What makes a person nauseous: 13 Nausea Causes – Common Causes of Nausea
Causes of Nausea and Vomiting
As miserable as nausea may make you feel, throwing up has a function. To figure out what’s causing your nausea, it helps to understand why we ever have to vomit in the first place.
Verywell / Cindy Chung
The Purpose of Puke
Your body has evolved to protect you. One protective mechanism protects you from toxic things you might ingest.
When you eat something toxic, several triggers give you nausea (the urge to vomit.) Taste and smell are two of the most powerful. If it smells or tastes nasty, your body may reject it as dangerous.
Seeing, smelling, or hearing someone else vomit can make you vomit, too. Your body is programmed this way because if everyone in your group ate the same thing and it made someone sick, you could be next.
But what if nobody else got sick or if you’re all alone? You could still have eaten something bad for you. If it triggers trouble in the brain—especially dizziness—then your gut will throw it out, fearing poison that could cause it trouble.
While vomiting has numerous causes, they all boil down to three basic things:
- Something irritates the brain
- Something irritates the gut
- You’re pregnant
Things irritating the gut are more common than things irritating the brain, so why does the brain get top billing?
Well, it’s the brain. If you suddenly have nausea, or you vomit without first feeling nauseated, something bad might be happening inside your cranium, and that’s not good.
Brain-Related Causes of Nausea
Your brain works in a very narrow range of happiness. If it gets too much sugar, it doesn’t work right. If it doesn’t get enough sugar, it doesn’t work right.
It’s too finicky to dine on fat and it needs a certain amount of oxygen. It can’t be too warm or too cold and it can’t be under too much pressure or too little. Basically, brains are high maintenance.
Since lots of things can go wrong with the brain, vomiting is triggered by the brain way more often than it needs to be.
A brain injury that causes swelling inside your skull almost always triggers vomiting, even though that probably can’t help the brain in any way. It’s an unintended result of the body thinking any problem with the brain is due to something you ate.
However, knowing that brain malfunction can result in puking reminds us to consider brain problems whenever nausea shows up for no apparent reason. Some brain-affecting things trigger nausea more often than others, including:
- Concussion or traumatic brain injury: An injury to the brain leads to pressure building up or direct damage to brain tissue, which triggers nausea. This always warrants immediate medical care.
- Vertigo or motion sickness: Dizziness related to motion sickness, or inner-ear problems that feel like motion sickness, are major causes of nausea. (There’s a reason nausea and nautical have the same root word.)
- Too much alcohol: Getting too drunk often results in vomiting because alcohol is toxic and impacts your brain. It enjoys the early effects, but when they become to strong, it tells your stomach to purge.
- Carbon monoxide poisoning: This cause can be misidentified as an infection because the sypmtoms of both include headaches and nausea. Carbon monoxide poisoning must be treated with oxygen therapy.
- Heat illness and dehydration: The brain doesn’t like to be too hot and needs just the right amount of pressure to work correctly. When conditions are off, it blames the stomach and empties the contents.
Gut-Related Causes of Nausea
Sometimes, nausea and vomiting are triggered by things long before they affect the brain, which is usually better than waiting for a toxic substance to start playing with your higher functions.
The mechanism that makes the digestive tract (the gut) want to vomit is complicated, but essentially, the point is to evacuate the stomach when something in there is dangerous to you.
That’s why bacteria, viruses and all sorts of toxins can trigger nausea and vomiting from the gut level. The most common causes of nausea related to the gut are:
- Food poisoning: Not really “poisoning” at all, food-borne illness is usually caused by a bacteria or other bug on something you ate. Common causes are salmonella, listeria, and E. coli, which all cause vomiting and diarrhea.
- Infections: Other infections, often viruses, can directly attack the gut. Norovirus is one such infamous bug. Often folks will say they have a “stomach flu” but it’s not the flu at all. (“Flu” is short for influenza, which is a respiratory illness.)
Morning sickness is a common symptom of pregnancy, and it can actually occur at any time of the day. If you’re nauseous and think you could be pregnant, a home pregnancy test and/or a trip to the doctor can tell you for sure.
Identifying the Cause
Ultimately, the best way to identify the cause of your upset stomach is to rule out the easiest stuff first: Have you been drinking? Are you pregnant? Are you on a boat?
If not, then look for some additional telltale symptoms.
- Headaches: A brain problem is most likely. If you’ve hit your head, go to the emergency room. If multiple people in the house have symptoms, think carbon monoxide poisoning. Leave, call 911, and have the fire department check it out.
- Earache or stuffy sinuses: Consider the ear. The inner ear helps you stay balanced and upright. Sometimes, an infection can throw the inner ear’s equilibrium out of whack. This might be a case of vertigo.
- Something you ate: Most contaminated food gets digested without any problem. Once in a while, though, something can throw you for a loop. Food poisoning is more likely if you’re really old, really young, or have a weakened immune systems.
A Word From Verywell
Sometimes, nausea is a sign of a dangerous condition and needs to be evaluated by a doctor. Other times it’s just the body’s protective instinct at work. You have several options for treating nausea, but in many cases, you just have to wait it out.
Understanding Chronic Nausea
Most people know what nausea feels like because they’ve experienced it during a bout with a virus or even from a roller coaster or a bumpy plane ride, and pregnant women usually know it well. Nausea is an unsettled feeling in the stomach and may be accompanied by the sensation that one might vomit.
It can range from being strong, where vomiting seems as though it could happen at any moment, to a low level of lingering stomach upset. Sometimes nausea is also accompanied by a lack of appetite, regurgitation, vomiting, and abdominal pain or discomfort.
Nausea is not generally thought of as a condition in and of itself, but is rather a symptom of something else that’s happening within the body.
skynesher / Getty Images
Chronic or Acute Nausea
Acute nausea might be caused by a condition that comes on suddenly, which is called acute. Acute nausea may be caused by a virus that affects the stomach and causes nausea and vomiting (this is gastroenteritis, which is often called “stomach flu,” though it is not related to influenza).
Food poisoning is another cause of nausea (sometimes also accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea) that will occur suddenly and usually resolves on its own when the bacteria clears the body.
Other common causes of acute nausea that usually resolve on their own include:
- Car sickness (motion sickness)
- Extreme pain
- Medication side effects
- Trauma (such as a concussion)
Chronic nausea is when the nausea may be present all the time or it may come and go. In some cases the nausea may come on after a triggering factor, such as eating, only to improve and then come on again after the next meal.
When the nausea is chronic, and there’s no clear cause such as pregnancy, it’s time to talk to a doctor about why it might be happening. There won’t be one particular test that can help determine the cause of nausea so testing will depend on what might be the suspected caused.
Chronic Nausea Associated Conditions
Nausea is a symptom of a condition, and some of the more common reasons can include the following.
Chronic nausea is common in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and is called “morning sickness” even though it can last all day. Often, nausea comes on in the middle of the first trimester and is gone by the second. But some people have nausea their entire pregnancy or it comes back towards the end.
When nausea is severe and is accompanied by vomiting to the point where keeping any food or water down is challenging, this could be a condition called hyperemesis gravidarum.
Gallstones are common, especially in women, who are twice as likely to have stones as men. Gallbladder stones might cause no symptoms but may also cause pain in the back, shoulder, or upper abdomen, and nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms might be worse after eating, especially when eating a meal containing high levels of fat. Gallstones might be diagnosed with one of several different imaging tests and are most often treated with gallbladder removal.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition that occurs when stomach contents come back up into the esophagus. This can cause symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, and nausea.
Symptoms might be worse after eating or at night after lying down. The nausea may linger, especially if stomach acid backs up into the throat.
In many cases, GERD is treatable with over-the-counter or prescription medication (including antacids, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, h3RAs; and proton pump inhibitors, PPIs).
Lifestyle changes such as losing weight and sleeping with the head elevated, as well as avoiding potential triggers for symptoms (such as smoking, alcoholic beverages, coffee, chocolate, fatty foods, and fried foods) may also help.
Migraine headaches might cause nausea either before the headache comes on or during the headache. Diagnosing headaches can be complex because there are several different types of migraines that have different symptoms. Treatment may involve both lifestyle changes and medications.
A peptic ulcer is when there are sores in the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus. In most cases, peptic ulcers are caused by a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). Another cause of peptic ulcers is the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, but this is not as common.
Peptic ulcers often cause pain or discomfort, but may also cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, and feeling full after small meals. For ulcers caused by H pylori, antibiotics will be prescribed, along with other medications to help alleviate symptoms.
Central Nervous System Disorders
Conditions that affect the nervous system such as intracranial hemorrhage or infections may be associated with nausea. These conditions are serious and are usually accompanied by symptoms of confusion, dizziness, or changes in memory.
If these symptoms occur and a hemorrhage or an infection like meningitis are suspected, they are a reason to seek medical attention right away.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and can occur as a result of an infection with a virus or from autoimmune hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatitis can be acute or chronic and may cause nausea along with jaundice, fever, headache, and joint pain.
Treatment will depend on the cause of hepatitis but will range from lifestyle changes to antiviral medications to steroids.
A hiatal hernia is when there’s a weak point in the abdominal wall and the stomach pushes through it and up into the chest. Hernias may cause symptoms of reflux as well as pain or discomfort and in some cases, there may also be nausea.
Small hernias might not be noticeable, cause any symptoms, or even require treatment, but larger ones may require surgery.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and indeterminate colitis, which are diseases of the digestive tract. These diseases cause inflammation in various parts of the digestive system and can be associated with chronic nausea.
In some cases, nausea might be an adverse effect of medications or be the result of a complication (such as a bowel obstruction). Treatment will depend on the cause of nausea and might also include effective treatment of the inflammation caused by the IBD.
An obstruction is when the small or large intestine gets blocked. A blockage could be caused by one of several reasons, including scar tissue or a kink or twist in the intestine.
Usually, the most prominent symptom of an intestinal obstruction is pain, but nausea and vomiting can also happen in some cases. Obstructions are more common in people who have IBD (Crohn’s disease in particular) but they can happen to anyone.
Obstructions can be a medical emergency, so it’s important to get care right away when one is suspected. In most cases, obstructions can be treated in the hospital without surgery.
The pancreas is an organ that releases enzymes for digestion into the stomach and hormones into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is when the pancreas becomes inflamed, which can lead to symptoms of pain that gets worse after eating, fever, nausea, and vomiting.
Pancreatitis is rare and people who have the condition are often quite sick because it is a serious condition. Treatment will depend on what is causing pancreatitis.
Chronic Idiopathic Nausea
Idiopathic means that no physical reason can be found for nausea. This doesn’t mean that there isn’t a cause, however, or that one won’t become clear in the future. In some cases, this might also be called functional nausea.
Because there doesn’t appear to be an underlying cause for nausea, treatment is usually focused on reducing the discomfort of nausea, treating any other conditions that might be occurring at the same time such as migraines, balance problems, or digestive diseases, and preventing vomiting.
Treating chronic nausea will depend largely on the underlying cause, therefore getting an accurate diagnosis is important. However, once the cause is understood, there are several things that can be done to help get nausea under control so it is less bothersome. Treating nausea at home can include:
- Antihistamines or anti-emetics (on the advice of a physician)
- Motion sickness medication (such as Dramamine) on the advice of a physician
- Cool room
- Deep, even breathing
- Foods that are less likely to cause nausea (crackers, bread, rice)
- Foods containing ginger or sucking on ginger candy
- Sips of cold water, ginger ale, or tea
- Smaller, more frequent meals
When to See a Doctor
Nausea isn’t typically an emergency. But call a doctor right away in the case of:
- Black or tarry stools
- Blood in the stool or vomit
- High fever
- Severe abdominal pain
- Signs of dehydration
- Vomiting that won’t stop
A Word From Verywell
Nausea is a nonspecific symptom. It might be challenging to pin down exactly what’s causing it. In many cases, related symptoms (such as pain, fever, or vomiting) can give a physician more insight into what might be causing your nausea.
Having nausea that comes or goes or is chronic is a reason to schedule an appointment with a physician in order to get to the bottom of it. Common conditions that are associated with nausea might be treated in various ways but home remedies might also help in the short-term to cope with nausea.
When nausea is accompanied by red flag symptoms such as severe pain or vomiting or blood in the vomit or stool, it’s a reason to contact a physician right away.
7 Possible Causes Other Than Pregnancy You Need To Know
Several digestive issues can lead to nausea in the morning
- Eat light dinners to avoid digestives issues at night
- Acid reflux can lead to nausea in the morning
- Drink enough water to prevent nausea
Morning nausea can be one of the worst experiences. Nausea is a stomach related discomfort which can causes a sensation of wanting to vomit. It is not a disease, it is an uneasiness that you may feel due to any reason or before vomiting. Pregnancy is the most common cause of nausea in the morning, commonly referred as morning sickness. Many fail to understand the other possible causes of nausea in the morning. It can be a result of common stomach discomfort or a sign of a condition. If these symptoms do not improve within a few days, you must see a doctor. Usually many try home remedies to fight nausea. But to fight this effectively, you need to find the cause. Here are some possible causes of morning nausea other than pregnancy.
What leads to morning nausea?
Fatigue usually caused due to inadequate sleep can lead to nausea. Unhealthy sleep cycle may leave you nauseous in the morning.
2. Low blood sugar levels
Low levels of glucose in the blood can lead to nausea in the morning. It can also lead to dizziness. This usually happens due to the long gap between dinner and breakfast. People with diabetes may also experience fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Skipping breakfast can make this condition worse.
Low blood sugar levels in the morning can lead to nausea
Photo Credit: iStock
3. Acid reflux
Heartburn or acid reflux can lead to several discomforts including nausea. Lift dinners a few hours before bed can help you prevent acid reflux at night.
Also read: Home Remedies For Acid Reflux: Are Probiotics Helpful? Here’s How
Anxiety is a mental condition which can make you feel a variety of emotions. It can also lead to nausea and make it worse.
Also read: Breathing Exercises To Ward-Off Anxiety Instantly
It is also a digestive issue in which the muscles of the stomach do not function properly. Gastroparesis can lead to vomiting, nausea or abdominal pain.
Poor eating habits can lead to nausea
Photo Credit: iStock
Headache or migraine
Headaches or nausea can also lead to nausea. Migraine is a severe form of headache which is also a possible reason. If this happens too often, it is important to talk to your doctor to fight the cause of headache according to its type.
Also read: Everything about migraine
Not drinking enough water can also lead to nausea. Dehydration can lead to several other health issues as well like dizziness, exhaustion, dark urine and more. Not drinking water at night for longer periods can make you feel sick in the morning.
Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.
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9 Fascinating Things It Can Mean If You Get Nauseous Easily
Everyone feels sick from time to time. But if you’re someone who gets nauseous easily, it might be your body’s way of sending a little hint that something’s not quite right. From hormonal imbalances, to food sensitivities, to inner ear disorders, there are a multitude of reasons why you might feel queasy. And it’s definitely worth it to listen.
It can, however, be tough to figure out what’s wrong. “Nausea is a common general complaint that can have multiple causes,” Dr. Christopher Hughes, tells Bustle. It can stem from your gut, your hormones, and even seemingly unrelated parts of the body, such as your inner ear.
Don’t hesitate to reach out to a doctor if you don’t feel well, so they can start figuring out what’s wrong. Nausea can be annoying and uncomfortable. But the good news is, it can be relieved by treating the underlying cause.
It’s also important to let a doctor know if nausea isn’t your only symptom. “If nausea is accompanied by excessive vomiting, dizziness, [fever and chest pain], it may be a sign of a more serious medical condition and a physician should be consulted,” registered dietician Ysabel Montemayor, tells Bustle.
With that in mind, read on for some possible reasons why you get nauseated so easily, according to experts.
Both food sensitivities and intolerances could be to blame for your frequent bouts of nausea, especially if your symptoms feel vague or are otherwise difficult to explain.
“Unlike a food allergy, food intolerances usually have a gradual response from the body and may only occur if you eat a lot of the food or eat it frequently,” registered dietician Lorraine Chu, MS, RDN, tells Bustle.
Do you feel nauseated after eating dairy products? Or after having a glass of wine? If so, “you may be lacking an enzyme needed to digest a certain food, such as lactase for dairy products,” Chu says. “It may also be a sensitivity to food additives, such as sulfite, which is used to preserve foods such as dried fruit, canned goods, and wine.”
Food sensitivities can be tough to diagnose, but paying attention to what you eat and how it makes you feel can help. “You can start by tracking what and how much you ate that day, any symptoms you’re experiencing, and what time they started,” Chu says. “It may also be helpful to share your diary with your doctor or dietitian to help get to the root of your problem.”
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
“Women who have endometriosis […] frequently have nausea and discomfort associated with their menses,” Brian A. Levine, MD, MS, FACOG, a double board-certified OB/GYN and reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialist, tells Bustle.
So if you tend to feel nauseated right around your period, this might explain why. “The mechanism is not completely understood,” Dr. Levine says, “but is thought to be due to endometriosis implants on the bowel and possibly the stomach.”
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
Nausea could also be due to a simple case of motion sickness. “Different parts of our body send signals to our brain that give us a sense of balance, including our inner ear, eyes, skin, and muscles,” Montemayor says. “Sometimes, these signals contradict each other, causing motion sickness/sense of imbalance which can be followed by nausea.”
If you’re prone to motion sickness, you may find that it doesn’t take much to make you feel sick. “Some people are more prone to motion sickness than others and it is unclear why, but it may be hereditary,” Montemayor says. “A lack of sleep can also increase the risk of motion sickness.”
Nausea that’s due to hormonal fluctuations can be rather intense, as well as difficult to pinpoint. “Hormones act as chemical messengers that help control many functions in the body and hormonal changes or imbalances may trigger nausea,” Montemayor says. “This is why women who are pregnant, on their period, or going through menopause commonly report dizziness, morning sickness, and/or nausea.”
Medication Side Effects
“Certain medications may cause nausea because they affect the parts of our body that signal balance or irritate the digestive tract,” Montemayor says. If you have nausea that you just can’t explain, and are taking a medication, tell your doctor. They may be able to switch you to one that isn’t as nauseating.
Birth Control Side Effects
If you take birth control and experience nausea, there’s a chance the two are connected, especially if you’re always getting new pills. “Frequently, generic brands are switched by pharmacies due to changes in formularies,” Dr. Levine says. “Although similar in formulation, the binders tend to vary, and this may lead to different sensitivities. Women also do have some associated nausea the first time they start birth control.”
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
According to Dr. Hughes, one symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is nausea. And until you treat the underlying cause, it’s unlikely to go away.
GERD is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), which in turn allows the acidic contents up your stomach to come back up into the esophagus, leading to nausea. Other symptoms include pain in the chest — otherwise known as heartburn or acid reflux — and a bitter taste in the mouth.
Vertigo is often caused by a problem with the inner ear. It can make it feel like you’re spinning, or like the room around you is spinning. And that, unsurprisingly, can lead to nausea, Dr. Hughes says.
Since anxiety and panic attacks can cause you to feel nauseated, don’t overlook them as a possible cause for your frequent queasiness, Dr. Hughes says. By treating the anxiety itself — possibly with the help of a therapist — you will likely start to feel better.
If you feel nauseated easily, there are quite a few reasons why that could be. While there are numerous over-the-counter treatments for nausea and ways to ease your symptoms, your best bet is to let a doctor know. They can go down the checklist of all the causes — from your inner ear, to your hormones, and beyond — and help get you back to your old self again.
Symptoms & Causes of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
In this section:
What are the main symptoms of cyclic vomiting syndrome?
The main symptoms of cyclic vomiting syndrome are sudden, repeated attacks—called episodes—of severe nausea and vomiting. You may vomit several times an hour. Episodes can last from a few hours to several days. Episodes may make you feel very tired and drowsy.
Each episode of cyclic vomiting syndrome tends to start at the same time of day, last the same length of time, and happen with the same symptoms and intensity as previous episodes. Episodes may begin at any time but often start during the early morning hours.
The main symptoms of cyclic vomiting syndrome are sudden, repeated attacks—called episodes—of severe nausea and vomiting.
What are some other symptoms of cyclic vomiting syndrome?
Other symptoms of cyclic vomiting syndrome may include one or more of the following:
- retching—trying to vomit but having nothing come out of your mouth, also called dry vomiting
- pain in the abdomen
- abnormal drowsiness
- pale skin
- lack of appetite
- not wanting to talk
- drooling or spitting
- extreme thirst
- sensitivity to light or sound
What are the phases of cyclic vomiting syndrome?
Cyclic vomiting syndrome has four phases:
- prodrome phase
- vomiting phase
- recovery phase
- well phase
How do the symptoms vary in the phases of cyclic vomiting syndrome?
The symptoms will vary as you go through the four phases of cyclic vomiting syndrome:
- Prodrome phase. During the prodrome phase, you feel an episode coming on. Often marked by intense sweating and nausea—with or without pain in your abdomen—this phase can last from a few minutes to several hours. Your skin may look unusually pale.
- Vomiting phase. The main symptoms of this phase are severe nausea, vomiting, and retching. At the peak of this phase, you may vomit several times an hour. You may be
- quiet and able to respond to people around you
- unable to move and unable to respond to people around you
- twisting and moaning with intense pain in your abdomen
Nausea and vomiting can last from a few hours to several days.
- Recovery phase. Recovery begins when you stop vomiting and retching and you feel less nauseated. You may feel better gradually or quickly. The recovery phase ends when your nausea stops and your healthy skin color, appetite, and energy return.
- Well phase. The well phase happens between episodes. You have no symptoms during this phase.
When should I seek medical help?
You should seek medical help if
You should seek medical help right away if you have any signs or symptoms of dehydration during the vomiting phase. These signs and symptoms may include
- extreme thirst and dry mouth
- urinating less than usual
- dark-colored urine
- dry mouth
- decreased skin turgor, meaning that when your skin is pinched and released, the skin does not flatten back to normal right away
- sunken eyes or cheeks
- light-headedness or fainting
If you are a parent or caregiver of an infant or child, you should seek medical care for them right away if they have any signs and symptoms of dehydration during the vomiting phase. These signs and symptoms may include
- urinating less than usual, or no wet diapers for 3 hours or more
- lack of energy
- dry mouth
- no tears when crying
- decreased skin turgor
- sunken eyes or cheeks
- unusually cranky or drowsy behavior
What causes cyclic vomiting syndrome?
Experts aren’t sure what causes cyclic vomiting syndrome. However, some experts believe the following conditions may play a role:
- problems with nerve signals between the brain and digestive tract
- problems with the way the brain and endocrine system react to stress
- mutations in certain genes that are associated with an increased chance of getting CVS
What may trigger an episode of cyclic vomiting?
Triggers for an episode of cyclic vomiting may include:
- emotional stress
- anxiety or panic attacks, especially in adults
- infections, such as colds, flu, or chronic sinusitis
- intense excitement before events such as birthdays, holidays, vacations, and school outings, especially in children
- lack of sleep
- physical exhaustion
- temperature extremes of hot or cold
- drinking alcohol
- menstrual periods
- motion sickness
- periods without eating (fasting)
Eating certain foods, such as chocolate, cheese, and foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG) may play a role in triggering episodes.
This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
(NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.
The NIDDK would like to thank:
Thangam Venkatesan, M.D., Medical College of Wisconsin
Nauseous vs. Nauseated: What’s the Difference?
Even though nauseous and nauseated are often used to mean feeling unwell, many purists insist that nauseous means “causing nausea” while nauseated means “feeling sick.” Casually, it is probably OK to use both words to mean feeling ill. However, in more formal situations, use each word correctly.
Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing always looks great? Grammarly can save you from misspellings, grammatical and punctuation mistakes, and other writing issues on all your favorite websites.
Find helpful usage tips, clarifying examples, and spelling tricks below.
- Nauseating is a good substitute for nauseous when you’re talking about something that causes nausea.
- Nauseousness is not a word. Nausea is the correct noun form.
When to Use Nauseous
Nauseous originally meant sickening, loathsome, or inducing a feeling of disgust. In that sense, things that are nauseous might include:
- getting a whiff of a garbage dump
- two-week-old meatloaf
- certain rickety roller coasters
- particularly unattractive zombies
But nauseous is so often used to refer to experiencing those feelings that Merriam-Webster Dictionary has updated their definition of nauseous:
- feeling like you are about to vomit
- causing you to feel like you are going to vomit
- causing disgust
Here are examples of nauseous used with its original meaning:
Certain it is that minds, like bodies, will often fall into a pimpled ill-conditioned state from mere excess of comfort, and like them, are often successfully cured by remedies in themselves very nauseous and unpalatable.
—Charles Dickens, Barnaby Rudge
The council may prohibit and prevent the sale of every kind of unsound, nauseous, and unwholesome meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, or other articles of food.
—Digest of City Charters (Chicago)
And here’s an example of its contemporary usage, of feeling sick to one’s stomach:
The family […] would rush out to get lobster, but then the patient would take only one bite, or wouldn’t want it at all, he would smell it and feel nauseous and push it away.
—The New Yorker
The crowd draws in a collective breath and then you can hear a pin drop, and I’m feeling nauseous and so desperately hoping that it’s not me, that it’s not me, that it’s not me.
—Suzanne Collins, The Hunger Games
When to Use Nauseated
The definition of nauseated is the same as the second, more recent definition of nauseous: feeling sickly. Or, according to the official definition, to feel nauseated means:
- to become affected with nausea
- to feel disgust
Here’s the trick: “to nauseate” is a verb meaning “to cause to feel disgust,” so turning it into a participle—that is, adding the “ed” at the end—means that something has caused you to feel that way.
Times you might feel nauseated include:
- The morning after a wedding
- When you take a sip of milk that’s past the expiration date
- When you see a zombie eat brains without proper table manners
. . . and any other time your tummy gets a bit grumbly. Here are some examples of nauseated in a sentence:
Once, when she was six years old, she had fallen from a tree, flat on her stomach. […] Now, as she looked at him, she felt the same way she had felt then, breathless, stunned, nauseated.
— Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the Wind
You define a good flight by negatives: you didn’t get hijacked, you didn’t crash, you didn’t throw up, you weren’t late, you weren’t nauseated by the food.
— Paul Theroux, The Old Patagonian Express: By Train Through the Americas
And, to cover our bases, here’s an example with “nauseating”:
I exist, that is all, and I find it nauseating.
—Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness
Nausea can be pretty existential, it turns out.
Spelling and Pronunciation Tricks
Any way you slice it, these words have got a lot of vowels. So how do you say them, and how do you remember how to pronounce them?
Some people say NAW-zee-uh, some say NAW-zhuh, where the “zhuh” sounds like the “s” in “measure.” Here, take a listen.
There’s no surefire trick to guarantee you remember the spelling, but think about how lots of people who go sailing get seasick. That is, they get sick of being on the sea. Even though the “sea” part of the word nausea isn’t pronounced like the big body of water that might make your stomach a little choppy, it can help remind you how the second half of that word is spelled.
If you figure out nausea, chances are you can figure out nauseated: just add a “ted” to the end of the noun.
As for pronunciation, try to say it like this: “NAW-zee-ay-tid.” Here’s how that one sounds out loud.
This one’s a toughie. Some people say NAW-zee-us, but NAW-zhus is more common. Listen to it here.
As far as spelling, it’s the “eou” that causes confusion. A quick fix: think of something that makes you feel nauseous—or, if you’re more traditional, something that is nauseous. For example: eating oily urchins. Sounds pretty slimy, and probably smelly, too. But if you can fight back the nausea long enough to spell nauseous correctly, then you’re on the right track.
Now you can stop feeling nauseated by the nauseous distinction between these two confusable words. We can only hope that avoiding zombies is as easy.
Why am I feeling nauseous and tired all the time?
What are nausea and fatigue?
Do you feel nauseous and tired all the time, but don’t know why? Nausea (also called feeling sick) is an uneasy feeling in your stomach, like you want to be sick (vomit). And fatigue is when you feel really tired and lack the energy you need to do normal activities.
Feeling sick and tired often happen separately, but sometimes both can strike at the same time. This can be due to a number of things, including your diet and lifestyle, emotional and mental (psychological) factors or a medical condition.
Many causes of nausea and fatigue are treatable, and the symptoms get better once you’ve addressed the cause. But sometimes, having nausea and fatigue at the same time can be a sign of a more serious condition that needs medical attention.
Common causes of feeling sick and tired
If you’ve been feeling really tired and like you might be sick, here are a few possible causes of your symptoms.
Diet and lifestyle
The foods you eat and the things you do each day can cause nausea and tiredness without you realising it. For example, drinking too much coffee or alcohol can sap you of energy in the long term and make you feel nauseous.
Jet lag from recent travel, skipping meals, not getting enough sleep, and doing too much or too little exercise can also bring on these symptoms. So, if you’re feeling sick and very tired, it’s worth taking a close look at your diet and lifestyle.
Gastroenteritis, also known as a stomach or tummy bug, is a common gut infection that’s typically caused by bacteria or viruses. Not only does it cause tiredness and nausea, it can also cause other symptoms, like vomiting, diarrhoea and tummy cramps.
The bacteria and viruses that cause gastroenteritis are often caught from close contact with an infected person or by eating contaminated food, so pay attention to who you’ve been in contact with and what you’ve eaten or drunk recently.
Stress, anxiety and depression
Emotional and mental factors, like stress and anxiety, can sometimes cause physical symptoms like nausea and tiredness. And, while feeling very low is the key symptom of depression, it can also make you feel very tired and may cause nausea, bloating and cramps in some cases.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
If your tiredness doesn’t go away, no matter how much rest you get, you may have chronic fatigue syndrome – an ongoing condition that can affect your everyday life. In addition to fatigue, you may notice you have nausea and other symptoms, like headaches, sleeping problems and joint or muscle pain.
Tiredness and nausea are common symptoms during early pregnancy – this is usually due to the hormonal changes your body goes through. You’re less likely to feel sick later on in your pregnancy, as morning sickness (feeling and being sick during pregnancy) usually gets better by the 20th week of pregnancy. But you may still feel tired as you get closer to your due date because you’re carrying extra weight from your baby.
Nerve and brain (neurological) issues
Certain problems with your nervous system can sometimes bring on fatigue with sickness. These may include:
- migraines – if you have a migraine, you may notice additional symptoms, like a headache, being sick, and sensitivity to light and sound. A migraine can also make you feel really tired, even after it’s passed
- concussion – if you’ve recently had a bump or blow to the head, you may develop concussion. If this happens, not only may you feel sick and find it hard to stay awake, you may also have a headache, feel dizzy and have trouble remembering things. A concussion is a medical emergency, but it’s not always easy to spot it, so see a doctor if you’ve recently hurt your head
- brain tumour – while rare, a brain tumour can cause fatigue and nausea, as well as other symptoms like headaches, memory problems, fits (seizures) and a change in your behaviour
Hormone and mineral imbalances
Sometimes, nausea and fatigue can be a sign that certain hormones or minerals in your body are higher or lower than they should be. Examples of these imbalances include:
- hypercalcaemia (when you have too much calcium in your blood) – this doesn’t always cause symptoms, but when it does, it may include constipation, fatigue, nausea, muscle weakness, feeling very thirsty and peeing more than normal
- Addison’s disease
When to see a doctor about nausea and fatigue
While nausea and fatigue aren’t usually signs of something serious, they may sometimes suggest that you have an underlying condition that needs urgent medical attention – especially if you also notice other specific symptoms.
Go to a hospital or call an ambulance if you’ve got nausea and fatigue, and you:
- think you may have swallowed something poisonous
- keep being sick (vomiting) and can’t keep fluids down
- have been vomiting for more than 2 days or have had diarrhoea for longer than a week
- have bloody diarrhoea or are bleeding from your bottom
- are vomiting blood, bright green vomit or something that looks like ground coffee
- have a stiff neck, pain when looking at bright lights or a really bad headache that started suddenly
- recently injured your head and you feel confused or less alert than normal
- have a swollen tummy or tummy pain
- have chest pain or pain that spreads to your arms, back, neck or jaw
- have shortness of breath
- are pregnant and develop sudden tummy pain
You should also see a doctor as soon as possible if you’ve got nausea and fatigue, and:
- you’ve been losing weight without meaning to
- you have an ongoing fever, night sweats or swollen lymph nodes around your body
- you have muscle weakness and/or pain, joint pain and unexplained rashes
- you have a headache and muscle pains
- you still feel sick after a few days
- your symptoms go away and come back
- your symptoms are affecting your daily life
Treatment for nausea and fatigue
There are some things you can do to ease nausea in general, including getting plenty of fresh air, drinking ginger or peppermint tea and eating smaller meals. Read more about natural remedies for nausea.
And if you have really bad nausea, a doctor may give you medication, known as antiemetics, to help you stop feeling sick.
Fatigue can often get better with general measures like getting more high-quality sleep. But while these strategies can help your symptoms, the best treatment for nausea and fatigue usually depends on the cause.
Diet and lifestyle
If your diet and lifestyle are making you feel sick and tired, making some changes may help. Consider:
Gut infections, like norovirus or food poisoning, can often be managed at home by treating the symptoms. Try to:
- drink plenty of water to stay well hydrated
- get lots of rest
- eat small, light meals
- eat plain foods and easy-to-digest foods like rice, bread and pasta
- take simple painkillers to manage a fever or headache – speak to your pharmacist or doctor for guidance on how to safely get and use these medicines
You should usually start to feel better within a week.
Read more about how to treat norovirus at home and how to tell if you have food poisoning or a stomach bug.
Stress, anxiety and depression
If you’ve got nausea and fatigue that’s caused by emotional and mental factors, removing the cause or managing the condition may help improve your symptoms. If your stress levels are high, identify the things that are causing you stress and take steps to better manage your daily schedule to prevent them from piling up on you. Taking up some stress-relieving activities may also help.
There are many ways to manage depression and anxiety, from talking therapies and exercising often, to taking medication. See a doctor for advice on the best treatment for you if you have depression, anxiety or another mood disorder.
Read more about the 5 common types of anxiety and how self-care can help you manage depression.
Chronic fatigue syndrome
There are many ways to manage this condition and the best approach varies from person to person. But some of the treatments that may help you include:
- a talking therapy called cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
- slowly increasing the amount of exercise you do each day
- eating in a way that helps you feel less nauseous (e.g. eating smaller meals more often)
- resting when you need to
Read more about how to treat chronic fatigue syndrome.
Try to rest as much as you can and follow these general tips for managing nausea. Often, the nausea caused by morning sickness gets better on its own later in your pregnancy.
While fatigue doesn’t always get better as your pregnancy progresses, you can still help to manage your energy levels by eating a healthy diet and making sure you get lots of rest and sleep.
Find out which vitamins and supplements can help keep you healthy during pregnancy.
Nerve and brain (neurological) issues
If a condition related to your brain or nervous system is behind your symptoms, treating the condition should help to improve nausea and vomiting. This may involve resting and taking painkillers if you have a concussion, self-care and medication for conditions like migraines, and medication, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery for brain tumours. A doctor will let you know the exact treatment you need to manage your symptoms and its cause.
Hormone and mineral imbalances
When nausea and tiredness are caused by a hormone or mineral imbalance, a doctor will usually do a blood test to see what substance is out of balance in your body. If they find an imbalance, you may need to take medication to balance your hormone or mineral levels, or to treat the cause of the imbalance.
How long does it take for nausea and fatigue to get better?
There are many reasons why you may have nausea and fatigue at the same time. Often, the cause is related to things you can change, like your diet and lifestyle. But sometimes, nausea and fatigue can be caused by a medical condition. It isn’t always easy to tell what’s causing your symptoms, so see a doctor if they don’t get better with self-care, you’re worried or if you have any of the symptoms listed in the ‘When to see a doctor’ section above.
The amount of time it will take for your symptoms to get better usually depends on the cause and the treatments recommended by a doctor.
Your health questions answered
Is there a link between nausea and fatigue and COVID-19?
Yes, fatigue is a common symptom of COVID-19 and is often felt when the infection begins. Some people may feel tired after the infection has passed too. Lung and airway (respiratory) symptoms, like a dry cough, fever and loss of smell, are usually the main symptoms of COVID-19, but some people have had tummy problems, including feeling sick (nausea), being sick (vomiting) and diarrhoea.
Why do I have nausea and fatigue and also an upset stomach or bloating?
Many things can cause this combination of symptoms, including a gut condition like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or an infection such as norovirus or food poisoning. If a gut infection is the cause, your symptoms should usually improve within a week, but if they continue for longer, come back after getting better or you’re worried about them, see a doctor.
Can stress cause nausea and fatigue?
Yes, even though stress feels like an emotional and mental issue, it can sometimes cause physical symptoms like nausea and fatigue. If this is the cause of your symptoms, you may find they improve when you take steps to manage your stress levels. Aside from doing your best to reduce the source of your stress, you may also find that stress-relieving activities, like spending time with friends and exercising, make you feel better.
- many things can cause nausea and fatigue at the same time, including your diet and lifestyle, gastroenteritis, hormone and mineral imbalances, and pregnancy
- nausea and fatigue aren’t usually signs of something serious, but they can sometimes suggest that you have an underlying condition that needs urgent medical attention
- general treatment for feeling sick and tired all the time include drinking ginger or peppermint tea, eating smaller meals and getting enough high-quality sleep every night
- the best treatment for nausea and tiredness depends on the underlying cause of these symptoms
- see a doctor if you have nausea and fatigue that’s accompanied by other symptoms, doesn’t get better in time or if you’re worried about these symptoms
90,000 Nausea and vomiting after eating – causes, symptoms and treatment, how to relieve the feeling of nausea
Number of views: 217
Date of last update: 08.06.2021
Average Read Time: 5 minutes
An overfilled stomach cannot handle too much food, as a result of which its motor functions are impaired. And instead of moving food to the intestines, where digestive processes continue and end, he pushes it up – into the esophagus and mouth.
Nausea is manifested by an unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen, which is often described as a “sucking”, “pulling” feeling. This may be accompanied by weakness, dizziness, increased salivation, pallor of the skin. And as nausea develops, it often ends with vomiting – an involuntary eruption of stomach contents out through the mouth.
Nausea after eating, ending in emptying of the stomach, followed by a feeling of relief, most often indicates an unhealthy diet or overeating.
Causes of nausea and vomiting
Some foods tend to cause nausea and vomiting if a person has an individual intolerance to these foods or hypersensitivity of the immune system (allergies).
Incorrect power supply
Feelings of nausea are a natural consequence of overeating (both constant and episodic). This symptom can be especially pronounced when eating fatty, fried, spicy foods.In this case, the inability of the digestive juices to process “heavy” food is added to the overflow of the stomach with an excessively large portion.
Nausea can be one of the symptoms of food poisoning caused by eating stale or poorly prepared food, expired food, tap water, etc.
Excessive alcohol consumption
Vomiting caused by the consumption of alcoholic beverages is a complex reaction in the development of which not only the gastrointestinal tract is involved, but also the nervous system.In the stomach, alcohol destroys the protective layer of the mucous membrane and disrupts motility, and the nervous system, reacting to it like a poison, activates the processes for its elimination from the body, that is, it provokes vomiting.
In addition to the fact that the constituents of tobacco cause disturbances of peristalsis (contractions of the walls of the stomach and intestines), the constituents of tobacco smoke, swallowed with saliva, irritate the walls of the stomach and can cause nausea.
Excessive psycho-emotional stress, lack of rest, being in stress mode – all this seriously affects the work of the gastrointestinal tract, which can react with constipation, diarrhea, bloating, nausea or vomiting.
Disorders of the digestive system
The feeling of nausea, as well as vomiting, are not independent diseases – these are symptoms that can indicate any disorders of the digestive system, especially if these symptoms are observed frequently or regularly.
How to prevent vomiting after eating
Nausea after eating, caused by overeating or heavy food, does not necessarily result in vomiting. In order to prevent undesirable developments and relieve discomfort, just a few recommendations should be followed.
First of all, it is necessary to provide an influx of fresh air: open the windows or go out onto the balcony, outside and breathe deeply.
After that, it is advisable to drink a glass of clean non-carbonated water at room temperature. Avoid taking hot drinks or, conversely, chilled drinks – high and low temperatures will further disrupt the motor functions of the stomach, exacerbating the feeling of nausea.
Now get into a comfortable sitting or reclining position and minimize physical activity for a while until the nausea and threat of vomiting after eating has passed.
Aid for nausea
Leading a healthy lifestyle
Smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, sedentary lifestyle, non-compliance with the daily routine – these factors negatively affect both the health of the digestive tract, causing indigestion and nausea, and the state of the whole organism as a whole.
Nutritional Correction and Diet
Healthy eating means not only the correct selection of products, control of their freshness and quality of preparation, but also eating at a strictly defined time, moderate portions, avoiding foods harmful to the stomach.
After an acute attack of nausea has passed, consider further nutrition: it should not include fatty, spicy, fried, sweet, too hot and cold foods. Make sure that the portions are small, ideally – break the daily amount of food into 5-6 meals.
When to see a doctor
Isolated episodes of vomiting are rarely cause for concern. But with repetitive seizures, when the cause of these symptoms is unknown, it is necessary to consult a doctor.You need to be especially careful about vomiting, which is accompanied by headache, loss of strength, drowsiness, impaired consciousness and deterioration of the general condition. Feelings of nausea and vomiting can develop after injuries to the head and internal organs. In this case, it is necessary to consult a doctor and conduct an examination.
90,000 Nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting
Nausea is a painful sensation in the stomach and throat, which may be accompanied by weakness, increased salivation, sweating, and often precedes vomiting.
Vomiting is a sudden involuntary emptying of the stomach.
Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of many diseases and conditions, from pregnancy to serious pathologies such as brain tumors, epilepsy and myocardial infarction.
In most cases, nausea and vomiting do not pose a danger to the body. However, prolonged vomiting, often in combination with diarrhea, can lead to severe dehydration and, as a result, to disruption of the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys and other organs.This is especially true for young children who cannot control their own dehydration. Pregnant women may experience so-called excessive vomiting of pregnancy, which disrupts the balance of electrolytes in the blood and threatens the life of the mother and fetus.
There are medications that can reduce nausea. However, in any case, it is necessary to find out its cause.
Nausea, emesis, vomiting, vomitus, distaste, sickness, retching, bdelygmia.
The duration of nausea and vomiting, the time of their occurrence, the effect of food intake on them depend on their underlying cause. For example, nausea and / or vomiting almost immediately after eating may indicate gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa), within 1-8 hours after eating – about poisoning.
With prolonged vomiting, signs of dehydration may occur:
- dry mouth;
- sunken eyes;
- rare urination, decreased amount of urine, dark urine;
- In children, the fontanelle can sink – a soft area at the junction of the child’s cranial bones, which normally closes by 12-18 months of age.
There are also a number of symptoms that are signs of dangerous, life-threatening conditions and require immediate medical attention:
- admixture of blood in vomit;
- severe headache, disorientation, impaired consciousness;
- abdominal pain;
- signs of dehydration;
- shortness of breath;
- vomiting that lasts longer than a day (for children, if it lasts several hours, especially in combination with diarrhea and fever).
Most often, vomiting and nausea disappear within 6-24 hours. If these symptoms recur within a week and if you suspect a possible pregnancy, you should also seek the advice of your doctor.
General information about the disease
Nausea occurs with a decrease or absence of gastric motility with simultaneous tension of the initial part of the intestine – the duodenum, which is accompanied by the throwing of part of the contents of the duodenum into the stomach.With vomiting, there is a strong contraction of the diaphragm and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall, holding of breath and a sharp release of stomach contents into the esophagus and further into the oral cavity. This may be accompanied by increased salivation, sweating, weakness, and dizziness.
Specific centers in the brain are responsible for the occurrence of nausea and vomiting, which receive information from the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, vestibular apparatus, other parts of the brain, kidneys, and also respond to the chemical composition of the blood, including toxins, drugs, metabolic products.These centers trigger and control the activity of the muscles involved in nausea and vomiting.
The reasons for nausea and vomiting can be as follows.
- Irritation of the gastric mucosa. In this case, nausea and vomiting are the body’s defensive reactions aimed at eliminating the damaging agent.
- Intestinal infections – rotavirus, salmonellosis, botulism, dysentery, etc., in addition to nausea and vomiting, are accompanied by abdominal pain and fever. The most common infection is rotavirus.It is especially common among children attending kindergartens and nurseries, and proceeds with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, which usually last 1-2 days. After the disease, immunity is formed.
- Food poisoning. In this case, vomiting occurs within a few hours after eating.
- Stomach ulcer – damage to a portion of the gastric mucosa due to the action of gastric juice. May be accompanied by belching, heartburn, abdominal pain.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which there is a regular reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus with damage to the esophageal mucosa by acidic gastric juice.
- Irritation of the stomach by other substances: alcohol, nicotine, aspirin.
- Effects on the central nervous system and vestibular apparatus. In this case, nausea and vomiting are caused by irritation of certain centers of the brain.
- An increase in intracranial pressure in brain injuries, tumors, infections (meningitis, encephalitis) may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
- Stimulation of the vestibular apparatus. Includes labyrinthitis (inflammation of the inner ear), motion sickness in transport and other diseases and conditions in which excessive irritation of the organ of balance occurs.
- Headache, especially with migraine. Migraine is a neurological disorder accompanied by severe headache, often on one side, which can be aggravated by bright light or loud sounds and be associated with nausea and vomiting.
- Sunstroke. A condition that occurs with prolonged exposure to sunlight on the head. Common in children. May be accompanied by lethargy, weakness, nausea, vomiting, pallor, disorientation, loss of consciousness.
- Diseases of other organs – diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, some malignant neoplasms, mental illness (depression, anorexia, bulimia) and other diseases.
- Medicines used for the treatment of cancer, radiation therapy.
- Pregnancy (first trimester).
- In children under one year old, vomiting can be a sign of pyloric stenosis, intestinal intussusception, and often accompanies viral diseases (influenza, ARVI).Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing or complete obstruction of the opening between the stomach and duodenum. Intestinal intussusception is a condition in which a piece of intestine is inserted into the lumen of a nearby section of the intestine, which leads to the development of intestinal obstruction.
In adults, the most common causes of vomiting and nausea are intestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness in transport; in children, intestinal infections, food poisoning, overeating, as well as severe cough and any illness with severe fever.
Who is at risk?
- Undergoing a course of anticancer therapy.
- People with chronic diseases of the digestive system.
- People with mental illness.
When determining the cause of nausea and vomiting, their duration, the time of their occurrence, the presence of signs of other diseases and conditions matter.Laboratory and instrumental studies are also important.
- Complete blood count. An increase in white blood cell counts may indicate the presence of infection as a possible cause of nausea and vomiting. An increase in the number of red blood cells indicates a thickening of the blood due to dehydration.
- ESR. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Normally, red blood cells repel each other. With inflammation, the protein composition of the blood changes, electrolytes stick together more easily, and the rate of their sedimentation increases.Thus, an increase in ESR may indicate infection or chronic inflammation as a possible cause of nausea and vomiting.
- Blood electrolytes
- Serum potassium and sodium. Participate in the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, maintenance of the acid-base balance of the blood. Decreased serum potassium and sodium levels may indicate blood clots and dehydration. Sodium levels can increase with kidney disease, adrenal gland disorders.
- Serum calcium. Calcium is involved in the formation of bone tissue, nerve impulse conduction, and the work of certain enzymes. A change in its level is a sign of diseases of the kidneys, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and some neoplasms.
- Serum glucose. Glucose is the body’s main source of energy. An increase in its concentration is characteristic of diabetes mellitus. A significant increase in its level may indicate diabetic ketoacidosis – a serious, life-threatening condition that forms with a lack of insulin.Without insulin, cells in the body cannot use glucose for energy. As a result, the body begins to use fats, the breakdown of which produces toxic substances – ketones. Thus, blood glucose and ketone levels rise. Diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma or even death if left untreated.
- Amylase total in serum. It is an enzyme that is produced in the pancreas and salivary glands. Essential for the digestion of carbohydrates.An increase in amylase levels may indicate a pathological process in the pancreas.
- Lipase. An enzyme that is produced in the pancreas and is involved in the digestion of fats. An increased concentration of lipase is the most specific sign of damage to the pancreas.
- β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is a hormone that is produced by the membrane of the embryo and is involved in maintaining pregnancy. A beta-hCG blood test is used to diagnose pregnancy.Home pregnancy tests are also based on determining its amount in urine, however, determining its level in the blood is more reliable and can reveal pregnancy as early as 6-8 days after fertilization.
- General urine analysis with microscopy. Dark, concentrated urine is a sign of dehydration.
- Sowing feces for flora. Used when an intestinal infection is suspected.
- Ultrasound examination (ultrasound), X-ray of the abdominal organs.They are used to assess the condition of internal organs and identify the cause of nausea and vomiting.
- X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the skull. It is used to diagnose injuries, diseases of the brain.
- Endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. This is an examination of the digestive system using an endoscope – a special device in the form of a tube equipped with an optical system. During endoscopy, you can take a tissue sample of the wall of the digestive tract for subsequent microscopic examination.
- Lumbar puncture for suspected central nervous system diseases. This is taking a sample of the fluid that washes the spinal cord. It is carried out after anesthesia. For research, a needle is used, which is inserted between the second and third or third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. The patient at this time sits or lies on his side, the back is bent as much as possible.
- Audiometry and electronystagmography. It is used to diagnose diseases of the vestibular apparatus. Audiometry is a test performed by an audiologist to determine hearing acuity.For this, a special device, an audiometer, is used. Electronystagmography is a method of recording involuntary movements of the eyeballs during head movements, temperature changes, which provides information about the state of the vestibular apparatus.
- Electroencephalography (EEG) is a study of the electrical activity of the brain using sensors that are placed on the head. It is carried out if there is a suspicion of neurological or mental pathology. This is how the state of the brain is assessed, its response to stimuli.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the nausea and vomiting. There are also ways to help reduce these symptoms and prevent dehydration:
- drink slowly, in small sips;
- eat in small portions, do not mix cold and hot foods, exclude fatty, spicy, sweet, fried foods;
- do not eat during a nausea attack;
- do not brush your teeth immediately after eating;
- Avoid physical activity immediately after meals.
In addition, there are antiemetic drugs, but they should only be used as directed by a doctor after the cause of the unpleasant symptoms has been established.
- Eating only fresh, properly processed foods.
- Correct diet, especially for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
90,000 What prophylaxis is performed to avoid vomiting and nausea? How can nausea and vomiting be relieved?
author: Maria Yiallouros, Dr.med. habil. Gesche Tallen, erstellt am: 2009/07/29,
editor: Maria Yiallouros, Permission to print: Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h.c. Günter Henze, Translator: Dr. Natalie Kharina-Welke, last modified: 2019/08/09
After forms of treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, children may experience nausea and vomiting. How strong they will be, how long and how often they will last depends on what kind of cytostatic the child receives and in what dose; if irradiation was carried out, then in what dose it was given to the child.
Doctors say that different cytostatics differ from each other in their “emetogenic action” or “emetogenic potential”. This means that they can induce vomiting to varying degrees. In addition, each child reacts differently to a particular drug. Often, vomiting and nausea appear about four hours after receiving cytostatics.
A chemical called serotonin plays a key role in why nausea and vomiting occur.In our body, it is a neurotransmitter, that is, it works as a chemical transmitter of impulses between the nerve cells of the human brain. Serotonin is produced in the cells of the gastrointestinal tract. And if it is released, it activates the vomiting center in the brain. For example, this happens when a person becomes infected with an infection [infection] of the gastrointestinal tract. In this case, nausea and vomiting help to remove dangerous pathogens or toxic substances from the body as quickly as possible.When a person receives chemotherapy, serotonin is released because cytostatics damage cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
Especially for older children and adolescents, it is typical when only the memory of previous vomiting and nausea can trigger new bouts of nausea. In this case, experts talk about “anticipatory vomiting”, that is, such a reaction of the body is like a “warning” vomiting.
Good to know: To cope with this side reaction of the body to treatment, there are effective drugs, the so-called antiemetic and.They can completely suppress the gag reflex, or they are given for prophylaxis so that nausea and vomiting do not appear.
Basically, we are talking here about those drugs that work as an “enemy” of serotonin, doctors call them serotonin antagonists (for example, a drug such as ondansetron). These drugs prevent the vomiting center from activating. They either neutralize the mediator of the neurotransmitter serotonin, or block the places in the brain where the receptors bind to the stimulus.
Antiemetics are given already a few hours or a few days before the start of treatment with cytostatics. When the course of treatment with cytostatics is over, antiemetics continue to give for some time, because some medications can cause vomiting after treatment.
90,000 What nausea warns about. Society news
Poisoning, like many infectious diseases, is not without nausea.In cases of severe dehydration, patients with acute food poisoning have to be hospitalized in an infectious diseases hospital.
Hypertensive crisis caused by an excessive increase in blood pressure, often accompanied by nausea and even vomiting.
“If the pressure cannot be stabilized on their own, a person has a severe headache, visual impairment, shortness of breath, sometimes compressing pain behind the breastbone, an ambulance must be called,” says Lena Kubaeva.
Nausea is also accompanied by heart attacks, impaired cerebral circulation, trauma and brain tumors, migraine, autonomic, neurotic and mental disorders.
If the nausea is temporary and there is no special reason for it, you can get rid of the unpleasant sensation on your own. Physician Lena Kubaeva advises:
Do not drink large amounts of liquid at one time, drink in small portions.
Do not drink cold water, only warm or moderately hot.Anything cold irritates the stomach lining.
Add lemon to water, brew mint tea.
Try not to lie down . Gastric juice can enter the esophagus and make nausea worse.
Flexion and bending compress the stomach area and increase nausea.
If there are no allergic reactions, apply peppermint, lavender oil to your wrist, the same can be done with lemon. Breathe in their scent.
90,000 What medications are best for preventing nausea and vomiting after surgery?
Why do people experience nausea and vomiting after surgery?
Nausea or vomiting are common unwanted effects of general anesthesia – drugs that render people unconscious and unresponsive so that they do not move or feel pain during surgery.
Most of the unwanted effects of general anesthesia, including nausea or vomiting, are immediate and resolve within a few hours, although in some cases the nausea may last up to a day. If patients continue to feel nausea or vomiting, this can prolong the hospital stay and they may experience other unwanted effects or complications.
Most often, postoperative nausea and vomiting are experienced by women, people taking opioid pain relievers, people with motion sickness (approx.: “Seasickness”), as well as those who experienced nausea and vomiting after previous operations.
Medicines for the prevention of vomiting
Antiemetic drugs are used to prevent nausea and vomiting. These medicines are taken before or during anesthesia.
Antiemetic drugs are grouped into six main classes according to how they work. Combining drugs from different classes is more effective in some cases.
Why did we prepare this Cochrane Review?
We wanted to find out which drugs are the best to prevent vomiting in patients after surgery and to have the least adverse effects. Some undesirable effects of antiemetic drugs include headache, constipation, movement disorders such as tremors, drowsiness, irregular heartbeat, and wound infection.
What have we done?
We searched for studies looking at the use of antiemetic drugs in adults under general anesthesia to prevent vomiting after surgery.
We searched for randomized controlled trials in which the decision about the intervention that people received was made at random. This type of study tends to provide the most reliable evidence for the effects of an intervention.
We have included evidence published up to November 2017; In April 2020, we found 39 additional studies not yet included in the analysis.
What we found out
We found 585 studies with a total of 97,516 participants who received antiemetic drugs before or during general anesthesia. The people included in the studies were most likely to experience nausea and vomiting after anesthesia, of whom 83% were women and 88% were taking opioid pain relievers. Most of the studies were conducted in Asia, Europe, or North America.
These studies assessed the number of people with nausea and vomiting in the first 24 hours after surgery, or the number of adverse events, or both.Most studies compared drugs (taken alone or in combination) with a dummy (placebo).
We compared all treatment options with each other using a mathematical method called network meta-analysis.
What are our main results and the reliability of these results?
Compared with placebo, vomiting was prevented in the first 24 hours postoperatively in 10 of 28 single drug use and 29 of 36 combination drug use (282 studies).Combinations of antiemetic drugs tended to work better than drugs alone. However, aprepitant, casopitant, and fosaprepitant worked separately as well as most antiemetic drug combinations. The best effect in monotherapy was fosaprepitant, followed by casopitant, aprepitant, ramosetron, granisetron, dexamethasone, tropizetron, ondansetron, dolasetron, and droperidol.
We are confident that aprepitant, ramosetron, granisetron, dexamethasone and ondansetron prevent vomiting.We are moderately confident that fosaprepitant and droperidol may be effective, but this result may change when new evidence becomes available. We are uncertain about the effectiveness of casopitant, tropizetron, and dolasetron.
Not all studies looked at serious, life-threatening adverse effects. We are uncertain about the number of reports of these effects with antiemetics and whether the incidence of serious, life-threatening adverse effects with antiemetic drugs was similar or less compared to placebo (28 studies).
Among the best drugs with the strongest evidence for the prevention of vomiting, granisetron and ondansetron probably had little or no effect on adverse events compared with placebo, while dexamethasone and droperidol may have fewer side effects. than a placebo. We are uncertain about the adverse effects of aprepitant and ramosetron (61 studies). We found no studies that looked at the undesirable effects of fosaprepitant.
We are less certain about the unwanted effects of other antiemetic drugs because we found little reliable evidence about them. Our adverse effects results are likely to change when new evidence becomes available.
We have found that in people at risk, some antiemetic drugs are effective in preventing vomiting after general anesthesia. Among the best antiemetic drugs with strong evidence were aprepitant, ramosetron, granisetron, dexamethasone, and ondansetron, followed by fosaprepitant and droperidol.
However, we did not find sufficient reliable evidence regarding potential adverse effects to reliably rank these drugs according to their tolerability.
Where does motion sickness come from and how to get rid of it
- Katya Moskvich
- BBC Future
Photo author, Getty Images
Undoubtedly, motion sickness is a very unpleasant phenomenon. BBC Future columnist finds out why our body reacts so painfully to monotonous swaying and what can be done about it.
The pirate ship looked just like in adventure films: on its prow there was an eerie figure in the form of the head of the gorgon Medusa, the Jolly Roger fluttered on the mast, and on board we were greeted by Jack Sparrow’s double with a braided beard.
We went to see the dolphins off the coast of Tenerife, and my 3 year old was absolutely delighted with this trip, while I … tried to keep my breakfast to myself.
Motion sickness is one of the worst enemies of vacationers.According to a recent study, cruise ship passengers cite seasickness as the biggest inconvenience they have experienced while on vacation.
Moreover, it is difficult to avoid. As British comedian Spike Milligan put it, “The only way to avoid seasickness is to sit under a tree.”
However, in the summer heat, many people dream of traveling by water – leisurely cruises, boat trips from island to island, or boat trips powered only by the wind.
Some try to deal with these terrible sensations, as I did, while others just prefer to have solid ground under their feet.
Photo author, Getty Images
As a rule, passengers on large cruise ships hardly suffer from seasickness
Motion sickness is a form of motion sickness. Car sickness, sea sickness and air sickness are caused by physical stimuli, and exercise sickness and cyber disease are caused by visual stimuli, but all these types of motion sickness are characterized by a common mechanism of occurrence.
We are rocked when the inner ear (or labyrinth) and the central nervous system cannot recognize where the vertical plane is.
Or, in other words, when the sense of balance and balance, for which the inner ear is responsible, is disturbed due to movement – for example, due to rough seas.
However, the main difference between seasickness is that in many cases it lasts a long time.
“Even the worst travel by bus, car or plane does not last for several days.Yes, the plane can shake, but not for long, “says Richard Dawud, travel medicine specialist at the Fleet Street Clinic in London.
You can stop and get off in your car when traveling.
Even famous seafarers, including Admiral Nelson, Charles Darwin and Christopher Columbus, have suffered from seasickness.
When the English ships of Queen Elizabeth I collided with the Invincible Armada, the Spanish admiral, Duke Medina Sidonia, became seasick. It is believed that this was one of the factors that led to the victory of England.
During the Roman Empire, the poet Horace wrote that before seasickness, everyone is equal: both poor and rich.
Beth Leonard, a seasoned seafarer, says that many sailors today experience some degree of motion sickness. This usually happens during the first two to three days of each voyage.
Most get used to it in three days, no matter what attempts are made to cope with it.
Leonard interviewed 38 sea voyagers and found that three quarters of them suffer from nausea every time they go to sea.
Another Yachting World survey of 223 people showed that 62% experienced motion sickness symptoms.
These include not only a strong feeling of nausea. It usually starts with milder symptoms, such as yawning or increased salivation, and then the condition starts to worsen.
A person gets cold sweat, dizzy and a headache, he feels tired, and all this ends with nausea and, possibly, vomiting.
During the first days at sea, many also complain of problems with concentration.
33% of Beth Leonard’s respondents complained of drowsiness, a quarter of lethargy, the vast majority (79%) of nausea, and half of vomiting.
In 86% of those who ignored the first signs of seasickness, their condition worsened, leading to severe bouts of vomiting.
Photo Credit, Getty Images
The three-way movement of the vessel is unbalanced and we feel nauseous.
However, seasoned sailors often have their own tricks to help them quickly cope with seasickness. Sebastian Smith is one of them.
He often goes to sea with his wife Adele and two young daughters and has written several books on how to deal with motion sickness.
“I never understood why everyone has such a different experience on deck,” he says.- Obviously, motion sickness does not depend in any way on the age or strength of the person. “
” It can also come suddenly. A person can be in a good mood, feel relaxed, and then his face suddenly changes. Ten minutes later, he is already in the fetal position. “
Smith says that at first he also suffered a lot, but as soon as he began to swim long distances, seasickness disappeared by itself and never returned.
” From my own experience, I can say, that there is also a psychological aspect, – he says.- Now I know that even if I have the first symptoms, I will be able to cope with them. It’s an experience and it matters a lot. “
His wife, Adele, still suffers from motion sickness on long trips, usually for the first day or two. When their children were very young, they did not get seasick at all.
“And, interestingly, everything was fine with Adele, although it would seem that everything should be the other way around, because she had to change diapers in a tiny stuffy cabin while rolling.”
When the children grew up a little, they began to suffer from seasickness. Nevertheless, now they cope with it, and always.
“They may feel sick for three days, but then everything suddenly stops and they feel great again, like experienced sea wolves.”
Smith says sleep may be the best way to deal with seasickness for some. Generally, rocking is the least felt in the cabin, so even if you’re better off outdoors, don’t be afraid to go into your cabin and take a nap.
Photo Credit, Getty Images
Avoiding fatty foods can help with motion sickness
However, this does not work for everyone, and many have to take medications such as Stugeron or Dramamine. However, Smith warns that any drugs should be tried on land first, as some of them have strong sedative effects.
Davud says that for a long-term effect – up to three days – it is first of all worth trying the Skoderm patch (although the patches have side effects, and this must be prescribed by a doctor).
“Discuss the problem with your doctor in detail. For severe vomiting, there is another effective prescription drug (Ondansetron). It does not need to be swallowed, just placed under the tongue.”
The timing of medication is also important. One sailor named Andrew Barton, interviewed by Leonard, organized a program called Adventure Sailing, in which several sailing ships ply regularly between Bermuda and the Caribbean.
Once, when his fleet consisted of nine vessels with 54 crew members, they were all stuck in Newport for three days due to bad weather. Each evening, Barton would ask them to take seasickness medicine, thinking they would leave port the next day.
When they did set sail, there was a strong wind and big waves at sea, but only one person got seasick – someone who did not follow Smith’s advice.
Experienced sailors advise taking medicine for motion sickness not a few hours before the trip, but much earlier, at least the night before.
Another recommendation is not to climb the deck of the ship with a hangover. Smith advises to refrain from drinking alcohol for at least a couple of days before the trip.
If you suddenly feel strange, chew something even if you don’t feel like it. Dry crackers, fresh fruit, and raw vegetables are great. Someone recommends gingerbread cookies and ginger tea.
“And somehow oranges,” adds Smith.
In addition, three days before the trip, you should avoid food that has ever caused you digestive upset, especially spicy and fatty foods, as well as foods high in caffeine, salt and sugar.
Photo author, Getty Images
On a catamaran, three times less motion sickness than on a monohull boat
If you feel a nausea attack while on a high-speed sailing boat, do not bend over the side, as you risk falling in water. Take a bucket or biodegradable bag (often used by dog owners).
Since vomiting leads to dehydration, drink plenty of fluids to replenish the body’s moisture loss.
One of the sailors interviewed by Leonard recommended that you prepare for the trip as best as possible: for example, take a supply of easily digestible food with you for the first five days.
Motion sickness can be exacerbated by strong odors (eg diesel), overheating or hypothermia, and eye strain from reading or working on the computer.
Listening to music or audiobooks does not lead to these problems.
To get rid of unpleasant sensations, you can look at the horizon.
While on deck, try to keep your balance without holding onto anything. Jelte Bose of the Free University of Amsterdam says it helps the central nervous system quickly adapt to new conditions.
When the first symptoms appear, he recommends drinking a soda.
If you are planning a major vacation of your life on a large cruise ship, chances are you will be fine even without gingerbread drinks.
Passengers on these large, stable vessels rarely complain of motion sickness, as the movement on them is almost invisible.
Oddly enough, your well-being can also depend on the shape of the boat.
Recently, with EU financial support, a project called “Compass” (“Rational approach to reduce the symptoms of seasickness and increase the comfort and safety of passengers in maritime transport”) was implemented.
His goal was to study the different types of ships and how the three most important types of acceleration (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) affect motion sickness.
The project found out that both horizontal and vertical acceleration cause motion sickness. This means that on a passenger ship with a catamaran configuration, the sea sickness is three times less than on a monohull ship.
It is because of the acceleration that we feel the movement, and we feel bad. The waves of the sea make the ship move up and down and constantly change the speed of movement.
According to Bose, the resulting vertical acceleration is a major contributor to motion sickness.
“In addition, if you are above the ship’s center of rotation, you will move both laterally and longitudinally, resulting in horizontal acceleration and, as a result, seasickness,” he adds.
Another factor influencing motion sickness can be the stability of the ship.
Photo Credit, Getty Images
For those who suffer from seasickness, sailing in a small boat close to shore can be a win-win
The maneuvers of a boat can be calculated based on its design.Taking into account weather conditions, this makes it possible to predict how badly passengers will be rocked on board – even before the ship is built.
Catamarans generally heel less than monohulls, Bose says, simply because their hulls are wider.
However, catamarans are generally shorter than monohull boats. This means that they rotate more along the vertical axis.
“Since the latter effect is usually less pronounced than the former, passengers are less likely to suffer from seasickness on catamarans compared to monohull boats,” he says.
Bose thinks that if you don’t like big cruise ships and prefer to sail in rowboats or sailboats on inland waterways, chances are you will be fine.
“People are generally most sensitive to cyclical movements that repeat about every six seconds. When sailing on inland waterways in a small boat, the wobbling period is shorter and does not have a strong effect on us.”
In general, the closer you are to the trees that Spike Milligan advised to sit under, the less likely you are to get seasick.
This applies to many
Allergies – how to deal with them?
It would seem that late autumn and early winter are not at all the time to think about allergies. But doctors disagree. What surprises can an illness present to us, which prevents almost every third inhabitant of the planet from living, is it possible to get rid of it, and what should be done for allergy sufferers in the cold season? Olga Drupova, an allergist-immunologist of the Regional Consultative and Diagnostic Center, answers these questions.
– Olga Vasilievna, they say that allergies can be provoked by diseases that would be difficult to “suspect” of this …
Allergies do not appear immediately and not at all. People who have a predisposition to allergies (heredity, features of the immune system) may encounter a variety of substances for a long period of time and not react to them, however, depending on some causes and conditions that, in principle, are not fully understood, the immune the system “remembers” the antigen (allergen) and produces an antibody to it, which, the next time it enters the body, causes an allergic reaction.The main allergens are:
The mental state of a person is also of great importance. Stress and nervous breakdowns can also trigger the development of allergies.
Symptoms of an allergy depend on the type of allergen, or rather on the area of contact of the allergen with a person. So depending on the location (airway, sinuses, skin, digestive system), different symptoms may appear.
In some very rare cases, contact with an allergen can contribute to the development of a serious allergic reaction called anaphylactic shock.This reaction can be fatal if left untreated. The symptoms of anaphylactic shock can be
How to detect an allergen?
If you first develop any allergy symptoms, but you do not know what caused them, you need to contact an allergist to confirm the diagnosis, detect a causal allergen and prescribe the correct treatment. In addition to examination and questioning, a number of analyzes and studies will be required that are specific to allergies.
Skin tests – this test is prescribed when there is a suspicion of an allergy.The advantages of this study are:
ease of implementation, time to obtain results (20 minutes), and low cost. This study allows you to determine the allergen that caused the reaction. The OKDC conducts c / testing with household, epidermal and pollen allergens for adults and children from 5 years old. Testing begins in mid-November and lasts until the end of March. The scope of the examination, the presence of indications and contraindications is determined by the doctor after the conversation and examination.
Blood test for IgE – measures the amount of allergic antibodies in the blood.A small amount of venous blood is required for the study; the sample is taken in the morning on an empty stomach. Results are usually available within 3 days. This study is carried out in cases when for some reason it is impossible to conduct skin tests, or when the patient is forced to constantly take antiallergic drugs. Also, this study can be prescribed as an additional one to confirm the results of skin tests.
– How to get rid of allergies? Are there any new methods of dealing with the disease today?
The most important rule in the treatment of allergies is to avoid contact with allergens.If you are allergic and you know allergens that can cause you an allergic reaction, try to protect yourself as much as possible from the slightest contact with them, since allergies tend to provoke more and more severe reactions to repeated contact with the allergen.
Drug treatment – is aimed at reducing the risk of complications of an allergic reaction, as well as eliminating the symptoms of the disease, improving the quality of life.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) – In addition to excluding contact with allergens and drug treatment, there is such a method of treatment as: immunotherapy.It consists in the gradual, long-term introduction of increasing doses of the allergen into your body during remission, which will lead to a decrease in sensitivity to it. ASIT is carried out only in a specialized medical institution under the supervision of specialists, since treatment regimens are individual, require correction during therapy, and in addition, complications in the form of various allergic reactions may develop.
– Is it possible to prevent allergies or at least insure yourself against exacerbations of the disease?
– In order to prevent the development of allergies, as well as to prevent the aggravation of the general condition, it is important to adhere to preventive measures for the disease: limit contact with the allergen, do not use medications after their expiration date, eat right and lead a healthy, active lifestyle.