely diagnosed. This is due to the fact that the main diagnostic technique for detecting head lice, including pubic lice, is a superficial examination of the human body. Moreover, the criterion for the accuracy of diagnosis is the indispensable identification of a live louse. Since nits do not necessarily lead to lice, they are not an indication for temporarily isolating a person from others.

Traditional methods of diagnosis of pubic lice

Diagnosis is often made by combing the hair with a fine, fine-toothed comb to identify live lice or nits that the doctor can see with the naked eye, or with a magnifying glass.

Also, video dermoscopy allows you to identify pubic lice in the presence of a large amount of dandruff.

Treatment principles and treatments for pubic lice

The following measures are the basis for effective treatment and prevention of the spread of pubic lice:


1. Two stages of therapy that are necessary in connection with the characteristics of the pubic lice.
2.
Mandatory preventive treatment for all people who have had close contact with the patient.
3.
Measures for the disinfection of patients’ belongings.

For the treatment of pubic lice, special chemotherapeutic substances are currently used – pediculocytes, which are insecticides that selectively act on lice and nits. Pediculocytes do an excellent job of eliminating pubic lice and nits, however, at least two treatments should be carried out, since it is necessary to destroy the next, emerging generation of the insect.

Before the advent of pediculocytes, a variety of formulations were used as insecticides against pubic lice to treat the affected surfaces. So, the following compositions were widely used to combat pubic lice:

  • soap-kerosene mixture;
  • sulfuric ointment;
  • tar ointment;

Today, the most effective pediculocytes are drugs that include pyrethrins as active ingredients, or the drug Lindane.Pyrethrins include malathion, carbaryl, and permethrin. Moreover, the highest efficiency in the treatment of pubic lice was demonstrated by permethrin.

Medicines

The main modern drugs for the fight against pubic lice presented on the domestic pharmaceutical market are shown in the table:

Space-Pax aerosol should not be used during pregnancy and lactation, as well as in the presence of severe scratching on the skin surface. To prevent re-infection, it is necessary to spray the pubic area of ​​people who are in close contact with the patient with Spray-Pax aerosol.

Treatment of eyelash and eyebrow phthiriasis

For the treatment of phthiriasis of eyelashes and eyebrows, they resort to mercury ointment (1% mercury oxide). The eyelashes are pretreated with petroleum jelly for 3-4 days, after which mercury ointment is applied to the edges of the eyelid 4 times a day for at least 2 weeks.

Disinfection of personal belongings

For the disinfection of personal belongings of a patient suffering from pubic lice, special substances are used – disinsectants. Aerosol A-steam has excellent efficiency as a disinsectant.When treating pubic lice, in parallel with the treatment of the pubic area with Spray-Pax, it is necessary to disinfect all the patient’s linen, both bedding and underwear, with A-pair aerosol, including T-shirts and underpants, which are worn as an underwear in the cold season. Aerosol A-steam does not affect the cleanliness of things and does not change the properties of fabrics. After processing things, they do not need to be cleaned.

If a person does not have the opportunity to carry out pest control using a specialized tool, then it is necessary to boil all linen, since pubic lice and nits do not withstand high temperatures at which they instantly die.

Complications

The basis for the development of complications of pubic lice are scratching of the skin and the site of lice bites. These wound surfaces are places through which any infection can enter the human body. Therefore, the most common complication of pubic lice is pustular skin infections (pyoderma). More serious complications of pubic lice are inflammation of the lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), the development of boils, carbuncles and abscesses. If the human body cannot cope with these purulent infections, then a very serious complication is possible – sepsis

From the appearance of head lice, even in today’s society, it is almost impossible to insure yourself completely.For this reason, you need to know which remedy for pubic lice and nits will be most effective.

At risk are those people who are often in public places such as a swimming pool or sauna. it is almost impossible to diagnose at home, since the lice are very small in size and are attached to the very base of the hair.

Pubic lice

A person feels only severe itching and painful sensations in the genital area.may be ineffective, and in some cases even dangerous
. For example, the use of kerosene can be fraught with burns of the mucous membranes of the genitals, which are quite problematic to get rid of.

Medicines for pubic lice

Many people are simply embarrassed to see a doctor if they suspect pubic lice, while lice are actively multiplying and cause the patient severe itching and pain.

Modern medicine has made great progress in treating lice and nits, so going to a doctor will help you completely get rid of head lice in a short time. The following drugs are prescribed for the treatment of pubic lice:

  • sprays;
  • cream;
  • ointments;
  • emulsion.

Initially, it is advised to shave off the hair from intimate areas, if there are a lot of them, the therapy will be more effective. In order to choose a remedy for pubic lice, the doctor examines the individual characteristics of the patient and the extent of the spread of lice and nits.

Knicks

“Nix” is a cream for lice and nits, has few contraindications for use, so it can be prescribed to patients of all ages.It is noted that the drug is effective only at the initial stage of the disease
.

It is quite simple to use the cream: it is rubbed into the skin, avoiding contact with the substance on the mucous membranes of the genitals. This is done more than once, therapy can take several days. In the absence of positive dynamics, this tool is replaced with another.

Nittifor

“Nittifor” is an effective remedy for pubic lice, the active substance is permethrin. The cream has contraindications for use.
, which you need to familiarize yourself with before using.

Treatment of pubic lice with drugs is not performed exclusively with creams, as they may in some cases be insufficiently effective. Emulsions are also used, which are previously diluted with water or other components.

Undiluted chemicals are very dangerous, therefore they should be kept out of the reach of children.

Medilis

“Medilis” is a cure for pubic lice, which is also effective against nits. Chemistry is not a part of this drug, the active substance is clove oil.

Avicin

“Avicin” is considered an effective drug in the treatment of pubic lice. It can be bought at any pharmacy and the medicine is much cheaper than its counterparts. The active substance is permethrin, which causes asphyxia in lice, as a result they die.

Medifox

Medifox

The drug has a number of contraindications for use, therefore it is strongly recommended to carefully study the instructions leaflet before use. Treatment is prescribed by a specialist; it is not advised to calculate the dosage on your own.

It is worth noting that for pubic lice, sprays are used that do not contain insecticides, because there is a possibility of damage to the mucous membranes of the genital organs.

Pedikulen Ultra

“Pedikulen Ultra” is used for pubic lice, anise oil and alcohol are the active substances. A distinctive feature of the drug is that it is used once, after use, all lice die, they only need to be combed out.

The medicine has a number of contraindications for use, which must be familiarized with before use. The spray should be sprayed with caution and avoided contact with the eyes.

Paranit

Individual intolerance to vegetable oils is an absolute contraindication to use. Spray is applied with care.
. It must be stored out of the reach of children.

In the fight against pubic lice, special ointments are also used, but they are used with great care, as they can negatively affect the mucous membranes of the genital organs.

Boric ointment

5% boric ointment is used to get rid of lice and nits, it is rubbed into the affected areas.It is necessary to avoid getting it on the genitals, since it can affect them negatively.
. There are also a number of contraindications for use, which must be familiarized with before using.

Sulfur ointment

Sulfur ointment

They do not disappear immediately after the death of lice, but already on the third day it will be possible to get rid of them completely. Timely is the most effective, therefore, at the first suspicion of head lice, it is advised to immediately consult a doctor.

It is not possible to completely protect yourself from pubic lice, but avoiding public pools and saunas will significantly reduce the risk of contracting head lice.

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Symptoms of pubic lice

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Pubic lice

What is pubic lice?
Pubic lice (syn: phthiriasis) is caused by pubic lice (syn: pliers).The pubic louse attaches to the pubic hair. In order to survive, she needs to suck fresh blood twice a day. The laid eggs (nits) are firmly attached to the pubic hair by the female; it is impossible to wash them off with water.

How can you get pubic lice?
In most cases, infection occurs through sexual intercourse. However, contamination is possible through bed linen, towels and clothing.

Which skin areas are affected by pubic lice?
Pubic lice live mainly on the hairs located on the pubis, genitals, around the anus.Sometimes they spread to other areas of the skin covered with hair – chest, abdomen, armpits.

How is pubic lice manifested?
Itching is common and usually worse at night. Sometimes the patient is not worried about anything. In some cases, pubic lice bites cause an allergic rash in the affected area.

Often, patients with pubic lice independently reveal nodules on their pubic hair (nits).

How is pubic lice diagnosed?
Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and detection of lice or nits.

What treatment is indicated for pubic lice?
A good product is SPRAY-PAX (aerosol for external use). It is sprayed in the pubic area, genitals, around the anus and left for 30 minutes. The treated areas are then washed with soap and rinsed thoroughly with water.

The drug is used 1 time. One bottle is enough to treat 2 people. After using the drug, a change of underwear and bed linen is necessary. Boil old linen and iron it on both sides.

Risk of other sexually transmitted diseases.
It should be noted that sexually transmitted skin diseases (scabies, pubic lice, molluscum contagiosum) are markers of other sexually transmitted diseases.

Therefore, if a person who is sexually active is diagnosed with scabies, pubic lice or molluscum contagiosum, an examination for other sexually transmitted diseases is necessary.

source: http: // www.venerologia.ru/venerologia/vshi.htm

Epidemic of intimate lice

Pubic lice are contradictory animals. On the one hand, they can live for months in suspended animation, finding themselves without a host, or rather his skin and hair. They can withstand pressure up to 1.3 kg, live under a 30-centimeter layer of sand for 4 days, and under water for 2 days.

On the other hand, they cannot stand hunger: if they are suddenly torn away from the body, then without food, the lice will suddenly die within 24 hours. In addition, they are lazy and if they cling to the hair, they do not get off it until the day they die.And lice live and reproduce well only at a temperature of + 30-38 ° C.

Scientists cannot yet explain this selectivity, but pubic lice do not eat all people. But if a person seemed tasty, then the insect instantly crawls to the causal place and clings to a hair with three legs on one side of the body. If you try to tear the louse away from its home, it shows signs of life and clings even more strongly to the hair, which is why it can be removed only with great difficulty and most often together with the hair.

Routes of infection

The groin area is preferred by the “ploshchiks”, because there are most of the apocrine glands, which secrete a special sweat with a strong, “animal” smell.

But they can dwell not only “there”, but also on the thighs, trunk, armpits. And if you wipe them out from these places, then the lice can crawl onto the beard, mustache or eyelashes. It all depends on the degree of hairiness of the victim.

Self-diagnosis of an intimate disease


  • Itching.First of all, lice inject a substance that thinns the blood and causes the characteristic itching.

  • Stains. After the lice colonize the host’s skin, blue or shadow spots with a diameter of up to 1 cm appear, which quickly disappear. These are either minor hemorrhages, or the deposition of the secretion of the salivary glands of pubic lice.

  • Dark spots on the laundry. In the areas of the underwear in contact with the groin area, small dark spots appear. This means that the lice have settled down: the spots are the products of their vital activity.

  • Blisters. Scratching of itchy areas leads to the appearance of red bumps, blisters and eczema.

  • The lice themselves. As hair grows, nits and hairs rise above the surface of the skin, making them easier to see. And by the height of their location, you can roughly estimate how much they are already “guests”.

Treatment of pubic lice

Obviously, a regular shower with soap does not kill lice or get rid of nits. But do not pour over with kerosene, there are modern and reliable means.

Attention!

If there is a lot of hair, it is better to shave it off. This will immediately eliminate many lice and nits and make it easier to inspect the affected areas. To dissolve the sticky substance that holds the nits on the hairs, wash with hot water and vinegar.

Precautions

Dirty laundry must be boiled with a solution of soda for 25-30 minutes to kill nits, which can live there for another 6 days. Iron the clothes with a hot iron, especially folds.

And, the most unpleasant thing, to be examined for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases.You never know whose blood these pests sucked before?

source: https://medportal.ru/enc/dermatology/infectionskin/5/

What are pubic lice?

Pubic lice usually settle on hairy areas of the body in the genital area, however, they can often be found on the eyebrows, eyelashes, armpits and beard.

Carrion lice (another name for pubic lice) are inactive, but reproduce quickly enough by laying eggs of nits. They feed exclusively on human blood and live for about 24 days.

Reasons for the appearance

The fact is that pubic lice cannot survive without a carrier for more than a day, but nits retain the ability to develop much longer.

It is for this reason that some caution should be exercised in swimming pools, saunas, solariums and public toilets, where the risk of catching unpleasant neighbors is greatest.

What Happens When Infected?

Having moved to the body of the new owner, pubic lice attach to the hair and begin their destructive activity.First, they pierce the wearer’s skin and extract the first portion of blood. The salivary glands of insects produce a special enzyme that gets into the wound and prevents blood from clotting.

Because of this, pubic lice bites cause a lot of inconvenience. Human skin is constantly itchy and itchy, sometimes allergic reactions appear on the hands, feet and groin. A closer examination of the skin reveals cyanotic bite marks.

After saturation and mating, pubic lice lay eggs (7-9 pieces).They are tightly strengthened on the hair with the help of a secret and therefore are not washed off with water during hygiene procedures. Nits develop for about two weeks, and then new pubic lice hatch from them.

Pubic lice – symptoms and effects

The first signs of pubic lice are observed a month after the appearance of the first individuals. The most common symptom is severe itching at the site of the bite.

Most often it is noted in the pubic region, but sometimes the thighs, arms and trunk itch as well.People with abundant hair especially suffer from it, since in their case pubic lice can live literally all over the body.

The intensity of itching depends on the individual anatomical characteristics of the person and the time of day.

If during the diagnosis of pubic lice, treatment was not carried out or was insufficient, then small damage to the skin develops into eczema and facilitates the penetration of secondary infections into the body.

An allergic rash or the detection of lice eggs may also be a sign of pubic lice.

Since secondary infections easily penetrate through damaged skin, all patients with pubic lice are checked for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Treatment of the disease

Quite recently, people got rid of lice with the help of kerosene, dust, laundry soap and other improvised means. Fortunately, those days are already in the past.

Next, sulfuric ointment or any ointment with benzyl benzoate is applied to the skin.In pharmacies, you can buy more convenient drugs, for example, nittifor or spray-pax. They can be applied directly to hair without worrying about shaving intimate areas of the body.

Since pubic lice can end up on bedding or clothing, soak in hot water and add bleach.

source: http://www.neboleem.net/lobkovye-vshi.php

Pubic lice

Much less often, pubic lice can be found in the area of ​​the mustache, beard, eyebrow eyelashes or hair on the head of a child.

Infection with pubic lice occurs through sexual contact or through bedding.

Symptoms

The first manifestations of pubic lice will be severe, persistent itching in the pubic region and in the perineal region. This itching is caused by lice bites and causes skin irritation in these areas as a result of scratching.

In the center of each such spot there will be a barely noticeable point – the bite site. In appearance, these spots resemble syphilitic roseola.But, these spots disappear on their own after two weeks, and do not leave traces.

With an advanced form of this disease, the patient has an increase in lymph nodes. With a long-term course of the disease, the patient’s skin becomes modified – rough, thick, hyperpigmented. And at the place of scratching, there are scar marks of a white shade.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of phthiriasis or pubic lice is never difficult. The doctor examines and interviews the patient, and when nits and lice are found, he makes an accurate diagnosis.

In a more advanced state of the disease, the diagnosis is also made when glued hairs are found during examination – this happens with the help of a serous-purulent discharge and is called “koltun”.

Prevention

Preventive methods of pubic lice or phthiriasis consist in constant medical examinations and individual sexual hygiene.

When detecting and diagnosing pubic lice, it is necessary to disinfect linen, clothes, bedding not only of the patient himself, but also of all his sexual partners or those who have had contact with his bedding.

Treatment

The skin is washed with sufficiently hot water and medical soap. Now in medicine, the use of a spray is widespread – Pax, a drug that is an aerosol for external use.

After using all these funds, the patient needs to undergo water procedures quite often. All linen must be thoroughly disinfected.

Subject to all the rules of treatment and disinfection, complete recovery from pubic lice is guaranteed.

source: https://nebolet.com/bolezni/vshi-lobkovye.html

Description of the disease pubic lice

Such pubic lice preferentially settle in the genital area (pubis, perineum, scrotum), hair in the anal area, armpits.

The reason for this choice is that a significant number of apocrine glands are located in such areas, and the sense of smell of pubic lice is specifically targeted at them. Less commonly, they affect the eyebrows, mustaches, eyelashes, hair on the head of children.

Causes

Often pubic lice are transmitted by sexual contact, then insects from one partner jump to another.

In addition, according to research, a louse that has detached itself from a person lives only no more than a day, but the larvae are able to remain viable for about a week.

Thus, you can become infected with pubic head lice through towels or bed linen, clothes. Infection is possible in saunas, swimming pools, solariums and even toilets.

Symptoms

At first, the incubation period begins, when there are no symptoms, but pubic lice are already settling on the human body, which lasts about a month.

Several symptoms then appear. The main one is itchy skin in the lice habitat. This is usually an itchy pubic area, but other areas of the body are possible, such as the thighs, trunk (for example, in people with increased hairiness) or beard and mustache.

Attention!

Sometimes a person may not even notice the itching, and sometimes, especially at night, such itching is unbearable.The patient begins to scratch the skin and its irritation and redness appear, eczema occurs, and secondary infections penetrate through the scratching.

Also, a sign of pubic lice is considered the appearance on the skin of blue or shadowy, quickly disappearing spots with a diameter of up to 1 cm. They appear from small hemorrhages from the suction of blood by lice, or when the secretion of the salivary glands is deposited.

Symptoms of pubic lice include an allergic rash. Detection of pubic lice on the skin or underwear, as well as their larvae, is recognized as an unconditional sign of pubic lice.

How to treat


  • Bed linen and underwear must be washed and ironed thoroughly.

  • It is recommended to shave pubic hair.

  • The effect of treating pubic lice is very high if all the rules are followed.

  • It is necessary to handle clothes, upholstered furniture, bedding, mattresses – on contact with them, you can get sick again.

Prevention of pubic lice

Observance of personal hygiene and exclusion of casual sexual intercourse.

source: http://medicina.ua/diagnosdiseases/diseases/639/4675/

Since they are very small in size and often do not even reach 3 mm, they are rather difficult to detect. Most often, these yellow-brown lice, as seen in the photo, choose the hairy groin area for habitation, but can be found on the armpits, eyebrows, beard, eyelashes, etc.

Young, sexually active people are more likely to get sick, since promiscuous sexual relations contribute to the infection.In a third of patients, as a rule, other pathologies of a venereal nature are found.

Symptoms

As mentioned earlier, pubic lice infestation occurs through sexual contact, therefore the causes of the disease are associated with promiscuous sexual life.

But you can get infected by contact-household method when visiting a solarium, swimming pool, sauna or bath, as well as through underwear or bed. It often happens that the pathology is epidemic in nature in places where a large number of people live, such as a hostel, a barracks, a hotel or on a train.

Do not remember the antediluvian grandmother’s methods of treatment, today there are many remedies that have proven themselves well in getting rid of pubic lice. To do this, it is enough to use the treatment tool several times, observing all the recommendations and rules.

First, it is recommended to shave off the hair in the habitat of the pubic louse. This is already a treatment, because with the hair removed, you will also eliminate lice with nits. In addition, treatment will be much more effective when ointment and other medications are applied directly to the skin.

If such a procedure is sickening to the patient, then it is not necessary to shave off the hair. For treatment, a remedy such as sulfuric ointment is often used, the treatment of which lasts no more than 3 days.

If pubic lice move to another habitat, then the treatment can be supplemented with shampoo, gel, spray, etc. To eliminate uncomfortable itching, a rather effective remedy, such as a saline or vinegar aqueous solution, is recommended.

This product is simply rubbed into the skin.Pharmacies offer alternative medications such as Calamine Lotion, which is also quite good at relieving itching from pubic lice.

When the treatment is over, clothes, underwear and bed linen should be boiled and ironed after drying. Since pubic lice are often accompanied by concomitant venereal pathologies, after the end of treatment, it is desirable to have a prophylactic examination for the possible detection of genital infections.

source: http: // asclepii.ru / zabolevaniia / lobkovye-vshi.php

Pubic lice

Attention!

Lice are quite tenacious – they are able to withstand pressure up to 1 kg, a 30-centimeter layer of sand and survive in water for two days.

In European countries, the disease is widespread, mainly lice affect young people.

What does a pubic louse look like?

Lice live an average of 27 days, during this period one individual lays a huge number of larvae.

How are pubic lice spread?

Pubic lice cause phthiriasis (pubic lice), which is considered a sexually transmitted disease.

The main symptom of pubic lice is itching, which appears after the end of the incubation period. In addition to itching, bluish spots (bites) may appear on the body, which quickly disappear.

If the itching is not severe, then the person may not know about the lice infestation for a long time.

In advanced stages, blisters, wounds appear on the skin, eczema develops.

Pubic lice can be transmitted to children while sleeping with their parents, using other people’s towels, after visiting public baths, etc.p.

A patient with head lice should thoroughly wash bedding and underwear, and it must also be ironed without fail.

In addition to underwear and bed linen, it is very important to treat upholstered furniture, mattresses and other items with which the patient has come into contact with special preparations.

Preparations

When pubic lice are detected, special preparations are prescribed, which rather quickly help to destroy insects.

The most popular drugs are:

Spray for pubic lice
.There are several types of pubic lice sprays on the pharmaceutical market:

Pubic lice ointment
. In the pharmacy, you can see a large selection of ointments for pubic lice.

The sulfur-mercury ointment, xylene, nittifor, which contain a natural insecticide, have the maximum efficiency.

Before applying the ointment, you need to shave off your hair or treat it with vinegar water. The procedure is best done before bedtime.

Home treatment

Sulfur ointment, which has a pungent odor, but acts almost 100%, shows good efficiency.Also, for the treatment of head lice, tar soap is used, with which the affected areas are thoroughly washed.

Modern medicine allows you to get rid of lice quite quickly (some drugs allow you to destroy parasites and their larvae after just one procedure), but there is a high risk of infection with sexually transmitted diseases.

In recent years, the incidence of pubic lice (phthiriasis) has decreased significantly. In Russia, the number of infected is about 8% of the population.This is due to the widespread use of intimate haircuts and hygiene.

With severe hairiness of lice, you can also find:

  • on the stomach;
  • on the hips;
  • in the armpits.

It is very difficult to mechanically remove an attached plaque (another name for pubic lice). The more effort is made, the stronger the bloodsucker clings. This feature should be taken into account when deciding how to get rid of pubic lice.

Appearance

Even knowing what pubic lice look like in humans, it is difficult to see the plane without a microscope.Its size is only 1-3 mm. The light brown color allows it to blend in with the hairs. The insect looks like a slight thickening of the shaft. The location at the base of the hair further hides the bloodsuckers.

In an enlarged view, the pubic louse resembles a crab – a body narrowed to the bottom with a developed thoracic region. Three pairs of powerful paws at the ends have “pincers”, with the help of which the square is attached to the hair.

Pubic lice are inactive. Attaching to the base, the ploshchit remains in place, moving away from the skin along with the growth of the hair.By the location of the insects, you can roughly calculate the time of infection.

Life cycle stages:

  1. nit (egg) – 5-7 days;
  2. nymph (larva) – 13-17 days;
  3. adult – 20-30 days, sometimes up to 40.

In the larval stage, the insect molts three times. After the last molt, it becomes sexually mature. Within 10-12 hours, the ripe fish is sucked in blood and is ready for mating and reproduction.

The optimum temperature for life and reproduction is 30-31 ° C.At a regime below 20 ° C and above 40 ° C, adults do not reproduce, eggs and nymphs do not develop. Insects die at temperatures below -5 ° C and above + 55 ° C.

Sources of infection with pubic lice

The main foci of phthiriasis are third world countries, which are characterized by unsanitary conditions and promiscuous sexual intercourse. But due to the fact that the symptoms of infection do not appear within a month, the disease manifests itself in a society with developed hygiene.

Frequent change of partners is the main cause of phthiriasis.Domestic infection possible:

  • when using common linen, bedding, hygiene items;
  • when visiting public places – toilets, baths, saunas, solarium.

Lice survive under water for up to 2 days, and can spread in water bodies, pools between bathing people. Pubic lice in men are as common as in women.

Phthiriasis symptoms

It is very difficult to see pubic lice on your own.

The following symptoms will help to identify planters:

  1. Itching in the groin. Intensifies at night;
  2. Blue spots on bite sites. This is the reaction of the skin to the action of the injected enzyme. Dimensions – about -2-3 mm. Spots appear and disappear within a day;
  3. Allergic rashes. May occur in the affected area;
  4. Hair nodules in the pubic region. Infected people can also find adult insects in the form of black dots on the body.

Having found these manifestations, you should consult a dermatologist or venereologist. It is not known who the bloodsucker bit before. Therefore, insects can be carriers of other genital infections – gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis. Contacting a specialist will help identify diseases in the early stages.

How to Get Rid of Pubic Lice

American doctors use hot air to treat phthiriasis. Carpenters love moisture. When treating the body with a hairdryer, they crumble.In medicine, a large number of chemicals have been developed to combat pubic lice. There are also folk methods.

Medicines

Medicines for pubic lice are produced in the form of shampoos, sprays, creams, ointments. They contain an active ingredient that destroys insects. Often these are permethrin, tetramethrin – common insecticides that are safe for humans. The active substance acts on the insect’s nervous system, leading to paralysis.

Treatment of infected areas is carried out 2 times. First, larvae and adults are destroyed, after 5-7 days – insects hatched from eggs. Both partners should be treated.

Popular remedies:

  1. Pedilin. Sold as an emulsion and shampoo. The medicine is rubbed into the roots or applied to wet hair. Then washed off with water. The procedure is repeated after a week;
  2. Nittifor. Available in the form of a solution and cream. The product is used to moisturize the hair and leave it to dry.Ointment for pubic lice is applied for 10 minutes. Then the medicine is washed off with regular shampoo. If necessary, after 7 days, process again;
  3. Knicks. Insecticidal cream containing 1% permethrin. The drug is rubbed into the skin near the base of the hair and distributed over the entire length. Then it is washed off with the usual means. Has no effect on nits. Therefore, the processing must be repeated;
  4. Anti-bit. Insecticide shampoo. The head is lathered with a product and left for 5 minutes. Then washed off with water.The treatment is repeated every other day, as well as after 5-7 days. Anti-bit has a good detergent effect and can be used as a regular shampoo;
  5. Paranormal. Double action spray. It not only suffocates, but also dehydrates insects. The product is applied to the hair for 15 minutes. Then it is washed off with water and soap. Effective against nits.

Compounds that prolong the action of the main substance have been added to the complex preparations. With such means, the affected area can be treated once.An example of a complex drug is Spray-Pax. The aerosol is sprayed in the pubic area, genitals, around the anus and left for half an hour. Then thoroughly wash off the spray with soap and water.

Drugs for internal use appeared. They make human blood poisonous to insects. However, these drugs have many side effects. They should be used with great care. Before the advent of modern means used – sulfuric ointment, tar ointment, kerosene mixture. They are less efficient and inconvenient.

Traditional methods

When choosing how to remove pubic lice, you can use proven folk remedies:

  • with caramel water;
  • hydrogen peroxide;
  • tar soap;
  • 90,029 kerosene;

  • tansy decoction;
  • vinegar.

Conclusion

No one is immune from infection with pubic lice. To reduce the risks, casual sex should be avoided and hygiene practices should be followed.

What Happens When Infected?

Having moved to the body of the new owner, pubic lice attach to the hair and begin their destructive activity. First, they pierce the wearer’s skin and extract the first portion of blood. The salivary glands of insects produce a special enzyme that gets into the wound and prevents blood from clotting. Because of this, pubic lice bites cause a lot of inconvenience. Human skin is constantly itchy and itchy, sometimes allergic reactions appear on the hands, feet and groin.A closer examination of the skin reveals cyanotic bite marks.

After saturation and mating, pubic lice lay eggs (7-9 pieces). They are tightly strengthened on the hair with the help of a secret and therefore are not washed off with water during hygiene procedures. Nits develop for about two weeks, and then new pubic lice hatch from them.

Pubic lice – symptoms and effects

The first signs of pubic lice are observed a month after the appearance of the first individuals.The most common symptom is severe itching at the site of the bite. Most often it is noted in the pubic region, but sometimes the thighs, arms and torso also itch. People with abundant hair especially suffer from it, since in their case pubic lice can live literally all over the body.

An allergic rash or the detection of lice eggs may also be a sign of pubic lice.

Consequences of pubic lice

Pubic lice – treatment of the disease

Since pubic lice can end up on bedding or clothing, soak in hot water and add bleach.