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When are allergies the worst: Your Month-by-Month Guide to Allergies

When Is Allergy Season? Symptoms and Treatment for Seasonal Allergies

  • Allergy season is usually most severe in the spring, around the first week of May. 
  • That’s because seasonal allergies — called allergic rhinitis or hay fever — commonly occur due to pollen from trees and grass, which are most prevalent in the spring and early summer.
  • However, some plants may pollinate later in the summer or fall — here’s what you need to know about each allergy season, the main symptoms of seasonal allergies, and how to treat them. 
  • This article was medically reviewed by Omid Mehdizadeh, MD, otolaryngologist and laryngologist at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute’s Pacific Eye, Ear & Skull Base Center at Providence Saint John’s Health Center. 
  • This story is part of Insider’s guide to Seasonal Allergies.

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Allergies can happen year-round. But there is a time of year when about 8% of Americans experience the same allergy, nation-wide. 

Here’s what you need to know about allergy season, when it strikes, and how to prepare.

When is allergy season?

Allergy season often refers to a specific type of allergy, called allergic rhinitis (or hay fever), that can be triggered by pollen. 

Trees, flowers, and grasses typically release pollen in the spring and summer months. However, certain allergies can also happen in the fall, like those caused by weeds.   

It all depends on what type of plant you’re allergic to and when that plant pollinates. Here’s a breakdown of

seasonal allergies
during the spring, summer, and fall.

Spring

Tree pollination begins in February and lasts until June, and grass pollination starts in May and lasts until July. 

“The first week of May, when grass pollen starts to surge, is the worst time overall because a lot of people who are allergic to tree pollen are also allergic to grass pollen,” says Gary Stadtmauer, MD, FACP, a board-certified specialist in allergy-immunology and internal medicine at City Allergy. 

You can also get an idea of how bad your spring allergies may be based on the prior winter.

“Tree pollen tends to be the worst, especially after a prolonged winter when lots of trees bloom in a short space of time,” Stadtmauer says. “Unlike grass pollen, tree pollen can rain down thick and the layers can build up on surfaces like cars. Exposure increases dramatically and those who are allergic can have a profound surge in symptoms.”

Summer

Tree and grass pollination lasts until June or July and ragweed pollination starts in August.  

However, summer has generally been considered the least problematic season because plants release less pollen overall during this season.   

“Spring has typically been the worst allergy season, and fall is more problematic than summer for those with weed allergies,” says Clifford W. Bassett, MD, the founder and medical director of Allergy and Asthma Care of New York. 

Fall 

The most common culprit for fall allergies is ragweed, a plant that grows especially on the East Coast and in the Midwest. Ragweed blooms and releases pollen from August to November, and pollen levels are highest in early to mid-September. 

Another common trigger of fall allergies is mold spores. As leaves fall to the ground and other vegetation starts to die, mold can start to grow on that decaying material. The mold then releases spores into the air which can cause allergies for some, says Jay M. Portnoy, MD, director of the Allergy, Asthma & Immunology division at Children’s Mercy Hospitals & Clinics. 

Other plants that can trigger fall allergies include:

  • Burning bush
  • Cocklebur
  • Lamb’s-quarters
  • Pigweed
  • Sagebrush and mugwort
  • Tumbleweed and Russian thistle

What makes allergy season worse

While the timing and severity of allergy season varies across the country, the following climate factors can influence exposure and symptoms:

  • Temperature. Mild winter temperatures can cause plants to pollinate earlier, and allergies may occur sooner in the spring. Tree pollen also thrives during cool nights and warm days, which is common in the spring and early summer. 
  • Rain. While rain can wash pollen away, it can also increase pollen counts, because rain bursts pollen particles, releasing smaller particles into the air at a much higher concentration. A rainy spring can also promote rapid plant growth and lead to an increase in mold, exacerbating allergy symptoms. 
  • Wind. Pollen counts increase on windy days because the particles are small, light, and dry. Wind keeps pollen particles airborne and can spread them over long distances. Hot, dry, and windy weather signals greater pollen and mold distribution, and therefore, worsened allergy symptoms.

Climate change has also increased the duration and severity of allergy seasons. “Tree pollen starts earlier, grass pollen extends further into the summertime, and we are seeing more severe ragweed seasons,” says Stadtmauer. 

Seasonal allergy symptoms

The most common symptoms of seasonal allergies are: 

  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Shortness of breath 

If you’re not sure what your symptoms are indicating, here’s a helpful graphic to differentiate allergy symptoms from the coronavirus, flu, and

common cold

Shayanne Gal/Insider

Seasonal allergies treatment

To prepare for seasonal allergies, we asked Bassett for his tips on how to proactively reduce your exposure to pollen and manage your allergies: 

  • Get tested. Allergy tests can help pinpoint exactly what’s triggering your sensitivities. These tests are usually done under the guidance of an allergy specialist. A skin prick test — where you are exposed to a small amount of the suspected allergy — is usually reliable for diagnosing pollen allergies, but you can also get a blood test, which may be safer.
  • Know the pollen or mold count. Check your local weather reports to identify peak allergy days. Pollen levels often increase on windy, dry, and sunny days — and decrease on wet, rainy, and still days. This scale will help you determine if the count is low, moderate, high, or very high. The concentration level, which is measured in pollen or spores per cubic meter, varies greatly for each type of pollen or mold. 
  • Start medications early. Start your allergy medicines up to one to two weeks prior to the onset of pollen season. “Even if it means taking a bit more than necessary, it’s always best to start early,” Stadtmauer says. ” Some people will wait until the point that they’re so congested that the steroid nasal sprays can’t be sniffed in.” The advice applies to sprays and pills, as pre-treatment can help prevent inflammation and ease symptoms.
  • Try immunotherapy. Tablets and allergy shots can help reduce symptoms and provide relief by exposing patients to tiny amounts of the allergen, so the body can build tolerance. Allergy shots, which are injected into the skin of the arm by a doctor, are the most commonly used form of allergy immunotherapy. Tablets, which are placed under the tongue, can be taken at home but are only available for grass and ragweed pollen. 
  • Wear sunglasses. Big sunglasses can help block airborne pollen from entering your eyes and eyelids. 
  • Protect your hair. Pollen is easily transferable from hair onto bedding, sheets, and pillows. Wearing a hat, preferably a wide-brimmed one, protects your hair from collecting pollen. Avoiding hair gel, which pollen can stick to, may also help.
  • Wash your hair and change your clothes often. Shower and wash your hair nightly to rinse pollen from your skin and hair. After you go outside, change your clothing before entering your bedroom to reduce pollen from being brought in. 

Hannah Roberts

Ad/Tech reporter, Business Insider UK

When Are The Worst Times For Allergies?

Allergens are all around us, gunning to make us sneeze, our eyes itch and make us feel just plain miserable. At some point during the year, an estimated 50 to 60 million people in the U.S. – – as much as 20 percent of the population – – struggle with allergies. What are the worst seasons for allergies in the U.S.?

The answer to that question depends on the person and where they live. What may not affect one person`s allergies may be agony to another. 

Winter and Early Spring (January to early April):

For areas that rarely if ever see a frost, including Florida and the immediate Gulf Coast to California, the start of the year is the start of the allergy season. As soon as days start to lengthen a bit, grass begins to grow and releases pollen to spread. By February, the grass is flowering in the Deep South and parts of the Carolinas across the Texas and New Mexico valleys and into central California, with tree pollens joining the pollen party as well.

The grass pollen season expands into the Tennessee Valley and Mid-Atlantic by February and March, with trees likely to cause allergic reactions as far north as the Mason-Dixon Line by early April. Before Easter, residents from the Washington coast, southeastward into the Great Basin and then eastward to the Mid-Atlantic can expect to see that familiar yellow powder pollen coating everything.

Late Spring and Early Summer (late April to July):

Tree pollen season starts to wind down across the extreme southern tier by the latter half of April and May, but it is just getting ramped up further north. Tree pollen is the primary allergen across the northern Plains, Great Lakes and New England during the month of May. Grasses are typically just starting to flower during this time in the northern tier, so residents may occasionally be able to catch a break, but by Memorial Day, expect to see pollen flying in the air and have a tissue on hand for those sneezes.

While grass pollen season continues unabated across the northern tier, making allergy sufferers downright miserable, residents of the Southwest can catch a break. The hot summer days can bake grasses, setting them into dormancy, or a survival-type of sleep. Areas of California, Texas and Arizona that see temperatures surge past the century mark on a regular basis can breathe a sigh of relief for a few weeks in July and early August. However, the dormant grasses can allow the wind to kick up dirt and fields, leading to a peak in the dust season.

Late Summer and Fall (August to December):

A fresh allergen, ragweed, is starting to make its way across the U.S. by the middle of summer. According to the Centers for Disease Control, ragweed, which is actually a flowering plant found near river banks, is the leading cause of allergies, with three-fourths of all sufferers allergic to it. This scourge of sneezers starts to pop up during the latter half of July. The Southeast is usually the first to be subjected to the ragweed pollen season, as it thrives in its hot and humid climate. By late August, ragweed rapidly expands its territory north- and westward, and residents throughout the eastern two-thirds of the U.S. will be feeling itchy and watery eyes.

Ragweed season, and along with it the pollen season, comes to an end as the fall frosts arrive. As nighttime temperatures drop into the 20s, the ragweed plant is unable to survive the chilly conditions. This occurs from north to south, slowly but surely, from September to November. The cooler days, however, lead to a second season of grasses, which are able to wake from their dormancy, spreading their pollen across the Southwest and along the Gulf Coast during October and early November.

The shorter days limit the length of this grass season and they enter another short dormancy before Thanksgiving. Christmas season provides nearly the entire U.S. with another blessing: there are very few outdoor allergens in the environment. However, as soon as the calendar flips to a new year, the cycle starts all over again.

Seasonal Allergies Are Worse This Year—Why and What You Can Do About It > News > Yale Medicine

Pollen is an airborne substance that comes from grass, flowering plants, trees, and weeds. In the past 12 months, 19.2 million adults and 5.2 million children under 18 were diagnosed with hay fever, the name given to allergic rhinitis caused by pollen. When someone has hay fever, their immune system identifies pollen as a threat and releases signals that lead to congestion, itchy eyes, runny nose, and sneezing, as well as problems like sinus pressure and allergic conjunctivitis (itchy, watery, and red eyes).

The amount of pollen in the air depends on the season and the geographic area in which you live. The study reported in PNAS found the most pronounced effects in Texas and the Midwestern United States. However, the Northeast can have a significant spring allergy season as well, Dr. Leeds says. Tree allergies are especially common in New England—particularly due to birch and oak. Pollen allergies can also cause a cross-reaction with certain foods in some people; symptoms include an itchy or tingling mouth and throat after eating raw fruits and vegetables, seeds, and nuts.

People may also have allergic reactions to grass pollen in the late spring to early summer and weed pollen in the fall. “Many people are multi-sensitized, so they are allergic to more than one type of pollen, and they can be symptomatic through all of the warm weather seasons,” Dr. Leeds says. “Pollen can be carried by the wind, so windy days are the worst.”


People are sneezing and coughing, and not getting tested for COVID-19 because they assume it’s allergies. And they are probably correct.
Yale Medicine allergist Florence Ida Hsu, MD

Seasonal allergy symptoms are not life-threatening, but people do miss work over them, says Dr. Hsu. “There is a theory called ‘the unified airway’ in which the nose is connected to the lungs, so if you have a lot of inflammation in the nasal passages and the sinuses, that can then lead to ‘lower respiratory’ symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing as well,” she says. “You’ll find people with allergies getting recurrent sinus infections, and both can lead to respiratory symptoms, asthma, and bronchitis.”

Periods of high pollen have also been linked to susceptibility to respiratory viruses, although the CDC says there is not enough information to know whether it also puts people at higher risk of contracting COVID-19 or having more severe COVID-19 symptoms.

Best Times for Low Pollen Count

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Texas Seasonal Allergies: All You Need to Know: Health One Family Medicine: Family Medicine

Allergies affect more than 50 million people in the United States. The fall season in Texas begins in early September and is followed by the dry winter season in December. For people who have allergies, this can be a painful time of the year.

Let’s take a deeper look at seasonal allergies in Texas and how to treat them.

Experienced by 10 and 30 percent of all adults in the United States, seasonal allergies are allergies that occur during any season around the year. These occur mainly due to the spores released by mold and pollen released by certain plants, trees and weeds to pollinate and fertilize other plants. These spores and pollen particles drift in the air and enter our bodies, activating our defense mechanism.

The two worst seasons for seasonal allergies, also known as “hay fever,” across the U.S. are fall and winter.

Symptoms of Seasonal Allergies in Texas

Many people confuse seasonal allergies with having a cold or flu. If you have any of the following symptoms, there is a high chance that you are experiencing a seasonal allergy and should get yourself checked:

  • Itchy eyes/nose/throat
  • Watery discharge from the nose
  • Stuffy nose
  • Ear infection
  • Stuffed sinuses
  • Headaches
  • Sneezing
  • Watery eyes
  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing

San Antonio, McAllen and Houston are some major cities in Texas that have been ranked as the worst places for seasonal allergies in the United States. Even though Dallas is not on the list, it is still affected by Texas seasonal allergies. Let’s take a look at some of the most common allergens:

1. Ragweed Pollen

Ragweed is a plant that can produce up to one billion little pollen grains. These grains are lightweight and can float effortlessly in the air for up to 400 miles. The Dallas Forth-Worth area has been ranked amongst one of the top 5 worst places for ragweed allergens.

The increased heat levels and carbon dioxide emissions in Texas have caused an extension in the ragweed allergy season. When these pollen grains enter your body, they cause congestion, watery and itchy eyes and nose and wheezing.

2. Cedar Tree Pollen

Cedar fever is quite a thing in Texas. Even though the trees create a beautiful fall vibe across the state, they release pollen during winter. When you inhale this pollen, your immune system is triggered and causes an inflammatory response in your body. Some common symptoms of cedar fever include a slight increase in body temperature, sore throat, sneezing, fatigue, sinus pressure and red eyes.

3. Grass Pollen

Just like ragweed and cedar trees, grass releases micro pollen grains into the atmosphere to fertilize other plants. The grass allergy season in Texas usually begins in early March and continues till mid-October. Ryegrass, Timothy grass, Bermuda grass and some types of weeds are some common allergens which trigger many people.

4. Mold

Mold spores enter your body from the atmosphere via your nose. They can also reach the lungs and trigger your asthma. Like other allergens, mold spores can cause hay fever symptoms like congestion, runny nose, watery eyes, itching and dry skin.

  • Cleanse your nasal passages more often.
  • Drink apple cider vinegar with water and lemon juice to break up mucus and boost the immune system.
  • Add essential oils to your bath water or tea to reduce allergy symptoms.
  • Clean your house regularly to get rid of accumulated dust, spores and pollen.
  • Strengthen your immune system by managing your stress levels through self-care activities.

Protect yourself and your loved ones this fall by taking preventative measures against Texas seasonal allergies. Most allergies can be treated at home in natural ways. However, some are more serious and can continue to annoy you for weeks. We recommend visiting a doctor immediately if your symptoms persist. Health One Family Medicine offers allergy testing at our facility which accurately tests which substances your body is allergic to. Head over to our website to book your appointment or call us at (469)262-5762.

Author

Health One Family Medicine

Allergy Season 2021: Why Your Symptoms Are Worse Than Ever

Many people with seasonal allergies are struggling right now, trapped in a vicious cycle of coughing, sneezing, wheezing and itching.

If this sounds like you, you might be wondering what’s going on. Is this allergy season particularly brutal, or do your symptoms just seem worse because you were inside and not exposed to many allergens in spring 2020? Or is it all in your head?

According to allergists, it’s not just you. It’s true your allergies may feel worse this year. Here’s the deal — and how to find some relief:

Climate change and the pandemic are playing a huge role

“Year over year, we’re finding climate change is a major factor in worsening symptoms for spring and fall pollen seasons,” said Kenneth Mendez, the CEO and president of the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.

The rising temps and increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere are making pollen seasons heavier and longer. Allergy season is now 10 days longer than it was in 1990, and trees, grass and weeds are producing 21% more pollen. More pollen means more runny noses, watery eyes and itchy throats.

“Unfortunately, we are seeing an increase in pollen counts on a yearly basis, and this is due to global warming and an increase in CO2, which we know plays a role in higher pollen counts,” said Payel Gupta, an allergist and immunologist and medical director of the at-home allergy clinic Cleared.

The recent (and earlier) warm weather we’re seeing this year — and in the past few years — is to blame. Plants bloom in warm weather, then tree, grass and weed pollen pick up and fly into the air around us.

In the past, warm weather didn’t appear until April or so, delaying pollen-producing plants from blooming. But it’s been getting warmer earlier year after year. Some areas in the Northeast saw 70-degree days as early as January this year. On top of that, the first freeze we typically see each fall is happening later in the year. Mendez said this keeps flowering pants like ragweed — a major source of allergies — alive and well.

Grass pollen is higher than usual this year across the Northeast and mid-Atlantic, Accuweather notes. The Midwest is also experiencing a bad tree pollen season thanks to higher than normal blooms. Weed pollen is trending to be higher than what we usually see each year, too. (People are being hit the hardest in Scranton and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Richmond, Virginia; Wichita, Kansas; McAllen, Texas; Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut; Springfield, Massachusetts; and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, according to AAFA’s latest report on allergies.)

“Higher pollen counts means more pollen exposure, which means more allergic symptoms for those who are allergic to tree pollen in the spring, grass in the summer and weeds in the fall,” Gupta said.

Allergy season was also brutal in 2020. But last spring, people were mostly hanging out at home and wearing masks when they did go outside. This year, people are spending more time outside, sometimes without a mask. This could be “contributing to the perception of allergies being ‘worse than usual,’” said Stephanie Leeds, a Yale Medicine pediatric allergist and immunologist and assistant professor at Yale School of Medicine.

There’s another theory that could help explain why people may be experiencing worse allergies after lockdown: Some experts believe being exposed to allergens like pollen over time can help you build up tolerance. If you take away the exposure, the tolerance wanes. More research is needed to determine if this could be the case, though.

Oscar Wong via Getty Images

Wearing a mask may actually help reduce your allergy symptoms.

How to alleviate your allergy symptoms

Leeds recommended wearing a brimmed hat and sunglasses to keep pollen out of your eyes and nose. A solid rinse can also work wonders after spending time outside.

“Wash your hands and face after being outdoors for long periods of time, and consider changing your clothes,” she said.

If you are particularly sensitive, limit your time outdoors on poor air-quality days. Consider washing your eyes and nose with a saline solution. You might also want to swap out your contact lenses for eyeglasses, as pollen can cling onto lenses and irritate the eye. Cleaning your lenses more frequently and opting for daily disposable contacts can also help relieve itchy, watery eyes.

Pollen can get trapped inside your home, so keep your windows shut and car doors closed. Vacuum often to get rid of allergens trapped in your carpet. If you have AC, set it to nonrecirculated air.

AAFA also recommends using a HEPA air filter to purify the air in your house. And pets can be pollen magnets, so giving “them a good rub down is a good idea after a springtime walk,” Gupta said.

You might also want to hold onto your face mask a bit longer. The masks we use to protect ourselves against the coronavirus act as a barrier against pollen, too. The better the mask, the better the protection.

“N95 masks are ideal for this, but standard masks most people are using to protect one another from COVID-19 also work,” Mendez said.

If your symptoms persist or worsen, give your doctor or allergist a call. There are lots of over-the-counter allergy medications and sprays that can alleviate your symptoms, as well as some heavy-duty treatments if needed. Other than that, you can do whatever you can to fight against climate change — it looks like our allergies are only going to get worse.

“If we don’t slow down the climate change cycle, pollen production will only intensify,” Mendez said.

How Long Does Allergy Season Last? – Cleveland Clinic

Spring is always a time to celebrate as you move out of the dark, cold winter and into longer, sunnier days. But with the change of seasons comes the arrival of allergies and for some people, it feels like they don’t relent until months later, when a chill hits the air again.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

According to allergist-immunologist David M. Lang, MD, the various allergy seasons stretch for much of the year.

“Tree pollen season is usually at the beginning of spring in March, April, and the first half of May while the grass pollen season is typically mid-May through early-to-mid-July,” he says. “And the ragweed season is usually from mid-August until that first frost.”

He adds that the calendar can vary year to year, depending on meteorological conditions. For instance, a cold and wet spring can delay the tree pollen season and cause it to overlap with the peak of grass pollen season, causing a double whammy for allergy sufferers.

Daily weather can also affect pollen counts on given days. “Rain washes pollen from the air, so rainy days tend to be days with lower pollen counts,” Dr. Lang says. “Conversely, warm and breezy summer days typically have higher pollen counts.”

Mold spores, more problems

Besides pollen, patients may also become sensitized to airborne mold spores.
“Molds are much more numerous in ambient air than pollens,” Dr. Lang notes, “and there are molds that are present in high amounts in damp, rainy conditions. More importantly, though, warmer weather can be a particularly bad time for mold.

“There are molds that peak on days of maximum heat and humidity. So later in the summer, particularly from mid-July to early-September, is when the mold count gets very high,” he says.

This can make a bad combination for many people who are allergic to both one or more pollens and molds. “That’s a common pattern,” Dr. Lang says, “that people will have these symptoms year-round and have a peak of symptoms in the spring and summer.”

Many of the patients Dr. Lang sees, he says, are polysensitized, or allergic to multiple allergens. “Sometimes we’ll see people with classic symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis (nasal and eye symptoms) that occur seasonally – such as mid August through the frost, and we know it’s likely from ragweed.”

“But, more frequently, we see people with year-round symptoms and there are peaks in the warmer times of the year. But then we may find on skin testing they’re sensitized to pollens and molds, as well as dust mites and cat or dog dander.”

Geographic differences

Complicating matters a bit further is where you’re at geographically. For instance, in California, Bermuda grass is the major pollen allergen that triggers symptoms and ragweed isn’t an issue.

And in Texas, it’s mountain cedar trees. “The cedar trees there pollinate early in the year, in January and February and they can have much higher counts of tree pollen in the air than we would have in Northeast Ohio.”

How to cope

While allergies can make you feel absolutely miserable, it doesn’t have to always be that way. Dr. Lang recommends a combination of avoidance and medication. For instance, closing the windows of your house (and your car when driving around) and using your air conditioner can greatly reduce the amount of pollen indoors.

Medication is also hugely important in helping to manage symptoms and keep you focused even when those pollen counts get high.

Intranasal steroids

“Intranasal steroids are the most effective medication for dealing with allergies,” says Dr. Lang. Available over-the-counter, Rhinocort, Nasacort and Flonase are intranasal steroids and are effective and safe to use.

Antihistamines

Another effective measure against allergies, says Dr. Lang, are oral antihistamines. “If you’re going to take an antihistamine,” he advises, “you should take one that’s either non-sedating or low-sedating.” These, called second-generation antihistamines, include Claritin, Allegra, Zyrtec and Xyzal.

Allergists and allergy shots

If these don’t work, though, Dr. Lang assures us there’s still hope. “If you’re experiencing a level of symptoms that interferes with your desire to pursue activities or your symptoms are interfering with work or school performance, causing sleep disruption or sleep impairment despite avoidance measures and regular medications, you should see an allergist,” he says.

He also adds that allergy shots, called allergen immunotherapy, are also an option for properly selected patients. “The allergy shots offer the potential to affect the underlying allergic potential that drives symptoms.”

With so many Americans suffering from seasonal allergies, Dr. Lang encourages patients to seek out the right combination of remedies that can help them, including seeing an allergist. “We frequently see patients who are suffering needlessly and we can help.”

The doctor named products dangerous for allergy sufferers

https://ria.ru/20210511/allergiki-1731702927.html

The doctor named products dangerous for allergy sufferers

The doctor named products dangerous for allergy sufferers – RIA Novosti, 09/22/2021

Doctor named products that are dangerous for allergy sufferers

Which foods are better to be excluded from the diet for people with pollen allergies forever? -05-11T02: 10

2021-09-22T18: 41

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MOSCOW, May 11 – RIA Novosti. What foods are better for people with pollen allergies to permanently exclude from the diet? a similar reaction to some foods, the so-called cross-allergy, so they will have to be abandoned.These fruits and vegetables should not be eaten both raw and in the form of juices, especially freshly squeezed – the molecules of allergens in the pollen and in these products are the same, the specialist said. According to Macharadze, with an allergy to grass pollen, this is the next wave of flowering. – honey should be discarded, since bees also collect grass pollen. “With a bee sting, patients who are allergic to cereal grasses may have a severe allergic reaction. Such patients may have a false positive skin test for wheat, but this is not means that we must exclude wheat from food “, – explained the doctor.The third wave of bloom is weed pollen, Macharadze continued, adding that drugs can suppress or reduce reactions to food allergens. If it is not possible to exclude contact with some substance, then you can also try allergen-specific immunotherapy. Its purpose is to accustom the patient’s body to a substance to which he has hypersensitivity. By gradually increasing the dose, you can change the body’s attitude to the allergen, Macharadze explained.

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society, food, food, health, allergies, russia, dali macharadze, clinic “sm-doctor”

MOSCOW, May 11 – RIA Novosti. What foods are better for people with pollen allergy to permanently exclude from the diet? a similar reaction to certain foods, so-called cross-allergies, will occur, so they will have to be discarded.

“Patients who are allergic to tree pollen are not recommended to take apples, pears, plums, peaches, nectarines, that is, all stone fruits of the Rosaceae family, not only during the flowering period, but, one might say, all their lives. The same applies to carrots, celery, parsley, “Macharadze noted.

These fruits and vegetables should not be eaten either raw or in the form of juices, especially freshly squeezed – the molecules of allergens in the pollen and in these products are the same, the specialist clarified.

According to Macharadze, if you are allergic to grass pollen – this is the next wave of flowering – honey should be abandoned, since bees collect pollen from grass grasses. patients who are allergic to grasses may experience a severe allergic reaction.Such patients may have a false positive skin test for wheat, but this does not mean that wheat should be excluded from food, “the doctor explained.

The third wave of flowering is weed pollen, Macharadze continued.

” The main allergens are ragweed, wormwood, especially for the southern regions of our country. The strongest cross-reacting foods are seeds, sunflower oil, melon, watermelon, honey, spices cannot be used, “the specialist noted.

The doctor added that drugs can suppress or reduce the reaction to food allergens.If it is not possible to exclude contact with some substance, then you can also try allergen-specific immunotherapy. Its purpose is to accustom the patient’s body to a substance to which he has hypersensitivity. By gradually increasing the dose, you can change the body’s attitude to the allergen, Macharadze explained.

May 4, 09:00 Science Pollen and climate change: why seasonal allergies start earlier than 90,000 causes, symptoms and treatment, allergy diagnostics at Expert Clinics

Allergy is an increased sensitivity to an antigen (a substance that the body perceives as foreign).In the Middle Ages, this disease was called “God’s punishment” because of its very vivid symptoms and low prevalence.

Today, it affects about two billion people around the world. An allergy occurs when the immune system, whose task is to deal with “intruders”, begins to misrecognize a completely harmless substance.

Symptoms

Allergy is an excessive manifestation of the body’s defenses. Each type of allergic reaction manifests itself individually, but there are a number of general symptoms that are important to pay attention to and subsequently make an appointment with a doctor:

  • Strong and rapid breathing;

  • Feeling of lack of air;

  • Coughing fits and chest tightness;

  • From the second and third points, there is a problem with sleep;

  • Skin rashes, itching and redness;

  • Peeling and dry skin.

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Causes of allergy

  • Genetics. If one of the parents has an allergy, then with a probability of 50% it will be transmitted to the child.

  • Infectious diseases. Being in a person for a long time, they act on the body with their toxins and cause functional changes.

  • Mold spores are the causative agents of rhinitis and severe bronchial asthma.

  • Constant contact with an allergenic substance.

Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is an acute allergic disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Ranked first in terms of prevalence. According to statistics, every fourth resident of Russia is faced with this ailment. It can be seasonal and year-round. Most often, residents of a metropolis suffer from allergic rhinitis, since emissions into the environment irritate the mucous membranes.Often complicated by sinusitis and otitis media. Scientists have shown that allergic rhinitis significantly reduces the performance of adults and prevents the assimilation of new information in children.

Typical symptoms:

  • Runny nose and shortness of breath;

  • Photophobia;

  • Redness of the eyes;

  • Swelling under the eyes.

Types of allergic rhinitis:

  • Seasonal.At the same time, against the background of full health, sneezing attacks suddenly occur, watery discharge from the nose, itching in the nasal region

  • Year-round. Symptoms are most common indoors. Triggers are dust, mites, animal hair, mold, fungi, pollen.

As a rule, it does not appear immediately, but after six months or a year.

Allergic contact dermatitis

A very common disease. There is the so-called “jeans disease”: fashionable pants come into contact with the abdominal cavity, and as a result, redness occurs.This is a typical picture of contact dermatitis. The most common provocative elements are metals, perfumes, cosmetics, latex products.

The reaction to a stimulus may not be momentary, but delayed. On contact with an allergen, manifestations can be seen after 1-2 weeks, with frequent contacts – on days 2-3. One of the characteristic symptoms is blistering eruptions.

Allergic contact dermatitis is classified as an occupational disease, since the following are at particular risk:

  1. Musicians.Strings are made of metals that can cause allergies;

  2. People working with varnish, paint, synthetic glue;

  3. Medical staff using latex gloves.

If the disease becomes chronic, then it proceeds with periods of exacerbations and remissions.

Insect allergy

Insect allergies are allergic reactions caused by contact with insects.Absolutely everyone has a reaction to bites, because the sting contains poison. It can be very minor, local, mild in the form of swelling or redness of the skin. And multiple stings from bees and other insects can be deadly.

When stung by a bee or wasp, you need to remove the sting. To do this, use a thin, sharp object and remove it with a sliding motion. To prevent the poison from spreading throughout the body, you need to apply a tourniquet or a tight bandage for a few minutes. Apply ice to the bite site.

Complications of the disease

If a bacterial, viral infection “joins” the inflammation on the skin, life-threatening complications may arise. In this case, calling an ambulance should become mandatory! Let’s list the most dangerous and common:

  • Quincke’s edema is swelling of the skin or mucous membranes that occurs suddenly and lasts from several hours to several days. It is accompanied by severe itching, numbness of the limbs and dullness of sensitivity, urticaria.Most often located on the lips, but the tongue, limbs and the whole body can swell.

  • Anaphylactic shock. With it, the following symptoms are the most dangerous: a drop in blood pressure (blood vessels become lethargic, the lungs narrow), fainting, difficulty breathing up to suffocation, swelling of the intestinal mucosa, which is characterized by diarrhea and vomiting.

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Prevention of allergy

When the mucous membrane is irritated and inflamed, the sensitivity to allergens increases significantly.And, as a rule, precisely because of this fact, city dwellers suffer from more severe manifestations of allergies. Therefore, when you come home from the street, you need to change your clothes as soon as possible, take a shower and rinse your eyes.

With increased sensitivity to household allergens, all dust collectors are removed: things and objects that, due to their structure, collect a large amount of it. It is also necessary to wet-clean rooms more often, remove carpets, wear sunglasses, monitor air ventilation, the absence of mold and the level of humidity in the room.

Those who are allergic to insect bites should take an antihistamine cream with them.

Diagnostics and treatment at Expert Clinics

If you find yourself with allergy symptoms, then the first trip should not be to the pharmacy, but to a qualified doctor. Doctors of international level Expert Clinics will exclude non-allergic skin diseases with similar symptoms.

Most often, skin tests are taken from patients with signs of allergy.With their help, the reaction to 20 allergens is checked at once. But in difficult situations, the doctor selects wider screening panels:

  • Molecular electrodiagnostics. This is a method that helps to identify more than 100 allergens using a very small amount of biological material (blood). It is more often performed in young children due to their short history.

  • Application tests with a large number of different antigens. Adhesive plasters with pads soaked in solutions of allergens are glued to the patient’s skin.By comparing the results of the patch test with the general picture of the disease, the doctor will be able to accurately determine the allergen.

To eliminate allergic reactions, the following techniques are used:

  1. Elimination of contact with the allergen.

  2. Drug therapy. It should be said that the sedative effect of antihistamines is an old myth. The new generation of products is distinguished by the absence of increased drowsiness. Drug therapy suppresses the allergic reaction and prevents further exacerbation.Ointments and creams relieve symptoms and improve skin regeneration.

  3. Teaching the rules of behavior for exacerbations of allergic reactions prescribed by a doctor.

  4. Allergen-specific immunotherapy. In its process, the patient is injected with an allergen, starting with minimal doses. And gradually they bring them to those with whom he encounters gradually. As a result, the severity of the allergic reaction in humans is significantly reduced.

It is important not to stop the treatment prescribed by your doctor once your symptoms have disappeared.Otherwise, there is a risk of severe relapses.

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Cow’s milk protein allergy

Information for parents of children diagnosed with cow’s milk protein allergy and a Nutrilon® Amino Acid Blend is recommended by a doctor.

Restless sleep of the child, skin rashes, diarrhea, bloating, regurgitation, colic – all this may indicate an allergy to cow’s milk protein (BCM).

This form of allergy is the most common in young children. Cow’s milk proteins can enter the baby’s body both with the milk of a mother who consumes dairy products, and as part of infant formula.

How to recognize it?

Symptoms of a CMP allergy are usually associated with the digestive system, skin, or respiratory system. Babies may experience shortness of breath, lip swelling, itching and redness of the skin, or vomiting. In very rare cases, anaphylaxis requiring urgent medical attention.

Sometimes an allergic reaction to food can develop after a time – from several hours to three days.

Checklist of symptoms of food allergy to CMP

1. Symptoms from the digestive system

  • vomiting
  • regurgitation
  • diarrhea
  • oliki
  • bloating
  • bloody or bloated
  • 3
    2. Skin symptoms

    • atopic dermatitis
    • skin rash (urticaria)

    3.Respiratory system

    • wheezing
    • cough or sneezing
    • difficulty breathing

    4. Other symptoms

    • swelling of the eyes, lips or face
    • insufficient weight gain or growth
    • 13 restless sleep
    • restless sleep

    • increased irritability, moodiness
    • arching of the back

    Important: a child with an allergy to CMP may have one or more of the above symptoms.This list will help you assess whether your child has symptoms that resemble a CMP allergy, but is not a basis for making or excluding a diagnosis. Be sure to consult with a specialist!

    ______________________________________________________________________________

    Neocate® LCP is a specially formulated non-allergenic formula containing amino acids corresponding to the amino acid profile of breast milk, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids (ARA / DHA) *, important for proper intellectual development of the baby.

    Neocate® LCP and Nutrilon® Amino Acids are specially formulated for children with severe food allergies and are interchangeable. Suitable for babies from birth.

    For children over one year old, after consultation with a specialist, you can use Neocate® Junior. Neocate® Junior is amino acid based, high in calcium, vitamin D, zinc and iron and has a pleasant taste.

    _______________________________________________________________________________

    Neocate ® LCP / Nutrilon ® Amino acids mixtures based on amino acids.

    * Breast milk is the best nutrition for young children.

    NutriClub experts will answer any questions about breastfeeding, nutrition and baby development 7 days a week, from 9.00 to 20.00, tel. 8 800 200 33 88 (Call within Russia is free).

    Diapers for adults – which diapers to choose for the elderly

    Obviously, the natural needs of a lying patient must somehow be dealt with, and various hygiene products provide invaluable assistance in this.There are quite a few manufacturers of diapers, liners and pads, so let’s try to figure out what to choose in each particular case and what are the nuances.

    We recommend that you pay attention to specially designed adaptive clothing for bedridden patients. In the event that an elderly person resists wearing diapers for adults, the following will help to solve the problem of rejecting diapers and the associated consequences:

    >> Read Review

    If the diaper leaks, the following will help protect the bed linen from daily washings:

    >> Read Review

    In order to simplify dressing and care in general, the following have been developed:

    So, let’s start with the most affordable diapers that a disabled person can get for free under the IPR program.To do this, when registering a disability, it is necessary for the doctor to indicate in the direction that the patient needs diapers. The standard amount, which is supposed to be free of charge, is 3 diapers a day, according to indications this rate can be increased to 5. If health workers refuse to indicate a larger number necessary for a full life, an official statement addressed to the chief physician of the polyclinic often helps (preferably in duplicate, so that on Yours in the registry was marked on receipt), with a postscript at the end “if I do not receive a response within 30 calendar days, I reserve the right to send a copy of this application to the Department of Health.”

    These free, simplest, Super Seni adult diapers, despite the pretty description of the manufacturer, are actually not so good. Their main problem is that they do not “breathe”, which can cause skin problems – dermatitis, diaper rash. Disposable Velcro is also inconvenient, which, once torn off, cannot be re-fastened.

    Pluses: free 🙂

    However, it is not worth concluding from these diapers about Seni products in general, because the rest of the models are of very good quality.With a moderate degree of urinary and / or fecal incontinence and the ability to frequently change diapers, you should pay attention to the daytime Super Seni Air (6 drops) and the nighttime Super Seni Air Plus (7 drops) . They are available in sizes from Extra Small (waist circumference 40-60 cm) to Extra Large (waist circumference 130-170 cm), with all sizes except the smallest Extra Small available in economy packs of 30. These diapers are breathable, i.e. with proper care, the skin underneath them will not sag.

    Manufacturer Specifications:

    • Double absorbent layer with antibacterial superabsorbent.
    • The breathable hydrophobic layer reduces the risk of diaper rash and pressure sores.
    • Side skirts protect against liquid leakage on the sides.
    • The absence of latex elements (Latex Free) reduces the risk of allergic reactions.
    • The special Odor Stop system neutralizes unpleasant odors.
    • Moisture indicator, elasticated waist at front and back, wide double reusable Velcro straps for comfortable use.

    Disadvantages: for bedridden patients, especially if they cannot roll over on their own, the absorption capacity is not enough.

    Absorbance and pack quantity:

    Size (waist circumference ) Super Seni Air (6 drops) Super Seni Air Plus (7 drops)
    XS (40-60 cm) 1 200 ml (10 pcs.) 1 600 ml (10 pcs.)
    S (55-80cm) 1 400 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.) 1 900 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    M (75-110cm) 1 700 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.) 2 600 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    L (100-150cm) 2,000 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.) 2 800 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    XL (130-170cm) 2 200 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.) 2 800 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)

    Country of origin: Poland

    Practice shows that the most important advantages of diapers are their absorbency and leakproofness.And in these parameters, the night diapers Super Seni Trio (8 drops) are in the lead. Instead of retelling their stated advantages by the manufacturer, let us quote verbatim the feedback of a real consumer:

    • They absorb a lot, even if the patient lies in one position, does not turn over, then half the amp is dry, and half is “holding”.
    • The Velcro is made in such a way that the diaper can be peeled off and sealed again, sometimes it is necessary.
    • The diapers themselves are plump, not only in the center, but also on the sides they have an absorbent layer, so the patient can lie on his side for a long time, nothing will leak.
    • They are breathable – in the sense that they let air through to the body, but they keep the smell inside. I’ll make a reservation – if the patient behaves more or less calmly, otherwise the aromas seep out.

    Disadvantages: price, small packages and lack of Extra Small.

    Absorbance and Pack Quantity:

    Size (waist circumference ) Super Seni Trio (8 drops)
    S (55-80cm) 2 400 ml (10 pcs.)
    M (75-110cm) 2 800 ml (10 pcs.)
    L (100-150cm) 3000 ml (10 pcs.)
    XL (130-170cm) 3000 ml (10 pcs.)

    Country of origin: Poland

    Seni is not the only diaper brand, there are others.There is not much information on them, so we will present their characteristics, coupled with positive and negative customer reviews.

    Tena is the second most popular brand of hygiene products, its range is represented by belt diapers that can be used both by bedridden patients and for people with an active lifestyle. There are several models:

    • TENA Pants (Normal – 5.5 drops and Plus – 6 drops) are disposable, absorbent panties that are dressed and worn as normal underwear.Suitable for active people with moderate incontinence.
    • TENA Flex (Plus – 6 drops, Super – 7 drops and Maxi – 8 drops) are belt diapers for people with active lifestyles and for bedridden patients with moderate to severe incontinence. The special fixation system leaves the skin in the thigh area exposed, which reduces the risk of overheating and skin irritation.
    • TENA Slip (Plus – 6 drops, Super – 7 drops and Maxi – 8 drops) – diapers with a double absorbent FeelDry ™ layer and comfortable reusable fasteners.
    • TENA Stretch Ultra Brief (7 drops) – classic large diapers (XL, waist up to 170 cm) for sedentary and bedridden patients with moderate to very severe incontinence.

    Reviews for TENA products are twofold, someone uses only them, someone, on the contrary, scolds:

    Dignity Disadvantages

    – diaper pants are good for walking patients, you can buy them in almost all pharmacies and the quality is very decent.

    – used Tena urological pads and absorbent diapers. I liked that there is practically no unpleasant smell with them. In addition, they retain moisture well.

    – Tena has very successful Tena Pants diapers, but unfortunately they do not have a great absorbency, but they do not like diapers at all.

    – I liked it very much, really reusable fasteners can be re-glued as many times as you like.They absorb a lot and no moisture is felt at all. With the smell, too, everything is good, they hold very well.

    – they break very easily. They have a thin, unreliable base, somewhat similar to material for gardeners (agril seems to be called, they close greenhouses) That is, if, changing the diaper, you pull a little harder, then this non-woven base will break.

    – they last no more than 8 hours. And if a patient has, for example, diabetes mellitus and he drinks a lot of fluids, then even 8 hours will not be enough.

    – cause irritation and diaper rash.

    Absorbance and Pack Quantity:

    Size Diapers-panties Belt Diapers Classic diapers Large
    TENA Pants Normal
    (5.5 drops)
    TENA Pants Plus
    (6 drops)
    TENA Flex Plus
    (6 drops)
    TENA Flex Super
    (7 drops)
    TENA Flex Maxi
    (8 drops)
    TENA Slip Plus
    (6 drops)
    TENA Slip Super
    (7 drops)
    TENA Slip Maxi
    (8 drops)
    TENA Stretch Ultra Brief
    M

    waist circumference:

    1010 ml
    (10 pieces.)
    1 440 ml
    (10 pieces.)
    1820 ml
    (30 pcs.)
    2 250 ml
    (30 pcs.)
    3 100 ml
    (22 pcs.)
    2 165 ml
    (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    2 570 ml
    (10 pcs., 28 pcs.)
    not supplied to Russia
    80-110 cm 71-102 cm 73-122 cm
    L

    waist circumference:

    1010 ml
    (10 pieces.)
    1 440 ml
    (10 pieces.)
    2 110 ml
    (30 pcs.)
    2 570 ml
    (30 pcs.)
    3 850 ml
    (22 pcs.)
    2 400 ml
    (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    2 805 ml
    (10 pcs., 28 pcs.)
    100-135 cm 83-120 cm 92-144 cm
    XL

    waist circumference:

    3 430 ml
    (30 pcs.)
    4 800 ml
    (21 pcs.)
    3 126 ml
    (10 pcs., 36 pcs.)
    105-153 cm 104-170 cm

    Country of origin: Netherlands

    Another well-known brand of diapers is MoliCare . The most common models:

    • absorbent MoliCare Mobile and MoliCare Mobile Super pant diapers
    • day diapers MoliCare Premium soft Extra
    • MoliCare Premium soft night diapers Super

    These diapers are more expensive in price and are considered to be of very high quality, but there are also complaints about them – less absorbency at a higher price in comparison with analogues.

    Manufacturer Specifications:

    • Reusable advanced self-adhesive hook and loop fasteners.
    • 3-layer superabsorbent cushion to neutralize odor.
    • Non-woven soft material on the outer surface.
    • The moisture saturation indicator on the outer (outer) side of the diaper disappears completely when the diaper is full.
    • Breathable side material to reduce the occurrence of diaper rash on the skin.
    • Dermatologically tested.

    Absorbance and Pack Quantity:

    Size (Waist ) Diapers-panties Classic diapers
    MoliCare Mobile MoliCare Mobile
    Super
    MoliCare Premium
    Extra (3 drops)
    MoliCare Premium
    Super (4 drops)
    S (60-90 cm) 1540 ml (30 pcs.) 2 110 ml (30 pcs.)
    M (90-120cm) 1 600 ml (14 pcs.) 2,000 ml (14 pcs.) 1 870 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.) 2 800 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    L (120-150cm) 1 840 ml (14 pcs.) 2 200 ml (14 pcs.) 2 180 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.) 3000 ml (10 pcs., 30 pcs.)
    XL (150-170cm) 2 140 ml (14 pcs.) 2 400 ml (14 pcs.) 4 120 ml (14 pcs.) 3 300 ml (14 pcs.)

    * Absorbance data are very approximate, i.e.This information is not available on the official websites, and the information in other sources is different.

    Country of origin: Germany

    Finally, one cannot fail to say about the diapers that have the highest degree of protection among those on the market today, these are diapers Abri-Form from the Danish company Abena. High absorbency, clever system of sides in the inner part of diapers to prevent leakage on the sides, reusable Velcro fasteners and breathable materials make these diapers one of the best.

    Manufacturer Specifications:

    • Anatomical shape, soft edges with elasticated sides with added Lycra at the waist of the sides provide excellent diaper tightness;
    • Activated cellulose, superabsorbent and additional absorbent layer promote maximum absorption rate and liquid distribution;
    • The top layer and a special system of quick absorption of liquid keep the diaper surface dry and provide maximum comfort;
    • Internal “bumpers” along the entire length of the lining provide additional protection and prevent urine leakage;
    • Neutralize odor, have reusable fasteners; the moisture indicator shows when it is necessary to change the diaper;
    • The breathable outer surface reduces the risk of skin irritation.

    Like other manufacturers, Abri-Form has classic diapers in a large combination of sizes and absorbency volumes, and there are panties diapers, and there are panties even in the form of shorts for especially active ones:

    • For mild to moderate incontinence, the Abri-San Special anatomical liners can be used. They are equipped with high sides along the entire length of the product, this provides reliable protection even with intense urine or feces.They are easy to change and quite economical.
    • Abri-Form Premium diapers – soft edges with elasticated sides with added Lycra for a secure seal, reusable closures, moisture indicator, super breathable surface and, most importantly, excellent absorbency values.
    • Absorbent panties Abri-Flex have the highest absorbency of any other manufacturer. Internal collars and elasticated cuffs around the legs significantly prevent leakage even when compared to traditional diapers.
    • Absorbent Abri-Flex Special Briefs. This design provides special comfort for physically active people, and the elastic material in the groin and thighs provides a precise positioning of the absorbent material, which increases the absorption rate and prevents the leakage of liquid, especially when moving. in addition, shorts significantly increase the degree of protection against leaks for men.

    Here are a couple of reviews found on the Internet:

    • One of the best disposable diapers on the market today.Their absorbency goes far beyond that of all other adult diapers, and we’ve tried a lot, even the much-praised Molicare Supers. Although they are significantly thicker than most other adult diapers, they do not interfere with free walking and sit comfortably in them. The material is very soft and delicate to maintain a high level of comfort.
    • We also had to contact them. These are some of the best diapers we’ve tried.They are very thick and very absorbent, great for use at night.

    Absorbance and Pack Quantity:

    Size
    (Waist circumference)

    Diapers
    Abri-Form
    Premium

    Size
    (Waist circumference)

    Panties
    Abri-Flex
    Premium
    XS (50-60 cm) XS2 – 1 400 ml (32 pcs.) S (60-90 cm) S1 – 1 400 ml (14 pcs.)
    S (60-85cm) S2 – 1 800 ml (28 pcs.) S3 – 2 100 ml (14 pcs.)
    M (70-110cm) M0 – 1 500 ml (26 pcs.) M (80-110cm) M1 – 1 500 ml (14 pcs.)
    M1 – 2000 ml (10 pcs., 26 pcs.) M3 – 2 200 ml (14 pcs.)
    M2 – 2 600 ml (10 pcs., 24 pcs.) L (100-140cm) L1 – 1 600 ml (14 pcs.)
    M3 – 2 900 ml (22 pcs.) L3 – 2 200 ml (14 pcs.)
    M4 – 3600 ml (14 pcs.) XL (130-170cm) XL1 – 1 600 ml (14 pcs.)
    L (100-150cm) L0 – 2000 ml (26 pcs.)
    L1 – 2 500 ml (10 pcs., 26 pcs.) Abri-Flex panties Special
    L2 – 3 100 ml (22 pcs.) S / M (60-110cm) S / M2 – 1 700 ml (18 pcs.)
    L3 – 3 400 ml (20 pcs.

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